The present invention discloses a Traceable emission remote monitoring system and method. The system comprises a remote sensing unit, a transformation data processor, and a local control unit. The local control unit receives local resource information to generate control commands and transmits the same to the remote sensing unit; the remote sensing unit remotely senses emissions that an object emits based on the control commands, and transmits individual emission data to the transformation data processor for processing and analysis to obtain a first analytic result; the local control unit provides various derivative services to generate a second analytic result. In some embodiments, the system further comprises a cloud platform for generating a comprehensive analysis report. The present invention further discloses a traceable emission remote sensing method. The Traceable emission remote monitoring system and method according to the present invention are real-time, convenient, fast and accurate, and can make it digitalized and networked for the emissions that a single object emits and the emission of regional and trans-regional comprehensive emissions, and can thus help the supervision department formulate effective regulatory strategies.