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1. (WO2015168157) DEVICES, METHODS, AND SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONAL OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method for imaging a target, the method comprising:

a. performing optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning on a target with one or more beams of low coherence light, wherein the one or more beams of light comprise one or more wavelengths;

b. acquiring optical information from reflected signals generated by the performed OCT scanning;

c. quantitatively three dimensional (3D) imaging the target;

d. determining a flow rate of a fluid and a concentration of one or more analytes, from the acquired optical information and the 3D imaging; and

e. determining a rate of change of the one or more analyte concentrations in the target based on the determining of flow rate of a fluid and a concentration of one or more analytes.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the quantitatively 3D-imaging in the target is performed

without contacting at least one analyte with an exogenous reagent or label.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more beams of light comprises invisible light or visible light.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the OCT scanning generates one or more A-scans.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein the quantitatively imaging a flow rate of a fluid in the target and a concentration of one or more analytes in the fluid in the target, and the determining rate of change of one more analyte concentrations use spectral analysis of the same A-scan.

6. The method of claim 4, wherein the amplitude, intensity or phase, of the same OCT A-scan, are used for determining a rate of change of the one or more analyte concentrations.

7. The method of claim 4, wherein the flow rate, the concentration of one or more analytes, and the determining the rate of change or one or more analyte concentrations uses a plurality of OCT A-scans of the target.

8. The method of claim 4, wherein OCT is performed on a plurality of areas in the target.

9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the one or more beams of light are used to perform multi-beam or multi-band scanning OCT.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more beams of light illuminate the target

concurrently or sequentially.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the quantitatively imaging a flow rate of a fluid in the target and a concentration of one or more analytes in the fluid in the target occur substantially simultaneously.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the OCT scanning on the target is performed with identical or different pre-defined scanning trajectories.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the target is selected from the group consisting of tissue, healthy tissue, diseased tissue, retina, tumor, cancer, growth, fibroid, lesion, skin, mucosal lining, organ, graft, blood supply and one or more blood vessels.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein the quantitatively imaging a flow rate of a fluid in the target is performed using either visible light or invisible light.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein the quantitatively imaging a concentration of one or more analytes in the fluid in the target is performed using either visible light or invisible light.

16. The method of claim 1, wherein the fluid is selected from the group consisting of whole blood, blood plasma, blood serum, urine, semen, tears, sweat, saliva, lymph fluid, pleural effusion, peritoneal fluid, meningal fluid, amniotic fluid, glandular fluid, spinal fluid, conjunctival fluid, vitreous, aqueous, vaginal fluid, bile, mucus, sputum and cerebrospinal fluid.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the analyte is selected from the group consisting of oxygen, hemoglobin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, glucose, sugar, blood area nitrogen, lactate, hematocrit, biomarker and nucleic acid.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the rate of change of one or more analytes is performed by comparing or using a reference.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the reference is healthy tissue.

20. The method of claim 18, wherein the reference is the target in which the flow rate of a fluid and the concentration of one or more analytes have been previously been quantified.

21. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more images of the target are generated.

22. The method of claim of claim 21, wherein the one or more images and the change in rate of analyte concentration are used to calculate a function of the target or a change in the function of the target.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the function of the target is a pathological alteration in a tissue.

24. The method of claim 22, wherein the function of the target is a metabolic function.

25. The method of claim 21, wherein arteries and veins are identified in the one or more images.

26. The method of claim 25, wherein the metabolic function is calculated in one or more areas of the target.

27. The method of claim 1 , wherein an exogenous agent is contacted with the target.

28. The method of claim 28, wherein the exogenous agent is a contrast reagent.

29. The method of claim 1 , wherein the quantifying a flow rate of a fluid in the target comprises determining the cross sectional area of one or more vessels containing the fluid.

30. The method of claim 1 , wherein a medical decision is made by determining the rate of change of the one or more analyte concentrations in the target.

31. The method of claim 1, wherein spectral analysis is performed to extract a full set of optical properties of the target.

32. The method of claim 1 , wherein the method is configured for a device selected from the group consisting of probe, handheld device, wearable device, endoscope, catheter probe, laparoscopic tool, surgical tool, and needle.

33. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is configured to screen or optimize one or more drugs, treatment protocols or pharmaceutical reagents.

34. A method for the diagnosis or treatment of a disease in a subject, the method comprising: a. obtaining three dimensional (3D) OCT scans of a target;

b. determining a status of one or more molecular markers in a bodily fluid in the target, while simultaneously quantifying flow of the bodily fluid from the 3D scans generated by the obtaining of 3D OCT scans of the target; and

c. providing a medical decision.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein the OCT scanning comprises invisible light or visible light.

36. The method of claim 34, wherein the determining a status of one or more molecular markers comprises calculating metabolic activity or a change in metabolic activity in the target.

37. The method of claim 34, wherein the determining a status of one or more molecular markers in a bodily fluid in the target is performed by measuring an intensity, amplitude or phase of visible light reflected at a plurality of depths for each of a plurality of areas generated in step (a).

38. The method of claim 34, wherein the quantifying flow of the bodily fluid comprises measuring an intensity, amplitude or phase of light reflected at a plurality of depths for each of a plurality of areas generated in step (a).

39. The method of claim 34, wherein one or more A-scans are obtained.

40. The method of claim 39, wherein the flow rate and the status of one or more molecular markers are determined using spectral analysis of the same A-scan.

41. The method of claim 34, wherein the providing a medical decision comprises stratifying one or more treatment decision options in a report based on the status of the one or more molecular markers.

42. The method of claim 34, wherein the medical decision is administration of a drug or medical treatment.

43. The method of claim 34, wherein the target is selected from the following group: diseased tissue, suspected diseased tissue and healthy tissue.

44. The method of claim 34, wherein the medical decision is changing the dosage of one or more drugs, selecting a frequency of drug administration, or making a drug selection.

45. The method of claim 34, wherein the determining a status of one or more molecular markers in a bodily fluid in the target, while simultaneously quantifying flow of the bodily fluid indicates the presence or absence of disease.

46. The method of claim 34, wherein the target is selected from the group consisting of tissue, healthy tissue, diseased tissue, retina, tumor, cancer, growth, fibroid, lesion, skin, mucosal lining, organ, graft, blood supply and one or more blood vessels.

47. The method of claim 34, wherein the determining the status of one or more molecular markers comprises imaging a blood flow or a blood supply.

48. The method of claim 47, wherein the imaging comprises comparing the image of the blood flow or the blood supply of a disease or suspected diseased tissue to an image of a blood flow or a blood supply from a normal tissue or a previous image of a blood flow or a blood supply from the same tissue; and diagnosing the diseased tissue if the image of the blood flow or the blood supply of the suspected diseased tissue includes an increased or an abnormal levels of one or more molecular markers when compared to the levels of molecular markers in an image of the blood flow or the blood supply from the normal tissue or a previous image of a blood flow or a blood supply from the same tissue.

49. The method of claim 34, wherein the target is tissue suspected of comprising cancer.

50. The method of claim 49, wherein cancer is selected from the group consisting of skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer heart cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, sarcoid carcinoma, melanoma, mammary cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, renal cancer, osteosarcoma, cutaneous melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, liver cancer, brain cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia, melanoma, or lymphoma.

51. The method of claim 34, wherein the determining a status of one or more molecular markers is used to diagnose, monitor or treat ocular diseases selected from the group consisting of: age related macular degeneration (AMD), wet AMD, dry AMD, glaucoma, retinal vein occlusion, branched retinal vein occlusion and diabetic retinopathy.

52. The method of claim 34, wherein the determining a status of one or more molecular markers is performed without contacting at least one analyte with an exogenous reagent or label.

53. A metabolic optical coherence tomography system comprising visible light illumination and near infra-red illumination of a target to determine both a blood flow rate and a change in a rate of oxygen saturation.