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1. WO2012061025 - METHOD FOR IMPROVING COLOR RETENTION IN ARTIFICIALLY COLORED HAIR

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[ EN ]

METHOD FOR IMPROVING COLOR RETENTION

IN ARTIFICIALLY COLORED HAIR

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is claims priority from U.S. Application Serial No. 12/940,805, filed November 2, 2010, which is incorporated by hereby by reference for all purposes.

FIELD OF INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates generally to methods and compositions for the hair. More specifically, the invention relates to compositions for improving color retention in artificially colored hair and/or for imparting films on the hair having enhanced shine and feel.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Consumers have utilized a number of cosmetic and personal care compositions to enhance and/or modify the appearance of keratin fibers, such as the hair. One popular modification is impartation of an artificial color on the hair using a chemical dye. For example, the hair may be treated using a direct dye or an oxidative dye, which is also known as a "permanent" hair dye, to obtain a desired color.

[0003] It is known in the art that artificial hair colors, particularly red tones, obtained by treating hair with chemical dyes rapidly fade with repeat shampooing and washing. The chemical dyes used to impart color on the hair tend to increase the porosity of the keratin fibers of the hair. The increased porosity provides an increased surface area and allows an increased flow of fluids (e.g., water) through the fibers of the hair and thus, increases the rate at which molecules of the chemical dyes are leached from the hair. Artificially colored hair may exhibit substantial color fading after only a few washings. It has been shown that more than 20% of the artificial hair color can be lost during the first five washes.

[0004] Recent advances to enhance color retention and/or reduce color fading of artificially colored hair have included the use of color-protecting agents. These color-protecting agents may include mild surfactants, cationic conditioning agents, aminofunctional silicones, ultraviolet absorbers, starches or sugar surfactants, to name a few. A significant improvement over these conventional approaches is disclosed in Avon Products' U.S. Patent Pub. 2009/0274640 which is directed to improving color-retention in artificially colored hair using a combination of a silicone polyurethane polymer, a film-forming ester, and fluorosilicone.

[0005] Despite the advances for color-protecting agents, there remains a need in the art for compositions and methods for reducing color fading of artificially colored hair. It is therefore an object of the invention to provide compositions and methods for improving retention of color in artificially colored hair.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0006] In accordance with the foregoing objectives and others, the present invention provides methods and compositions for improving color retention in artificially-colored hair. The compositions of the present invention surprisingly provide protection against color fading which may last through repeated hair washings. The compositions of the invention may be anhydrous or in the form of emulsions, particularly water-in-oil or water-in-silicone emulsions.

[0007] In one aspect of the invention, a method is provided for improving color retention in artificially-colored hair comprising applying to hair that has been artificially colored a composition having (a) hydrophobic particulate material comprising a hydrophobically surface-modified aluminum oxide having a median particle size between about 10 nm and about 20 flm, said hydrophobic particulate material comprising from about 0.1% to about 2.0% by weight of said composition; (b) a silicone-based hydrophobic film former comprising from about 0.01% to about 20% by weight of said composition; and (c) a cosmetically acceptable vehicle comprising a silicone fluid having a vapor pressure above about 0.01 mmHg at 20°C. The aggregate weight percentage of all non-volatile water-soluble or water-dispersible organic constituents in the composition is typically less than 5%, based on the entire weight of the composition. The composition may form a substantially uniform coating on the shafts of the hair fibers. Preferably, the hydrophobic particulate material is surface modified with alkylsilane groups, such as caprylylsilane. More preferably, the hydrophobic particulate material comprises fumed alumina.

[0008] In a preferred embodiment, the silicone-based hydrophobic film former may be selected from dimethicone, amodimethicone, dimethiconol, silicone polyurethane, silicone acrylate, or a combination thereof. Specifically, the film former may be a silicone acrylate copolymer, such as is a copolymer comprising a poly(alkyl)acrylate backbone and a dimethicone polymer grafted to an alkyl ester side chain.

[0009] The composition may be in the form of a liquid or emulsion. The product may be one intended to be left on the hair, without rinsing, and may be distributed through the hair with a brush, a comb or fingers or sprayed onto the hair. The composition will typically be applied to the hair daily, such as immediately after shampooing. The compositions reduce the loss of color from artificially-colored hair and the effect may last for multiples shampooing.

[0010] These and other aspects of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art after a reading of the following detailed description of the invention, including the appended claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0011] All amounts provided in terms of weight percentage are relative to the entire composition unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise provided, the term "alkyl" is intended to embrace straight-chained, branched, or cyclic hydrocarbons, particularly those having from one to 20 carbon atoms, and more particularly C1-12 hydrocarbons.

[0012] As used herein, the term "keratin fiber" includes hair of the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, facial hair, and body hair such as hair of the arms, legs, etc. Keratin fibers are not limited to humans and also include any keratin fibers from a mammal, such as, for example, pet hair and mammalian fur.

[0013] The cosmetic compositions of the present invention will generally be anhydrous, although water-containing formulations, such as water-in-oil emulsions are within the scope of the invention. As used herein, the water-in-oil emulsions include water-in-silicone emulsion. When reference is made to the weight % of a component based on the weight of the total composition, the total weight of the composition will be understood to include both the aqueous and oil phases of the emulsion. In the context of the present invention, water is considered a volatile solvent and will thus be excluded from the limitations on hydrophilic components and liquids described herein.

[0014] The inventive cosmetic compositions for reducing color fading from artificially-colored keratin fibers (e.g., hair) comprises a combination of a hydrophobic particulate material and a silicone-based hydrophobic film former for imparting a coating on keratin fibers. This combination has been found to reduced leaching of colorants from the

hair, as is typically encountered during shampooing, swimming, and other activities where the hair is brought into contact with water. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, it is believed that the compositions impart a water-repellant coating over the surface of keratin fibers which reduces penetration of water into the fibers and consequently retards leaching of colorants from the hair. The water-repellency is thought to arise from the micro- or nano-structure imparted on the surface of the hair by the hydrophobic particulates, which has been termed the "Lotus effect," by analogy to the phenomenon where water droplets bead and roll off of the leaves of the Lotus plant due to its surface structure. The hydrophobicity of the surface may be quantified in terms of the contact angle at which a liquid/vapor interface meets a solid surface. The contact angle of a droplet of water with a glass slide coated with a film of the composition may be suitably measured using a contact angle goniometer. It is contemplated that the compositions of the present invention are capable of providing a film on a surface, after evaporation of volatile solvents, which, in some embodiments, is characterized by a contact angle with a water droplet greater than about 70°, greater than about 80°, greater than about 90°, or greater than about 100° up to about 110°, about 120°, about 130°, about 140°, or about 150°. Films having a producing a contact angle greater than about 150° are term "superhydrophobic."

[0015] The method according to the invention provides for the protection and retention of hair color on color-treated hair. The method comprises applying to the hair a composition having (a) hydrophobic particulate material, such as a hydrophobically surface-modified aluminum oxide, having a median particle size between about 10 nm and about 20 flm, the hydrophobic particulate material comprising from about 0.1% to about 2.0% by weight of said composition; (b) a hydrophobic film-former, such as a silicone-based hydrophobic film former, comprising from about 0.01% to about 20% by weight of the composition; and (c) a cosmetically acceptable vehicle comprising a volatile hydrophobic solvent, such as a silicone fluid, having a vapor pressure above about 0.01 mmHg at 20°C. Preferably, the hydrophobic particulate material is surface modified with alkylsilane groups, such as caprylylsilane. More preferably, the hydrophobic particulate material comprises fumed alumina. The aggregate weight percentage of all non-volatile water-soluble or water-dispersible organic constituents in the composition is preferably less than 5%, based on the entire weight of the composition. The composition may form a substantially uniform coating on the shafts of the hair fibers to protect against leaching of colorant from the hair.

[0016] A first component of the cosmetic compositions of the invention comprises one or more particulate materials which are either hydrophobic by nature or have been

hydrophobically modified by surface treatment or the like. While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is thought that the particulate material provides nano-scale (1 nm to -1,000 nm) or micro-scale (1 Am to -200 Am) surface roughness or structure on the surface, which repels moisture from the surrounding air by providing protuberances on which water droplets may sit, thereby reducing contact of the water with the surface at large and reducing surface adhesion.

[0017] In one embodiment, the particulate material may comprise at least one hydrophobic particulate material which has a coefficient of dynamic (kinematic) friction,^, greater than 0.5. The particulate material may have a chalky or gritty feel and may have substantially non-spherical shapes. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, it is believed that the substantially non-spherical shape of the high flk (i.e., greater than 0.5) particles provides nano-scale roughness to the particles for repelling moisture. The high drag of the high flk particles also increases the substantivity of the particles against the hair.

[0018] Surface roughness can be observed or measured by AFM, SEM, and the like.

The coefficient of dynamic friction may be suitably measured using, for example, a Friction Tester (KES-SE) manufactured by Kato Tech Co., LTD using a silicone rubber friction probe to measure a specific amount (e.g., 0.01 g) of sample evenly spread onto a ground quartz plate at a loaded weight of 50g at 2 mm/sec.

[0019] A preferred particulate material according to the invention is hydrophobically modified aluminum oxide (A12O3), also known as alumina, particularly fumed (or pyrogenic) alumina. Hydrophobically modified silica (SiO2), including fumed silica, may have a particle size range from about 7 nm to about 40 nm and an aggregate particle size between about 100 and about 400 nm, and is also contemplated to be particularly useful. Other notable particulate materials are hydrophobically modified metal oxides, including without limitation titanium dioxide (TiO2), iron oxides (FeO, Fe2O3 or Fe3O4), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), tin dioxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), and combinations thereof.

[0020] Advantageously, the particulate material may be one which provides additional functionality to the compositions, including for example, ultraviolet (UV) light absorption or scattering, in the case of, for example, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide particulates, or provide aesthetic characteristics, such as color (e.g., pigments), pearlesence (e.g. mica), or the like. The particulate material may be based, for example, on organic or inorganic particulate pigments. Examples of organic particulate pigments include lakes, especially aluminum lakes, strontium lakes, barium lakes, and the like. Examples of the inorganic particulate pigments are iron oxide, especially red, yellow and black iron oxides, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6), potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6), potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate (K4Fe(CN)6●3H2O), and mixtures thereof. The particulate material may also be based on inorganic fillers such as talc, mica, silica, and mixtures thereof, or any of the clays disclosed in EP 1 640 419, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

[0021] In one embodiment, particulate materials are surface-treated to impart a hydrophobic coating thereon. Hydrophobically modified particulates and methods for preparing hydrophobically modified particulates are described in, for example, U.S. Patent No. 3,393,155 to Schutte et al, U.S. Patent No. 2,705,206 to Wagner et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,500,216 to Wagner et al., U.S. Patent No. 6,683,126 to Keller et al., and U.S. Patent No. 7,083,828 to Miiller et al., U.S. Patent Pub. No. 2006/0110541 to Russell at al., and U.S. Patent Pub. No. 2006/0110542 to Dietz et al., the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. As used herein, a hydrophobically-modified particle is one which is rendered less hydrophilic or more hydrophobic by surface modification as compared to the particle in the absence of surface modification.

[0022] In one embodiment, a hydrophobic particle in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention may be formed from an oxide particle (e.g., a metal oxide, silicon dioxide, etc.) having its surface covered with (e.g., covalently bonded to) non-polar radicals, such as for example alkyl groups, silicones, siloxanes, alkylsiloxanes, organosiloxanes, fluorinated siloxanes, perfluorosiloxanes, organosilanes, alkylsilanes, fluorinated silanes, perfluorinated silanes and/or disilazanes and the like. The surface treatment may be any such treatment that makes the particles more hydrophobic. The surface of the particles may, for example, be covalently or ionically bound to an organic molecule or silicon-based molecule or may be adsorbed thereto, or the particle may be physically coated with a layer of hydrophobic material. There is essentially no limitation on the nature of the hydrophobic treatment and alkyl, aryl, or allyl silanes, silicones, dimethicone, fatty acids (e.g., stearates), polymeric silanes may be mentioned as well as fluoro and perfluoro derivatives thereof. The hydrophobic compound may be attached to the oxide particle through any suitable coupling agent, linker group, or functional group (e.g., silane, ester, ether, etc). The hydrophobic compound comprises a hydrophobic portion which may be selected from, for example, alkyl, aryl, allyl, vinyl, alkyl-aryl, aryl-alkyl, organosilicone, and fluoro- or perfluoro-derivatives thereof. Hydrophobic polymeric coatings including polyurethanes, epoxys and the like, are also contemplated to be useful. U.S. Patent No. 6,315,990 to Farer, et al., the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference, describes suitable fluorosilane coated particulates which are formed by reacting a particulate having a nucleophilic groups, such as oxygen or hydroxyl, with a silicon-containing compound having a hydrocarbyl group substituted by at least one fluorine atom and a reactive hydrocarbyloxy group capable of displacement by a nucleophile. An example of such a compound is tridecafluorooctyltriethoxy silane, available from Sivento, Piscataway, N.J., under the trade name DYNASILANE™ F 8261. A preferred hydrophobic coating according to the invention is prepared by treating an oxide, for example, alumina, with Trimethoxycaprylyl Silane.

[0023] Any of the hydrophobically modified particulate materials described in U.S.

Patent No. 6,683,126 to Keller et al., the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein, are also contemplated to be useful, including without limitation those obtained by treating an oxide material (e.g., SiO2, TiO2, etc.) with a (perfluoro)alkyl-containing compound that contains at least one reactive functional group that undergoes a chemical reaction with the near-surface OH groups of the oxide support particle, including for example hexamethyldisilazane, octyltrimethoxysilane, silicone oil, chlorotrimethylsilane, and dichlorodimethylsilane.

[0024] In one particular preferred embodiment, the particulate material is a fumed (or pyrogenic) alumina and/or a fumed (or pyrogenic) silica which is surface-functionalized with alkylsilyl, fluoro-alkylsilyl, or perfluoro-alkylsilyl groups, preferably with alkylsilyl groups (i.e., surface treated with alkylsilanes). Typically, the alkylsilyl groups will comprise C1-20 hydrocarbons (more typically C1-8 hydrocarbons) which are optionally fluorinated or perfluorinated. Such groups may be introduced by reacting at the particle surface with silanes such as C1-12-alkyl-trialkoxysilanes (e.g., C1-12-alkyl-trimethoxysilanes or C1-12-alkyl-triethoxysilanes). Preferably, the particle surface is functionalized with alkylsilyl groups which may be accomplished by treating the surface with alkylsilanes. More preferably, the particle surface is functionalized and surface modified with octylsilyl groups, also known as caprylylsilyl groups, introduced by reacting the particles with, octylsilanes (or caprylylsilanes), for example, trimethoxycaprylylsilane or triethoxycaprylylsilane. Such particles are commonly referred to as octylsilane treated. In another embodiment, the oxide particle has been surface treated with a fluoroalkylsilane, and in particular a perfluoroalkylsilane, such as a C1-20 perfluoroalkylsilane, or more typically a C1-12 perfluoroalkylsilane, including an exemplary embodiment wherein the oxide particle is surface-treated with a C8 perfluoroalkylsilane. The pigments may be prepared by treating the oxide particle with a trialkoxyfluoroalkylsilane, such as Perfluorooctyl Triethoxysilane (INCI). Because the particles are preferably fumed, the primary particle size will typically be very small, on the order of 5 nm to about 30 nm. The specific surface area (SSA) of these particulate materials will typically, but not necessarily, range from about 50 to about 300 m2/g, more typically, from about 75 to about 250 m2/g, and preferably from about 100 to about 200 m2/g.

[0025] A suitable hydrophobically-modified alumina particulate includes fumed aluminum oxide treated with octylsilane (obtained by reacting trimethoxyoctylsilane with fumed alumina), such as AEROXIDE® Alu and AEROXIDED ALU C805 from Evonik Industries. That product is believed to have an average primary particle size of about 13 nm (nanometers) and a specific surface area (SSA) of about 100 ± 15 m2/g. Typically, the alumina or hydrophobically-modified alumina has not been calcined, by which is meant that the alumina has not been heated to a high temperature, for example, at a temperature above 1000°C to expel volatile impurities in the crude metal oxide. Preferably, the particulate material is substantially free of calcined alumina, by which is meant that calcined alumina is not deliberately added to the particulate material and the amounts are so low as to not have a measureable impact on the performance, look or feel of the composition. More preferably, the particulate material is free of calcined alumina.

[0026] In other embodiments, the compositions may be substantially free of alumina or hydrophobically-modified alumina. By substantially free of alumina or hydrophobically-modified alumina means that these components comprise less than about 2%, preferably less than about 1%, and more preferably less than about 0.5% by weight of the one or more particulate materials.

[0027] Additional particles may be included, such as hydrophobically-modified fumed silica. When present, suitable hydrophobically-modified fumed silica particles include, but are not limited to AEROSIL™ R 202, AEROSIL™ R 805, AEROSIL™ R 812, AEROSIL™ R 812 S, AEROSIL™ R 972, AEROSIL™ R 974, AEROSIL™ R 8200, AEROXIDE™ LE-1, AEROXIDE™ LE-2, and AEROXIDE™ LE-3 from Evonik/Degussa Corporation of Parsippany, N.J., which are believed to be hydrophobic fumed silicas, surface-functionalized with alkylsilyl groups for hydrophobicity and a specific surface area (SSA) between about 100 ± 30 m2/g and about 220 ± 30 m2/g. The hydrophobically-modified silica materials described in U.S. Patent Pub. 2006/0110542 to Dietz et al., incorporated herein by reference, are also contemplated to be particularly suitable.

[0028] While silica (SiO2) and hydrophobically-modified silicas are contemplated to be useful in some embodiments, in other embodiments the compositions will be substantially free of silica or hydrophobically-modified silica. By substantially free of silica or hydrophobically-modified silica means that these components comprise less than about 2%, preferably less than about 1%, and more preferably less than about 0.5% by weight of the one or more particulate materials. In other embodiments the compositions will be free of silica or hydrophobically modified silica. By "free of is meant that none is deliberately added and any amounts present will be so low as to not impact the look, feel or performance of the composition.

[0029] The one or more particulate materials may also comprise particulate organic polymers such as polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, polyvinyl chloride, and the like which have been formed into fine powders. Alternatively, the particulate material may be a microcapsule comprising any of the shell materials described in U.S. Patent Pub. 2005/0000531, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein. Other optional particulates include the particulate silicone wax sold under the trade name Tegotop™ 105 (Degussa/Goldschmidt Chemical Corporation) and the particulate vinyl polymer sold under the name Mincor™ 300 (BASF).

[0030] The one or more particulate materials will typically be in the form of a powder having a median particle size between about 1 nm (nanometers) and about 1 mm (millimeters), more typically between about 5 nm and about 500 flm (micrometer), preferably between about 7 nm and about 100 flm, more preferably between about 10 nm and about 5 flm, about 20 flm, about 50 flm, or about 75 flm. Where more than one particulate material is employed (e.g., modified TiO2 and modified SiO2), the median particle size of each powder is preferably within the foregoing ranges.

[0031] Particulate materials having median particle sizes above about 1 mm may be too large, unless the particle itself contains surface roughness in the appropriate size range. For example, surface treatment of a larger particle with a polymer chain in the 20 nm range may provide acceptable surface roughness. Roughness of the resulting films may be characterized by the size of the primary particle, by the size of agglomerated particles in the aggregate, or by the distribution of particle sizes.

[0032] Typically, the one or more particulate materials will typically comprise from about 0.01% to about 10% by weight of the total composition, more typically from about 0.1% to about 5%, preferably from about 0.1% to about 2.5%, more preferably from about 0.25% to about 2.0% by weight of the composition, and most preferably from about 0.4% to about 1.5%. In certain embodiments, the one or more particulate material may comprise

about 0.4%, about 0.5%, about 0.6%, about 0.7%, about 0.8%, about 0.9%, about 1.0%, about 1.25% and about 1.5% by weight of the composition.

[0033] In some embodiments, octylsilyl-functionalized fumed alumina may comprise more than about 5%, more than about 10%, more than about 1 %, more than about 20%, more than about 25%, more than about 30%, more than about 35%, more than about 40%, more than about 45%, more than about 50%, more than about 55%, more than about 60%, more than about 65%, more than about 70%, more than about 75%, more than about 80%, more than about 85%, more than about 90%, or more than about 95% by weight of the one or more hydrophobically-modified particulates.

[0034] The compositions of the invention may comprise one or more film formers, preferably a hydrophobic film-former. The hydrophobic film former may be any hydrophobic material suitable for use in a cosmetic composition including, waxes and oils, but is preferably a hydrophobic film-forming polymer. The term film-forming polymer may be understood to indicate a polymer which is capable, by itself or in the presence of at least one auxiliary film-forming agent, of forming acontinuous film which adheres to a surface and functions as a binder for the particulate material. The term "hydrophobic" film-forming polymer will typically refer to a polymer with a solubility in water at 25°C of less than about 1% by weight or one in which the monomeric units of the polymer individually have a solubility in water of less than about 1% by weight at 25°C. A "hydrophobic" film forming polymer will partition predominately into the octanol phase when shaken with a mixture of equal volumes of water and octanol. By predominately is meant more the 50% by weight, but preferably more than 75% by weight, more preferably more than 95% by weight will partition into the octanol phase. The film former is preferably silicone based. By "silicone based" is meant that the hydrophobic film former comprises at least one silicone moiety, such as, for example, dimethicone, amodimethicone, dimethiconol, silicone polyurethane, silicone acrylate or combinations thereof.

[0035] Polymeric film formers can be either natural or synthetic, formed by addition or condensation reactions, homochain or heterochain, monodispersed or polydispersed, organic or inorganic, homopolymers or copolymers, linear or branched or crosslinked, charged or uncharged, thermoplastic or thermosetting, elastomeric, resinous, crystalline or amorphous or both, isotactic or syndiotactic or atactic.

[0036] Polymeric film formers include polyolefins, polyvinyls, polacrylates, polyurethanes, silicones, silicone acrylates, polyamides, polyesters, fluoropolymers,

polyethers, polyacetates, polycarbonates, polyimides, rubbers, epoxys, formaldehyde resins, and homopolymers and copolymers of any of the foregoing.

[0037] Suitable hydrophobic (lipophilic) film-forming polymers include, without limitation, those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 7,037,515 to Kalafsky, et al.; 6,685,952 to Ma et al.; 6,464,969 to De La Poterie, et al.; 6,264,933 to Bodelin, et al.; 6,683,126 to Keller et al.; and 5,911,980 to Samour, et al., the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

[0038] Copolymers comprising one or more blocks selected from styrene (S), alkylstyrene (AS), ethylene/butylene (EB), ethylene/propylene (EP), butadiene (B), isoprene (I), acrylate (A) and methacrylate (MA), or a combination thereof, are contemplated to be suitable hydrophobic film formers. Particular mention is made of

Ethylene/Propylene/Styrene and Butylene/Ethylene/Styrene copolymer including those sold under the trade name Versagel MD 1600 from Penreco as Gellants in isododecane (IDD).

[0039] Special mention may be made of polyalkylenes, and in particular C2-C20 alkene copolymers, such as polybutene; alkylcelluloses with a linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated C1-C8 alkyl radicals, such as ethylcellulose and propylcellulose; copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and in particular copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone and of C2 to C40 and better still C3 to C20 alkene, including the copolymers of vinyl pyrrolidone with eicosene or dodecane monomers sold under the tradenames Ganex V 220 and Ganex V 216 Polymers (ISP Inc. of Wayne, NJ); polyanhydride resins such as those available from Chevron under the trade name PA- 18; copolymers derived from maleic anhydride and C3 to C40 alkenes such as octadecene-1; polyurethane polymers, such as Performa V 825 (New Phase Technologies) and those disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 7,150,878 to Gonzalez, et al., incorporated by reference herein; and polymers and copolymers made from esters of vinylic acid monomers, including without limitation (meth)acrylic acid esters (also referred to as (meth)acrylates), for example, alkyl (meth)acrylates, wherein the alkyl group is chosen from linear, branched and cyclic ( C1- C3o) alkyls, such as, for example, (C1-C20) alkyl (meth)acrylates, and further still (C6-C10) alkyl (meth)acrylates. Among the alkyl (meth)acrylates which may be mentioned are those chosen from methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, isobutyl methacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, lauryl methacrylate, and the like. Among the aryl (meth)acrylates which may be mentioned are those chosen from benzyl acrylates, phenyl acrylate, and the like. The alkyl group of the foregoing esters may be chosen, for example, from fluorinated and perfluorinated alkyl groups, that is to say that some or all of the hydrogen atoms of the alkyl group are replaced with fluorine atoms. Mention may also be

made of amides of the acid monomers such as (meth)acrylamides, for example, N-alkyl(meth)acrylamides, such as (C1-C20) alkyls, including without limitation, N-ethylacrylamide, N-t-butylacrylamide, N-t-octylacrylamide and N-undecylacrylamide. Vinyl polymers for the hydrophobic film-forming polymer may also result from the homopolymerization or copolymerization of at least one monomer chosen from vinyl esters, olefins (including fluoroolefins), vinyl ethers, and styrene monomers. For example, these monomers may be copolymerized with at least one of acid monomers, esters thereof, and amides thereof, such as those mentioned above. Non-limiting examples of vinyl esters which may be mentioned are chosen from vinyl acetate, vinyl neodecanoate, vinyl pivalate, vinyl benzoate and vinyl t-butylbenzoate. Among the olefins which may be mentioned are those chosen, for example, from ethylene, propylene, butene, isobutene, octene, octadecene, and polyfluorinated olefins chosen, for example, from tetrafluoroethylene, vinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. Styrene monomers which may be mentioned are chosen, for example, from styrene and alpha-methylstyrene. The list of monomers given is not limiting, and it is possible to use any monomer known to those skilled in the art which falls within the categories of acrylic and vinyl monomers which result in hydrophobic films. In this regard, particular mention may be made of the silicone acrylate copolymers, in particular copolymers comprising a poly(alkyl)acrylate backbone and a dimethicone polymer grafted to an alkyl ester side chain, such as the commercially available film former Cyclopentasiloxane (and) Acrylates/Dimethicone Copolymer (KP-545, Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd) and Methyl Trimethicone (and) Acrylates/dimethicone Copolymer (KP-549, Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.)

[0040] Other film formers known in the art can be used advantageously in the composition. These include acrylate copolymers, acrylates C12-22 alkyl methacrylate copolymer, acrylate/octylacrylamide copolymers, acrylate/VA copolymer, amodimethicone, AMP/acrylate copolymers, behenyl/isostearyl, butylated PVP, butyl ester of PVM/MA copolymers, calcium/sodium PVM/MA copolymers, dimethicone, dimethicone copolymers, dimethicone/mercaptopropyl methicone copolymer, dimethicone propylethylenediamine behenate, dimethiconol ethylcellulose, ethylene/acrylic acid copolymer, ethylene MA copolymer, ethylene/VA copolymer, fluoro C2-8 alkyldimethicone, C30-38 olefin/isopropyl maleate/MA copolymer, hydrogenated styrene/butadiene copolymer, hydroxyethyl ethylcellulose, isobutylene/MA copolymer, methyl methacrylate crosspolymer, methylacryloyl ethyl betaine/acrylates copolymer, octadecene/MA copolymer, octadecene/maleic anhydride copolymer, octylacrylamide/acrylate/butylaminoethyl

methacrylate copolymer, oxidized polyethylene, perfluoropolymethylisopropyl ether, polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate, polypropylene, PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer, PVM/MA copolymer, PVP, PVP/decene copolymer, PVP/eicosene copolymer, PVP/hexadecene copolymer, PVP/MA copolymer, PVP/VA copolymer, sodium acrylate/vinyl alcohol copolymer, stearoxy dimethicone, stearoxytrimethylsilane, stearyl alcohol, stearylvinyl ether/MA copolymer, styrene/DVB copolymer, styrene/MA copolymer, tricontanyl PVP, trimethylsiloxysilicate, VA/crotonates copolymer, VA/crotonates/vinyl proprionate copolymer, VA/butyl maleate/isobornyl acrylate copolymer, vinyl caprolactam/PVP/dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, and vinyldimethicone.

[0041] Additional non-limiting representatives of hydrophobic film-forming polymers include at least one polycondensate chosen from polyurethanes, polyurethane-acrylics, polyurethane-polyvinylpyrrolidones, polyester-polyurethanes, polyether-polyurethanes, polyureas and polyurea/polyurethanes. The polyurethanes may be for example, at least one chosen from aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, and aromatic polyurethanes, polyureaurethanes, and polyurea copolymers comprising at least one of: at least one sequence of at least one aliphatic polyester origin, cycloaliphatic polyester origin, and aromatic polyester origin at least one branched and unbranched silicone sequence, for example, from polydimethylsiloxane and polymethylphenylsiloxane, and at least one sequence comprising fluorinated groups. Additional non-limiting representatives of polycondensates may be chosen from polyesters, polyesteramides, fatty-chain polyesters, polyamides resins, epoxyester resins, arylsulphonamide-epoxy resins, and resins resulting from the condensation of formaldehyde with an arylsulphonamide.

[0042] The hydrophobic film may also be formed in situ by employing a resin which cures after application to the skin, nails, or hair, including for example, a polydimethylsiloxane film formed by in situ hydrosilation of a hydrosilane and an olefmic-substituted siloxane or by in situ polycondensation of alkoxy-functionalized siloxanes.

[0043] Preferred polymeric film formers include silicone polymers, acrylates, alkyl acrylates, polyurethanes, fluoropolymers such as Fluomer

(polyperfluoroperhydrophenanthrene) or Flutec PP3 available from F2 chemicals, and silicone acrylates such as acrylates/dimethicone copolymers sold under the trade names KP-545 or KP 550 (Shin-Etsu). Suitable film formers include, but are not limited to, Amino Bispropyl Dimethicone, Aminopropyl Dimethicone, Amodimethicone, Amodimethicone Hydroxystearate, Behenoxy Dimethicone, C30-45 Alkyl Dimethicone, C24-28 Alkyl Dimethicone, C30-45 Alkyl Methicone, Cetearyl Methicone, Cetyl Dimethicone, Dimethicone,

Dimethoxysilyl Ethylenediaminopropyl Dimethicone, Hexyl Methicone, Hydroxypropyldimethicone, Stearamidopropyl Dimethicone, Stearoxy Dimethicone, Stearyl Methicone, Stearyl Dimethicone and Vinyl Dimethicone. Particularly preferred are silicone polymers, including Methicone (as described by CTFA Monograph No. 1581, which is incorporated herein by reference), Dimethicones (as described by CTFA Monograph No. 840, which is incorporated herein by reference) and Amodimethicones as described by CTFA Monograph No. 189, which is incorporated herein by reference). All CTFA Monographs provided herein are found in the International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 12th Edition (2008), and are hereby incorporated by reference.

[0044] In one embodiment of the invention, the compositions include a silicone gum.

Suitable silicone gums will typically have a molecular weight of from about 200,000 to about 600,000. Specific examples include polydimethylsiloxane, (polydimethylsiloxane) (methylvinylsiloxane) copolymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (diphenyl) (methylvinylsiloxane) copolymer, dimethiconol, fluorosilicone, dimethicone, or mixtures thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the film forming silicone gum is a high molecular weight Dimethicone. The high molecular weight Dimethicones have high viscosities and are commonly referred to as dimethicone gums. The viscosity of the silicone gum may be, without limitation, form about 500,000 centistokes to about 100 million centistokes measured at 25°C. The high molecular weight Dimethicones are commercially available in combination with lower molecular weight silicones or with volatile silicones, which makes the high molecular weight Dimethicones easier to handle. A suitable mixture containing high molecular weight Dimethicone (MW approx 500,000) is commercially available from Momentive under the trade name SF 1214..

[0045] In another preferred embodiment, the film forming polymer is a silicone aery late, such as that having the CTFA Monograph No. 10082 and the INCI name Acylates/Dimethicone. This polymer is commercially available from Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. under the trade name KP-544 and comprises grafted copolymers with an acrylic polymer backbone and dimethylpolysiloxane side chains. The same polymer is commercially available in a variety of different solvents including Isopropyl Alcohol (KP-541), Butyl Acetate (KP-543), Cyclopentasiloxane (KP-545), Methyl Trimethicone (KP-549), and Isododecane (KP-550).

[0046] In another embodiment, the film forming polymer may be a silicone urethane, such as that having the INCI Name Bis-Hydroxypropyl Dimethicone/SMDI Copolymer and the INCI Monograph ID No. 22006. This polymer is commercially available from Siltech

Corp. under the trade name SILMER UR-5050, which comprises the polymer in Isododecane.

[0047] Other film formers that may be employed include, without limitation, natural, mineral and/or synthetic waxes. Natural waxes are those of animal origin, including without limitation beeswax, spermaceti, lanolin, and shellac wax, and those of vegetable origin, including without limitation carnauba, candelilla, bayberry, and sugarcane wax, and the like. Mineral waxes contemplated to be useful include, without limitation ozokerite, ceresin, montan, paraffin, microcrystalline, petroleum, and petrolatum waxes. Synthetic waxes include, for example, Fischer Tropsch (FT) waxes and polyolefin waxes, such as ethylene homopolymers, ethylene-propylene copolymers, and ethylene-hexene copolymers. Representative ethylene homopolymer waxes are commercially available under the tradename POLYWAX® Polyethylene (Baker Hughes Incorporated). Commercially available ethylene- Oolefin copolymer waxes include those sold under the tradename PETROLITE® Copolymers (Baker Hughes Incorporated). Another wax that is suitable is dimethiconol beeswax available from Noveon as ULTRABEED dimethiconol ester.

[0048] High molecular weight hydrophobic esters, which can form a water-resistant hydrophobic film on the hair, may also be useful. The hydrophobic ester may be saturated or unsaturated and may include without limitation, mono-esters of fatty acids, diesters of diacids, diesters of triacids, and triesters of triacids. Monoesters include the esterification products of straight chained, branched, or cyclic C4-C24, preferably C8-C24, and more preferably C12-C22 monocarboxylic acids with straight chained, branched, or cyclic C4-C36, preferably C8-C24, and more preferably C12-C18 alcohols. Diesters include the esterification products of straight chained, branched, or cyclic C4-C48 dicarboxylic acids, typically C8-C44 dicarboxylic acids, and more typically C12-C36 dicarboxylic acids, with straight chained, branched, or cyclic C4-C36, preferably C8-C24, and more preferably C12-C28 alcohols. The dicarboxylic acid may be, for example, a dimer acid formed by the dimerization of an unsaturated fatty alcohol, e.g., linoleic acid. Diesters and triesters of triacids include the esterification products of C6-C72 tricarboxylic acids, typically C12-C66 tricarboxylic acids, with C4-C36, preferably C8-C24, and more preferably C12-C18 alcohols. The tricarboxylic acid may be, for example, a trimer acid formed by the trimerization of an unsaturated fatty alcohol, e.g., linoleic acid. The esters are preferably high molecular weight esters by which is meant that the molecular weight is at least 500. In some embodiments, the molecular weight of the ester will be at least 750, at least 1000, or at least 1200. The esters are preferably hydrophobic and may optionally be dispersible but not soluble in the vehicle. One suitable hydrophobic ester is Triisostearyl Trilinoleate (INCI) (CAS Registry No. 103213-22-5), which is available from Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. under the trade name SCHERCEMOL™ TIST Ester.

[0049] In some embodiments, it may be desirable to add some amount of a hydrophilic or water-soluble film former (e.g., cellulosics, polysaccharides, polyquaterniums (such as polyquaternium-37 (INCI), etc.) to the composition to improve spreading, emulsion stability, aesthetic look and feel, etc. While less preferred, it is within the scope of the invention to include such hydrophilic or water-soluble film formers. In the broadest sense, there is no restriction on the amount of hydrophilic or water-soluble film former, although at high levels (e.g., greater than 20% by weight based on the total weight of film former) it may be necessary to increase the ratio of hydrophobic particulate to film former to counter the reduction in surface hydrophobicity. In some embodiments, the collective weight percentage of hydrophilic or water-soluble film formers will be less than about 20%, preferably less than about 15%, more preferably less than about 10%, and more preferred still, less than about 5% by weight based on the total weight of all film formers. In one embodiment, hydrophilic film formers will comprise less than about 2% by weight of the total weight of film formers in the composition. In other embodiments, the composition is substantially free of water-soluble film formers by which is meant that the composition comprise less than 2% by weight, preferably, less than 1% by weight, and more preferred still, less than 0.5% by weight of the one or more film formers. In one embodiment the composition does not contain a hydrophilic film former.

[0050] Combinations of any of the foregoing film formers are also contemplated to be suitable, including combinations or polymeric and non-polymeric film formers.

[0051] The film formers will comprise from about 0.01% to about 20% by weight of the composition, and more typically will comprise from about 0.25% to about 15%, and preferably from about 1 to 12%, more preferably from 1.5% to about 10%, and more preferred still about 3% to about 8% by weight of the composition. Generally, the weight ratio of the one or more hydrophobic particulate materials to the one or more film formers will be from about 1 :1 to about 1 : 100, about 1:1.25 to about 1:75, about 1 :1.5 to about 1 :50, about 1 :1.75 to about 1 :25, or about 1 :2 to about 1 :10. In various implementations, the ratio of one or more hydrophobic particulate materials to one or more film formers will be about

1 :20, about 1 :15, about 1:10, about 1 :9, about 1 :8, about 1:7, about 1:6, about 1 :5, about 1 :4, about 1 :3, about 1 :2, about 1 : 1.5, or about 1 :1.

[0052] In certain embodiments, the composition will comprise a silicone acrylate film former and a silicone gum film former. The silicone acrylate film former and the silicone gum film former may each independently comprise from about 0.01% to about 20% by weight of the composition, and more typically will comprise from about 0.25% to about 15%, and preferably from about 1.0% to about 10%, and more preferably, from 1.5% to about 8%, and more preferred still about 3% to about 5% by weight of the composition.

[0053] The inventive compositions will typically comprise a cosmetically acceptable vehicle. By "cosmetically acceptable" is meant that the vehicle is safe for contact with a human integument. The vehicle may comprise a liquid, comprising a single phase, a dual-phase system, or an emulsion. Emulsions include oil-in-water, silicone-in-water, water-in-oil, water-in-silicone, and the like. Where the product is intended as a spray, it may be desirable to employ a single phase vehicle, or a dual phase vehicle comprising an aqueous phase and an oil phase, the oil phase comprising a silicone oil. When formulated as an emulsion, an emulsifier is typically included. In other embodiments, the composition is substantially free or free of an emulsifier. By substantially free of an emulsifier is meant that no emulsifier is deliberately added to the composition and the amounts present, if any, are so low as to not have a measureable impact on the stability of an emulsion.

[0054] In one embodiment, the vehicle may comprise a cosmetically suitable volatile solvent. Typically, a volatile solvent may have a vapor pressure of above about 0.01 mmHg at 20°C and evaporate at ambient temperatures. Volatile solvents may include volatile Cs.n hydrocarbons (e.g., isododecane), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., xylenes, toluene, etc.), ketones (e.g., actetone, methylethyl ketone, etc.), ethers (e.g., diethyl ether, methylethyl ether, etc.), perfluorohydrocarbons, hydrofluoroethers, Freons, volatile silicones (e.g., cyclopentasiloxane), lower alcohols (e.g., ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, etc.), esters of acetic acid (e.g., ethylacetate, butylacetate, etc.) and the like.

[0055] Among the volatile Cs.^ hydrocarbons, special mention may be made of isododecane which is available under the trade name Permethyl-99A (Presperse Inc.). Suitable fluorinated solvents include, without limitation, perfluoroethers, perfluorodecalin, perfluoromethyldecalin, perfluorohexane, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, perfluorodimethylcyclohexane, perfluoroheptane, perfluorooctane, perfluorononane, and perfluoromethylcycopentane, for example.

[0056] Volatile silicones are a preferred volatile solvent. By volatile silicone is meant that the oil readily evaporates at ambient temperatures, e.g., about 25°C. Typically, volatile silicone oils will exhibit a vapor pressure ranging from about 1 Pa to about 2 kPa at 25°C; will preferably have a viscosity of from about 0.1 to about 10 centistokes, preferably about 5 centistokes or less, more preferably about 2 centistokes or less, at 25°C; and will boil at atmospheric pressure at from about 35°C to about 250°C. Volatile silicones include cyclic and linear volatile dimethylsiloxane silicones, including 0.5 est dimethicone, 0.65 est dimethicone, 1 est dimethicone, and 1.5 est dimethicone. In one embodiment, the volatile silicones may include cyclodimethicones, including tetramer (D4), pentamer (D5), and hexamer (D6) cyclomethicones, or mixtures thereof. Suitable dimethicones are available from Dow Corning under the name Dow Corning 200® Fluid and have viscosities ranging from 0.65 to 5 centistokes. Suitable non-polar, volatile liquid silicone oils are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,781,917, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Additional volatile silicones materials are described in Todd et al., "Volatile Silicone Fluids for Cosmetics," Cosmetics and Toiletries, 91:27-32 (1976), herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Linear volatile silicones generally have a viscosity of less than about 5 centistokes at 25°C, whereas the cyclic silicones have viscosities of less than about 10 centistokes at 25°C. Examples of volatile silicones of varying viscosities include Dow Corning 200, Dow Corning 244, Dow Corning 245, Dow Corning 344, and Dow Corning 345, (Dow Corning Corp.); SF-1204 and SF-1202 Silicone Fluids (G.E. Silicones), GE 7207 and 7158 (General Electric Co.); and SWS-03314 (SWS Silicones Corp.). Linear, volatile silicones include low molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane compounds such as methyltrimethicone, trisiloxane, hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethyltetrasiloxane, and dodecamethylpentasiloxane to name a few. Particularly preferred volatile silicones of the present invention include cyclomethicone tetramer, cyclomethicone pentamer, cyclomethicone hexamer, trisiloxane, methyl trimethicone or combinations thereof.

[0057] Lower alcohol solvents, including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol, are also contemplated to be useful. Ethanol is particularly preferred due to its high volatility and low toxicity. Preferably, the ethanol is anhydrous ethanol, such as SD Alcohol 40 from Exxon. In other embodiments, the compositions comprises less than about 50%, less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than about 20%, less than about 10%, or less than about 5% by weight ethanol. In some embodiments, the compositions comprises less than about 2.5%, less than about 1%, or less than about 0.5% by weight ethanol. In other embodiments, the compositions are substantially free of ethanol, by which is meant that no ethanol is deliberately added and the amounts present, if any, are so low as to not have a measureable impact on the look, feel, or performance of the product. In another embodiment, the composition is free of ethanol.

[0058] In a further embodiment, the compositions according to the invention will comprise ethanol, preferably anhydrous, in combination with one or more solvents having a vapor pressure at 25°C which is less than the vapor pressure of ethanol. In another embodiment, the compositions according to the invention will comprise ethanol, preferably anhydrous, in combination with one or more solvents having a vapor pressure at 25°C which is greater than the vapor pressure of ethanol.

[0059] In a preferred embodiment, the solvent will comprise a combination of a volatile silicone, preferably cyclomethicone pentamer, and ethanol (optionally anhydrous ethanol). Preferably, the volatile silicone (cyclomethicone pentamer) will comprise from about 1% to about 99% and the ethanol will comprise from about 1% to about 99% by weight of the solvent system, with the proviso that the total amount of volatile silicone and ethanol does not exceed 100%. More particularly, the volatile silicone (cyclomethicone pentamer) will comprise from about 50% to about 99% and the ethanol will comprise from about 1% to about 50% by weight of the solvent system. In a preferred embodiment, volatile silicone (cyclomethicone pentamer) will comprise from about 70% to about 90% and ethanol will comprise from about 10% to about 30% by weight of the solvent system.

[0060] Anhydrous Formulations

[0061] The compositions of the invention may be provided as anhydrous or substantially anhydrous formulations. By "substantially anhydrous" is mean that the weight percentage of water in the composition is less than about 0.5%, preferably less than 0.25%, and most preferably less than about 0.1 % by weight. Typically, the anhydrous compositions are substantially free of water by which is meant that water is not deliberately added to the compositions and the level of water is no more than would be expected based on the absorption of water from the air. The anhydrous composition will typically comprise a volatile hydrophobic solvent, such as volatile hydrocarbons, volatile silicones, anhydrous alcohol, and the like, including combinations of such solvents.

[0062] Water-in-Oil Emulsions

[0063] The compositions according to the invention may be formulated as water-in-oil emulsions. These emulsions comprise an oil-containing continuous phase and an aqueous discontinuous phase. The oil-containing phase will typically comprise from about 10% to about 99%, from about 20% to about 85%, or from about 30% to about 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition, and the aqueous phase will typically comprise from about 1% to about 90%, from about 5% to about 80%, from about 10% to about 70%, or from about 15% to about 60% by weight of the composition. In one embodiment, the oil containing phase and the aqueous phase may comprise approximately equal percentages of the total weight of the emulsion.

[0064] The oil-containing phase may be composed of a single oil or mixtures of different oils. Essentially any oil is contemplated to be useful, although highly hydrophobic oils are preferred. Suitable non-limiting examples include vegetable oils; esters such as octyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate and isopropyl palmitate; ethers such as dicapryl ether; fatty alcohols such as cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and behenyl alcohol; isoparaffins such as isooctane, isododecane and isohexadecane; silicone oils such as dimethicones, cyclic silicones, and polysiloxanes; hydrocarbon oils such as mineral oil, petrolatum, isoeicosane and polyisobutene; natural or synthetic waxes; and the like.

[0065] Suitable hydrophobic hydrocarbon oils may be saturated or unsaturated, have an aliphatic character and be straight or branched chained or contain alicyclic or aromatic rings. Hydrocarbon oils include those having 6-20 carbon atoms, more preferably 10-16 carbon atoms. Representative hydrocarbons include decane, dodecane, tetradecane, tridecane, and C8-20 isoparaffins. Paraffinic hydrocarbons are available from Exxon under the ISOPARS trademark, and from the Permethyl Corporation. In addition, C8-20 paraffinic hydrocarbons such as C12 isoparaffin (isododecane) manufactured by the Permethyl Corporation having the tradename Permethyl 99A™ are also contemplated to be suitable. Various commercially available C16 isoparaffins, such as isohexadecane (having the tradename Permethyl R™) are also suitable. Examples of preferred volatile hydrocarbons include polydecanes such as isododecane and isodecane, including for example, Permethyl-99A (Presperse Inc.) and the C7-C8 through C12-C15 isoparaffins such as the Isopar Series available from Exxon Chemicals. A representative hydrocarbon solvent is isododecane.

[0066] The emulsions have little or no non-volatile hydrophilic constituents, including some conventional humectants. Components such as glycerin and polyols, including propylene glycol, ethoxydiglycol, glycerin, butylene glycol, pentylene glycol and hexylene glycol should be eliminated or should be kept at levels such that the non-volatile hydrophilic constituents, such as non-volatile water soluble or water-dispersible organic constituents, in the aggregate, do not exceed 15% by weight and preferably will be less than 10%, less than 5%, less than 2%, or less than 1% by weight, based on the entire weight of the composition. Glycerin is believed to be particularly detrimental and should therefore be maintained at levels below 2% by weight, or below 1% by weight, or eliminated altogether.

[0067] It has been found that the selection and amount of emulsifier is important for obtaining films which provide water vapor resistant properties. Because the emulsifier itself may be deleterious to the formation of a water vapor-resistant film or adversely affect the durability of the performance through repeated hair washings, the compositions preferably have the lowest level of emulsifier capable of producing a stable emulsion. The amount of emulsifier will typically be from about 0.001 to about 10 % by weight, but preferably will range from about 0.01 to about 5% by weight, more preferably from 0.1 to 3%, and most preferably about 0.25 to about 1% by weight, based upon the total weight of the composition. In other embodiments, the emulsifier may be absent. In compositions where the emulsifier is extremely low or absent, the composition may be of the "shake well" type such that the composition forms a transient emulsion when it is vigorously mixed or shaken, and separates into two distinct phases when left undisturbed over a period of time in a container.

[0068] For water in oil emulsions, the emulsifier itself should be of low Hydrophilic- Lipophilic Balance (HLB), preferably below 10, more preferably below 8.5. While combinations of more than one emulsifier are contemplated to be within the scope of the invention, each such emulsifier, individually, should be of low HLB. Therefore, the use of high and low HLB emulsifiers, which in combination give low HLB (e.g., less than 8.5), is less desirable because even if the combined HLB of the system is below 8.5, the contribution of the higher HLB emulsifier will be detrimental to the formation of a water vapor resistant film. If present, the amount of emulsifier having an HLB above 10 will be less than 1% by weight, more preferably less than 0.5% by weight, and more preferred still, less than 0.2% by weight.

[0069] Where the emulsifier is of the polyethoxylated type (e.g., polyoxyethylene ethers or esters) comprising chains of the form -(CH2CH2O)n-, it is preferred that n be less than 20, more preferably less than 10, most preferably less than 5. Propoxylated emulsifiers are also contemplated to be suitable. Propoxylated emulsifiers also preferably having less than 20, more preferably less than 10, most preferably less than 5 propylene oxide repeat units.

[0070] Emulsifiers that can be used in the composition of the present invention include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following: sorbitan esters; polyglyceryl-3- diisostearate; sorbitan monostearate, sorbitan tristearate, sorbitan sesquioleate, sorbitan monooleate; glycerol esters such as glycerol monostearate and glycerol monooleate; polyoxyethylene phenols such as polyoxyethylene octyl phenol and polyoxyethylene nonyl phenol; polyoxyethylene ethers such as polyoxyethylene cetyl ether and polyoxyethylene stearyl ether; polyoxyethylene glycol esters; polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters; dimethicone copolyols; polyglyceryl esters such as polyglyceryl-3-diisostearate; glyceryl laurate; Steareth-2, Steareth-10, and Steareth-20, to name a few. Additional emulsifiers are provided in the INCI Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook 11th Edition 2006, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

[0071] An example of a very low HLB emulsifier contemplated to be suitable according to the invention is Span 83, a sesquiester of monooleate and dioleate at a 2:1 molar ratio which has an HLB of 3.7. Sorbitan monostearate (INCI) is another suitable emulsifier, having an HLB value of 4.7.

[0072] The aqueous phase may include one or more additional solvents, preferably volatile solvents, including lower alcohols, such as ethanol, isopropanol, and the like. The volatile solvents, when present in the aqueous phase, will typically comprise from about 0.1% to about 75% by weight of the aqueous phase, more typically up to about 35% by weight, and preferably up to about 15% by weight. The water and optional volatile solvents are contemplated to enhance the formation of a water vapor resistant film because the particulates will tend to be pushed to the surface of the film as the solvents evaporate.

[0073] Water-in-Silicone Emulsion

[0074] One type of water-in-oil emulsion that has been found to be useful is a water-in-silicone emulsions having a silicone oil-containing continuous phase and an aqueous discontinuous phase. Typically, water is incorporated into the composition to form a water-in-silicone emulsion for the purpose of dissolving water soluble ingredients into the composition. The water soluble ingredients may include water soluble polymers amongst others that impart additional aesthetic benefits, e.g., look and/or feel to the hair. Preferably, the amount of water added to the composition will be the minimum that is required or necessary to dissolve the desired water soluble ingredient. Alternatively, water may be incorporated into the composition for the purpose of forming a water-in-silicone emulsion and increasing the viscosity of the composition. Preferably, the amount of water introduced is the minimum amount necessary to achieve the desired viscosity.

[0075] The silicone-containing phase will typically comprise from about 10% to about 99%, from about 20% to about 85%, or from about 30% to about 75% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition, and the aqueous phase will typically comprise from about 1% to about 90%, from about 5% to about 80%, from about 10% to about 70%, or from about 15% to about 60% by weight of the composition, with the proviso that the total weight of the silicone and aqueous phases does not exceed 100%. In one embodiment, the silicone-containing phase and the aqueous phase may comprise approximately equal percentages of the total weight of the emulsion.

[0076] Preferably, only the minimum amount of water necessary to achieve the desired functions, such as dissolving water soluble ingredients or increasing viscosity of the composition, should be introduced. For example, if a lotion consistency is desired, and the composition includes low amounts of water-soluble polymers, between about 10% and about 25% by weight water will usually suffice. In another example, if a creme consistency is desired for the composition, or if large amounts of water soluble ingredients (e.g., actives/polymers/etc.) are desired, between about 25% and about 50% of water may be necessary. The silicone-containing or oil-containing phase may vary depending on the amount of aqueous phase present in the composition.

[0077] The silicone oil phase may include volatile silicone oils, non- volatile silicone oils, and combinations thereof. By volatile silicone oil is meant that the oil readily evaporates at ambient temperatures (e.g., about 25°C). Typically, volatile silicone oils will exhibit a vapor pressure ranging from about 1 Pa to about 2 kPa at 25°C; will preferably have a viscosity of from about 0.1 to about 10 centistokes, preferably about 5 centistokes or less, more preferably about 2 centistokes or less, at 25°C; and will boil at atmospheric pressure at from about 35°C to about 250°C.

[0078] Volatile silicones useful for the silicone oil phase of the water-in-silicone emulsion include cyclic and linear volatile dimethylsiloxane silicones. In one embodiment, the volatile silicones may include cyclodimethicones, including tetramer (D4), pentamer (D5), and hexamer (D6) cyclomethicones, or mixtures thereof. Particular mention may be made of the volatile cyclomethicone-hexamethyl cyclotrisiloxane, octamethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane, and decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane. Suitable volatile dimethicones are available from Dow Corning under the name Dow Corning 200® Fluid and have viscosities ranging from about 0.65 to about 5 centistokes. Suitable non-polar, volatile liquid silicone oils are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,781,917, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Additional volatile silicones materials are described in Todd et al., "Volatile Silicone Fluids for Cosmetics", Cosmetics and Toiletries, 91 :27-32 (1976), herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. Linear volatile silicones generally have a viscosity of less than about 5 centistokes at 25°C, whereas the cyclic silicones have viscosities of less than about 10 centistokes at 25°C. Examples of volatile silicones of varying viscosities include Dow Corning 200, Dow Corning 244, Dow Corning 245, Dow Corning 344, and Dow Corning 345, (Dow Corning Corp.); SF-1204 and SF-1202 Silicone Fluids (G.E. Silicones), GE 7207 and 7158 (General Electric Co.); and SWS-03314 (SWS Silicones Corp.). Linear, volatile silicones include low molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane compounds such as hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethyltetrasiloxane, and dodecamethylpentasiloxane to name a few.

[0079] Non-volatile silicone oils will typically comprise polyalkylsiloxanes, polyarylsiloxanes, polyalkylarylsiloxanes, or mixtures thereof. Polydimethylsiloxanes are preferred non-volatile silicone oils. The non-volatile silicone oils will typically have a viscosity from about 10 to about 60,000 centistokes at 25°C, preferably between about 10 and about 10,000 centistokes, and more preferred still between about 10 and about 500 centistokes; and a boiling point greater than 250°C at atmospheric pressure. Non limiting examples include dimethyl polysiloxane (dimethicone), phenyl trimethicone, and diphenyldimethicone .

[0080] The volatile and non-volatile silicone oils may optionally be substituted will various functional groups such as alkyl, aryl, amine groups, vinyl, hydroxyl, haloalkyl groups, alkylaryl groups, and acrylate groups, to name a few.

[0081] The water-in-silicone emulsion is emulsified with a nonionic surfactant

(emulsifier). Suitable emulsifiers include polydiorganosiloxane-polyoxyalkylene block copolymers, including those described in U.S. Patent No. 4,122,029, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. These emulsifiers generally comprise a polydiorganosiloxane backbone, typically polydimethylsiloxane, having side chains comprising -(EO)m- and/or -(PO)n- groups, where EO is ethyleneoxy and PO is 1,2-propyleneoxy, the side chains being typically capped or terminated with hydrogen or lower alkyl groups (e.g., C1-6, typically C1-3). The side chains will preferably comprise 50 EO and/or PO units or less (e.g., m + n =<50), preferably 20 or less, and more preferably 10 or less. In addition to the alkoxylated side chain, the silicone emulsifier may also comprise alkyl chains pendant from the silicone backbone. Other suitable water-in-silicone emulsifiers are disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,685,952, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein. Commercially available water-in-silicone emulsifiers include those

available from Dow Corning under the trade designations 3225C and 5225C FORMULATION AID; SILICONE SF-1528 available from General Electric; ABIL EM 90 and EM 97, available from Goldschmidt Chemical Corporation (Hopewell, VA); and the SILWETD series of emulsifiers sold by OSI Specialties (Danbury, CT).

[0082] Examples of water-in-silicone emulsifiers include, without limitation,

PEG/PPG-18/18 dimethicone (trade name 5225C, Dow Corning), PEG/PPG-19/19 dimethicone (trade name BY25-337, Dow Corning), Cetyl PEG/PPG- 10/1 dimethicone (trade name Abil EM-90, Goldschmidt Chemical Corporation), PEG- 12 dimethicone (trade name SF 1288, General Electric), lauryl PEG PPG-18/18 methicone (trade name 5200 FORMULATION AID, Dow Corning), PEG- 12 dimethicone crosspolymer (trade name 9010 and 9011 silicone elastomer blend, Dow Corning), PEG- 10 dimethicone crosspolymer (trade name KSG-20, Shin-Etsu), and dimethicone PEG- 10/ 15 crosspolymer (trade name KSG-210, Shin-Etsu).

[0083] It has been found that the selection and amount of emulsifier is important for obtaining films which provide water vapor resistant properties. Because the emulsifier itself may be deleterious to the formation of a water vapor resistant film or adversely affect the durability of the performance through repeated hair washings, the compositions preferably have the lowest level of emulsifier capable of producing a stable emulsion. The water-in-silicone emulsifiers typically will be present in the composition in an amount from about 0.001% to about 10% by weight, in particular in an amount from about 0.01% to about 5% by weight, and more preferably, below 1% by weight of the total composition. In other embodiments, the emulsifier may be altogether absent. In compositions where the emulsifier is at extremely low levels or absent, the composition may be of the "shake well" type such that the composition forms a transient emulsion when it is vigorously mixed or shaken, and separating into two distinct phases when left undisturbed over a period of time.

[0084] In one embodiment of the invention, the one or more hydrophobic particulate material and the film former are first dispersed or dissolved in the oil or silicone phase of a water-in-oil or water-in-silicone emulsion. The oil or silicone is subsequently mixed with the aqueous phase to form the emulsion. The emulsions will typically have the hydrophobic film formers and any hydrophobic pigments dispersed or dissolved predominantly in the oil or silicone phase.

[0085] In some embodiments, it has been found desirable to include one or more agents that enhance the shine of hair treated with the compositions of the invention. The hydrophobic particulate materials, particularly the hydrophobically-modified fumed oxides such as alumina and silica, impart a matte finish to the hair which may be undesirable from a consumers perspective. It has been discovered that shine can be restored to the hair, without sacrificing the water-resistance, by including one of more agents which modify the shine of hair. The shine-enhancing agent is preferably hydrophobic and is also preferably solid at room temperature such that the particulate material does not become covered when the composition is applied to the hair. For example, lens-shaped particles such as hemi-spherical PMMA have been found suitable for imparting shine. One such commercially available material is a hemi-spherical methyl methacrylate crosspolymer sold under the trade name 3D Tech PW (Plain) XP (Kobo). Other suitable shine enhancers include phenylpropyldimethylsiloxysilicate, polybutene, polyisobutene, and hydrogenated polyisobutene.

[0086] Silicone fluids, such as aryl-substituted siloxanes having high refractive indices are also useful as shine enhancers. Particular mention may be made of Phenyltrimethicone, which is available under the trade names SCI-TEC PTM 100 (ISP) and PDM20 (Wacker-Belsil), and Trimethylsiloxyphenyl Dimethicone (INCI name), which is available under the trade name PDM 1000 (Wacker-Belsil). The PDM20 material has a refractive index of 1.437 at 25°C. The PDM 1000 material has a refractory index of 1.461 at 25°C. Another suitable silicone fluid is trimethylsiloxyphenyl dimethicone. In general, any aryl-substituted silicone having a refractive index of greater than 1.4 at 25°C is contemplated to be suitable for restoring shine to hair treated with the inventive compositions. Phenyl silicones such as pentaphenyl trimethyl trisiloxane or tetraphenyl tetramethyl trisiloxane, commercially available as HRI fluids from Dow corning HRI, are also useful for enhancing shine. Certain organic compounds, such as octyl methoxy cinnamate, may also be used to enhance shine.

[0087] The shine enhancer is typically present from about 0.01% to about 5% by weight of the total composition. More typically, the shine enhancer component will comprise from about 0.05% to about 2.5% by weight of the composition. Preferably, the shine enhancer will comprise from about 0.1% to about 1.5% by weight of the composition.

[0088] A third component according to some embodiments of the inventive compositions is a fluorosilicone, which can impart excellent spreading properties. The fluorosilicone is preferably hydrophobic and oleophobic and is also preferably insoluble but dispersible in the vehicle. There is essentially no restriction on the nature of the fluorosilicone. In one embodiment, the fluorosilicone will comprise a fluoro-substituted polyorganosiloxane. The fluorosilicone will typically comprise repeat units of the form -[Si(R2)(R3)-0]- wherein R2 and/or R3 are independently alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl (e.g., benzyl) radicals, with at least one of R2 and R3 being substituted with one or more fluorine atoms. Preferably, at least one of R2 or R3 will be a C1-3o alkyl group which comprises one or more fluorine atoms, and which preferably comprises a perfluoro segment, by which is meant a segment of the form -(CF2)X-where x is an integer from 1 to 29 and/or a trifluoromethyl group

[0089] As a spreading aid a fluorosilicone may be included. One suitable fluorosilicone is Perfluorononyl Dimethicone sold under the trade names PECOSIL® FSL-150, FSL-300, FSH-150, FSH-300, FSU-150 and FSU-300 from Phoenix Chemical, Inc. which all have the chemical abstracts number CAS 259725-95-6.

[0090] In addition to the foregoing, the compositions according to the invention may comprise additional pigments, pearlescents, and/or colorants to combat the white appearance of fumed alumina or fumed silica or otherwise to impart a desired color to the hair, provided that such components do not undesirably detract from the product performance. Inorganic pigments include without limitation titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxides, chromium oxide, ferric blue, mica, bismuth oxychloride, and titinated mica; organic pigments include barium, strontium, calcium or aluminium lakes, ultramarines, and carbon black; colorants include without limitation D&C Green #3, D&C Yellow #5, and D&C Blue #1. Pigments and/or colorants may be coated or surface treated with one or more compatibilizers to aid in dispersion in the solvent. Preferred pigments and/or colorants are those surface treated to render them hydrophobic.

[0091] Preferred colorants include Iron Oxides, Black Oxide of Iron, Brown Iron

Oxide, CI 77489, CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499, Iron Oxide Red 10-34-PC-2045, Pigment Black 11, Pigment Brown 6, Pigment Brown 7, Pigment Red 101, Pigment Red 102, Pigment Yellow 42, Pigment Yellow 43, Red Iron Oxide, Synthetic Iron Oxide, and Yellow Iron Oxide.

[0092] Various fillers and additional components may be added. Suitable fillers include without limitation silica, treated silica, talc, zinc stearate, mica, kaolin, Nylon powders such as Orgasol™, polyethylene powder, Teflon™, boron nitride, copolymer microspheres such as Expancel™ (Nobel Industries), Polytrap™ (Dow Corning) and silicone resin microbeads (Tospearl™ from Toshiba), and the like.

[0093] Additional pigment/powder fillers include, but are not limited to, inorganic powders such as gums, chalk, Fuller's earth, kaolin, sericite, muscovite, phlogopite, synthetic mica, lepidolite, biotite, lithia mica, vermiculite, aluminum silicate, starch, smectite clays, alkyl and/or trialkyl aryl ammonium smectites, chemically modified magnesium aluminum silicate, organically modified montmorillonite clay, hydrated aluminum silicate, aluminum starch octenyl succinate barium silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium silicate, strontium silicate, metal tungstate, magnesium, silica alumina, zeolite, barium sulfate, calcined calcium sulfate (calcined gypsum), calcium phosphate, fluorine apatite, hydroxyapatite, ceramic powder, metallic soap (zinc stearate, magnesium stearate, zinc myristate, calcium palmitate, and aluminum stearate), colloidal silicone dioxide, and boron nitride; organic powder such as polyamide resin powder (nylon powder), cyclodextrin, polymethylmethacrylate powder (PMMA), copolymer powder of styrene and acrylic acid, benzoguanamine resin powder, poly(ethylene tetrafluoride) powder, and carboxyvinyl polymer, cellulose powder such as hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethylene glycol monostearate; inorganic white pigments such as magnesium oxide; and stabilizers/ rheology modifiers, for example, Bentone Gel and Rheopearl TT2. Other useful powders are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,688,831, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

[0094] The aggregate amount of all such additional pigments, colorants, and fillers is not particularly restricted provided that the water-resistance of treated hair is not compromised. Typically, all additional pigments, colorants, fillers, etc., if present, will collectively comprise from about 0.1% to about 5% of the total composition, but more typically will comprise from about 0.1 % to about 2% by weight of the composition.

[0095] The compositions of the invention may optionally comprise other active and inactive ingredients typically associated with hair care products. The nature of these other ingredients and their amounts should preferably be suitable for formulating a stable hair care product which forms a hydrophobic film on keratin fibers. Preferably, these other ingredients include at least one bioactive ingredient for improving the keratin fiber. It is within the skill in the art to choose additional active and/or inactive ingredients for a hair care product. Suitable other ingredients include, but are not limited to, amino acids, antioxidants, conditioners, chelating agents, colorants, emollients, emulsifiers, excipients, fillers, fragrances, gelling agents, humectants, minerals, moisturizers, photostabilizing agents (e.g., UV absorbers), sunscreens, preservatives, stabilizers, staining agents, surfactants, viscosity and/or rheology modifiers, vitamins, waxes and mixtures thereof. It is contemplated that the inventive hair care product of the present invention can also include anti-dandruff and/or

sunscreen ingredients. If present, the levels of such additional components should be judiciously selected so as not to adversely impact the ability of the compositions to form a hydrophobic film on the hair. Collectively, all such additional components suitably will comprise less than 5% by weight of the composition, but will typically comprise less than about 2% by weight, and will preferably will comprise less than 1% by weight, more preferably less than 0.5% by weight, and ideally less than 0.1% by weight of the total composition.

[0096] In one embodiment, the composition will be free or substantially free of cationic hair conditioning agents. By substantially free of cationic hair conditioning agents is meant that the compositions comprise less than 0.5% by weight, preferably, less than 0.25% by weight, and more preferred still, less than 0.1% by weight cationic conditioning agents. In other embodiments the compositions may contain an amount of cationic (quaternium) ingredients that are anhydrous or have very low level of water, e.g., less than 1% by weight. Suitable quaternium compounds include, without limitation, Polyquaternium-37 (INCI), Cyclopentasiloxane and Silicone Quaternium- 18 (INCI), PEG-2 Dimeadowfoamamidoethylmonium Methosulfate and Hexylene Glycol (INCI), and Cetrimonium Chloride (INCI), to name a few. Such quaternium compounds, if present, will typically comprise from about 0.05% to about 1.5% by weight of the total composition, and more typically, from about 0.1% to about 1% by weight.

[0097] The composition of the present invention may be formulated in any suitable form, including various rinse-off and leave-in formulations, such as but not limited to shampoos, conditioners, serums, creams, sprays, emulsions, gels, balms, liquids, and the like.

[0098] In one embodiment, the compositions may be formulated for pump or aerosol delivery to the hair. When formulated for aerosol delivery, a propellant will be included which is suitable for delivery of the composition onto the hair. Suitable propellants include, without limitation, n-butane, isobutane, and isobutane/propane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, compressed air, nitrous oxide, 1 ,2-difluoroethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, dimethyl ether, and mixtures thereof. When reference is made to the total weight of the inventive compositions herein, such weight will be understood to exclude the weight of the propellant.

[0099] In one embodiment, a product is provided comprising an aerosol device including a container fitted with an dispenser, such as a dispensing valve, for dispensing the aerosol composition from the container. The container is charged with the composition according to the invention (e.g., comprising one or more particulate materials, one or more film formers, and volatile solvent). A suitable propellant may be included in the container with the inventive composition or may be included in a second container in a dual-chamber-type aerosol device. When the propellant is included in the container with the other ingredients, it will typically be present from about 20% to about 50%, by weight of the composition including propellant. the container may be pressurized or non-pressurized.

[00100] Particularly deleterious to the practice of the invention are non-volatile water-soluble or water-dispersible components which may coat or mask the particulates on the surface of the hair, or which may attract or bind water, such as propylene glycol or glycerin. Preferably, the collective amount of such non-volatile water-soluble or water-dispersible components in the composition will be below about 15%, below about 10%, below about 5%, below about 2.5%, below about 1%, below about 0.5%, below about 0.25%, below about 0.1%, or below about 0.05%, based on the total weight of the composition. In some embodiments, the compositions are free of non-volatile water-soluble or water-dispersible components, and in particular, free of liquid water-soluble or water-dispersible components.

[00101] Other optional ingredients include, without limitation, silicone elastomers which may be incorporated to provide conditioning properties to the hair or improve the tactile properties of the film. Silicone elastomers are crosslinked flexible silicones that can undergo large reversible deformations. Such elastomers may be formed, for example, by platinum metal catalyzed reactions between SiH containing diorganopolysiloxanes and organopolysiloxanes having silicon bonded vinyl groups. Suitable silicone elastomers include dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone crosspolymers, vinyl dimethicone/methicone silsesquioxane crosspolymers, and dimethicone/phenyl vinyl dimethicone crosspolymers. Examples include Dow Corning 9040, 9041, and 9506, and Shin-Etsu KSG-15, 16, and 17, and Shin-Etsu KSP-100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 200 and 300. The elastomers are preferably present at a concentration of 0.01% to 10%, more preferably at a concentration of 0.1% to 5%, and most preferably at a concentration of 1% to 3 %. Silicone elastomers do not form good films, and are not included in the calculation of the powder to film former ratio. Vinyl dimethicone / Methicone / Silsesquioxane crosspolymer is one such silicone elastomer that has been found particularly useful. Other ingredients that can optionally be present include, without limitation, conditioners (e.g., Polyquaternium-37/PG Dicaprylate/Trideceth blend), aesthetic modifiers (e.g., Polymethyl Methacrylate spherical powder having a diameter of 4-8flm), silicone resins (such as trimethylsiloxysilicate), thickeners (e.g., PEG-150/decyl alcohol/SMDI copolymer), sunscreens, preservatives, fragrances, etc.

[00102] Additional components may be incorporated as fillers or for various functional purposes as is customary in the cosmetic arts. However, while additional components consistent to formulate the above cosmetic compositions may be included, the inclusion of additional ingredients is limited to those ingredients which do not interference with the formation of a water-resistant film.

[0100] Anhydrous compositions of the invention may suitably be prepared by mixing the solvent (e.g., ethanol and cyclomethicone pentamer) with the particulate materials and the film former, and, if present, the shine enhancer and optional ingredients. There is essentially no restriction on the order of addition or manner of mixing these components. The composition may be mixed or homogenized at room temperature. It has been found useful but not necessary to mill the mixed ingredients which can be carried out using any suitable technique in the art. For example, a Silversen L4RT mixer operating at 4000 RPM for about 4 minutes has been found suitable. Once complete, the composition can be packaged, for example into a pump spray, or an aerosol spray which is then charged with propellant. In certain embodiments where the compositions are emulsions prepared from different phases, each prepared separately, the phases are combined and the emulsion may be formed by mixing or milling at room temperature, or by any other suitable means in the art.

[0101] The present invention provides a method for preventing or reducing color fading in hair that has been artificially colored. The method comprises applying to a keratin fiber, such as hair of the scalp, a hair care composition having a combination of a hydrophobic particulate material and a silicone-based hydrophobic film former. By "artificially-colored" is meant that the hair has been treated with synthetic or natural chemicals or materials to alter or enhance the color or appearance of the hair.

[0102] The inventive composition may be applied onto dry hair or wet hair. The compositions according to the invention are preferably applied to the hair (hair of the scalp, beard, mustache, etc.). More preferably, the inventive composition may be distributed across strands of the hair forming a substantially uniform coating on the shafts of the hair fibers. The substantially uniform distribution may be achieved by spraying the composition across the hair or working the composition throughout the hair with a comb, brush, fingers or the like. The composition is typically allowed to remain on the hair after it is applied, that is, it is not immediately rinsed off after it is applied. Alternatively, hair treated with the composition may be rinsed with water after application of the composition to the hair. The composition can be re-applied as frequently as the consumer desires. In one embodiment, the composition

may be applied daily, every other day, weekly or bi-weekly, and in particular after each shampooing.

[0103] Application of the inventive compositions to color-treated hair may reduce fading of color by at least about 10%, at least about 20%, at least about 30%, at least about 40%, at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, or even at least about 100%, after one, two, three, four, five, six, or seven shampooings, as compared to identical color-treated hair that has not been treated with the compositions of the invention. The foregoing may be tested using hair swatches that have been artificially colored, either as is or treated with the inventive compositions.

[0104] In other embodiments, the compositions may be applied to synthetic fibers that have been color-treated, such as carpeting, to resist color-fading in outdoor use.

Example 1

[0105] This Example provides a composition for reducing fading of artificially colored hair. A representative lotion formulation is provided in Table 1.



Example 2

[0106] The ability of the inventive lotion of Table 1 to retard color fading in artificially colored hair was evaluated by measuring the change in the L*a*b* color-space parameters after repeated washing of chemically dyed hair tresses. The hair tresses employed were ¾ inch x 6 inch bleached swaths from International Hair which were treated with a two part oxidative hair dye prior to use. The tresses were wetted and the lotion of Table 1 was applied in an amount of 0.5 g and worked uniformly through the hair. The tresses were subject to repeated shampooings and the lotion was re-applied to the wet hair after each shampooing. The total change in color (□Ε) was measured as□Ε2 = (pL*)2 + (Da*)2 + (□b*)2. The invention lotion was compared against a benchmark formulation, Avon Products' ADVANCE TECHNIQUES™ Color Protection Lock-In Treatment, under otherwise identical conditions. The higher the value of□E, the more dye is retained in the tress. The results are plotted in Figure 1 and show that the lotion of Table 1 outperforms the benchmark in resisting color-fading after repeated washes, up to 18 shampooings.

[0107] The invention described and claimed herein is not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments herein disclosed since these embodiments are intended as illustrations of several aspects of the invention. Any equivalent embodiments are intended to be within the scope of this invention. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those shown and described therein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. All publications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.