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1. (WO2015161101) FIBER OPTIC DISTAL SENSOR CONTROLLED MICRO-MANIPULATION SYSTEMS AND METHODS
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WE CLAIM:

1. A motion-compensated cutting system comprising:

a tool body having a size and configuration to be used for hand-held operation;

an actuator connected to the tool body, said actuator comprising a shaft that is movable relative to the tool body;

a cutting implement attached to the shaft such that a distal end of the cutting implement is movable relative to the tool body in an axial direction;

an optical coherence tomography system comprising an optical fiber having a distal end fixed relative to the distal end of the cutting implement; and

a control unit arranged to be in communication with the optical coherence tomography system and the actuator,

wherein the control unit is configured to determine a position of the distal end of the cutting implement relative to a reference surface based on a signal received from the optical coherence tomography system, and

wherein the control unit is further configured to control the actuator to move the cutting implement to compensate for relative motion between the tool body and the reference surface at least during a cutting operation, and

wherein the control unit is further configured to maintain a predetermined depth of the distal end of the cutting implement with respect to the reference surface during the cutting operation.

2. The motion-compensated cutting system according to claim 1, wherein the relative motion is caused by a hand tremor of an operator of the cutting system.

3. The motion-compensated cutting system according to claim 1, wherein the control unit is configured to control the actuator during the cutting operation such that at least one of:

the predetermined depth of the distal end of the cutting implement with respect to the reference surface is constant across a length of a cut made by the cutting operation, or

. the predetermined depth of the distal end of the cutting implement with respect to the reference surface varies a predetermined amount across the length of the cut.

4. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 1 :

wherein the control unit is configured to detect deformation of the subject based on a signal from the optical coherence tomography system, the deformation resulting from at least one of movement of the subject, insertion of the cutting implement into the subject, and a movement of the cutting implement along a length of a cut as a cutting operation is performed, and

wherein the control unit is configured to control the actuator to compensate for the deformation.

5. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 1, further comprising a position sensor attached to the tool body and arranged to detect a position of the shaft.

6. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 5, wherein the position sensor comprises an optical coherence tomography-based encoder.

7. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 5, wherein the control unit is adapted to be in communication with the position sensor and is configured to, at least one of:

move the shaft, using input from the position sensor, to a reset position after a single cut is completed, or

communicate a warning signal when the shaft is at or near a limit of a range of motion of the shaft.

8. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 1, wherein the optical coherence tomography system is a common-path optical coherence tomography system.

9. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 1 , wherein the cutting implement and the optical fiber are detachable from a remainder of the motion-compensated cutting system.

10. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 1, further comprising:

a measuring unit configured to measure a length of a cut performed by the cutting system.

11. The motion-compensated cutting system of claim 10, wherein the measuring unit measures the length of the cut using speckle de-correlation and a duration of the cutting operation.

12. A motion-compensated micro-manipulation system, comprising:

a tool body having a size and configuration to be used for manual manipulation;

an actuator connected to the tool body, said actuator comprising a shaft that is movable relative to the tool body;

a tool element attached to the shaft such that a distal end of the tool element is movable relative to the tool body in an axial direction;

a position sensor attached to the tool body and arranged to detect a position of the shaft; an optical coherence tomography system comprising an optical fiber having a distal end fixed relative to the distal end of the tool element; and

a control unit arranged to be in communication with the optical coherence tomography system and the actuator,

wherein the control unit is adapted to be in communication with the position sensor and is configured to, at least one of:

move the shaft, at a predetermined stage of a micro-manipulation procedure, to a reset position using input from the position sensor, or

communicate a warning signal when the shaft is in a predetermined position, and wherein the control unit is further configured to determine a position of the distal end of the tool element relative to a reference surface based on a signal received from the optical coherence tomography system, and to control the actuator to move the tool element to compensate for relative motion between the tool body and the reference surface.

13. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, wherein the control unit controls the actuator to achieve a predetermined distance between the distal end of the tool element and the reference surface.

14. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, wherein the position sensor comprises an optical coherence tomography-based encoder.

15. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, wherein the predetermined position of the shaft is at or near a limit of a range of motion of the shaft.

16. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, further comprising a warning device arranged to receive the warning signal from the control unit, the warning device being configured to communicate a visual or auditory warning to an operator of the micromanipulation system.

17. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, wherein the reset position is substantially in a center of a range of motion of the shaft.

18. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, wherein the predetermined stage is based on exceeding a predetermined distance between the distal end of the tool element and the reference surface.

19. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, further comprising a control in communication with the control unit,

wherein the control is arranged to be manually operable by an operator of the micromanipulation system, and

wherein the predetermined stage is based on the operator operating the control.

20. The motion-compensated micro-manipulation system of claim 12, wherein the optical coherence tomography system further includes an optical sensor in communication with the optical fiber and configured to receive a signal from the optical fiber.

21. A method of performing a motion-compensated cutting operation, comprising:

providing a cutting tool comprising a tool body and a cutting implement coupled to the tool body, the cutting implement having a distal end configured to cut tissue of a patient; providing an optical coherence tomography system at least a portion of which is coupled to the cutting tool, the optical coherence tomography system including an optical fiber having a distal end fixed relative to the distal end of the cutting implement;

performing the cutting operation; and

controlling a position of the cutting implement along a longitudinal axis of the cutting implement over a duration of the cutting operation based on an input from the optical coherence tomography system to perform a cut of a desired depth.

22. The method of performing the motion-compensated cutting operation according to claim 21, wherein controlling the position of the cutting implement includes moving the cutting implement in a repetitive back-and-forth motion along the longitudinal axis of the cutting implement.