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1. WO2016141216 - PHARMACY WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT WITH INTEGRATED ALERTS

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[ EN ]

PHARMACY WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT WITH INTEGRATED ALERTS

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application relates to and incorporates by reference the co-owned application having Provisional Serial No. 62/127,580 by Crooks et al. filed on March 3, 2015 entitled PHARMACY WORKFLOW MANAGEMENT WITH INTEGRATED ALERTS.

BACKGROUND

Pharmacies often are relied upon to provide compounded sterile products (CSPs) in connection with the provision of healthcare to patients. Such CSPs may comprise medication doses (sometimes referred to herein simply as doses) that are to be used in connection with the provision of healthcare. In this regard, pharmacies (e.g., including hospital pharmacies, outpatient pharmacies, compounding centers, and the like) often prepare CSPs or doses for delivery to a healthcare provider. Such CSPs may be patient specific doses or be provided for stock or inventory doses in the pharmacy that are compounded in anticipation of use. Accordingly, pharmacy technicians are often tasked with preparation of CSPs under the guidance and supervision of a licensed pharmacist or the like. For instance, a pharmacy technician may, under the supervision of a pharmacist, reconstitute drugs, draw specific drug amounts, gather products, assemble products, and create specific CSPs using reconstituted drugs, products, or the like.

In connection with the preparation of CSPs, pharmacies have begun to introduce an increasing amount of technology to assist in the compounding process. One such example of a technology-assisted compounding system comprises pharmacy workflow management applications that may be executed at pharmacy workstations for use in preparation of CSPs. Such pharmacy workflow management applications may provide assistance to pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in a multitude of areas related to management and preparation of doses. For instance, pharmacy workflow management applications may assist in organizing and managing orders for CSPs or doses (referred to herein as "dose orders") for efficient and timely preparation of doses. Furthermore, such pharmacy workflow management applications may facilitate documentation of the preparation of a dose. Such documentation may be used to audit preparation steps after the fact for, for example, pharmacist review or in connection with tracking regulatory

compliance. Such pharmacy workflow management applications may also assist in tracking doses in relation to movement of the dose within the pharmacy, dispensation from the pharmacy, or even movement through a facility, such as to an administration site.

Pharmacy workflow management applications or other technology-assisted approaches to compounding provide the potential benefit of reduction of errors in the pharmacy. For instance, recognizing an error before it occurs or catching the error prior to dispensation of the pharmacy may lead to reduced patient risk associated with human errors that may occur in the pharmacy. Given the potential to improve patient safety in connection with pharmacy activities, it may be appreciated that the facilities provided by technology-assisted approaches to pharmacy work may advantageously be extended by additional capabilities.

SUMMARY

In view of the foregoing, it has been recognized herein that improvement to technology-assisted compounding tools such as pharmacy workflow management applications or the like may assist in reduction of risk to patients by incorporation of medical information from additional sources (e.g., including potentially sources external to the pharmacy). That is, while pharmacy workflow management applications have been associated with the potential to reduce errors that occur in the pharmacy, prior inability or limited ability to integrate data from additional medical sources (e.g., that may be external to the pharmacy) may in turn limit the ability of such an application to provide meaningful assistance outside the context of pharmacy activities. Given the potential benefits derived from a wider perspective of data integration, it is presently recognized that benefits may be provided in connection with integration of additional data sources beyond data sources with a limited perspective of pharmacy-centric information.

Specifically, it is presently recognized that data aggregated from a plurality of sources may be beneficially accessed and/or utilized at a pharmacy workflow management application to, for example, provide useful information to a user when preparing a dose or to a pharmacist when reviewing a dose. For instance, aggregation of data sources may allow alert data to be generated by one or more alert generation platforms. This alert data may be generated at least in part in view of data sources external to the pharmacy. For example, one such contemplated alert generation platform comprises the ICNet™ Suite of alert products provided by ICNet International Limited. Specifically, such alert platforms may comprise software, firmware, and/or hardware components that may be in operative communication with a number of data sources. In turn, the alert generation platform may extract meaningful and actionable data from the underlying data sources to generate alert data in one or more contexts. That is, the alert generation platform may include logic for processing data from one or more sources to generate alert data. For example, alert data may be provided in the context of infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, or other areas. In any regard, this alert data may provide meaningful and actionable information that may assist a pharmacist or pharmacist technician in relation to pharmacy work (e.g., in relation to management and/or preparation of doses, CSPs, or the like). In other embodiments, an information aggregator may be provided that aggregates information from one or more medical information sources for use by, or presentation at, a pharmacy workflow management application (e.g., in the absence of alert data).

In this regard, the present disclosure contemplates the integration of alert data in technology-assisted compounding techniques. Specifically, an interface is contemplated that may provide operative communication between a pharmacy workstation (e.g., that may execute a pharmacy workflow management application) and an alert generation platform. In turn, the pharmacy workstation may be operative to process alert data of the alert generation platform for use in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application that may be executed at the pharmacy workstation. For instance, the alert data may be used to provide an alert indication to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application. Additionally, the alert indication may provide interactive features that may facilitate functionality that is provided to the user of the pharmacy workflow management application. For example, a user of the pharmacy workflow management application having alert data integration may be capable of accessing an instance of the alert generation platform from the pharmacy workflow management application. In turn, the pharmacist or pharmacy technician's workflow may be simplified such that the

access to alert data and/or the alert generation platform may be made more efficient by providing direct access by way of the pharmacy workflow management application.

Additionally, the interface may facilitate bidirectional communication between the pharmacy workstation and the alert generation platform. In turn, information may be exchanged between the pharmacy workstation and the alert generation platform. One such example may include proving a responsive input received from a user of the pharmacy workflow management application to the alert generation platform. Accordingly, the alert generation platform may include resolution information and/or intervention information that may, for example, provide an indication of a response by appropriate personnel to an alert and/or an outcome of the response to the alert. As such, rather than having to separately access the alert generation platform to provide such a responsive input or duplicate the input of such input in multiple platforms, the input may be provided directly to the pharmacy workflow management application executing on a pharmacy workstation such that the responsive input is in turn provided to the alert platform. In turn, responsive inputs such as alert interventions may be communicated in bidirectional fashion between the pharmacy workstation and the alert generation platform.

Additionally, the pharmacy workflow management application may include logic that allows for dose order record manipulation within the pharmacy workflow management application in response to alert data of the alert generation platform. In this regard, dose orders received at a pharmacy may be processed to generate dose order records that may be reflected in the pharmacy workflow management application. For instance, dose order records may be assigned a status by the pharmacy workflow management application and may be presented to a user in a dose order listing. Accordingly, upon receipt of alert data, the pharmacy workflow management application may be capable of processing the alert data in connection with one or more dose order records to take action in relation to a dose order record based on the alert data. For instance, a dose order record may have a status changed, may be displayed in a different manner, may be displayed in a different interface portion of the pharmacy workflow management application, or have some other appropriate action taken in relation to a dose order record in response to the alert data.

Further features may be facilitated by the integration of alert data in a pharmacy workflow management application. For instance, a user of the pharmacy workflow management application may be capable of accessing a local instance of the alert generation platform directly from the interface of the pharmacy workflow management application. As such, the local instance of the alert generation platform may be executed on the pharmacy workstation on which the pharmacy workflow management application is also executed. As may be further appreciated, the local instance of the alert generation platform may be executed in connection with a thin client such as an internet browser such that access to an alert generation platform remote from the pharmacy workstation on which the pharmacy workflow management application is executed may be provided by way of the thin client. Furthermore, access to features of the alert generation platform (e.g., including reporting functionality) may be directly accessed by a user of the pharmacy workflow management application. Further still, additional capabilities provided by certain configurations of a pharmacy workflow management application may facilitate additional functionality in relation to the integration. For instance, a pharmacy workflow management application may be executed in a distributed environment where a plurality of pharmacy workstations may be operative to execute the pharmacy workflow management application. In this case, each of the distributed pharmacy workstations may have access to alert data that is processed once received from an alert generation platform. Furthermore, in at least some embodiments, central server communication used by the pharmacy workflow management application may also be used to provide functionality in connection with the alert data. For instance, alert data, alert indications, alert responses, alert interventions, or other information may be provided to a central server in connection with a backup, a data analytics tool, and/or report generation tool provided in connection with a central server. In this regard, the central server may be in communication with a plurality of local facilities each executing a pharmacy workflow management application. As such, the data received from the plurality of local facilities may be aggregated such that large scale trends in relation to alert data may be identified (e.g., including antimicrobial behaviors at a wide scale such as drug resistances or infection control at a wide scale).

Further still, embodiments are contemplated herein where aggregated medical information may be presented to a user of a pharmacy workflow management application. For example, the aggregated medical information may be collected at an information aggregator (e.g., which may or may not also provide alert generation capability). That is, an alert generation module may aggregate data both for presentation in raw form and for processing to generate alert data therefrom. In any regard, the aggregated medical information may be presented to a user of a pharmacy workflow management application. For instance, aggregated information may be presented to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application prior to preparation of a dose. Further still, aggregated medical information may be presented in connection with preparation of a dose. Additionally or alternatively, aggregated medical information may be presented to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application during approval and/or review of a prepared dose. In this regard, the aggregated medical information may be provided in connection with alert data provide to the pharmacy workflow management application or may be provided in the absence of an alert.

Accordingly, a first aspect comprises a pharmacy workstation for use in connection with execution of a pharmacy workflow management application. The pharmacy workstation includes a memory storing the pharmacy workflow management application and a processor configured to access the pharmacy workflow management application stored in the memory to execute the pharmacy workflow management application. The pharmacy workstation also includes an interface in operative communication with the processor and an alert generation platform. The processor is operative to process alert data of the alert generation platform from the interface and is operable to configure a display to present an alert indication corresponding to at least a portion of the alert data to the user at the pharmacy management workstation in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application.

A number of feature refinements and additional features are applicable to the first aspect. These feature refinements and additional features may be used individually or in any combination. As such, each of the following features that will be discussed may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the first aspect.

For example, in an embodiment the alert indication may be displayed at a user interface of the

pharmacy workstation presented on the display. Furthermore, the user interface of the pharmacy workstation may further include an input device. As such, the user interface may include an interactive portion corresponding to the alert indication. In an embodiment, the alert indication may include the interactive portion. The alert indication may be provided on a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to a pharmacist workspace comprising a listing of dose orders of the pharmacy workflow management application. Additionally or alternatively, the alert indication may be provided on a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to an interface for pharmacist verification of a dose order. The alert indication may provide information regarding the nature of the alert and/or action items to be taken in response to the alert indication. The alert may be highlighted in the user interface based upon the nature of the alert (e.g., with important, urgent, or critical alert indications appearing in a different color to highlight the alert relative to lower priority alerts).

The interactive portion may facilitate a number of functionalities within the pharmacy workflow management application. For example, the interactive portion, upon selection by a user by way of an input provided using the input device, may configure the processor at the pharmacy workstation to launch execution of the alert generation platform at the pharmacy workstation. For instance, selection of the interactive portion may launch a local instance of the alert generation platform at the pharmacy workstation executing the pharmacy workflow management application. The local instance may be a local instance of the alert generation platform or may be a thin client operative to present an interface regarding a remotely executed alert generation platform.

The pharmacy workstation may also include a dose processing interface for receipt of dose order data of an order entry system. The order entry system may comprise a portion of a hospital information system, a pharmacy information system, or other appropriate electronic medical record system. The dose order data may include medication data regarding at least one dose order for administration in connection with provision of medical care. For at least some dose orders, the dose order data may include patient data or other EMR data as well. The at least one dose order may be populated into a dose order listing displayed

at the display of the user interface of the pharmacy workstation. In turn, the processor may be operative to process the alert data of the alert generation platform from the interface in relation to the dose order listing to associate the alert indication with one or more corresponding respective dose order in the dose order listing.

For instance, in an embodiment, the alert data may include patient specific alert data. For instance, the alert data may relate to a specific lab result for a given patient, a specific treatment undertaken for a specific patient, specific patient allergies, or other patient related information. As such, the alert data may include a first patient identifier corresponding to a patient to whom the alert data applies. The dose order data may include a second patient identifier corresponding to a patient to whom the dose order is to be administered. Correspondence of the first patient identifier and the second patient identifier may result in the alert data being associated to the dose order. In turn, the alert indication may be displayed on the user interface at the pharmacy workstation in connection with a dose order for the patient to whom the alert data is associated. For instance, the first patient identifier and the second patient identifier may be identical or correlated in some fashion (e.g., a look-up table or the like) to associate the alert indication with the patient specific dose order. As such, the alert indication may be provided in corresponding relation to the dose order in the pharmacy workflow management application.

In further regard to alert generation platform functionality provided at the pharmacy workflow management application, the dose order listing may include at least one patient specific order and the user interface comprises a patient link that, upon selection by a user by way of an input provided using the input device, may configure the processor to launch execution of a local instance of the alert generation platform at the pharmacy workstation to display a patient report corresponding to the patient associated with the at least one patient specific dose order from the alert generation platform in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application. The patient report may provide details regarding the patient that may, for example, be presented in a timeline format reflecting major events in relation to the patient's care such as use of medical devices, order or administration of drugs, laboratory results, procedures, vital signs, or other patient related information.

Further still, the input device may be configured to receive a responsive input from a user of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to a response to the alert indication. For instance, the responsive input may comprise an intervention and/or outcome related to an alert indication presented at the pharmacy workstation. The interface may be in bidirectional communication with the alert generation platform to provide the responsive input to the alert generation platform. The responsive input may include instructions for modification of a corresponding dose order associated with the alert indication.

In an embodiment, the memory may include alert processing rules accessible by the processor for processing the alert data received at the interface by the processor. For instance, the alert processing rules may define one or more triggering conditions for presentation of the alert indication in the pharmacy workflow management application. Accordingly, upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions (e.g., only upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions), the alert indication may be displayed in corresponding relation to one or more dose orders in a dose order listing of the pharmacy workflow management application.

Additionally or alternatively, the alert processing rules may define one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order in response to the alert indication. Upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions, the processor may be operative to execute the one or more actions with respect to the given dose order in response to the alert indication. The action by the processor may occur automatically upon satisfaction of the triggering condition such that no user input is needed to complete the action for the dose order. The one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order may include modification of a status of the given dose order in the dose order listing of the pharmacy workflow management application. Additionally, the pharmacy workflow management application may include a user interface screen for displaying one or more given dose orders for which one or more actions have been taken in response to one or more corresponding alert indications. For example, a dose order listing filter may be provided that filters a dose order listing to show only those dose orders for which a particular action has been taken in response to satisfaction of a triggering condition by an alert indication.

In an embodiment, the interface may be in bidirectional communication with the alert generation

platform. As such, the pharmacy workstation may locally present at the pharmacy workstation information from the alert generation platform. The processor may be operative to configure the display to present report data in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application that is received from the alert generation platform (e.g., in response to a request for the report data from the pharmacy workstation). Additionally, in an embodiment, the pharmacy workstation may be in operative communication with a server remote from the pharmacy workstation. Accordingly, the processor may be in operative communication with the server for communication of the alert data to the server such that the server may store a copy of the alert data in a server memory located at the server. The server remote from the pharmacy workstation may be a pharmacy workflow management server specific to the facility at which the pharmacy workflow management application is executed or may be a central server remote from the facility to which a plurality of pharmacy workflow management applications at different respective facilities communicate information.

While the alert generation platform may be operative to acquire and/or process data from a plurality of medical information sources to provide alert data in a number of contexts, in the specific context of a pharmacy a number of specific alert types may be particularly of interest. For instance, the alert data may include information related to at least one of infection control or antimicrobial stewardship. For instance, alerts associated with given microbial organisms identified in a patient may trigger an alert or may trigger alerts in respect of particular medications ordered for a patient. Furthermore, identification of particular infections may provide alert data in the pharmacy.

Furthermore, the processor of the pharmacy workstation may be operative to process aggregated medical information received from an information aggregator so that the processor may configure a display to present at least a portion of the aggregated medical information to a user at the pharmacy workstation in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application. For instance, the aggregated medical information may correspond to aggregated information regarding a particular patient (e.g., a patient for whom a dose order has been received at the pharmacy workflow management application). Additionally or alternatively, the aggregated medical information may include information regarding a plurality of

patients. The aggregated medical information may also relate to a given facility or a collection of facilities. The aggregated medical information may be displayed independently within the pharmacy workflow management application (e.g., in the form of a report or the like), in connection with a dose order record listing, or in connection with a review screen presented during review and/or approval of a dose order.

A second aspect includes a non-transitory computer readable medium comprising computer-readable instructions for configuration of a processor to execute a pharmacy workflow management application and process alert data of an alert generation platform. The computer-readable instructions may further configure the processor to configure a display to present an alert indication corresponding to at least a portion of the alert data to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application.

A number of feature refinements and additional features are applicable to the second aspect. These feature refinements and additional features may be used individually or in any combination. As such, each of the following features that will be discussed may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the second aspect. Additionally, any of the features or feature refinements discussed above in relation to the first aspect may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the second aspect.

In an embodiment, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to display the alert indication at a user interface of the pharmacy workstation on the display. Additionally, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to display on the user interface an interactive portion corresponding to the alert indication. In an embodiment, the alert indication may include the interactive portion. As such, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to launch execution of the alert generation platform at a pharmacy workstation upon receipt of a selection of the interactive portion by a user (e.g., by way of a user input at the pharmacy workstation).

In an embodiment, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to provide the alert indication on a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to a pharmacist workspace comprising a listing of dose orders of the pharmacy workflow management

application. Additionally or alternatively, the computer-readable instructions configure the processor to provide the alert indication on a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to an interface for pharmacist verification of a dose order.

In an embodiment, the non-transitory computer readable medium may further include computer-readable instructions for configuration of the processor to execute a dose processing interface for receipt of dose order data of an order entry system. The dose order data may include medication data regarding at least one dose order for administration in connection with provision of medical care. As such, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to populate at least one dose order into a dose order listing displayed at the display of the user interface of the pharmacy workstation. Specifically, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to process the alert data of the alert generation platform from the interface in relation to the dose order listing to associate the alert indication with one or more corresponding respective dose orders in the dose order listing.

In an embodiment, the alert data may include patient specific alert data. For instance, the alert data may include a first patient identifier corresponding to a patient to whom the alert data applies, and the dose order data may comprise a second patient identifier corresponding to a patient to whom the dose order is to be administered. The computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to determine correspondence of the first patient identifier and the second patient identifier and associate the alert data to the dose order based on the correspondence. As described above, the first and second patient identifiers may be identical or associated (e.g., in a correlation table or the like). As such, the dose order listing may include at least one patient specific order and the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to provide a patient link at the user interface that, upon selection by a user by way of an input provided using an input device, further configures the processor to launch execution of the alert generation platform (e.g., a local instance of the alert generation platform) at the pharmacy workstation to display a patient report corresponding to the patient associated with the at least one patient specific dose order from the alert generation platform in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application.

In an embodiment, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to provide the

alert indication in corresponding relation to a dose order in the pharmacy workflow management application. Additionally, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to receive a responsive input from a user of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to a response to the alert indication. The computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to communicate with the alert generation platform to provide the responsive input to the alert generation platform. In an embodiment, the responsive input comprises instructions for modification of a corresponding dose order associated with the alert indication.

The computer-readable instructions may include alert processing rules accessible by the processor for processing the alert data received at the interface. The alert processing rules may define one or more triggering conditions for presentation of the alert indication in the pharmacy workflow management application. Upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to display the alert indication in corresponding relation to one or more dose orders in a dose order listing of the pharmacy workflow management application. The alert processing rules may define one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order in response to the alert indication. As such, upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to execute the one or more actions with respect to the given dose order in response to the alert indication. For instance, the one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order may include modification of a status of the given dose order in the dose order listing of the pharmacy workflow management application. Further still, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to display a user interface screen for displaying one or more given dose orders for which one or more actions have been taken in response to one or more corresponding alert indications by the pharmacy workflow management application.

In an embodiment, the computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to communicate with the alert generation platform. As such, the processor may be operative to configure the display to present report data in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application that is received from the alert generation platform in response to a request for the report data from the pharmacy

workstation. The report data may be presented locally at a pharmacy workstation executing the computer-readable instructions. The computer-readable instructions may also configure the processor of the pharmacy workstation to communicate with a server remote from the pharmacy workstation. The computer-readable instructions may configure the processor to communicate with the server for communication of the alert data to the server. In turn, the server may store a copy of the alert data in a server memory located at the server.

In an embodiment, the alert data may include information related to at least one of infection control or antimicrobial stewardship. As described above, the alert data may be generated by the alert generation platform based on a number of medical information sources. Specifically, the alert generation platform may apply logic to the medical information received from the various sources to identify trends, patterns, or the like from the data regarding antimicrobial stewardship and/or infection control.

A third aspect includes a method for pharmacy workflow management. The method includes executing a pharmacy workflow management application and processing alert data of an alert generation platform. The method further includes configuring a display to present an alert indication corresponding to at least a portion of the alert data to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application.

A number of feature refinements and additional features are applicable to the third aspect. These feature refinements and additional features may be used individually or in any combination. As such, each of the following features that will be discussed may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the third aspect. Additionally, any of the foregoing features described in connection with the first and/or second aspects may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the third aspect.

For instance, in an embodiment the method includes displaying the alert indication at a user interface of the pharmacy workstation presented on the display. The user interface may further include an input device. As such, the user interface may also include an interactive portion corresponding to the alert indication. For example, the alert indication may include the interactive portion.

In an embodiment, the method may include providing the alert indication on a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to a pharmacist workspace comprising a listing of dose orders of the pharmacy workflow management application. Additionally or alternatively, the method may include providing the alert indication on a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to an interface for pharmacist verification of a dose order.

The method may include a number of actions with respect to the interactive portion. For instance, the method may include launching, by the processor, execution of the alert generation platform at the pharmacy workstation upon selection of the interactive portion by a user by way of an input provided using the input device.

In an embodiment, the method may include executing a dose processing interface for receipt of dose order data of an order entry system. The dose order data may include medication data regarding at least one dose order for administration in connection with provision of medical care. The method may further include populating the at least one dose order into a dose order listing displayed at the display of the user interface of the pharmacy workstation. The method may also include processing, using the processor, the alert data of the alert generation platform from the interface in relation to the dose order listing to associate the alert indication with one or more corresponding respective dose order in the dose order listing.

For example, in an embodiment, the alert data may include patient specific alert data. As such, the alert data may include a first patient identifier corresponding to a patient to whom the alert data applies and the dose order data may include a second patient identifier corresponding to a patient to whom the dose order is to be administered. In turn, correspondence of the first patient identifier and the second patient identifier may result in the alert data being associated to the dose order. The correspondence may be identical patient identifiers or otherwise associable patient identifiers to identify a given patient.

In this regard, the dose order listing may include at least one patient specific order and the user interface may include a patient link. The method may further include launching alert generation platform at the pharmacy workstation upon selection by a user by way of an input provided using the input device to display a patient report corresponding to the patient associated with the at least one patient specific dose order from the alert generation platform in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application.

In an embodiment, the method may include providing the alert indication in corresponding relation to the dose order in the pharmacy workflow management application. The method may further include receiving a responsive input from a user of the pharmacy workflow management application corresponding to a response to the alert indication. For instance, the responsive input may comprise an intervention or outcome relative to an alert. The method may further include communicating with the alert generation platform to provide the responsive input to the alert generation platform. In an embodiment, the responsive input comprises instructions for modification of a corresponding dose order associated with the alert indication.

In an embodiment the method may include applying alert processing rules accessible by the processor for processing the alert data received at the interface. The alert processing rules may define one or more triggering conditions for presentation of the alert indication in the pharmacy workflow management application. As such, upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions, the method may further include displaying the alert indication in corresponding relation to one or more dose orders in a dose order listing of the pharmacy workflow management application. The alert processing rules may define one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order in response to the alert indication. As such, upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions, the method may further include executing the one or more actions with respect to the given dose order in response to the alert indication. As such, the method may include status of the given dose order in the dose order listing of the pharmacy workflow management application based on the alert indication. The method may also additionally include displaying one or more given dose orders for which one or more actions have been taken in response to one or more corresponding alert indications at a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application.

In an embodiment, the method may include configuring the display to present report data in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application that is received from the alert generation platform in response to a request for the report data from the pharmacy workstation. Further still, the method may include communicating the alert data to a server remote from the pharmacy workstation, wherein the server stores a copy of the alert data in a server memory located at the server. Also, as described above, the alert data may include information related to at least one of infection control or antimicrobial stewardship.

A fourth aspect includes a pharmacy workstation for use in connection with execution of a pharmacy workflow management application. The pharmacy workstation includes a memory storing the pharmacy workflow management application and a processor configured to access the pharmacy workflow management application stored in the memory to execute the pharmacy workflow management application. The pharmacy workstation may further include an alert generation module executable by the processor to configure the processor to communicate with one or more healthcare information sources and to generate alert data based at least in part on healthcare data of the one or more healthcare information sources. The alert generation module may be operative to process the alert data and configure a display to present an alert indication corresponding to at least a portion of the alert data to the user at the pharmacy management workstation in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application.

A number of feature refinements and additional features are applicable to the fourth aspect. These feature refinements and additional features may be used individually or in any combination. As such, each of the features discussed above in connection with any of the foregoing aspects, but in particular the first aspect, may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the fourth aspect.

A fifth aspect includes a medical information processing system for exchange of medical information. The medical information processing system may include a medical information processing platform comprising at least one processor configured for receipt and distribution of medical information. The medial information processing system may further include one or more exchange interfaces executed by the medical information processing platform that are in operative communication with a plurality of medical information sources each configured to store digital medical information and operable to

communicate the digital medical information with the medical information processing platform by way of the one or more exchange interfaces. The medical information processing system may further include a memory at the medical information processing platform configured for storage of the digital medical information received from the plurality of medical information sources. The memory may include a formulary for use in the provision of medical care, and wherein the formulary reflects information regarding the digital medical information received from the plurality of medication information sources.

A number of feature refinements and additional features are applicable to the fifth aspect. These feature refinements and additional features may be used individually or in any combination. As such, the following features may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features of the first aspect. For instance, in an embodiment of the medical information processing system a first of the plurality of medical information sources may include an alert generation platform and a second of the plurality of medical information sources may include a pharmacy workstation. In this embodiment of the system, any of the foregoing features described in connection with the above aspects may be, but are not required to be, used with any other feature or combination of features with the fifth aspect.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 depicts a schematic view of an approach for medical information exchange.

Fig. 2 depicts a schematic view of an approach for medical information exchange using a medical information processing platform.

Fig. 3 depicts an embodiment of an approach for medical information exchange using a medical information processing platform with specific examples of medical information sources.

Fig. 4 depicts an embodiment of a medical information processing system to facilitate exchange of information between an alert generation platform and a pharmacy workflow management application.

Fig. 5 depicts an embodiment of an interface for accessing a pharmacy workflow management application.

Fig.6 depicts an embodiment of a navigation interface screen of a pharmacy workflow management application.

Fig. 7 depicts an embodiment of an alert Interface screen of a pharmacy workflow management application.

Fig. 8 depicts a dose verification interface having an alert indication presented.

Figs.9A - 9B depicts an embodiment of an interface of a pharmacy workstation having a pharmacy workflow management application and a local instance of an alert generation platform displayed.

Figs. 10A-12B depict embodiments of a pharmacy workflow management application interface shown in connection with an alert generation platform interface that are in bidirectional communication for information exchange.

Fig. 13 depicts an interface of a pharmacy workflow management application for configuration of alert data processing at the pharmacy workflow management application.

Fig, 14 depicts embodiments of interfaces for display of filtered alert indication listings.

Fig. I 5 depicts a dose order detail screen depicting action history in respect to the dose order. Figs. 16 - 17B depict embodiments of pharmacy workflow management application interfaces that are capable of presenting report information from an alert generation platform.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

While (he invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof have been shown by way of example in the drawings and are herein described in detail. It should be understood, however, that it is not intended to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed, but rather, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the scope of the invention as defined by the claims.

As described above, the use of technology-assisted preparation of doses has been used as a mechanism by which to help reduce the risk of committing errors during the compounding of doses in a

pharmacy or the like. In this regard, such technology-assisted approaches such as the use of a pharmacy workflow management application or the like may leverage information to assist in identifying errors and risks to patients. For instance, formulary information in combination with dose order information and information related to scanned products and drugs during preparation may provide a pharmacist or pharmacy technician insight that is useful when preparing doses. However, to date the information that may be utilized has generally been primarily limited to information that is maintained within the pharmacy (e.g., wholly stored by a pharmacy workflow management application or the like) with limited or no ability to integrate data from other sources.

In turn, it is herein recognized that the exchange of medical information between sources of medical information may advantageously be leveraged to reduce patient risk, thereby potentially improving patient outcomes. However, with the desire to exchange medical information comes complications associated with the exchange. One such issue is illustrated in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 depicts a first medical information source 10, a second medical information source 20, a third medical information source 30, and a fourth medical information source 40. In approaching exchange of data between medial information sources 10-40, one potential paradigm would be to provide individual exchange paths (represented in Fig. 1 as arrowed lines connecting the sources) between each respective one of the medical information sources 10-40. However, such an approach provides additional complexity in that each individual data exchange between every given medical source must be individually managed. For instance, if an exchange protocol for a given source (e.g., medical information source 40) is altered, each other source (e.g., source 10, source 20, and source 40) must each account for the change in protocol. That is, each individual exchange path must be modified, thus leading to additional complexity and cost in connection with the information exchange. For example, the medical information sources 10-40 may each be provided by different respective entities such that collaboration in relation to changes may be difficult.

In contrast, Fig. 2 shows depicts a number of medical information sources (i.e., a first medical information source 10, a second medical information source 20, a third medical information source 30, and a fourth medical information source 40) that are each in communication with a medical information

processing platform 100. The medical information processing platform 100 may in turn manage the exchange of information between various ones of the medical information sources 10-40. Accordingly, the medical information processing platform 100 may facilitate cross-source data exchange such that the exchange of data between any or all of the various sources 10-40 may be made more efficiently. For instance, in the event the exchange protocol for a source (e.g., medical information source 40) is altered, only the exchange between the medical information processing platform 100 may be modified to accommodate for the change, while the remainder of the sources are unchanged. In turn, the medial information processing platform 100 may provide a robust, efficient, and scalable exchange platform for exchange of data between sources even when the data formats and exchange protocols differ between the various sources.

Accordingly, given the architecture facilitated by way of the medical information processing platform 100, a variety of medical information sources have the potential to be operatively engaged for exchange of information. In this regard, with improved data exchange, additional patient safeguards, production efficiencies, product optimizations, or other benefits may be realized as will be appreciated from the continued discussion below. Fig. 3 depicts one environment of a medication information processing system 105 that demonstrates the potential benefit of employing a medical information processing platform 100 to facilitate data exchange.

For instance, Fig. 3 provides a few examples of potential medical information sources that may be in communication with a medical information processing platform 100 to facilitate exchange of medical information. In this regard, Fig. 3 depicts one or more point of care devices 102 that may be in operative communication with the medical information processing platform 100. The point of care device 102 may, for example, include an administration device such as an infusion pump or the like that may provide information about a patient and/or administration parameters to the medical information processing platform 100. The point of care device 102 may further include workstations at the point of care (e.g., bedside terminals or the like) that may provide information to the medical information processing platform 102.

The medical information processing platform 100 may also be in operative communication with one or more product or drug providers 104. For instance, the product or drug providers 104 may provide information regarding available drugs and products including, for example, information regarding national drug codes (NDCs), recall information, new product information, or the like.

One or more electronic medical record (EMR) systems 106 may also be in operative communication with the medical information processing platform 100. The EMR system 106 may comprise a hospital information system (HIS) or a pharmacy information system (PhlS). For instance, the EMR system 106 may provide patient admission/discharge information, patient identifier information, information regarding facility resources, order information from a physician order entry system (OES), inventory information, claims processing information, billing information, or any other information managed or stored by the EMR system 106.

The medical information processing platform 100 may also be in operative communication with an analytics tool 108. The analytics tool 108 may provide information regarding data analytics regarding any one or more of the other medical information sources in operative communication with the medical information processing platform 100. The analytics tool 108 may also provide information regarding metrics, parameters, data dimensions, pivot tables, values, measures, or any other appropriate data analytics tool to the medical information processing platform 100.

Further still, the medical information processing platform 100 may be in operative communication with a clinical surveillance tool 1 10. The clinical surveillance tool 1 10 may comprise an alert generation platform that may provide alert data regarding, for example, antimicrobial stewardship within a facility, infection control, or other appropriate data. As will be appreciated in the discussion presented below, the clinical surveillance tool 110 may leverage information obtained from other medical information sources (e.g., either through the medical information processing platform or by direct communication outside the platform 100) to generate alert data based on logic provided in relation to the information processed. Specific examples of potential alert data is addressed in greater detail below.

The medical information processing platform 100 may also be in operative communication with one or more medical dispensing apparatuses 1 12. The medical dispensing apparatus 1 12 may include a drug dispending cabinet, a nurse accessible medication cabinet, or any other appropriate locale where medication and/or medical products may be made available for dispensation. The medical dispensing apparatus 1 12 may provide information regarding inventory, access requests, dispensation events, or other appropriate information.

One or more pharmacy automation devices 1 14 may also be in operative communication with the medical information processing platform 100. Such pharmacy automation devices 1 14 may include, for example, automated syringe processing devices, automated pill dispenser/counter devices, automated compounding devices, dose preparation robots, or other appropriate automated devices utilized in the pharmacy.

Additionally, the medical information processing platform 100 may be in operative communication with a pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. The pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may provide information regarding dose orders, documented preparation steps for doses, dose verification information, product usage, drug usage, drug lot/expiration information, technician workflow information, formulary information, or other information related to pharmacy workflow management.

In the exchanges of information between the medical information processing platform 100 and the medical information sources 102- 1 16 described above, it may be appreciated that different respective exchange protocols and/or data formats may be used to exchange information. For example, the exchange of data between any of the sources 102-1 16 and the medical information processing platform 100 may be by way of an Health Level 7 (HL7) interface, a print-feed interface, an XML interface, an http format, an html format, a text format, a comma separated value (CSV) format, an SQL format, or any other appropriate format or protocol for exchange of data. Given the potential ability of the medical information processing platform 100 to process such diverse protocols and formats, the medical information processing platform 100 may be scalable to communicate with any number of different sources. For example, the medical information processing platform 100 may receive data in a first format or exchange protocol associated with a first medical information source (e.g., HL7) and in turn provide the data to a second source using a second format or exchange protocol (e.g., XML format).

Turning to Fig. 4, one particular embodiment of a medical information processing system 105 is shown. As a brief overview, a medical information processing platform 100 may be provided that is in operative communication with an EMR system 106, a clinical surveillance tool 110 (e.g., in the particular embodiment also referred to as an alert generation platform 1 10), and a pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. As may be appreciated, the medical information processing platform 100 may also be in operative communication with an order entry system 1 18 (e.g., such as an order entry system 1 18 that is provided separately from the EMR system 106 which may also include order generation/entry functionality).

The medical information processing platform 100 may include an alert processing interface 200 that is in operative communication with the alert generation platform 1 10 to receive alert data from the alert generation platform 100. The alert generation platform 1 10 may be in further communication with an EMR system 106, a laboratory system 120 and/or an operating room information system 122. The EMR system 106, laboratory system 120, and operating room information system 122 are shown in phantom in Fig. 4 to represent a possible embodiment where the alert generation platform 1 10 may be in direct communication with each of the EMR system 106, laboratory system 120, and operating room information system 122. However, the alert generation platform 1 10 may alternatively be in operative communication with the EMR system 106, laboratory system 120, and/or operating room information system 122 by way of the medial information processing platform 100. That is, the EMR system 106, laboratory system 120, and/or operating room information system 122 may comprise medical information sources as described in Fig. 3 that may be in operative communication with the medical information processing platform 100 to facilitate exchange of information from any one or more of the EMR system 106, laboratory system 120, and/or operating room information system 122 to the alert generation platform 1 10.

The alert generation platform 1 10 may be operative to, based on information received from any one or more of the laboratory system 120, EMR system 106, operating room information system 122, and/or

any other appropriate medical information source, generate alert data. The alert data, in certain embodiments, may comprises alerts related to infection control or antimicrobial stewardship.

In an alternative embodiment, the medical information processing platform 100 may be in operative communication with and/or comprise an information aggregator. The information aggregator may be in operative communication with a plurality of medical information sources as described above. In this regard, the medical information processing platform 100 may itself be considered an information aggregator. Additionally or alternatively, the alert generation platform 1 10 may comprise an information aggregator. In this regard, the medical information processing platform 100 may maintain aggregated medical information and/or be in operative communication with an information aggregator (e.g., the alert generation platform 110) to access aggregated medical information for access and/or display in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application. The aggregated medical information may be used in conjunction with generation of alert data. In this regard, at least a portion of aggregated medical information may be provided in conjunction with alert data generated by the alert generation platform 1 10. In another embodiment, aggregated medical information may be accessed and/or displayed independent of any alert data. For instance, the pharmacy workflow management application may display the aggregated information to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application in a number of different potential screens or contexts of the pharmacy workflow management application. As will be described below, such aggregated information may be provided in connection with a dose order record listing, a dose order review screen, or a report selection screen, among others.

In any regard, the alert generation platform 1 10 may be in operative communication with an alert processing interface 200 of the medical information processing platform 100. As may be appreciated, the medial information processing platform 100 may include a memory 202 and processor 204. In this regard, the medical information processing platform 100 may comprise a specifically configured component configured to operate in a predetermined manner as will be described in greater detail below. As such, the specifically configured medial information processing platform may comprise specifically designed software, firmware, and/or hardware for performing certain tasks associated with the medical information

exchange described herein. For instance, the memory 202 may store specific instructions that are accessible by the processor 204 to configure the processor 204 to perform functionality associated with the medical information processing platform 100. The memory 202 may comprise a non-transitory computer readable medium such as, for example, an optical disc, non-volatile storage such as a hard drive disc or the like, flash memory, EEPROM memory, or other appropriate computer memory. The memory 202 may in turn store one or more portions, components, or modules of computer-readable instructions that are predefined to specifically configure the processor 204 to execute functionality associated with the medical information processing platform 100. The processor 204, while referred to herein singularly, may comprise a plurality of processor cores or devices that may collectively execute to perform processing in a specifically configured manner. Furthermore, while the memory 202 is referred to singularly, the memory 202 may also comprises a plurality of discrete memory devices.

The medical information processing platform 100 may also comprise a plurality of data stores. The data stores may comprise databases of information stored in a format that facilitates efficient access and storage of information. For instance, the databases may comprise SQL databases or the like. For example, the medical information processing platform 100 may comprise a facility data database 206 and a formulary database 208. The facility database 206 may store information regarding pharmacy operations related to a pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 as will be discussed in greater detail below. However, the facility database 206 may also store information from any other medical information source with which the medical information processing platform 100 is in communication, such as any of the sources shown in Fig. 3. The formulary database 208 may maintain formulary information for a pharmacy associated with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In this regard, the formulary database 208 may contain information related to drugs and products that may be utilized in the pharmacy in connection with the preparation of doses or other CSPs.

In any regard, the processor 204 may be configured to process alert data received from the alert generation platform 1 10 by way of the alert processing interface 200. For instance, the processor 204 may be configured to apply logic to the alert data of the alert generation platform 1 10. In some embodiments, the logic applied by the processor 204 to the alert data may at least in part be based on information contained in the facility data database 206 and/or the formulary database 208 as will be described in greater detail below.

The medical information processing platform 100 may be in further operative communication with a pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In this regard, alert data may be processed by the processor 204 of the medical information processing platform 100 to provide information to the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. The pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 is intended to encompass a plurality of potential system configurations within a pharmacy for execution of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. For example, in an embodiment a single pharmacy workstation comprising a memory and processor may be provided to execute the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In this regard, the memory may store computer-readable instructions in a non-transitory computer readable storage medium that, when accessed by the processor, may specifically configure the processor to execute the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

In another embodiment depicted in Fig. 4, the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may be executed in a distributed pharmacy environment that may include a plurality of pharmacy workstations. For instance, a pharmacy workflow management server 210 may be provided in association with a pharmacy. The pharmacy workflow management server 210 may comprise a memory 212 and a processor 214. In this regard, the memory 212 may store computer-readable instructions in a non-transitory computer readable storage medium that, when accessed by the processor 214, may specifically configure the processor to execute the pharmacy workflow management server 210. Specifically, the pharmacy workflow management server 210 may be in operative communication with one or more other pharmacy workstations. For instance, one or more medication preparation workstations 216 may be in operative communication with the pharmacy workflow management server 210. Again, each of the mediation preparation workstations 216 may comprise a memory 218 and processor 220 for execution of functionality associated with the medication preparation workstation in that the memory 218 may store computer-readable instructions in a non-transitory computer readable storage medium that, when accessed by the

processor 220, may specifically configure the processor 220 to execute functionality associated with the medication preparation workstation 216. The medication preparation workstation 216 may comprise a workstation with a user interface comprising a display and an input for interaction by a user with the medication preparation workstation 216. The medication preparation workstation 216 may further include input devices for use in preparation of doses such as, for example, scanners for reading machine readable indicia (e.g., including NDC codes in machine readable barcode format), cameras for acquisition of images related to preparation of doses, foot pedals for interaction with the workstation 216 or other devices. The medication preparation workstation 216 may also include a printer for printing labels or the like in connection with preparation of doses at the workstation.

In any regard, a pharmacy workflow management server 210, a medication preparation workstation

210, or any other appropriate workstation may individually or collectively define a pharmacy workstation that may individually or collectively execute the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. Furthermore, while the medical information processing platform 100 is shown as separate from the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16, it may be appreciated that the medical information processing platform 100 and the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may execute on a single computing device having collective memory and processor capabilities.

As such, one or more pharmacy workstations executing the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may be operative to receive from the medical information processing platform 100 information relating to the alert data processed at the medical information processing platform 100. For instance, the alert data may be processed by the medical information processing platform 100 to generate an alert indication that is provided to the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In turn, the alert indication may be displayed at one or more workstations associated with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. As described above, the pharmacy workstation (e.g., a workstation in operative communication with the pharmacy workflow management server 210 such as the medication preparation workstation 216) may provide a user interface having a display. As such, the alert indication may be provided on the display in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

As will be appreciated in greater detail in the discussion to follow, the user interface of the pharmacy workstation may also present to a user an interactive portion that may allow for a user to access and/or manipulate various features in association with the alert generation platform 1 10. For instance, the user may interact with the user interface of the pharmacy workstation to select the interactive portion corresponding to the alert indication to launch execution of the alert generation platform 1 10 on the pharmacy workstation from which the user is interacting with the alert indication. That is, a local instance of the alert generation platform 1 10 may be executed at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. Accordingly, the alert generation platform 1 10 may be accessed by way of the pharmacy workstation (e.g., directly or by way of the medical information processing platform 100). For instance, the local instance of the alert generation platform 1 10 may be a thin client such as a web browser or the like such that the alert generation platform 1 10 may be accessed to display information provided from the alert generation platform 1 10 on the pharmacy workstation. As will be discussed in greater detail below, a user may further interact with the alert generation platform 1 10 by way of the pharmacy workstation to, for example, provide a responsive input to the alert generation platform 1 10, access reporting functionality of the letter generation platform 1 10, or otherwise engage with the alert generation platform 1 10.

Fig. 4 also illustrates the medical information processing platform 100 being in operative communication with an EMR system 106 by way of a dose order processing interface 222. Additionally or alternatively, the medical information processing platform 100 may be in operative communication with an order entry system 1 18 by way of the dose processing interface 222. In any regard, the medical information processing platform 100 may receive, by way of the dose processing interface 222, information regarding dose orders corresponding to dose is to be administered in connection with the provision of medical care. For instance, the dose order may contain medication data regarding at least one dose order that may be processed by the medical information processing platform 100. Specifically, the medical information processing platform 100 may process the dose order information to generate dose order records that may, for example, be stored in the facility data database 206. In turn, the pharmacy workflow management application 116 may be operative to also process the dose order records and present to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 a dose order listing corresponding to the dose orders managed by the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

The alert indication may be presented at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 in connection with the dose order listing. Additionally or alternatively, the alert indication may be presented at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 connection with a user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 corresponding to an interface for pharmacist verification of the dose order. For instance, in either of the foregoing regards, a processor in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 116 may be operative to process the alert data of the alert generation platform 110 in relation to the dose order listing maintained by the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 to associate an alert indication with one or more corresponding respective dose orders in the dose order listing.

In one particular example, the alert data of the alert generation platform 1 10 may be patient specific alert data. That is, the alert data may regard a specific patient. In this regard, the alert data may comprise a patient identifier corresponding to the patient to whom the alert data applies. In a similar regard, at least one dose order received at the dose processing interface 222 may be a patient specific dose order for administration to a specific patient. In this regard, the patient specific dose order may also comprise a patient identifier. In this regard, upon correlation of the patient identifier for the alert data and the patient identifier for the dose order, the patient specific alert data may be associated with the dose orders for the given patient to which the alert data applies. The correlation of the patient identifiers of the alert data and the dose order may include use of identical patient identifiers by the EMR system 106 and the alert generation platform 110. Alternatively, different patient identifiers may be used by the respective medical information sources that may be associated (e.g., in a look-up table or the like).

In addition, the pharmacy workflow management application 116 and/or the medical information processing platform 100 may be configured to apply logic in relation to the alert data in connection with the processing of the alert data received at the alert processing interface 200. For instance, alert processing rules may define one or more triggering conditions that relate to the presentation and/or actions related to dose orders in relation to an alert indication at the pharmacy workflow management application 116. As such, upon satisfaction of the one or more triggering conditions, the alert indication may be displayed in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 116. In this regard, alert data may be received the medical information processing platform 100 and/or the pharmacy workflow management application 116 that is not displayed in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 116 if a triggering condition is not satisfied by the alert data. The alert processing rules that may include the triggering condition may allow for tailoring of the presentation of alert data to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116. This may be used to limit the number of alert indications provided to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116, thus reducing the potential for alert fatigue whereby a user tends to ignore all alerts if the alert frequency for low severity alert is too high.

In addition, the alert processing rules may define one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order in connection with the alert indication. For example, upon association of a dose order with an alert indication, the corresponding dose order record may be processed by the pharmacy workflow management application 116 according to the alert processing rules. For instance, the status the dose order record for which alert indication is provided may be modified such that the dose order is, for example, put on hold or elevated to a STAT (or otherwise elevated) priority in the event that an alert indication of a given type is received in corresponding relation to the dose order record.

The pharmacy workflow management application 116 may be in further operative communication with a central server 224. The pharmacy workflow management application 116 may communicate data to the central server 224. For example, at least a portion of the data stored in the facility data database 206 may be communicated to the central server 224. The communication of such data may be direct from the medical information processing platform 100 or by way of the pharmacy workflow management application 116. In this regard, the central server 224 may provide backup services in relation to the data processed by the medical information processing platform 100 and/or the pharmacy workflow management application 116. In this regard, alert data generated by the alert generation platform 110 may also be communicated to the central server 224 and provided for purposes of backing up the alert data received from the alert

generation platform 1 10. Further still, the central server 224 may provide the data aggregation point whereby data may be aggregated for purposes of subjecting the data to data analytics the like. In this regard, in the event alert data is provided to the central server 224, the alert data may also be subjected to aggregation for purposes of potential data analytics in relation to the alert data.

The central server 224 may be in operative communication with a plurality of pharmacy workflow management applications 1 16 and/or a plurality of medical information processing platforms 100. For instance, different respective entities may operate to respective ones of the medical information processing platform 100 and/or pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. The different respective entities operating the medical information processing platform 100 and/or the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may each be unrelated or unaffiliated parties. However, the central server 224 may be in operative communication with a plurality of the unaffiliated instances of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 and/or medical information processing platform 100 to provide backup data services with respect to the unaffiliated instances. For instance, the central server 224 may be operated by a provider of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 for purposes of backing up data processed by a given facility using the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

Without limiting any of the foregoing discussion, specific embodiments of an interface connection with a pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 according to the present disclosure is presented in Figs . 5-13. In this regard, it may be appreciated that the interface screens depicted in connection with Figs . 5-13 may be presented at and/or generated by one or more pharmacy workstations associated with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. As such, functionality described in connection with the interface screens presented in Figs. 5-13 may alternatively be provided using different specific configurations of interface screen. That is, the functionality described below can be provided in addition to or as an alternative to the foregoing description of the operation of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 and medical information processing platform 100 described above in connection with the foregoing. As may be appreciated, the processor (e.g., processor 214 or processor 220 discussed above in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16) may be configured in a manner as

described above to display the various interface screens presented in Figs. 5-13. Additionally, processing of user inputs received in connection with the interface screens described below may also be accomplished by the processor associated with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In this regard, the functionality and processing described below in connection with the interface screens may be provided by the processor pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

Turning to Fig. 5, a login screen 230 is depicted corresponding to the embodiment of a user interface of a pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. The log in screen 230 may include a user name field 232 and a password field 234. A user of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may provide a username and the user name field 232 and a password in the password field 234 in order to gain access to the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In this regard, and authenticated username and password match may be required to access the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

Upon successful authentication of a user by the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 (e.g., in response to provision of the username and password combination by a user), a user may be redirected to a navigation interface screen 236. The navigation interface screen 236 may provide a number of links or other interactive elements to allow for a user to navigate to different interface screens corresponding to different functionality associated with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. Of particular interest to the present discussion, the navigation interface screen 236 may include a link 238 to an alert interface screen 240 (an embodiment of which is depicted in Fig. 7). In addition to the link 238 to the alert interface screen 240, the navigation interface screen 236 may further provide interactive links to allow user to access various functionality of the pharmacy workflow management application 116 such as a dose order listing, a pharmacy verification workspace, formulary management workspaces, or other interfaces for providing functionality in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

Turning now to Fig. 7 depicting an embodiment of an alert interface screen 240, the alert interface screen 240 may display one or more alert indications corresponding to at least a portion of alert data

received by the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 and/or the medical information processing platform 100 from the alert generation platform 1 10. The alert interface screen 240 may include a listing 242 of alert indications 246. The alert indications 246 may be provided in the listing 242 such that the alert indications 246 are organized in any fashion appropriate for display to a user. For example, the alert indications 246 could be listed according to one or more of time of receipt, priority, alphabetical order, severity, or any other appropriate metric. Furthermore, as described above, aggregated medical information may be presented in the absence of any alert indication.

As depicted in Fig. 7, the listing 242 is provided such that alert indications 246 are displayed in corresponding relation to a patient specific dose order record 244 to which the alert indication corresponds. In this regard, the listing 242 may include a dose order record 244 that may provide an indication with respect to the dose order and/or patient associated with the dose order. Accordingly, the alert indications 246 corresponding to the dose order record 244 may be displayed in corresponding relation to the dose order record 244 in the listing 242. In this regard, while only a single alert indication 246 is shown for any single one of the dose order records 244 depicted in Fig. 7, it may be appreciated that a plurality of alert indications 246 could be displayed in corresponding relation to a given dose order record 244. In this case, the additional alert indications 246 may be displayed as a nested list of alert indications 246 relative to a given dose order record 244. The user may interact with a given dose order record 244 to expand or collapse the nested list of alert indications 246 corresponding to the dose order record 244.

In the embodiment depicted in Fig. 7, the alert indications 246 shown in the listing 242 may comprise patient specific alert indications. In this regard, it may be appreciated that the dose order record 244 may include one or more portions of patient information. For example, patient name and patient identifier are provided in connection with the dose order record 244. It may be appreciated that the alert indication 246 may also include a patient identifier corresponding to the patient identified in connection with the dose order record 244. In this regard, the patient identifier may be identical for the dose order record 244 and the alert indication 246. Alternatively, a patient identifier receiving connection with an alert indication may correspondingly associated with a patient identifier for dose order record 244 such that the different respective patient identifiers for the alert indication 246 in the dose order record 244 may be correlated (e.g., in a correlation table or the like). In any regard, the alert indications 246 may be associated with the dose order record 244 in a manner shown in Fig. 7.

The alert interface screen 240 may provide a user certain information regarding the alert indication 246 such as, for example, the alert name, an intervention associated with the alert indication 246, an outcome for the alert indication 246, an indication of when the alert was reviewed, and an indication of the user who review the alert indication 246, etc. In addition, each alert indication 246 may be presented in corresponding relation to an interactive portion 248. As will be described in greater detail below, the interactive portion 248 may be selected by a user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116 to access various functionality associated with the alert generation platform 1 10.

The alert interface screen 240 may also include a pharmacy workflow management application navigation bar 250. The navigation bar 250 may provide a shortcut to allow for a user to navigate to different respective interface screens of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. For example, the navigation bar 250 may have selectable portions corresponding to a global dose order record listing, a dose order record listing filtered by dose order records awaiting verification by pharmacist, a dose order record listing filtered by dose order records having errors associated therewith, or a dose order record listing filtered by dose order records having alert indications associated therewith. It may be appreciated that the error tab and alert tab may be consolidated into a single listing such that the errors that may be presented in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 1 16 may be processed in a similar manner as the alert indications 246.

A user may select the appropriate portion of the navigation bar 250 to navigate to the alert interface screen 240 that may provide the listing 242 of dose order records 244 filtered by those having alert indications 246 such that the dose order records 244 are shown in corresponding relation to the alert indications 246. The alert interface screen 240 may further include a plurality of navigation tabs 252 that may allow a user to further filter the dose order record listing 242 displayed in the alert interface screen 240. For example, an alert tab may be provided that displays all dose order record listings 244 for which

an alert indication is provided 246. Additionally, a hold tab and/or a STAT tab may be provided that, when selected, filters the listing 242 to display only dose order records 244 having an alert indication 246 that caused the corresponding dose order record 244 to have a status change to on hold or STAT depending upon the respective tab selected. In this regard, not all alert indications 246 may result in a dose order record 244 having a status changed. Further still, a tab may be provided to access a report listing corresponding to reports available at the alert generation platform 1 10 for display in connection with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 as will be described in greater detail below.

In addition to the alert interface screen 240, an alert indication 246 may be provided in other appropriate interface screens of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. One such example is provided in Fig. 8 where a dose verification screen 254 shown. The dose verification screen 254 may show information corresponding to a specific dose order record 244 for purposes of verification by a pharmacist of the dose prepared by a pharmacy technician. In this regard, dose information may be provided for review by the pharmacist including, for example, images of the dose prepared by the pharmacy technician in connection with the dose order. Additionally, the dose verification screen 254 may include an alert indication 246 that corresponds to the given dose order for the dose verification screen 254. That is, in the event an alert indication 246 is present for a given dose order record 244, the pharmacist may be presented the alert indication 246 on the dose verification screen 254 associated with the dose order record 244 at the time the pharmacist is reviewing the dose order information for verification of the dose. While not shown in Fig. 8, the dose verification screen 254 could further include an interactive portion 248 to allow the pharmacist reviewing the dose to access the various functionality associated with the interactive portion 248 described below.

Also, while not depicted in Fig. 8, the dose verification screen 254 may be operative to display aggregated medical information for review by a pharmacist even in the absence of an alert indication. In this regard, the pharmacist may be provided useful aggregated medical information from a plurality of medial information sources for review during the review of the dose order. For instance, the aggregated medical information may be specific to the dose order being verified in the dose verification screen 254.

Aggregated medical information regarding a particular drug or product used tn the dose may be displayed (e.g., including the number of orders containing the particular drug or product in a given time frame, potential alternatives, possible risks associated with the particular drug or product, etc.). The aggregated medical information may also relate to a given patient associated with the dose order being verified. For instance, information regarding procedures, allergies, medical devices, other ordered drugs/products, or other information particular to the patient may be presented to the pharmacist in connection with the dose verification screen 254.

Figs. 9A - 9B further illustrates functionality associated with ari interactive portion 248. For example, with returned reference to Fig. 7, the alert interface screen 240 may provide a listing 242 of alert indications 246 that may each include an interactive portion 246. In this regard, the user may, by way of the user interface of the pharmacy workflow management application 116, select the interactive portion 248 to, for example, launch execution of the alert generation platform 110 (e.g., a local instance of the alert generation platform 110) at the pharmacy work station executing the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. This is illustrated in Figs. 9A - 9B. In Figs. 9A - 9B, the interactive portion 248 has been selected for a given alert indioation 246 in the listing 242, In turn, a local instance 256 of the alert generation platform 1 1 Q may be launched at the pharmacy workstation executing the pharmacy workflow management application 116.

As described above, the alert generation platform 110 may be executed remotely from the pharmacy workstation executing the pharmacy workflow management application 116. In this regard, the local instance 256 of the alert generation platform 110 may comprise a thin client application executing on the pharmacy workstation that is in operative communication with the alert generation platform 1 10 (e.g., by way of the medical information processing platform 100) to display information to the user of the pharmacy workstation in relation to the alert generation platform 110. In this regard, the thin client may be used to present the local instance 256 of the alert generation platform 110 to the user of the pharmacy workstation. The thin client may be, for example, an internet browser or the like that may communicate with the alert generation platform 110 (e.g., using html, http, or other appropriate internet protocol). Alternatively, the

alert generation platform 110 may, in at least some embodiments, be executed on the same pharmacy workstation executing the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. In such an embodiment where the alert generation platform 110 is executed on the same pharmacy workstation as the pharmacy workflow management application 116, selection of the interactive portion 248 may launch a local native instance of the alert generation platform 110 at the pharmacy workstation to allow for interaction with the alert generation platform 1 10 by the user of the pharmacy workstation.

In any regard, as depicted in Figs. 9A - 9B. a local instance 256. of the alert generation platform 110 may be presented to the user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116 on the pharmacy workstation utilized by the user. In this regard, the user may interact with the alert generation platform 110 to, for example* obtain additional information regarding the alert indication 246 presented in the listing 242. Furthermore, in the event that the alert indication 246 is a patient specific alert indication, corresponding patient information may be accessed in the local instance 256 of the alert generation platform 1 10 at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16.

While a number of different types of alert data may be generated by the alert generation platform 1 10 and received at the medical information processing platform 100. a number of specific examples of alert data and corresponding alert indications are provided below, these examples are intended as demonstrative and not limiting. The alert data may include alerts as follows:


In this regard, the alert generation platform 110 may include additional information received by way of the data connections provided with the alert generation platform 110. For example, the user may be able to review laboratory results, device utilization, medication information, procedure information, treatment information, or other relevant information regarding the patient, the alert indication, a dose order, or other parameter. Furthermore, the user may be operative to review alert data or reporting regarding alerts presented directly in the alert generation platform 110, For instance, the alert data may relate to a microbial organism where no drug has been ordered (e.g., bug, no drug), order of a drug where no microbial organism is present (e.g., drug, no bug), order of an inappropriate drug (e.g., bug, wrong drug), an adverse drug event, abnormal lab results, or any other appropriate alert context.

Additionally, the alert generation platform 110 may maintain responsive inputs in relation to an alert indication provided by the alert generation platform 110. For example, the responsive inputs may correspond to information regarding Interventions and/or outcomes associated with an alert. An intervention for an alert indication may include any action, modification of action, or change in action taken in relation to receipt of the alert. Examples of Interventions may include monitoring, modification of dose orders, modification of treatment plans, modifications of device utilization, or any other change in connection with the treatment provided to a patient. In this regard, the alert generation platform 110 may provide the intervention information in relation to an alert Indication 246. Furthermore, an outcome may be provided that is maintained by the alert generation platform 1 10 in relation to an outcome associated with the alert indication 244 and/or intervention provided in relation to the alert indication 244. The outcome information may include resolution of diagnoses, further laboratory results, a pharmacy action, or other information.

Accordingly, as depicted in Figs. 10A - 10B, the alert generation platform 110 may include an intervention detail portion 258, The alert generation platform 110 may be a local instance 256 executed locally relative to the pharmacy workflow management application 116. Alternatively, the alert generation platform 110 may be executed remotely from the pharmacy workflow management application 116. In any regard, the alert generation platform 110 may allow a user of the alert generation platform 110 to provide intervention details 260. To this end, a user interface element may be provided at the alert generation platform J 10 to allow the intervention details 260 to bo provided. For example, a list of intervention details may be provided for selection for an intervention detail 260 by a user, a text portion for freeform entry of text corresponding to the intervention detail 260 may be provided, radar buttons may be provided for input of intervention detail 260, or other selection or input modalities may be provided to allow user to provide intervention detail 260 to the alert generation platform 1 10. Furthermore, outcome details may also be provided in a corresponding manner such that the provision of outcome details at the alert generation platform 110 may be reflected at the pharmacy workflow management application 116.

Figs. 10A - 10B also depicts an alert interface screen 240. As may be appreciated, the alert interface screen 240 may provide intervention details 260 provided at the local instance 2S6 or remotely executed alert generation platform 110. That is, the intervention details 260 provided that the alert generation platform 110 may in tum be provided to the pharmacy workflow management application 116 (e.g., by way of the medication information processing platform 100) and be provided in corresponding relation to an alert indication 246 to which the intervention detail 260 corresponds, Outcome details may also be provided in corresponding relation to an alert indication 246 in the alert listing 242 provided on the alert interface screen 240.

With further reference to Fig. 11, the pharmacy workflow management application 116 may also allow a user to provide information regarding intervention details 260 and/or outcome details 266 in relation to an alert indication 246 presented by the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. The alert interface screen 240 may allow user to select an alert Indication 246. Upon selection of the alert indication 246, a button 262 may become active that, upon selection, provides the user and intervention/outcome dialog box 264. Using inputs provided in the dialog box 264, the user may be allowed to, at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16, provide an Intervention details 260 and/or outcome details 266 regarding the selected alert indication 246,

As such, the pharmacy workflow management application 116 may be in bidirectional communication with the medical information processing platform 100 to provide to the alert generation platform 1 10 the intervention detail 260 or outcome detail 266 provided by the user the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. That is, intervention detail 260 and/or outcome detail 266 may be provided to either the pharmacy workflow management application 116 or alert generaiion platform 110 such that the corresponding other one of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 or alert generation platform 1 10 may reflect the intervention detail 260 or outcome detail 266.

For example, Figs. 12A - 12B depicts an alert interface screen 240 and a corresponding instance 256 of the alert generation platform HQ. As may be appreciated, outcome details 266 may have been provided by the user of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 utilizing the dialog box 264 for selection of the outcome details 266 at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 for a given one of the alert indications 246. The Instance 256 the alert generation platform may receive the outcome details 266 such that the outcome details 266 may be displayed in a intervention detail portion 258 of the instance 256. That is, information provided in relation to the alert indication 246 at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may be reflected at the alert generation platform 1 10.

The pharmacy workflow management application 116 may further include functionality in relation to actions to be taken upon receipt of alert indication 246 at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. For instance, the alert generation platform 110 may be operative to provide alert data to the pharmacy workflow management application 116. The pharmacy workflow management application 116 may further have alert processing rules stored in the memory associated with the pharmacy workflow management application Π6 that is accessible by a processor associated with the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 to configure the processor to process the alert data upon receipt. Specifically, the alert processing rules may define one or more triggering conditions for presentation of the alert indication 246 in the pharmacy workflow management application 116. That is, if the alert data received at the pharmacy workflow management application 116 meets certain predefined criteria defined by the one or more triggering conditions of the alert processing rules, a corresponding alert indication 246 may be provided to the user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116. However, if the alert data does not meet the predefined criteria defined by the one or more triggering conditions of the alert processing rules, the pharmacy workflow management application 116 may not generate any alert indication corresponding to the alert data. The one or more triggering conditions may be selectable or configurable by a user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116 to specifically tailor the alert indications presented to a user of the pharmacy workflow management application 116. Parameters used for the

triggering conditions may include patient information of the alert, drug information of the alert, details for the dose order record associated with the alert, or other parameters.

The alert processing rules may also define one or more actions to be taken with respect to a given dose order record 244 in response to receipt of the alert data at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. For example, if the alert data satisfies appropriate alert processing rules, an alert indication 246 may be generated that corresponds to a given dose order record 244 maintained at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. Upon generation of the alert indication 246, further rules may be provided to determine whether the alert indication 246 should result in further action being taken with respect to a given one of the dose order record 244 to which the alert indication corresponds. For example, upon satisfaction one or more triggering conditions, the processor of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may be operative to execute the one or more actions defined by the alert processing rules with respect to the given dose order record 244 in response to the alert indication 246. For example, a status of the dose order may be modified (e.g., to an on hold status or a stat status). Furthermore, the dose order record may be provided in a specific user interface screen of the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. That is, the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may be operative to segregate or separately display dose order records 244 having a given alert indication 246 present for the dose order associated with the alert indication 246.

With respect to Fig. 13, a configuration interface 268 shown. The configuration interface 268 may include a plurality of selections that allow for configuration of actions taken in respect to dose order records 246 for which given alert indications 244, interventions 260, and/or outcomes 266 are received from the alert generation platform 1 10. For example, a first field 270 may allow for configuration of which alert indications 246, interventions 260, or outcomes 266 that, when received, result in the corresponding dose order record 244 to which the alert data corresponds to be promoted to a STAT (or otherwise elevated or prioritized) status. A second field 272 may allow for configuration of which alert indications 246, interventions 260, or outcomes 266 that, when received, result in the corresponding dose order record 244

to which the alert data corresponds to be placed on hold (e.g., delaying or suspending preparation of the dose order).

Furthermore, Fig. 14 depicts utilization of the navigation tabs 252 to allow for selective display of dose order records 244 for which actions have been taken in response to alert data. In this regard, use of the navigation tabs 252 may allow for presentation of a filtered alert listing 242. In this regard, in the left portion of Fig. 14, the STAT doses navigation tab 252 has been selected. In turn, the alert listing 242 may be filtered such that only dose order records 244 that have been promoted to STAT status in response to receipt of an alert indication 246, intervention 260, or outcome 266, are displayed in the listing 242. In the right portion of Fig. 14, the hold doses navigation tab 252 has been selected. In turn, the alert listing 242 may be filtered such that only dose order records 244 that have been modified to hold status in response to receipt of an alert indication 244, intervention 260, or outcome 266, are displayed in the listing 242. Furthermore, Fig. 15 depicts a dose detail screen 274 that may provide information regarding actions taken with respect to a dose order record 244 based on receipt of alert data, an alert indication 244, intervention 260, or an outcome 266 associated with the dose order record 244.

With further reference to Fig. 16, the navigation tabs 252 may be utilized to navigate to an alert generation platform report listing 276. That is, upon selection of the appropriate navigation tab 252, a report listing 276 may be provided in the pharmacy workflow management application 166 interface that allows a user to select a report corresponding to reports provided by way of the alert generation platform 1 10. That is, the alert generation platform 110 may provide information corresponding to the reports listed in the report listing 276. In this regard, user the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16 may select a given one of the reports in the report listing 276 and select a run report button 278.

Upon selection of the run report button 278, a local instance 256 of the alert generation platform 1 10 may be executed at the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. Within the local instance 256, a report 280 may be provided by the alert generation platform 1 10 and may be displayed to the user the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. As may be appreciated, plurality of different types of reports may be provided in the listing 276 for access by a user for display in the local instance 256. For example, reports corresponding to the number of prescriptions for a given drug, the way in which drugs are utilized, the frequency of alerts, cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility information, the number of active medications in a given facility, timelines for interventions, or other information may be provided in various ones of the reports provided in the listing 276. As such, the reports provided in the listing 276 may comprise data related to alert data or may be related to aggregated medical information independent of any alert data.

Furthermore, a user may be capable of accessing a specific patient report 284 provided by the alert generation platform 1 10 from the alert interface screen 240. In this regard, selection of a given alert indication 246 from the alert listing 242 may enable the print patient report button 282 on the alert interface screen 240. Upon selection of the print patient report button 282, a local instance 256 of the alert generation platform 1 10 may be launched on the pharmacy workstation executing the pharmacy workflow management application 1 16. The local instance 256 may display a patient report 284 that may provide details regarding the patient to which the selected alert indication 246 corresponds. A number of different types of information may be provided in the patient report to 84. Examples of which may include, microbiology results, patient observations, patient vitals, patient chart notes, medications prescribed to the patient, devices being utilized by the patient, and/or monitoring trends that may present on a timeline various events, resources, or other parameters related to the patient's care.

While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, such illustration and description is to be considered as exemplary and not restrictive in character. For example, certain embodiments described hereinabove may be combinable with other described embodiments and/or arranged in other ways (e.g., process elements may be performed in other sequences). Accordingly, it should be understood that only the preferred embodiment and variants thereof have been shown and described and that all changes and modifications that come within the spirit of the invention are desired to be protected.