Processing

Please wait...

Settings

Settings

Goto Application

1. WO2010129379 - INHIBITORS OF THE RENAL OUTER MEDULLARY POTASSIUM CHANNEL

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

TITLE OF THE INVENTION

INHIBITORS OF THE RENAL OUTER MEDULLARY POTASSIUM CHANNEL

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The Renal Outer Medullary Potassium (ROMK) channel (KM .1 ) (see e.g., Ho,

K., et al., Cloning and expression of an inwardly rectifying ATP -regulated potassium channel, Nature, 1993, 362(6415): p. 31-8.1, 2; and Shuck, M.E., et al., Cloning and characterization of multiple forms of the human kidney ROM-K potassium channel, J Biol Chem, 1994, 269(39): p. 24261-70) is a member of the inward rectifier family of potassium channels expressed in two regions of the kidney: thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) (see Hebert, S. C, et al., Molecular diversity and regulation of renal potassium channels, Physiol Rev, 2005, 85(1): p. 319-713). At the TALH, ROMK participates in potassium recycling across the luminal membrane which is critical for the function of the Na+/K+/2CF co-transporter, the rate-determining step for salt reuptake in this part of the nephron. At the CCD, ROMK provides a pathway for potassium secretion that is tightly coupled to sodium uptake through the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (see Reinalter, S. C, et al., Pharmacotyping of hypokalemic salt-losing tubular disorders, Acta. Physiol Scand, 2004, 181(4): p. 513-21 ; and Wang, W., Renal potassium channels: recent developments, Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens, 2004, 13(5): p. 549-55). Selective inhibitors of the ROMK channel (also referred to herein as inhibitors of ROMK or ROMK inhibitors) are predicted to represent novel diuretics for the treatment of hypertension and other conditions where treatment with a diuretic would be beneficial with potentially reduced liabilities (i.e., hypo- or hyperkalemia, new onset of diabetes, dyslipidemia) over the currently used clinical agents (see Lifton, R.P., A.G. Gharavi, and D.S. Geller, Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension, Cell, 2001, 104(4): p. 545-56). Human genetics (Ji, W., et al., Rare independent mutations in renal salt handling genes contribute to blood pressure variation, Nat Genet, 2008, 40(5): p. 592-9; and Tobin, M.D., et al., Common variants in genes underlying monogenic hypertension and hypotension and blood pressure in the general population, Hypertension, 2008, 51(6): p. 1658-64) and genetic ablation of ROMK in rodents (see Lorenz, J.N., et al., Impaired renal NaCl absorption in mice lacking the ROMK potassium channel, a model for type II Bartter's syndrome, J Biol Chem, 2002, 277(40): p. 37871-80 and Lu, M., et al.s Absence of small conductance K+ channel (SK) activity in apical membranes of thick ascending limb and cortical collecting duct in ROMK (Banter's) knockout mice, J Biol Chem, 2002, 277(40): p. 37881-7) support these expectations. To our knowledge, the first small molecule selective inhibitors of ROMK were reported from work done at Vanderbilt University as described in Lewis, L.M., et al., High-Throughput Screening Reveals a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of the Renal Outer Medullary Potassium Channel and KirJ.l, MoI Pharmacol, 2009, 76(5): p. 1094-1103.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One object of the present invention is to provide compounds of Formula I


and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. The compounds of Formula I are inhibitors of the ROMK (Kirl .1 ) channel and can act as diuretics and natriuretics and are valuable pharmaceutically active compounds for the therapy and prophylaxis of diseases, including, but not limited to, cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and conditions resulting from excessive salt and water retention. Therefore, an object of the invention is to provide methods of treatment comprising administering a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of a compound of Formula I to a patient in need of a diuretic and/or natriuretic agent. A further object is to provide the use of compounds of Formula I in combination with other therapeutically effective agents, including other drugs useful for the treatment of hypertension and conditions resulting from excessive salt and water retention. The invention furthermore relates to processes for preparing compounds of Formula I, and pharmaceutical compositions which comprise compounds of Formula I. These and other objects will be evident from the description contained herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to compounds having structural Formula I:


and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof wherein:

from the group consisting of:



Zl is selected from the group consisting of:

Z2 is selected from the group consisting of:


X is selected from the group consisting of -H, -OH, -OCi_3alkyl, -F, oxo (-0), NH2, and -CH3; Y is selected from the group consisting of -H, -OH, -0Ci_3alkyl, -F, oxo (=0), NH2, and -CH3;

XI and Yl are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3; χ2 and Y2 are each -O- ; provided that when X is oxo then χl is absent and when Y is oxo then Yl is absent;

and further provided that when neither X^ nor Y^ is present, then at least one of X and Y is selected from the group consisting of -OH, -0Ci_3alkyl, -F and oxo;

Rl and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H, -halo,

-C3-C6cycloalkyl, -0R8, -SR8, -SOR8, -SO2R8, -(CH2)nOR8 and Ci-C6alkyl optionally substituted with 1 -3 of -F; one of R3a and R^b is selected from the group consisting of -CN and -NO2 and the other is Re; one of R4a and R4b is selected from the group consisting of -CN and -NO2 and the other is Rf; R5 and R^ are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H, -Ci -6 alkyl,

-C3-6 cycloalkyl, -CF3, -CHF2, -CH2F and -CH2OH; R? is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH35 -CF3, -CHF2, -CH2F and -CH2OH;

Ra and Rb are each independently selected from the group consisting of (a) -H, (b) halo, (c) -Ci -6 alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, (d) -C3-6 cycloalkyl, (e) -0Cl-3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F5 (f) -OR8, (g) -Cθ2Ci_6alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, (h) -(CH2)nOR8, (i) -SR8, (j) -SOR8, Qk) -SO2R8, (1) -NHCOR8 and (m) -NHSO2R8;

Rc and R& are each independently selected from the group consisting of (a) -H, (b) halo, (c) -C 1-6 alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, (d) -C3-6 cycloalkyl, (e) -0Ci-3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, (f) -OR8, (g) -CO2Ci-6alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F5 (h) -(CH2)nOR8, (i) -BR8, (j) -SOR8, (k) -SO2R8, (1) -NHC0R8 and (m) -NHSO2R8;

Re and Rf are each independently selected from the group consisting of (a) -H, (b) halo, (c) -C 1-6 alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, (d) -C 3 -6 cycloalkyl, (e) -0Ci-3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F5 (f) -OR8, (g) -CO2Ci-6alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F5 (h) -(CH2)nOR8, (i) -SR8, (j) -SOR8, (k) -SO2R8, (1) -NHCOR8 and (m) -NHSO2R8; n is an integer selected from I5 2 and 3; and

R8 is independently selected at each occurrence from the group consisting of -H, -C3-6cycloalkyl and -Ci-galkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F.

In an embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, referred to herein as compounds of Formula Ia and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, wherein: ZX is selected from the group consisting of:

Z2 is selected from the group consisting of:


X is selected from the group consisting of -H, -OH, -0Ci-3aIkyl, -F, oxo (=0), NH2, and -CH3; Y is selected from the group consisting of -H, -OH. ~0Ci-3alkyl, -F, oxo (=0), NH2, and -CH3;

XI and Yl are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3; X2 and Y2 are each -O- ; provided that when X is oxo then Xl is absent and when Y is oxo then YHs absent; and further provided that at least one of X and Y is selected from the group consisting of -OH, -0Ci-3alkyl, -F and oxo; and all other variables within Formula Ia (e.g., Rl , R.2, R3a R3b; R4a

R4b? etc) are as defined in Formula I.

When neither χ2 nor Y2 is present resulting in at least one of X and Y being selected from the group consisting of -OH, -OCi^alkyL -F and oxo, it means that for a compound that does not contain an χ2-containing moiety (zl-vi, zl-viii) nor a Y^-containing moiety (z2-vi, z2-viii) and which does contain at least one X-containing moiety (zl-i, zl-ii, zl-iii, zl-iv, zl-ix , zl-x) or Y-containing moiety (z2-if z2-ii, z2-iii, z2-iv5 z2-ix, z2-x), then at least one of X and Y is selected from the group consisting of -OH, -0C}-3alkyl, -F and oxo.

Also encompassed within the scope of this invention are compounds of Formula I or Formula Ia as well as all other formulas, embodiments, classes and sub-classes described herein wherein at least one of X, Y, X^ and γ2 is present, and when, neither X2 nor Y^ is present, then at least one of X and Y is selected from -OH, -OCl.3al.cyl, -F and oxo. When at least one of X,

Y, X2 and Y^ is present, it means that the compound must contain at least one of an X-containing moiety (zl-i, zl-ii, zl-iii, zl-iv, zl-ix, zl-x), a Y-containing moiety (z2-i, z2-ii, z2-iiiJ z2-iv, z2-ix, z2-x)j an χ2-containing moiety (zl-vi, zl-viii) or a γ2-containing moiety (z2-vi, z2-viii).

In an embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I or Formula Ia wherein

is selected from the group consisting of



In an embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I or Ia having structural

Formula II and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:

In another embodiment are compounds of Formula I or Ia having structural Formula III and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:

In another embodiment are compounds of Formula I or Ia having structural Formula IV salts thereof:


In another embodiment are compounds of Formula I or Ia having structural Formula V and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:

In another embodiment are compounds of Formula I or Ia having structural Formula VI and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


In another embodiment are compounds of Formula I or Ia having structural Formula VII and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia or III having structural Formula VIII and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


m another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 Ia, II or III having structural Formula Villa and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


Villa.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia or VII having structural Formula IX and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, III or IV having structural Formula X and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


wherein


selected from
.

Rl is selected from ~H and -CH3;

Rc is selected from -H and -CH3; and

Z2 is selected from z2-ii, z2-iv, z2-v and z2-vi.

In Embodiment A are compounds of Formula I5 Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI, or VII wherein Zl and Z2 are selected from the group consisting of: (a) zl-i and z2-i; (b) zl-ii and z2~ii; (c) zl-iii and z2-iii; (d) zl-iv and z2-iv; (e) zl-vi and z2-vi; (f) zl-viii and z2-viii, (g) zl-ix and z2-ix; and (h) zl-x and z2-x.

In Embodiment B are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI, or VII wherein 2λ and Z2 are selected as follows: (a) when Zl is zl-i then Z2 is not z2-i; (b) when Zl is zl-ii then Z2 is not z2-ii, (c) when Zl is zl-iii then Z2 is not z2-iii; (d) when Zl is zl-iv then Z2 is not z2-iv; (e) when Zl is zl-v then Z2 is not z2-v or z2-vii; (f) when Zl is zl-vi then Z2 is not z2-vi; (g) when Zl is zl-vii then Z2 is not z2-vii or z2-v; (h) when Zl is zl-viii then Z2 is not z2-viii; (i) when Zl is zl-ix then Z2 is not z2-ix; and (j) when Zl is zl-x then Z2 is not z2-x.

In Embodiment C are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Villa or EX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-i. hi a class of Embodiment C are compounds wherein one of R4a and R4b is -CN and the other is Re. In a sub-class thereof R4a is -CN.

In Embodiment D are compounds of Formula I, Ia, π, in, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-ii or z2-ix. In a class of Embodiment D are compounds wherein one of R4a and R4b is -CN and the other is Re. In a sub-class thereof R4a is -CN.

In Embodiment E are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-iii.

In Embodiment F are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-iv. In a class of Embodiment F are compounds wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F5 -H, and -OCH3; and Rd is selected from selected from the group consisting of -CH3, -OCH3 and -H. In a sub-class thereof are compounds wherein Y is -OH, Yl is -H, R2 is -CH3 and Rd is -H.

In Embodiment G are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-v. In a class of this embodiment are compounds of Formula I, Ia5 II, III, IV, V, VI or VII wherein Zl is selected from the group consisting of zl-i, zl-ii, zl-iii, zl-iv, zl-vi, zl-viii, zl-ix and zl-x. In a sub-class thereof, X is selected from -OH and -F and particularly it is -OH. In Embodiment H are compounds of Formula I, Ia,

II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Vπia or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-vi. In a class of this embodiment are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI or VII wherein Zl is selected from the group consisting of zl -v, zl-vi, zl-vii and zl-viii. In another class of this embodiment are compounds wherein Zl is selected from the group consisting of zl-i, zl-ii, zl-iii, zl-iv, zl-ix and zl-x, and X is selected from -H, -OH, -OCi_3alkyl, -F, oxo, NH2 and -CH3 and particulalry it is -H, -OH or -F.

In Embodiment I are compounds of Formula I5 Ia5 II, III, IV, V, VI, VII5 VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z2 is z2-vii. In a class of this embodiment are compounds of Formula I, Ia, H5 IH5 IV, V, VI and VII wherein Z1 is selected from the group consisting of zl-i, zl-ii5 zl-iii, zl-iv5 zl-vi, zl-viii, zl-ix and zl-x,. In a sub-class thereof, X is selected from -OH and — F and particularly it is -OH.

In Embodiment J are compounds of Formula I? Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI5 VII5 VHI5 Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein 72- is z2-viii. In a class of this embodiment are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, FV, V, VI or VII wherein Z1 is selected from the group consisting of zl-v5 zl-vi, zl-vii and zl-vϊiϊ. In another class of this embodiment are compounds wherein lX is selected from the group consisting of zl-i, zl-ii, zl-iii, zl-iv, zl-ix and zl-x, and X is selected from -H, -OH, -OCi^alkyl, -F5 oxo, NH2 and -CH3 and particulalry it is -H , -OH or -F.

In Embodiment K are compounds of Formula I, Iar H5 III, IV, V5 VI, VII, VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A or B wherein Z^ is zl-x.

In Embodiment L are compounds of Formula I5 Ias II, III, IV, V5 VI or VII, or Embodiment A, B5 C, D, E5 F, G, H, I or J and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Zl, if otherwise undefined, is zl-iv. In a class of Embodiment L are compounds wherein Rl is selected from the group consisting of -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F, -H and -OCH3; and Rc is selected from selected from the group consisting of -CH3, -OCH3 and -H. In a sub-class thereof are compounds wherein X is -OH, Xl is -H, Rl is -CH3 and Rc is -H.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V,

VI, VII, VIII, VIIIa5 IX or X or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E9 F5 G, H, I, J, K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein X and Y, when either or both are present, are each independently selected from -H, -OH, -F and -CH3, and provided that when none of zl-vi, zl-viii, z2-vi and z2-viii are present (that is, when neither X^ nor Y2 is present) in the compound, then at least one of X and Y is selected from -OH and -F. In a class thereof, at least one of X and Y is -OH and the other is selected from -H, -OH, -F and -CH3. In a sub-class thereof X and

Y, when either or both are present, are -OH. In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 II, III, IV5 V, VI,

VII, VIII or IX or Embodiment B, C, D, E, F5 G, H, I5 J, or K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein when only one of zl-vi, zl-vϋi, z2-vi and z2-viii is present in the compound, then X, when present, and Y, when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H, -OH, -0Cj-3alkyl, -F, oxo, NH2 and -CH3; provided that when X is oxo then Xl is absent and when Y is oxo then Yl is absent. In a class thereof, X, when present, and Y, when present, are each independently selected from -H, -OH, -F and -CH3. It is noted that X or

Y is present in compounds of this embodiment when one of zl-i, zl-ϋ, zl-iii, zl-iv, zl-ix, zl-x, z2-i, z2-ii, z2-iii, z2-iv, z2-ix or z2-x is present along with one of zl-vi, zl-viii, z2-vi or z2-viii. It is further noted that compounds wherein one of zl-v, zi-vii, z2-v or z2-vii is present along with one one of zl-vi, zl-viii, z2-vi or z2-viii are also encompassed by this embodiment.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, H5 III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII or IX or Embodiment B, C, D, E, F5 G, H5 1, J5 K or L and the classes and subclasses thereof wherein when only one of zl-v, zl-vii, z2-v or z2-vii is present in the compound, then at least one of X5 when present, or Y, when present, is independently selected from the group consisting of -OH, -0Cl-3alkyl, -F and oxo; provided that when X is oxo then Xl is absent and when Y is oxo then Yl is absent. In a class thereof, one of X when present, or Y when present, is selected from -OH and -F, and more particularly it is -OH. It is noted that X or Y is present in compounds of this embodiment when one of zl-i, zl-ii, zl-iii, zl-iv5 zl-ix, zl-x, z2-i, z2-ii, z2-iii, z2-iv, z2-ix or z2-x is present along with one of zl-v, zl-vii, z2-v or z2-vϋ. It is further noted that compounds wherein one of zl-vi, zl-viii, z2-vi or z2-vϋi is present along with one one of zl-v, zl-vii, z2-v or z2-vii are also encompassed by this embodiment. In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, TV, V,

VI, VII, VIII, Villa, IX or X or Embodiment A, B, C5 D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Xl and Yl, when either or both are present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3. In a class thereof X 1 and Y^ are both -H. In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia5 II, III,

IY, V, VI, VII, VIII, Villa, IX or X Embodiment A, B5 C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J5 K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Rl and R2, when either or both are present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of (a) -H, (b) -F, (c) -Cl5 (d) -Br, (e) -Ci~3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F5 (f) cyclopropyl, (g) -OCi_3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, and (h) -(CH2)l-3 alkyl-OH. In a sub-class thereof Rl and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H5 -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F and -OCH3. hi another sub-class, at least one of Rl and R2 is -CH3 and the other is selected from -H and -CH3. In another sub-class, Rl and R2 are both -CH3.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV5 V, VI, VII, VIE, Villa, K or X or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Rc and Rd, when either or both are present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 and -OCH3, and more particularly

Re and Rd are both -H. hi another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI or VII or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G5 H, I, J, K or L and the classes and subclasses thereof wherein one of R^a and R3b? when present, is -CN and the other is Re. In one class thereof, R3a is -CN and R3b is Re? and particularly Re is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 -OCH3 and -F and more particularly it is -H, -CH3, and -OCH3. In another class thereof, R3b is -CN and R3a is Re? and particularly, RP is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3,-OCH3 and -F and more particularly it is -H, -CH3, and -OCH3.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, FV, V, VI or VII or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Ra, when present, is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 and -F. In a class thereof, Ra is -H. hi another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 Ia, II, III, IV, V5 VI, VII, VIII, Villa, IX or X or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F5 G5 H, I5 J5 K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Rb, when present, is selected from the group consisting of -H5 -CH3 and -F. hi a class thereof, Rb is -H or -CH3.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 Ia, II, IH5 IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, Vina, DC or X or Embodiment A, B5 C, D5 E5 F5 G5 H, I5 J5 K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein one of R4a and R4bs when present, is -CN and the other is Rf In one class thereof, R4a is -CN and R4b is Rf and particularly Rf is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -OCH3 and -F, and more particularly it is -H, -CH3, and -OCH3. In another class thereof, R4b is -CN and R4a is Rf5 and particularly Rf is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -OCH3 and -F, and more particularly it is -H5 -CH3, and -OCH3.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia5 II, IH5 IV, V, VI, VII, VIII or IX or Embodiment A, B5 C5 D, E5 F, G, H5 15 J, K or L and the classes and subclasses thereof wherein R^ and R6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3. hi a class thereof, R5 and R6 are both -H.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia5 IH or VIII, or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H5 1, J, K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein R7 is -H.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 Ia5 II, IH5 FV, V5 VI, VII, VIII, Villa or IX or Embodiment A, B5 C5 D, E5 F, G5 H5 1, J5 K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein R^ is independently selected at each occurrence from the group consisting of -H1 -C3-6 cycloalkyl and -Ci-3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F. More particularly R8 is selected from -H, -CH3, -CF3, -CHF2, -CH2CF3 and cyclopropyl.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I5 Ia, II, IH5 IV, V5 VI or VII, and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein Z2 is selected from the group consisting of z2-i, z2-ii, z2-iv, z2-v and z2-vi hi a class thereof are compounds wherein T7- is selected from the group consisting of:
and particularly Z^ is selected from (a), (b), (c) and (d), and more particularly it is (a) or (d).

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, VI5 VII, VIII, Villa or DC or Embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K or L and the classes and sub-classes thereof wherein the variables (e.g., X, Y, Rl through R.8, Ra etc.), when present in each of the Formulas or Embodiments, are defined as follows:

X and Y are each independently selected from -H, -OH, -F and -CH3 provided that at least one of X and Y is selected from -OH and -F, particularly wherein at least one of X and Y is -OH and the other is selected from -H, -OH, -F and -CH3, and more particularly wherein X and Y are both -OH;

XI and Yl are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3 and particularly wherein Xl and Yl are both -H;

Rl and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of (a) -H, (b) -F. (c) -Cl, (d) -Br, (e) -C][-3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, (f) cyclopropyl, (g) -0Ci_3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F, and (h) -(CH2)l-3 alkyl-OH; and particularly wherein Rl and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F and -OCH3, more particularly wherein Rl and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3, and even more particularly wherein at least one of Rl and R2 is -CH3 and the other is selected from -H and -CH3 , and most particularly wherein Rl and R2 are both -CH3; one of R^a and R3b is -CN and the other is Re, and particularly wherein R^a is -CN and R3b is Re; one of R^a and R^b js -CN and the other is Rf, and particularly wherein R4a is -CN and R4b is Rf; R5 and R6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3, and particularly wherein Rβ and R6 are both -H; R7 is -H;

R^ is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 and -F, and particularly wherein Ra is -H;

Rb is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 and -F, and particularly wherein R^ is -H;

Rc and Rd are each independently selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3 and -OCH3, and more particularly wherein Rc and Rd are both -H;

Re is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -OCH3 and -F and more particularly it is -H, -CH3, and -OCH3;

Rf is selected from the group consisting of -H5 -CH3, -OCH3 and -F and more particularly it is -H5 -CH3, and -OCH3; and

R8 is independently selected at each occurrence from the group consisting of -H5 -C3-6 cycloalkyl and -Ci~3alkyl optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F5 and particularly wherein R8 is selected from -H9 -CH3, -CF3, -CHF2, -CH2CF3 and cyclopropyl.

In another embodiment of this invention are compounds of Formula VIII5 Villa or IX wherein Z^ is selected from the group consisting of z2-i, z2-ii, z2-iv, z2-v and z2-vi. In a class thereof are compounds wherein Z^ is selected from the group consisting of:


and particularly 12- is selected from (a), (b), (c) and (d) and more particularly it is (a) or (d).

In another class of Formula VIII, Villa or IX are compounds wherein Rl is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F and -OCH3 and more particularly it is -H or -CH3. In another class of Formula VIII, Villa or IX are compounds wherein Rc is selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3.

In another class of Formula VIII, Villa or IX are compounds wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of -H5 -OH5 -F and -CH3 provided that Y is -OH or -F when X is not -OH, -OCi_3alkyI5 -F or oxo; in a sub-class thereof Y is -OH and in a different sub-class Y is -H5 -F or -CH3. In another class of Formula VIII, Villa or IX are compounds wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of -H5 -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F and -OCH3, and more particularly it is -H or -CH3 and even more particularly it is -CH3. In another class of Formula VIII5 Villa or IX are compounds wherein Rd is selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3 and more particularly Rd is -H. In another class of Formula VIH, Villa or IX are compounds wherein R^b is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -OCH3 and -F and more particularly it is selected from -H, -CH3 and -OCH3.

In a further sub-class of Formula VHI, VHIa or IX are compounds wherein Rl is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F and -OCH3 and more particularly it is -H or -CH3; Rc is selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3; tλ is selected from the group consisting of


and particularly Z2 is selected from (a), (b), (c) or (d), and more particularly it is (a) or (d); Y is selected from the group consisting of -H, -OH, -F and -CH3 provided that Y is -OH or ~F when X is not -OH, -0Ci-3alkylj -F or oxo; R2 is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -CH2CH3, cyclopropyl, -F and -OCH3, and more particularly it is -H or -CH3 and even more particularly it is -CH3; Rd is selected from the group consisting of -H and -CH3 and more particularly Rd is -H; and R^b is selected from the group consisting of -H, -CH3, -OCH3 and -F and more particularly it is selected from -H, CH3 and -OCH3.

As used herein except if noted otherwise, "alkyl" is intended to include both branched-and straight-chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms. Commonly used abbreviations for alkyl groups are used throughout the specification. For example the term "Ci -6 alkyl" (or "C1-C6 alkyl"), means linear or branched chain alkyl groups, including ail isomers, having the specified number of carbon atoms and includes all of the hexyl and pentyl isomers as well as n-, iso-, sec- and tert-butyl (butyl, s-butyl, i-butyl, /-butyl; Bu = butyl), n- and /-propyl (Pr - propyl), ethyl (Et) and methyl (Me).

"Cycloalkyl" is a cyclized alkyl ring having the indicated number of carbon atoms. Examples of cycloalkyl include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl. The cycloalkyl ring may be substituted on any available carbon which results in the creation of a stable structure, including the ring carbon which serves as the point of attachment to the rest of the molecule.

In some instances the number of substituents which may be optionally present on a moiety is specified, for example but not limited to, 1 to 3 of -F (fluoro). For example,, an alkyl group that can be optionally substituted with 1-3 of -F includes, but is not limited to, -CH3, -CH2F, -CHF2, -CF3, -CH2CH3, -CH2-CH2F, -CH2-CHF2, -CHF-CH2F, -CH2CF3, -CHF-CHF2, -(CH2)2CH3, ~CH(CF3)-CH3, -(CH2)3-CF3, -(CH2^CH(CF3)CHs, and -(CH2)S-CF3, as appropriate for the defined number of carbon atoms for the given alkyl group.

Halo or halogen refers to -F (fluoro), -Cl (chloro), -Br (bromo) and -I (iodo). Preferred halogens are -F and -Cl.

Unless expressly depicted or described otherwise, variables depicted in a structural formula with a "floating" bond, such as each of substituents Ra, Rb, Rc and Rd in structural Formula I, are permitted on any available carbon atom in the ring to which each is attached.

The present invention encompasses all stereoisomeric forms of the compounds of Formula I. Centers of asymmetry that are present in the compounds of Formula I can all independently of one another have (R) configuration or (S) configuration. When bonds to the chiral carbon are depicted as straight lines in the structural Formulas of the invention, it is understood that both the (R) and (S) configurations of the chiral carbon, and hence both enantiomers and mixtures thereof, are embraced within the Formula. Similarly, when a compound name is recited without a chiral designation for a chiral carbon, it is understood that both the (R) and (S) configurations of the chiral carbon, and hence individual enantiomers and mixtures thereof, are embraced by the name. The production of specific stereoisomers or mixtures thereof may be identified in the Examples where such stereoisomers or mixtures were obtained, but this in no way limits the inclusion of all stereoisomers and mixtures thereof from being within the scope of this invention.

The invention includes all possible enantiomers and diastereomers and mixtures of two or more stereoisomers, for example mixtures of enantiomers and/or diastereomers, in all ratios. Thus, enantiomers are a subject of the invention in enantiomerically pure form, both as levorotatory and as dextrorotatory antipodes, in the form of racemates and in the form of mixtures of the two enantiomers in all ratios. In the case of a cis/trans isomerism the invention includes both the cis form and the trans form as well as mixtures of these forms in all ratios. The preparation of individual stereoisomers can be carried out, if desired, by separation of a mixture by customary methods, for example by chromatography or crystallization, by the use of stereochemically uniform starting materials for the synthesis or by stereoselective synthesis. Optionally a derivatization can be carried out before a separation of stereoisomers. The separation of a mixture of stereoisomers can be carried out at an intermediate step during the synthesis of a compound of Formula I or it can be done on a final racemic product. Absolute stereochemistry may be determined by X-ray crystallography of crystalline products or crystalline intermediates which are derivatized, if necessary, with a reagent containing a stereogenic center of known configuration. Where compounds of this invention are capable of tautomerization, all individual tautomers as well as mixtures thereof are included in the scope of this invention. The present invention includes all such isomers, as well as salts, solvates (including hydrates) and solvated salts of such racemates, enantiomers, diastereomers and tautomers and mixtures thereof. Reference to the compounds of this invention as those of a specific formula or embodiment, e.g., Formula I (which includes the compounds of Formulas H-X and all embodiments thereof) or any other generic structural formula or specific compound described or claimed herein, is intended to encompass the specific compound or compounds falling within the scope of the formula or embodiment, including salts thereof, particularly pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates of such compounds and solvated salt forms thereof, where such forms are possible unless specified otherwise.

In the compounds of Formula I, the atoms may exhibit their natural isotopic abundances, or one or more of the atoms may be artificially enriched in a particular isotope having the same atomic number, but an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number predominantly found in nature. The present invention is meant to include all suitable isotopic variations of the compounds of Formula I. For example, different isotopic forms of hydrogen (H) include protium (lH) and deuterium (^H). Protium is the predominant hydrogen isotope found in nature. Enriching for deuterium may afford certain therapeutic advantages, such as increasing in vivo half-life or reducing dosage requirements, or may provide a compound useful as a standard for characterization of biological samples. Isotopically-enriched compounds within Formula I can be prepared without undue experimentation by conventional techniques well known to those skilled in the art or by processes analogous to those described in the Schemes and Examples herein using appropriate isotopically-enriched reagents and/or intermediates. When the compounds of Formula I contain one or more acidic or basic groups the invention also includes the corresponding physiologically or toxicologically acceptable salts, in particular the pharmaceutically utilizable salts. Thus, the compounds of Formula I which contain acidic groups can be used according to the invention, for example, as alkali metal salts, alkaline earth metal salts or as arnmonium salts. Examples of such salts include but are not limited to sodium salts, potassium salts, calcium salts, magnesium salts or salts with ammonia or organic amines such as, for example, ethylamine, ethanolamine, triethanolamine or amino acids. Compounds of Formula I which contain one or more basic groups, i.e. groups which can be protonated, can be used according to the invention in the form of their acid addition salts with inorganic or organic acids as, for example but not limited to, salts with hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, benzenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, naphthalenedisulfonic acids, oxalic acid, acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, pivalic acid, diethylacetic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, pimelic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, malic acid, sulfaminic acid, phenylpropionic acid, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid, isonicotinic acid, citric acid, adipic acid, etc. If the compounds of Formula I simultaneously contain acidic and basic groups in the molecule the invention also includes, in addition to the salt forms mentioned, inner salts or betaines (zwitterions). Salts can be obtained from the compounds of Formula I by customary methods which are known to the person skilled in the art, for example by combination with an organic or inorganic acid or base in a solvent or dispersant, or by anion exchange or cation exchange from other salts. The present invention also includes all salts of the compounds of Formula I which, owing to low physiological compatibility, are not directly suitable for use in pharmaceuticals but which can be used, for example, as intermediates for chemical reactions or for the preparation of physiologically (i.e., pharmaceutically) acceptable salts.

Furthermore, compounds of the present invention may exist in amorphous form and/or one or more crystalline forms, and as such all amorphous and crystalline forms and mixtures thereof of the compounds of Formula I are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention. In addition, some of the compounds of the instant invention may form solvates with water (i.e., a hydrate) or common organic solvents. Such solvates and hydrates, particularly the pharmaceutically acceptable solvates and hydrates, of the instant compounds are likewise encompassed within the scope of this invention, along with un-solvated and anhydrous forms.

Any pharmaceutically acceptable pro-drug modification of a compound of this invention which results in conversion in vivo to a compound within the scope of this invention is also within the scope of this invention. For example, esters can optionally be made by esterification of an available carboxylic acid group or by formation of an ester on an available hydroxy group in a compound. Similarly, labile amides can be made. Pharmaceutically acceptable esters or amides of the compounds of this invention may be prepared to act as pro-drugs which can be hydrolyzed back to an acid (or -COO* depending on the pH of the fluid or tissue where conversion takes place) or hydroxy form particularly in vivo and as such are encompassed within the scope of this invention. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable pro-drag modifications include, but are not limited to, -Cj-galkyl esters and -Ci-galkyl substituted with phenyl esters.

Accordingly, the compounds within the generic structural formulas, embodiments and specific compounds described and claimed herein encompass salts, all possible stereoisomers and tautomers, physical forms (e.g., amorphous and crystalline forms), solvate and hydrate forms thereof and any combination of these forms, as well as the salts thereof, pro-drug forms thereof, and salts of pro-drug forms thereof, where such forms are possible unless specified otherwise.

The compounds of Formula I according to the invention are inhibitors of ROMK, and are therefore useful as diuretic and/or natriuretic agents. ROMK inhibitors help to increase urination and increase urine volume and also to prevent or reduce reabsorption of sodium in the kidneys leading to increased excretion of sodium and water. Therefore, the compounds are useful for treatment or prophylaxis of disorders that benefit from increased excretion of water and sodium from the body. Accordingly, an object of the instant invention is to provide a method for inhibiting ROMK comprising administering a compound of Formula I in a ROMK-inhibitory effective amount to a patient in need thereof. The inhibition of ROMK by the compounds of Formula I can be examined, for example, in any of the activity assays described below. Another object is to provide a method for causing diuresis, natriuresis or both, comprising administering a compound of Formula I in a therapeutically effective amount to a patient in need thereof. Due to their activity as diuretics and natriuretic agents, this invention further provides the use of compounds of Formula I in methods for treatment of, prevention of or reduction of risk for developing medical conditions that benefit from increased excretion of water and sodium, such as but not limited to ons or more of hypertension, heart failure (both acute and chronic, also known as congestive heart failure) and/or other conditions resulting from excessive salt and water retention. It further includes the use of the compounds of Formula I in methods for treatment of, prevention of or reduction of risk for developing one or more disorders such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), cardiovascular disease, diabetes, endothelial dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, stable and unstable angina pectoris, thromboses, restenosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac insufficiency, pulmonary hypertonia, atherosclerosis, hepatic cirrhosis, ascitis, pre-eclampsia, cerebral edema, nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, acute and chronic kidney insufficiency, hypercalcemia, Dent's disease, Meniere's disease, edetamous states, and other conditions for which a diuretic would have therapeutic or prophylactic benefit. The compounds of the invention can be administered to a patient having, or at risk of having, one or more conditions for which a diuretic would have therapeutic or prophylactic benefit such as those described herein.

In general, compounds that are ROMK inhibitors can be identified as those compounds which, when tested, have an IC 50 of 5 μM or less, preferably 1 μM or less, and more preferably

0.25 μM or less, in at least one of the following assays: 1) the 86Rb+ Efflux Assay, 2) the Thallium Flux Assay, 3) the EIectrophysiology Assay. These assays are described in more detail further below.

The dosage amount of the compound to be administered depends on the individual case and is, as is customary, to be adapted to the individual circumstances to achieve an optimum effect. Thus, it depends on the nature and the severity of the disorder to be treated, and also on the sex, age, weight and individual responsiveness of the human or animal to be treated, on the efficacy and duration of action of the compounds used, on whether the therapy is acute or chronic or prophylactic, or on whether other active compounds are administered in addition to compounds of Formula I. A consideration of these factors is well within the purview of the ordinarily skilled clinician for the purpose of determining the therapeutically effective or prophylactically effective dosage amount needed to prevent, counter, or arrest the progress of the condition. It is expected that the compound will be administered chronically on a daily basis for a length of time appropriate to treat or prevent the medical condition relevant to the patient, including a course of therapy lasting days, months, years or the life of the patient.

In general, a daily dose of approximately 0.001 to 100 mg/kg, preferably 0.001 to 30 mg/kg, in particular 0.001 to 10 mg/kg (in each case mg per kg of bodyweight) is appropriate for administration to an adult weighing approximately 75 kg in order to obtain the desired results. The daily dose is preferably administered in a single dose or, in particular when larger amounts are administered, can be divided into several, for example two, three or four individual doses, and may be, for example but not limited to, 0.1 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, 1 mg, 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg} 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mgs etc., on a daily basis. In some cases, depending on the individual response, it may be necessary to deviate upwards or downwards from the given daily dose. Furthermore, the compound may be formulated for immediate or modified release such as extended or controlled release.

The term "patient" includes animals, preferably mammals and especially humans, who use the instant active agents for the prohhylaxis or treatment of a medical condition. Administering of the drug to the patient includes both self-administration and administration to the patient by another person. The patient may be in need of treatment for an existing disease or medical condition, or may desire prophylactic treatment to prevent or reduce the risk for developing said disease or medical condition or developing long-term complications from a disease or medical condition.

The term therapeutically effective amount is intended to mean that amount of a drug or pharmaceutical agent that will elicit the biological or medical response of a tissue, a system, animal or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. A prophylactically effective amount is intended to mean that amount of a pharmaceutical drug that will prevent or reduce the risk of occurrence of the biological or medical event that is sought to be prevented in a tissue, a system, animal or human by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. It is understood that a specific daily dosage amount can simultaneously be both a therapeutically effective amount, e.g., for treatment of hypertension, and a prophylactically effective amount, e.g., for prevention or reduction of risk of myocardial infarction or prevention and reduction of risk for complications related to hypertension.

In the methods of treatment of this invention, the ROMK inhibitors may be administered via any suitable route of administration such as, for example, orally, parenterally, or rectally in dosage unit formulations containing conventional non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles. The term parenteral as used herein includes subcutaneous injections, intravenous, intramuscular, intrasternal injection or infusion techniques. Oral formulations are preferred, particularly solid oral dosage units such as pills, tablets or capsules.

Accordingly, this invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprised of a compound of Formula I and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. For oral use, the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention containing the active ingredient may be in forms such as pills, tablets, troches, lozenges, aqueous or oily suspensions, dispersible powders or granules, emulsions, hard or soft capsules, or syrups or elixirs. Compositions intended for oral use may be prepared according to any method known to the art for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and such compositions may contain one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sweetening agents, flavoring agents, coloring agents and preserving agents in order to provide pharmaceutically elegant and palatable preparations. Tablets contain the active ingredient in admixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, which are suitable for the manufacture of tablets. These excipients may be for example, inert diluents, such as calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, lactose, mannitol, calcium phosphate or sodium phosphate; granulating and disintegrating agents, for example, corn starch, or alginic acid; binding agents, for example starch, gelatin or acacia, and lubricating agents, for example, magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc.

Pharmaceutical compositions may also contain other customary additives, for example, wetting agents, stabilizers, emulsifϊers, dispersants, preservatives, sweeteners, colorants, flavorings, aromatizers, thickeners, diluents, buffer substances, solvents, solubilizers, agents for achieving a depot effect, salts for altering the osmotic pressure, coating agents or antioxidants. Oral immediate-release and time-controlled release dosage forms may be employed, as well as enterically coated oral dosage forms. Tablets may be uncoated or they may be coated by known techniques for aesthetic purposes, to mask taste or for other reasons. Coatings can also be used to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby provide a sustained action over a longer period. For example, a time delay material such as glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate may be employed.

Formulations for oral use may also be presented as hard gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with an inert solid diluent, for example, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or kaolin, or as soft gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredients is mixed with water or miscible solvents such as propylene glycol, PEGs and ethanol, or an oil medium, for example peanut oil, liquid paraffin, or olive oil.

Aqueous suspensions contain the active material in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. Oily suspensions may be formulated by suspending the active ingredient in a vegetable oil, for example arachis oil, olive oil, sesame oil or coconut oil, or in mineral oil such as liquid paraffin. The oily suspensions may contain a thickening agent, for example beeswax, hard paraffin or cetyl alcohol. Sweetening agents and flavoring agents may be added to provide a palatable oral preparation. These compositions may be preserved by the addition of an anti-oxidant such as ascorbic acid. Syrups and elixirs may be formulated with sweetening agents, for example glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol or sucrose.

The instant invention also encompasses a process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition comprising combining a compound of Formula I with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Also encompassed is the pharmaceutical composition which is made by combining a compound of Formula I with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier is comprised of one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. Furthermore, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of this invention can be used for the preparation of a medicament useful for inhibiting ROMK, for causing diuresis and/or natriuresis, and/or for treating, preventing or reducing the risk for any of the medical conditions described herein, in dosage amounts described herein.

The amount of active compound of Formula I and/or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts in the pharmaceutical composition may be, for example but not limited to, from 0.1 to 200 mg, preferably from 0.1 to 50 mg, per dose on a free acid/free base weight basis, but depending on the type of the pharmaceutical composition and potency of the active ingredient it could also be lower or higher. Pharmaceutical compositions usually comprise 0.5 to 90 percent by weight of the active compound on a free acid/free base weight basis.

The compounds of Formula I inhibit ROMK. On account of this property, apart from use as pharmaceutically active compounds in human medicine and veterinary medicine, they can also be employed as a scientific tool or as aid for biochemical investigations in which such an effect on ROMK is intended, and also for diagnostic purposes, for example in the in vitro diagnosis of cell samples or tissue samples. The compounds of Formula I can also be employed as intermediates for the preparation of other pharmaceutically active compounds. One or more additional pharmacologically active agents may be administered in combination with a compound of Formula I. An additional active agent (or agents) is intended to mean a pharmaceutically active agent (or agents) different from the compound of Formula I. Generally, any suitable additional active agent or agents, including but not limited to antihypertensive agents, anti-atherosclerotic agents such as a lipid modifying compound, anti-diabetic agents and/or anti-obesity agents may be used in any combination with the compound of Formula I in a single dosage formulation (a fixed dose drug combination), or may be administered to the patient in one or more separate dosage formulations which allows for concurrent or sequential administration of the active agents (co-administration of the separate active agents). Examples of additional active agents which may be employed include but are not limited to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (e.g, alacepril, benazepril, captopril, ceronapril, cilazapril, delapril, enalapril, enalaprilat, fosinopril, imidapril, lisinopril, moveltipril, perindopril, quinapril, raraipril, spirapril, temocapril, or trandolapril), angiotensin Il receptor antagonists also known as angiotensis receptor blockers or ARBs (e.g., losartan i.e., COZAAR®, valsartan, candesartan, olmesartan, telmesartan and any of these drugs used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide such as HYZAAR®), neutral endopeptidase inhibitors (e.g., thiorphan and phosphoramidon), aldosterone antagonists, renin inhibitors (e.g. urea derivatives of di- and tri-peptides (See U.S. Pat. No. 5,116,835), amino acids and derivatives (U.S. Patents 5,095,119 and 5,104,869), amino acid chains linked by non-peptidic bonds (U.S. Patent 5,114,937), di- and tri-peptide derivatives (U.S. Patent 5,106,835), peptidyl amino diols (U.S. Patents 5,063,208 and 4,845,079) and peptidyl beta-aminoacyl aminodiol carbamates (U.S. Patent 5,089,471); also, a variety of other peptide analogs as disclosed in the following U.S. Patents 5,071,837; 5,064,965; 5,063,207; 5,036,054; 5,036,053; 5,034,512 and 4,894,437, and small molecule renin inhibitors (including diol sulfonamides and sulfmyls (U.S. Patent 5,098,924), N-morphoUno derivatives (U.S. Patent 5,055,466), N-heterocyclic alcohols (U.S. Patent 4,885,292) and pyrolimidazolones (U.S. Patent 5,075,451); also, pepstatin derivatives (U.S. Patent 4,980,283) and fluoro- and chloro-derivatives of statone-containing peptides (U.S. Patent 5,066,643), enalkrein, RO 42-5892, A 65317, CP 80794, ES 1005, ES 8891, SQ 34017, aliskiren (2(S),4(S),5(S),7(S)-N-(2-carbamoyl-2-methylpropyl)-5-amino-4-hydroxy-257-diisopropyl-8-[4-methoxy-3-(3-methoxypropoxy)-phenyl]-octanamid hemifumarate) SPP600, SPP630 and SPP635), endothelin receptor antagonists, vasodilators (e.g. nitroprusside), calcium channel blockers (e.g., amlodipine, nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem, gallopamil, niludipine, nimodipins, nicardipine), potassium channel activators (e.g., nicorandil, pinacidil, cromakalim, minoxidil, aprilkalim, loprazolam), diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide), sympatholitics, beta-adrenergic blocking drugs (e.g., propranolol, atenolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, metoprolol, or metoprolol tartate), alpha adrenergic blocking drugs (e.g., doxazocin, prazocin or alpha methyldopa) central alpha adrenergic agonists, peripheral vasodilators (e.g. hydralazine), lipid lowering agents (e.g., HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors such as simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, and cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe); niacin in immediate-release or controlled release forms, and particularly niacin in combination with a DP antagonist such as laropiprant (TRED APTIVE®) and/or with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor; niacin receptor agonists such as acipimox and acifran, as well as niacin receptor partial agonists; metabolic altering agents including insulin sensitizing agents and related compounds for the treatment of diabetes such as biguam'des (e.g., metformin), meglitinides (e.g., repaglinide, nateglinide), sulfonylureas (e.g., chlorpropamide, glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, tolazamide, tolbutamide), thiazolidinediones also referred to as glitazones (e.g., pioglitazone, rosiglitazone), alpha glucosidase inhibitors (e.g., acarbose, miglitol), dipeptϊdyl peptidase inhibitors (e.g., sitagliptin, saxagliptin), ergot alkaloids (e.g., bromocriptine), combination medications such as JANUMET® (sitagliptin with metformin), and injectable diabetes medications such as exenatide and pramlintide acetate; or with other drags beneficial for the prevention or the treatment of the above-mentioned diseases including but not limited to diazoxide.

Several methods for preparing the compounds of this invention are described in the following Schemes and Examples. Starting materials and intermediates are purchased, made from known procedures, or as otherwise illustrated. The Ar group shown in the below schemes can represent any of the substituted aromatic or substituted heterocyclic groups found in Z1 or Z2 as defined previously.

The preparation of the compounds II, 12, and 13 is detailed in Scheme 1. Treatment of the electrophile 1-2 (such as bromide, iodide, mesylate, or tosylate) with 1-Boc Piperazine 1-1 under basic conditions (such as in the presence of triethylamine) affords the alkylation adduct 1-3. The Boc protecting group (Greene, T.; Wuts, P. G. M. protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY 1991) of 1-3 can be removed under acidic conditions, such as with TFA or HCl. Alternatively, the piperazine may be protected with another protecting group such as Cbz, and subsequently removed by hydrogenolysis. Subsequent alkylation of 1-4 with bromo-ketone 1-5 (the Ar-CO group represents an example of Z1) in the presence of abase such as triethylamine gives rise to compounds II. The benzylic carbonyl of Il can be reduced to the corresponding alcohol with standard reducing agents such as sodium borohydride to yield 12 (the Ar-CHOH- group represents an example of Z ). Compound 12 can be converted to 13 (the Ar-CHF- group represents an example of Z1) by treating with fluorination agents such as DAST (Hudlicky, M. Organic Reactions, 1988, 35).

SCHEME 1


1-1 1-2

1-3



12 D

More generally, compounds of formula 12 can also be prepared by the sequence detailed in Scheme 2. Treating epoxides 2-1 with commercial 1-Boc Piperazine at elevated temperatures gives rise to alcohol 2-2 (Nomura, Y. et al. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1995, 43(2), 241-6). Alternatively, the piperazine may be protected with another protecting group such as Cbz. The Ar-CHOH- group in 2-2 represents an example of Z1. The Boc group can be removed under acidic conditions such as with TFA or HCl to afford piperazine 2-3 (if the piperazine is protected with a Cbz protecting group, then that group is removed using hydrogen and a catalyst such as Pd/C). The coupling of 2-3 and 2-4 can be achived either by alkylation under basic conditions where 2-4 is an electrophile where A is bromide, iodide, mesylate, or tosylate, or by standard reductive animation conditions where 2-4 is an aldehyde with A being a carbonyl oxygen (for example using sodium borohydride or sodium triacetoxy borohydride).

SCHEME 2



12

Compounds of formula 13 can also be prepared from alcohol 2-2 previously described in Scheme 2 (Scheme 3). Treatment of alcohol 2-2 with a fluorinating reagent such as DAST gives rise to fluoride 3-1 (Hudlicky, M. Organic Reactions, 1988, 35). The Ar-CHF-group in 3-1 represents an example of Z1. The Boc group can be removed under acidic conditions to afford piperazine 3-2, which can then be coupled to 2-4 via either alkylation or reductive animation reaction conditions described above in Scheme 2.

SCHEME 3


The epoxides 2-1 can be prepared following the method detailed in Scheme 4 A. Treatment of 4-1 (where A2 is bromide, iodide, or trifiuoromethane sulfonate) with commercially available potassium vinyl trifluoroborate 4-2 (Molander, G.; Luciana, A. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2005, 70(10), 3950-3956) under palladium catalyzed coupling conditions with an appropriate phosphine ligand gives rise to styrene 4-3 (Molander, G.; Brown, A. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2006, 71(26), 9681-9686). The olefins can be converted to the corresponding epoxides 2-1 under standard epoxidation conditions with, for example, m-CPBA (Frmguelli, F. et al. Organic Preparations and Procedures International, 1989, 21(6), 757-761). If the Ar group contains a heterocyle that is not compatable with use of m-CPBA, then a two step

. ?s _ sequence involving formation of a bromohydrin intermediate with, for example, B^/water, followed by epoxide formation with base (for example Na2CO3) can be substituted. The racemic epoxide can be resolved under chiral HPLC chromatography conditions to afford its enantiomers, which can be used in place of 2-1 according to Scheme 2.

SCHEME 4A

K+ F [Pd] m-CPBA

4-1 4-2 4_3

Chiral resolution Ar^ ^i Arv /i

Ar^1 "*" ^ ΌO " "'OO

0 7-1 7-2

2-1

Alternatively, enantiopure epoxides 7-1 or 7-2 can be prepared as shown in Scheme 4B. Treatment of 4-1 (where A2 is bromide, iodide, or trifiuoromethane sulfonate) with commercial available vinyl butylether 4-2 b under palladium catalyzed conditions with a suitable ligand (for example Pd(OAc)2, DPPP) can provide the enol ethers 4-3b. Treatment with NBS or other similar reagents affords the corresponding bromomethyl ketones 4-4b. These can be subjected to avariety of asymmetric ketone reduction conditions, for example with an enzyme that can affect such a transformation with high enantioselectivity. Subsequent treatment with a base such as triethylamine leads to cyclization, affording the enantioenriched epoxides 7-2 (or depending upon the asymmetric reducing agent 7-1).

SCHEME 4B

[Pd] NBS

AK ^

■:^/O-n-Bu

4-1 4-2b 4-3b O-n-Bu

enzymatic ketone reduction w_ A r

AK

^Br Ar^1 'O Et3N 4-4b Y O 7-2

Compound 14, which is substituted at both benzylic positions with an OH group, can be prepared following the sequence detailed in Scheme 5. Coupling of epoxide 2-1 to commercial 1-Boc piperazine 1-1 at elevated temperatures leads to the formation of alcohol 2-2. Alternatively, 1-Cbz piperazine may be used in place of the 1-Boc piperazine 1-1. The Ar-CHOH- group in 2-2 represents an example of Z1. Removal of the Boc group of 2-2 under acidic conditions, such as with HCl or TFA5 gives 2-3 (if the protecting group on the piperazine was Cbz, then it can be removed using, for example, hydrogen and a catalyst such as Pd/C). Il is often helpful for the success of the subsequent epoxide opening reaction to convert 2-3 to its free base form by washing with an aqueous base solution. The free base form of 2-3 can then be coupled to the right hand epoxide, which is prepared in similar manners as descibed in Scheme 4, to afford compound 14. The Ar'-CHOH- group in 2-2 represents an example of Z2.

SCHEME 5



2-3 14

Compounds of this class bearing the same aromatic substitution patterns (Z1 is the same as Z2) can be prepared in one step by treating the epoxide 2-1 with piperazine at elevated temperatures in solvents such as ethanol or DMSO (Scheme 6). The Ar-CHOH- groups in 14' represent examples of either Z or Z .

SCHEME 6


14' 2-1 1-1 The stereochemistry of the epoxide is conserved during the ring-opening reaction. Thus, reacting enantio-pure epoxide with piperazine at elevated temperatures gives rise to (R,R) or (S,S) isomer of 14' (Scheme 7). The (#?S)-meso isomer of 14' can be prepared in a step-wise epoxide-opening sequence with the two enantiomers of the epoxide (Scheme 7). The Ar-CHOH- groups in 14' represent examples of either Z1 or Z2.

- 77 SCHEME 7


7-1 1-1 (£S)-I4'




7-4 7 2

(R,S)-I4- Compound 15, which is substituted at both benzylic positions with a fluorine atom, can be prepared by treating compound 14 with fluorinating reagents such as DAST in one step (Scheme 8). The Ar-CHF- groups in 14' represent examples of either Z1 or Z2.

SCHEME 8


14 15

The preparation of compounds 16 can be achieved following the sequence detailed in Scheme 9. Treating epoxide 2-1 with commercially available 1-Boc piperazine at elevated temperatures gives rise to alcohol 2-2 (Nomura, Y. et al. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1995, 43(2), 241-6). The hydroxyl group of 2-2 can be converted to the fluoride by treatment of such fluorinating reagent as DAST (Hudlicky, M. Organic Reactions, 1988, 35). Removal of the Boc group of 3-1 under acidic conditions such as TFA gives rise to piperazine 3-2. Piperazine 3-2 can be washed with an aqueous base solution followed by extraction with organic solvents to generate the free base form. The free base of 3-2 can be coupled to epoxide 5-1 at elevated temperatures to afford compound 16. The Ar-CHF- and Ar'-CHOH- groups in 16 represent examples of either Z1 or Z2.

SCHEME 9



16 General Procedures.

Reactions sensitive to moisture or air were performed under nitrogen or argon using anhydrous solvents and reagents. The progress of reactions was determined by either analytical thin layer chromatography (TLC) usually performed with E. Merck precoated TLC plates, silica gel 60F-254, layer thickness 0.25 mm or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Typically the analytical LC-MS system used consisted of a Waters ZQ platform with electrospray ionization in positive ion detection mode with an Agilent 1100 series HPLC with autosampler.

The column was usually a Water Xterra MS Cl 8, 3.0 x 50 mm, 5 μm. The flow rate was 1 mL/min, and the injection volume was 10 μL. UV detection was in the range 210-400 nm. The mobile phase consisted of solvent A (water plus 0.06% TFA) and solvent B (acetonitrile plus 0.05% TFA) with a gradient of 100% solvent A for 0.7 min changing to 100% solvent B over 3.75 min, maintained for 1.1 min, then reverting to 100% solvent A over 0.2 min.

Preparative HPLC purifications were usually performed using a mass spectrometry directed system. Usually they were performed on a Waters Chromatography Workstation configured with LC-MS System Consisting of: Waters ZQ single quad MS system with Electrospray Ionization, Waters 2525 Gradient Pump, Waters 2767 Injector / Collector, Waters 996 PDA Detetor, the MS Conditions of: 150-750 amu, Positive Electrospray, Collection Triggered by MS, and a Waters Sunfire C-18 5 micron, 30 mm (id) x 100 mm column. The mobile phases consisted of mixtures of acetonitrile (10-100%) in water containing 0.1%TFA. Flow rates were maintained at 50 mL/min, the injection volume was 1800 μL, and the UV detection range was 210-400 nm. Mobile phase gradients were optimized for the individual compounds. Reactions perfomed using microwave iradiation were normally carried out using an

Emrys Optimizer manufactured by Personal Chemistry, or an Initiator manufactured by Biotage. Concentration of solutions was carried out on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. Flash chromatography was usually performed using a Biotage Flash Chromatography apparatus (Dyax Corp.) on silica gel (32-63 mM, 60 A pore size) in pre-packed cartridges of the size noted. 1H NMR spectra were acquired at 500 MHz spectrometers in CDCl3 solutions unless otherwise noted. Chemical shifts were reported in parts per million (ppm). Tetramethylsilane (TMS) was used as internal reference in CD3Cl solutions, and residual CH^OH peak or TMS was used as internal reference in CD3OD solutions. Coupling constants (J) were reported in hertz (Hz). Chiral analytical chromatography was usually performed on one of Chiralpak AS, Chiralpak AD, Chiralcel OD, Chiralcel IA, or Chiralcel OJ columns (250x4.6 mm) (Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd.) with noted percentage of either ethanol in hexane (%Et/Hex) or isopropanol in heptane (%IPA/Hep) as isocratic solvent systems. Chiral preparative chromatography was usually conducted on one of Chiralpak AS, Chiralpak AD, Chiralcel OD, Ciralcel IA, or Chiralcel OJ columns (20x250 mm) (Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd.) with desired isocratic solvent systems identified on chiral analytical chromatography or by supercritical fluid (SFC) conditions. Where retention times are provided, they are not intended to be a definitve characteristic of a particular compound, since retention times will vary depending on the chromatographic conditions and equipment used.

Aside from where crystal product is noted in Example 3 B (Method 2), terminology referencing the process of crystallization, crystals or the like in the Intermediates and Examples section is used to describe the process and product resulting from precipitating a solid product from solution and does not necessarily mean that the precipitated solid was determined to be in a crystalline physical form.

Abbreviations usd herein include: -C(O)CH3 (Ac); acetic acid (AcOH); -OC(O)CH3 (OAc); aqueous (aq); Cbz (benzyloxycarbonyl); Λ^V-diisopropylethylarnine (DIEA);diethylaraine (DEA); N;N-dimethylformamide (DMF); ethyl acetate (EtOAc); diethyl ether (ether or Et2θ); petroleum ether (PE); gram(s) (g); hour(s) (h or hr); 2-propanol (IPA); iso-butyl alcohol (IBA); mass spectrum (ms or MS); microliter(s) (μL); milligram^) (mg); milliliter(s) (mL); millimole (mmol); minute(s) (min); methyl t-butylether (MTBE); (benzotriazol-l-yloxy)tripyrrolidino-phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyBOP); retention time (tR); room temperature (rt or RT); saturated aq sodium chloride solution (brine); trifluoroacetic acid (TFA); tetrahydrofuran (THF); flash chromatography (FC); liquid chromatography (LC); liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS or LC-MS); supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC); t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc or BOC); Diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST); dichloromethane (DCM); dimethylacetamide (DMA; DMAC); dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO); 1,3-Bis(diρhenylphosphino)propane (DPPP); acetic acid (HOAc); 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA); methyl (Me); methanol (MeOH); N-bromosuccinamide (NBS); thin layer chromatography (TLC); diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL-H); Tmax (maximum temperature); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).

The following are representative procedures for the preparation of the compounds used in the following Examples, or which can be substituted for the compounds used in the following Examples which may not be commercially available.

INTEPVMEDIATE 1


5-Oxirane~2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one Step A: 5~allyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one A 4-neck, 22-L, round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermocouple, nitrogen bubbler, and condenser was charged with 5-bromophthalide (650 g, 3.0 mol), allyltri-n-butyltin (1200 g, 3.6 mol), palladium tetrakis triphenylphosphine (100 g, 0.089 mol), lithium chloride (250 g, 5.9 mol) and toluene (8.8 L). The mixture was evacuated and flushed with nitrogen 3 times and then was stirred at 100 0C for 4 hours. After slowly cooling to ambient temperature, the mixture was filtered and concentrated. The resulting solid was purified by silica gel column chromatography (heptane:ethyl acetate, 0->40%) to provide 5-allyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.83 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.38 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.33 (s, IH)5

5.98 (m, IH), 5.29 (s, 2H), 5.11-5.18 (m, 2H), 3.52 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 2H); LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 175.1; tR = 2.9 min.

Step B: 5-(2-hvdroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l (3H)-one

5-allyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.53 g, 8.78 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (30 mL). THF was added to solubilize the starting material. The resulting mixture was cooled in a dry ice acetone bath (-78 0C) and ozone was bubbled into the reaction until the color of the mixture changed to orange. Nitrogen was bubbled into the reaction for one minute to remove the excess ozone. Sodium borohydride (0.65 g, 2.9 mmol) was added at -78 0C, and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated part way and then taken up in ethyl acetate and water. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to provide 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one .

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.77 (ra, IH), 7.37-7.41 (m, 2H), 5.23 (s, 2H), 3.92 (m, 2H),

2.99 (m, 2H); LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 179.1; tR = 1.4 min. Step C : 5-Oxirane-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

To a solution of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (0.50 g, 2.8 mmol) and Et3N (0.65 ml, 4.7 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 ml) was added methanesulfonyl chloride (0.24 mL, 3.1 mmol) at 0 0C. After 15 min. the reaction mixture was poured into saturated ammonium chloride and extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organics were washed with 1 N HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue (LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 257.2; tR = 0.45 min) was redissolved in dichloromethane (5 ml) and treated with DBU (0.80 ml, 5.3 mmol) and stirred 2 h. TLC monitoring showed conversion to the olefin. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with dichloromethane- The combined organics were washed with 1 N HCl5 saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting olefin (LC/MS: [(M+l)]"1" = 161.2; tR = 0.86 min) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 ml) and treated with meta-chloro perbenzoic acid (0.90 g, 3.7 mmol) at 00C. After 3 h, the mixture was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with dichloromethane. The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude epoxide was purified by silica gel column chromatography (5-> 80% EtOAc:hexane) to provide the 5-oxirane-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3i7)-one. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.84 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.55 (s, IH), 7.52 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.38 (s, 2H), 4.05 (dd, J- 2.6, 3.9 Hz, IH), 3.21 (dd, J- 4.3, 5.4 Hz, IH), 2.82 (dd, J- 2.4, 5.5 Hz5 IH); LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 177.1; tR = 0.32 min.


5-bromo-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 ffl-one Step A: (3-bromo-2-memylphenyl)methanol To a solution of 3-bromo-2-methyl benzoic acid (35 g, 163 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added Borane THF Complex (1.0 M, 212 mL, 212 mmol). The mixture was allowed to stir for 24 h. TLC showed one single product spot. The reaction was quenched with water. The solvent THF was removed under reduced pressure. The resulting solid was dissolved in ethyl acetate (500 mL)j washed with IN HCl, sodium carbonate, and brine. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford (3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)methanol.

1HNMR (500 MHz5 CDCl3) δ 7.76 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.63 (d, J = 8.0 Hz1 IH), 5.30 (s, 2H),

2.42 (s, 3H).

Step B: 5-bromo-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3ff)-one

To a flask charged with (3-bromo-2-methylphenyl)methanol (6.0 g, 30 mmol) was added a IM TFA solution of Thallium Trifiuoroacetate (16.2 g, 29.8 mmol). The mixture was stirred at RT overnight. Analysis by TLC showed no starting material remaining. The solvent was removed under vacuum, and the residue was pumped under high vacuum for 30 min to ensure complete removal of TFA. To the residue was then added Palladium(II) Chloride (529 mg, 2.98 mmol), Lithium Chloride (2.53 g, 59.7 mmol), Magnesium Oxide (2.41 g, 59.7 mmol), and MeOH (150 mL). The reaction was flushed with CO twice, and kept under CO at room temperature. Analysis by LC showed a big product spot within 2 hours. To this solution was added ethyl acetate to precipitate the salts. The black solution was filtered through a celite pad, washed with EtOAc, adsorbed onto silica and purified by silica gel chromatography to afford 5-bromo-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l (3H)-one. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.71 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.58 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.25 (s, 2H), 2.37 (s, 3H).

INTERMEDIATE 3


4-meth.yl-5-oxlran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one Step A: 5-ethenyl-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l('3H)-one 5-Bromo-4-memyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (598 mgs 4.47 mmol), potassium vinyl trifluoroborate (507 mgs 2.23 mmmol), PdCl2(dppf)-CΗ2Cl2Adduct (182 mg, 0.223 rammol) , and TEA (0.622 mL, 4.47 mmol) were added to 10 mJL ethanol in a 20 mL microwave tube. The tube was sealed and degassed, then heated to 140 0C for 20 min. Analysis by LC-MS showed product peak. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate, washed with brine twice, dried and evaporated to dryness. The crude product was purified by MPLC chromatography using a 12Og Redi-sep column and 0-80% ETOAC/Hexane solvent system to yield 5-ethenyl-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 7.76 ( d, J = 8Hz, IH), 7.03(dd, J= 11, 17 Hz5 IH), 5.84 (d, J= 17 Hz5 IH)5 5.55 (d, J- 11 Hz, IH), 5.29 (s5 2H)5 2.34 (s, 3H). LC-MS: M+l= 175; tR = 2.42 min

Step B : 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzoruran- 1 (3H)-one

5-ethenyI-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.46 g, 8.38 mmol) was added to DCM (25 mL) at 0 0C then mCPBA (2.89 g, 16.8 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at RT overnight. The reaction mixture was washed once each with saturated aqueous Na2S2O3, NaHCO3, and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The crude material was purified by MPLC chromatography through 12Og Redi-sep column eluting with 0-80% EtOAc/hexane solvent system to yield target 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one. 1H-NMR (500 MHz5 CDCl3): δ ppm 7.77 ( d5 J= 8 Hz, IH), 7.43 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 5.30 (s, 2 H), 4.12 ( s, 1 H), 3.27 (t, J= 4Hz, 1 H), 2.735 ( dd, J = 2.2, 5.5 Hz, IH) , 2.43 (s, 3H). LC-MS: MH-I=I 91; tR = 2.2 min.

INTERMEDIATES 3A AND 3B (Method D


Slow eluting 3A Fast ) fluting 3B

3 A: 4-methyl-5-[(2,S)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l (3Jϊ)-one 3B: 4-methyl-5-r(2^)-oxiran-2-γll-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

Racemic 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one was resolved on a ChiralPak® AD-H column (5x25cm)under supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) conditions on a Berger MGIII preparative SFC instrument. The racemate was diluted to 50 mg/ml in I : I DCM:MeOH. The separation was accomplished using 10% EtOH/CO2, flow rate 200 ml/min, 100 bar, 25 0C. 50OuI Injections were spaced every 2.12 mins. The fast epoxide (4-methyl-5-[(2i?)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one, 3B) eluted at 5.2 min, and the slow epoxide (4-methyl-5-[(2S)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one, 3A) eluted at 5.6 min.

Alternatively, the resolution could also be achieved using a mobile phase of 8%MeOH / 98% CO2 with a flow rate of 100ml/min. In that case the sample was prepared by dissolving in methanol, 20mg/ml, and using a 1 mL volume per injection. After separation, the fractions were dried off via rotary evaporator at bath temperature 40°C. The absolute stereochemistry of each enantiomer was inferred based on the X-ray crystal structure determination of a final compound made with 3 B (EXAMPLE 2A)5 and by Mosher ester and Trost ester HNMR analysis of esters made starting from 3B (used tert-bnty\-4-[(2i?-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl) ethyl }piperazine~l-carboxylate, prepared as described in the synthesis of INTERMEDIATE (R)-8). Both epoxide isomers find utility in the present invention.

INTERMEDIATE 3B (Method 2)


4-methyl-5- re 2 J?)-oxiran-2-vn-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one Step A: 3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl phenol

To a 5L 3 neck RB equipped with overhead stirrer was charged NaBH4 (87.0 g, 2.30 mol) and THF (3.0 L) and the resulting slurry was cooled to 10 0C. To the slurry was then added 3-hydroxy-2-methyl benzoic acid (175 g, 1.15 mol) portionwise over 20 min (Tmax 17 0C). A stirrable slurry formed, and was aged for an additional 45 min at 10-15 0C after which BF3-OEt2 (321 mL, 2.53 mol) was added slowly over 1.5 hours. The slurry was aged at 10°C-15°C for 2 h then assayed for reaction completion (98.5 % conversion). The slurry was cooled to < 10 0C and quenched with 931 mL MeOH slowly over 1.5 h (gas evolution). The resulting slurry was aged overnight at RT. The batch was cooled to < 10 °C then quenched with 1 N HCl (1.5 L) to get a homogeneous solution (pH solution ~ 1), which was aged for 30 min and then the organic solvents were removed by rotary evaporation to approximately 1.8 L of total reaction volume (bath temperature was set to 50 0C; internal temp of concentrate after rotary evaporation was ~ 40 0C). The slurry was held at 45 0C for 30 min then cooled slowly to 15 0C. The solids were filtered and washed with cold (15 0C) water (2 x 300 mL), providing 3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl phenol. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 ): δ 9.11 (s, IH), 6.95 (t» J= 7.8 Hz5 IH), 6.82 (d, J- 7.4 Hz, IH), 6.71 (d, J- 7.8 Hz5 IH), 4.93 (t, J- 5.5 Hz, IH), 4.44 (d, J- 5.5 Hz, 2H), 2.06 (s, 3H). Step B: 4-Bromo-3-hvdrpxymethyl-2-methyl phenol

3"Hydroxymethyl~2-methyl phenol (113.9 g, 824.0 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of acetonitrile (850 mL) and trifluoroacetic acid (750.0 mL, 9,735 mmol) in a 3-neck 5-L flask under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was cooled to -33 0C. N-bromosuccinimide (141 g, 791 mmol) was added over 15 minutes, with the temperature during addition in the range of -35 to -33 0C. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir for an additional 15 min during which time the temperature decreased to -40 0C. The cooling bath was removed, and potassium carbonate (741.0 g, 5,358 mmol) diluted with water to a total of 1.0 L was added. Off-gassing was observed, and the temperature increased to 25 0C. MTBE (1.5 L) was added, and the reaction mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel. The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was diluted with water (500 mL) and extracted with MTBE (1 L) + EtOAc (500 mL), and then MTBE (500 mL) + EtOAc (250 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (240 mL) and dried over sodium sulfate. The sodium sulfate was removed by filtration, washed with additional MTBE and concentrated under reduced pressure. MTBE (684 mL, 2 volumes) was added, and the suspension was heated to 40 0C to produce a homogeneous solution. The solution was allowed to cool to room temperature. Six volumes of heptane were added, and the supension was stirred overnight. The suspension was filtered, and the crystals were washed with 4:1 heptane: MTBE (500 mL), followed by heptane (500 mL). The solid was dried under vacuum, providing 4-bromo-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl phenol.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 ): δ 9.52 (s, IH), 7.21 (d, J- 8.6 Hz, IH)5 6.71 (d, J= 8.6 Hz5

IH), 4.88 (t, J- 5.1 Hz, IH)5 4.59 (d, J= 5.1 Hz, 2H), 2.23 (s, 3H)

Step C: 5-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one

To a 2 L 3 neck flask equipped with overhead stirrer, N2 inlet, and condenser were charged A-bromo-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl phenol (100 g, 461 mmol), CuCN (83.0 g, 921 mmol), and DMF (500 mL). The solution was sparged with N2 for 15 min then heated to 145 0C to obtain a homogeneous solution. The solution was aged at 145 0C for 2h? then the reaction mixture was cooled to 95 0C. 41.5 mL water was added (sparged with N2), and the reaction aged for 20 h. The reaction was cooled to RT then the solids filtered through solka flok and the cake washed with 50 mL DMF. To a 3 L flask containing 1 L EtOAc was added the DMF filtrate. A precipitate coating formed in bottom of flask. The DMF/EtOAc suspension was filtered through solka flok and the cake was washed with 250 mL EtOAc. The resulting filtrate was washed with 5 % brine solution (3x500 mL). The aqueous layers were extracted with 500 mL EtOAc and the combined organics were dried over MgSO4, fitered and evaporated. The solids were slurried in 250 mL MTBE at RT then filtered and washed with 100 mL MTBE. The solids were dried under vaccum at RT, providing 5-hydroxy-4-memyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 ): δ 10.52 (s, IH), 7.51 (d, J- 8.3 Hz, IH), 6.99 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, IH), 5.28 (s, 2H), 2.07 (s, 3H). Step D: Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-isobenzofuran-5-yl ester 5-Hydroxy-4-methyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one (46.8 g, 285 mmol) was suspended in dichloromethane (935 mL) in 2-L roundbottom flask equipped with overhead stirrer under nitrogen. Triethylamine (59.5 mL, 427 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was cooled in an ice bath to 3.8 0C. Trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (67.4 mL, 399 mmol) was added via addition funnel over 50 min, keeping the temperature < 10 0C. After stirring the recation mixture for an additional 15 min, the reaction mixture was quenched with water (200 mL), then stirred with DARCO® KB (activated carbon, 25 g) for 15 min. The biphasic mixture was filtered over Solka floe, washing with additional dichloromethane, and transferred to a separatory funnel, whereupon it was diluted with additional water (300 mL). The layers were separated, and the organic layer was washed with water (500 mL) and 10% brine (200 mL). The dichloromethane solution was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The orange-red solid was adsorbed onto silica gel (27.5 g) and eluted through a pad of silica gel (271 g) with 25% ethyl acetate/hexanes. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum with the product crystallizing during concentration. The suspension was filtered, the solid washed with heptane and dried under vacuum and nitrogen, providing trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 4-methyl-l-oxo-13-dihydro-isobenzofuran-5-yl ester. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 ): δ 7.87 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, IH), 7.47 (d, J- 8.4 Hz, IH), 5.32 (s, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H) Step E: 5-(l-Butoxy-yinyl)-4-methyl-3ι/j-isobenzofuran-l--one

To a 1 L 3-neck was charged trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-isobenzofuran-5-yl ester (63.0 g, 213 mmol), DMF (315 mL), butyl vinyl ether (138 mL, 1063 mmol) )then Et3N (35.6 mL, 255 mmol). The solution was sparged with N2 for 20 min. To the solution was added Pd(OAc)2 (1.19 g., 5.32 mmol) and DPPP (2.41 g., 5.85 mmol) and sparged for an additional 10 min then heated to 80 0C. After a 1 hr age, the solution was cooled to < 10 0C then quenched with 630 mL EtOAc and washed with 5 % NH4Cl (2 x 315 mL), 10 % brine (2 x 315 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated by rotary evaporation and flushed with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL) to remove excess butyl vinyl ether, providing crude 5-(l-butoxy-vinyl)-4-methyl-3 /f-isobenzofuran- 1 -one. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 ): δ 7.67 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.48 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, IH), 5.42 (s, 2H)5 4.54 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, IH), 4.27 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, IH), 3.85 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.27 (s, 3H), 1.71-1.64 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.37 (m, 2H), 0.92 (t, J- 7.4 Hz, 3H) Step F: 5-(2-Bromo-acetyl)-4-methyl-3/i-isobenzofuran~l-one To a 1 L 3 -neck flask equipped with overhead stirrer was added crude 5-(l-butoxy-vinyl)-4-methyl-3/f-isobenzofuran-l-one (55.8 g) and THF (315 mL). The solution was cooled to < 5 0C after which water (79 mL) was added and the solution was maintained at < 5 0C. NBS (41.6 g) was then added portionwise while maintaining Tmax = 19 0C. The solution was then warmed to RT for 30 minutes. HBr (48 %, 0.241 mL) was added and the reaction was aged at RT for approximately 1 h after which 236 mL water was then added to the batch. A water bath is used to maintain temp at 20 0C. Another 315 mL of water was added (solvent composition 1 :2

THF: water) and the slurry was cooled to 15 0C. The resulting solids were filtered and washed with cold 1 :2 THF: water (15 0C): 150 mL displacement wash followed by 100 mL slurry wash.

The solids were dried under vacuum at RT to provide 5-(2-bromo-acetyl)-4-methyl-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one. 1HNMR (400 MHz5 DMSOd6 ): δ 7.99 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH)5 7.82 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 5.49 (s, 2H)5 4.92 (s, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H) Step G: 4-methyl-5-rf2Jg)-oxiraα-2-yll-2-benzofuran-lC3H)-one 5-(2-Bromo-acetyl)-4-methyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one (48.8 g., 181 mmol) was charged to a 5 L 3 neck round bottom equipped with overhead stirrer, thermocouple, and heating mantle. 2-Propanol (1.22 L ) was added, followed by 610 mL of pH 7 0.1M potassium phosphate buffer. Buffer solution (610 mL) was charged to a 1.0L erlenmeyer, and 2.44 g of NADP was added to the erlenmeyer and swirled to dissolve. A reducing enzyme, KRED MIF-20 (2.44 g) (available from Codexis, Inc., 200 Penobscot Drive, Redwood City, CA 94063, www.codexis.com, tel. 1-650-421-8100) was added to the erlenmeyer flask and the mixture was swirled to dissolve the solids. The resulting solution was added to the 5 L round bottom, which was then heated to 28 0C and aged for 6 hours, at which point the reaction was cooled to RT and triethylamine (50.2 mL, 360 mmol) was added. The resulting solution was aged at 40 0C for 1 h. The light slurry solution was cooled to RT, after which 122 g NaCl was added. The solution was aged at RT then extracted with 1.22 L isopropyl acetate (IPAc). The aqueous layer was re-extracted with 400 mL IPAc and the combined organics were washed with 400 mL 20 % brine solution, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated by rotary evaporation. The resulting solids were taken up in 100 mL IPAc (thick slurry). Hexanes were added (400 mL) and the suspension aged at RT then filtered and washed w/ 5: 1 Hexanes:IPAc solution (150 mL). The crystalline solids were dried under vacuum at RT to provide 4-methyl-5-[(2JR)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-on&. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 ): 5 7.75 (d, J- 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.42 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, IH), 5.28 (s, 2H), 4.10 (dd, J- 4.0, 2.8, IH), 3.26 (dd, J= 5.6, 4.0, IH)5 2.72 (dd, J= 5.6, 2.8, IH), 2.42 (s, 3H)

INTERMEDIATE 4


1 , 1 -dimethyIethyl-4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 13-dJhydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate

To a 25 mL microwave tube was added 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.2 g, 6.0 mmol, 1.0 eq) and tert-bxύyϊ piperazine-1-carboxylate (1.7 g, 9.0 mmol, 1.5 eq). To the mixture was added EtOH (15 mL). The reaction was heated in a microwave apparatus at 150 0C for 30 min. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography yielding l,l-dimethylethyl-4~[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dmydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piρerazine- 1 -carboxylate.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.80 (IH, s), 7.26 (IH, s), 5.25 (2H? s), 5.10 (IH, dxd, J = 3.0 Hz, J- 10.8 Hz), 3.50 (4H, m), 2.73(2H, m), 2.53 - 2.40 (4H, m), 2.28 (3H, s, Me), 1.47 (9H, s). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 377.1 [M + I]+; tR = 2.1 min.

INTERMEDIATE 5


5-( 1 -fluoro-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one hydrochloride Step A: 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl-4-[2-fluoro-2-f4-methyl-l -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-vDethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl-4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro~2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazine~l -carboxylate (0.500 g, 1.46 mmol) was added to a 25 ml flask containing a stir bar and dissolved in THF (4 mL). To the solution was added DAST (0.232 mL, 1.76 mmol) and triethylamine (0.175 mL, 1.33 mmol) and subsequently stirred for 45 min; LC as well as TLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/0.3) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. Reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness, absorbed into silica gel and loaded into silica column. Compound 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl-4- [2-fluoro-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran~5 -yl)ethyl]pϊperazine-l -carboxylate was obtained. Step B : 5-(T -fluoro-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran~ 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride 1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl-4~[2-fluoro-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5~ yl)ethyl]piperazine-l -carboxylate (0.18 g) was treated with 4M HCl in dioxane (4 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was then concentrated to dryness. Analysis by LC indicated complete removal of the Boc group and formation of compound 5-(l-fluoro-2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride. 1H-NMR (DMSO5 500 MHz), δ 7.744 (d, J- 7.5 Hz5 IH), 7.612 (d, J- 7.5 Hz5 IH), 6.264-6.167 (m, IH), 5.382 (s, 2H), 3.362-3.309 (m, 2H), 3.255-3.125 (m5 8H), 3.078-3.049 (m, IH), 2.499 (s, 3H)

INTERMEDIATE 6


4-methyl-5-[ 1 -(methyloxy)-2~piperazin- 1 -ylethyl] -2-benzofuτan- 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride StepA: 1 ,,1 -dimethγlei3wl-4-f 2-C4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-2-(methyloxy)ethyll -piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

1 , 1 -Dϊmethylethyl-4- [24rydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro~2-benzofuran~5 -yl)ethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (0.10 g5 0.27 mmol) was combined in a 50 mL flask with DMF (2 mL) and DCM (1 mL) and the flask was placed in a cooling bath at -20 °C. The mixture was then treated with NaH (0.021 g, 0.53 mmol) and stirred for 30 minute, followed by addition of iodomethane (0.0414 mL, 0.664 mmol) at -20 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for another 1 h after which analysis by LC as well as TLC (5% MeOH in DCM) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition of MeOH and stirred for 10 min at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in EtOAc and absorbed into silica gel where it was separated on silica column; to obtain 1,1-dimethylethyl-4-[2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-2-(methyloxy)ethylJ-piperazine-l-carboxylate was isolated. Step B : 4-methyl-5 -[ 1 ~f methyloxy)~2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl] :2-benzpfuran- 1 (3 H)-one hydrochloride

1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl~4-[2-(4-rnethyl- 1 -oxo-1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-2-(methyloxy)ethyl]-piperazine-1 -carboxylate was treated with 4M HCl in dioxane (4 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Analysis by LC indicated complete removal of the Boc group and formation of compound 4-methyl- 5 - [ 1 - (methyloxy)-2-piρerazin~l -ylethyl] -2-benzofuran-l (3 H)-one hydrochloride. 1H-NMR (DMSO5 500 MHz)5 δ 7.747 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH)5 7.577 (d, J- 7.5 Hz5 IH), 5.402-5.388 (m, 2H), 5.113 (d, J= 9 Hz5 IH)5 3.850 (s, 3H), 3.496-3.327 (m, 8H), 3.228-3.140 (m, 3H), 2.500 (s, 3H).

INTERMEDIATE 7


5- jT -(ethyloxy)-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyi]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran~ 1 (3/iV one hydrochloride

Step A: 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4-[2-(ethyloxy)-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro~2-benzofuran~5-vDethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl-4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (0.15 g, 0.40 mmol) in a 50 mL flask was dissolved in DMF (1.5 mL) and DCM (1.5 mL) and the flask was placed in a cooling bath at -30 °C. The mixture was then treated with NaH (0.023 g? 0.99 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes, followed by treatment with iodoethane (0.080 mL, 0.99 mmol) at -30 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred for another 1 h after which LC as well as TLC (5% MeOH in DCM) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The reaction mixture was quenched with MeOH and stirred for 10 min at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then concentrated to dryness, dissolved in EtOAc, and absorbed into silica gel where it was separated on silica column to afford of lJl-dimethylethyl-4-[2-(ethyloxy)-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate.

1H-NMR (CDCB, 500 MHz), δ 7.683 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 7.554 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 5.200 (s, 2H), 3.356 (s; IH)5 2.899-2.810 (m, 5H), 2.703-2.660 (m, 8H)5 2.253 (m, 2H), 1.405 (s, 3H), 1.386 (s, 9H). Step B : 5-[ 1 -(ethyloxy)~2~piperazin~ 1 -ylethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/i)-one hydrochloride 1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl-4- [2-(ethyloxy)-2-(4-methyl~ 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 ~dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazine~l -carboxylate was treated with 4M HCl in dioxane (4 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Analysis by LC indicated complete removal of the Boc group and formation of 5-[l-(ethyloxy)-2-piperazin~l-ylethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 305 [M + I]+; tR - 0.69 min

INTERMEDIATE 8


1 - [2-h.ydroxy:2:(4:methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydjo-2-berizofuran-5-yl)ethyl] piperazin- 1 -ium chl oride fer/-Butyl-4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5 -yl)ethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (800 mg, 2.1 mmol, 1.0 eq) was treated with 4 iVHCl in dioxane (4 mL). The reaction was stirred at r.t. for 3 h and then concentrated. The product was dried under high vacuum pump for 6 hr. The intermediate is often converted to the corresponding free base prior to use by partitioning between saturated Na2CO3 solution and CHCl3-IPA (3:1). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 277.1 [M + I]+; tR = 0.4 min.

INTERMEDIATE (Ry-H (free base)


5-\(lR)-l -hγdroxγ-2-piperazio- 1 -ylethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 f 3/f)-one To a 20 mL microwave tube charged with 4-methyl-5-[(2jS)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1020 mg, 5.40 mmol) and a stir bar was added 1-Boc Piperazine (800mg, 4.3 mmol) and EtOH (15 mL). The tube was sealed and heated in a microwave apparatus to 150 0C for 1 hour. The crude product was adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by flash chromatography (Hexanes-EtOAc with 10% EtOH: 0 - 100% gradient), and solvent removed to afford terl-butyl~4-[(2R-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l -oxo-1 ,3-dihydro-2-bers2θfuran-5-yl) ethyl}piperazine-l-carboxylate. LCMS M+l (calc. 377.20, found 377.13). This product was treated with neat TFA for 15 minutes to remove the Boc group. After removal of TFA under reduced pressure, the residue was taken into aq NaHCO3, and back-extracted with CHCl3-IPA (3:1). The organic layers were combined, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to afford 5 - [( 1 R)- 1 -hydroxy-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one. 1H NMR (OMSO-d6, 500 MHz) δ 7.68 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.65 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH)5 5.38, 5.35 (AB system, J- 15.4, J= 16.7, 2H), 5.06 (dd5 J- 3.9 Hz, J= 3.7 Hz, IH), 3.76 (m, IH)5 2.72 (m, 4H), 2.42 (m, 4H), 2.34 (d, J= 3.8 Hz5 IH), 2.32 (d, J= 3.8 Hz, IH), 2.24 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [M +I]+ = 277.03.

INTERMEDIATE 9


4,6-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofυran- 1 (3H)-one

Step A: 3-bromo-2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid

2,4-Dimethylbenzoic acid (7.00 g, 46.6 mmol) and NBS (12.4 g, 69.9 mmol) were dissolved in TFA (150 mL). The mixture was then heated at 500C for overnight. Analysis by LC as well as TLC (hexanes/EtOAc - 1/1) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the resulting residue was dissolved in DCM, absorbed onto silica gel, and loaded onto a silica MPLC column for separation. The desired product was separated using the solvent system of hexanes/EtOAc (1/1) to yield 3-bromo-2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid. The undesired isomeric 5-bromo-2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid was also isolated. 1H-NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz)9 δ 7.868 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.2 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, IH), 2.793 (s, 3H), 2.526 (s, 3H). Step B: (3-bromo-2,4-dimethylphenyl)methanol

3-Bromo-2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid (6.50 g, 28.4 mmol), in THF (50 mL) was treated with borane tetrahydrofuran complex (42.6 mL, 42.6 mmol) and stirred for 12 h. Analysis by LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The solution was concentrated to dryness, redissolved in DCM, and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4? filtered, and concentrated. The resulting (3-bromo-2,4-dimethylphenyl)methanol was used for the next step with out further purification. 1H-NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz), δ 7.227 (d, J- 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.122 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH), 4.730 (m, 2H), 2.492 (s, 3H), 2.456 (s, 3H). Step C: 5-bromo-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (3-bromo-2,4-dimethylphenyl)methanol (2.0 g, 9.3 mmol), and thalium(III) trifluoroacetate (7.50 g, 14.0 mmol) were added to a 250 mL flask containing a stir bar. The flask was then placed in a cooling bath at 00C. To the flask was added TFA (150 mL) slowly. The resulting mixture was then stirred at room temperature overnight. The TFA was removed under reduced pressure at 30 0C and the resulting residue was redissolved in dichloroethane and concentrated twice (2X100 mL). The residue was then pumped under high vacuum for 45 min. To the dried residue was then added palladium dichloride (165 mg, 0.930 mmol), lithium chloride (788 mg, 18.6 mmol), and magnesium chloride (750 mg, 18.6 mmol). The resulting mixture was dissolved in MeOH (160 mL). The mixture was then degassed and purged with CO (3 times). The flask under CO was stirred at room temp for 4 hours; the color of the reaction mixture changed from white to cream then to brownish. The color of the reaction then finally changed from brownish to black up on which time the reaction had gone to completion as evidenced by LC as well as TLC (hexanes/ EtOAc - 1/0.3) analysis. The reaction mixture was then poured into a IL Erlenmeyer flask containing DCM (400 mL) and EtOAc (400 mL). The solution was then passed through a celite plug, and rinsed several times with DCM until all the organic material had passed through. The solution was then concentrated to dryness, re-dissolved in DCM, absorbed into silica gel, and separated over silica column to give 5-bromo-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC-MS: M+l = 242

Step D: 5-ethenyl-4,6-dimemyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/jf)-ρne 5-Bromo-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (375 mg, 1.56 mmol), potassium vinyl trifluoroborate (417 mg, 3.11 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2 (127 mg, 0.156 mmol). and triethylamine (409 μL, 3.11 mmol) were combined together in EtOH (10 mL) and heated at 140 0C for 30 min. Analysis by LC as well as TLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/0.3) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc, washed with NaCl, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The resulting residue was then re-dissolved in dichloromethane, absorbed to silica gel, concentrated, and loaded onto a silica MPLC column for separation to afford of 5-ethenyl-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3if)-one.

1H-NMR (CDCB, 500 MHz), δ 7.626 (s, IH), 6.771-6.712 (m, IH), 5.746-5.723 (m, IH), 5.383-5.346 (m, IH), 5.254 (s, 2H), 2.415 (s, 3H), 2.349 (s, 3H). Step E: 4,6-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3ff)-one 5-Ethenyl-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3//)-one (150 mg, 0.797 mmol), mCPBA (275 mg, 1.59 mmol), were combined together in DCM (20 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 12 h. The reaction mixture was then diluted with DCM and washed with Na2S2O3 solution, NaHCO3 solution, and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The resulting residue was then re-dissolved DCM, absorbed onto silica gel, concentrated, and loaded into silica column for separation giving 4,6-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-1 (3H)-one. 1H-NMR (CDCB, 500 MHz), δ 7.591 (s, IH), 7.296 (s, IH), 5.252 (s, 2H) 4.028 (s, IH), 3.762- 3.749 (m, IH), 3.299 (s, IH), 2.524 (s, 3H), 2.423 (s, 3H)

INTERMEDIATE 10


4-bromo~5~oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofυran- 1 (3H)-one Step A: 4,5-dibromo-2-benzofuran-l(3/f)~one

To a flask containing a stir bar was added 5-bromo-2-benzoήiran-l(3//)-°ne (12.0 g, 56.3 mmol) and NBS (15 g, 84 mmol). Triflic acid (50 mL) was then added at O 0C and the resulting mixture was allowed to warm to it and stir for 2 days. TLC analysis of the reaction mixture showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was poured into ice and the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, water, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was then absorbed into silica gel and subjected for purification over a silica MPLC column to give 4,5-dibromo-2-benzofuran-l(3#)-one. LC-MS: M+l = 291 Step B: 4-bromo-5-ethenyl-2-benzofuran-l(3//)-one 4,5-Dibromo-2-benzofuran-l(3J?)-one (3.00 g, 10.3 mmol), potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (12.7 g, 20.6 mmol) and Pd (dppf)CI2 (839 mg, 1.03 mmol) in TEA (2.7 mL) and EtOH (15 mL) were heated at 600C for 2 h. Analysis by TLC showed clean and complete reaction. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (500 mL), washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting residue was subjected to purification over silica gel to give 4-bromo-5-ethenyl-2-benzofuran-l(3//)-one. 1H-NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz), δ 7.867 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 7.768 (d, J- 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.184-7.127 (m5 IH), 5.957 (d, J= 17.5 Hz, IH), 5.643 (d, J= 1 1 Hz, IH), 5.251 (m, 2H) Step C: 4-bromo-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l('3H)-one

To a solution 4-bromo-5-ethenyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (2.00 g, 8.37 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was slowly added mCPBA (2.60 g, 8.37 mmol) at 0 0C. The flask was warmed to room temperature and the mixture was then stirred for 12 hours. Analysis by TLC as well as LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The reaction mixture was washed with aqueous Na2S2θ3, NaHCO3, and water. The organic layer was washed with brine and then concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified over silica gel to give 4-bromo-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one. 1H-NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz), δ 7.896 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 7.547 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH), 5.274 (m, 2H), 4.273 (s, IH), 3.314 (s, IH), 2.733 (s, IH).

INTERMEDIATE 11


4-chloro-5 -oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 ( 3H)-one Step A: 2-chloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)phenol

To a solution of 2~chloro~3-hydroxybenzaldehyde (8.10 g, 51.7 mmol) in MeOH was added NaBH4 (1.96 g, 51.7 mmol) at 0 0C. The reaction was allowed to stir for 30 minutes. TLC showed clean conversion to a more polar spot. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (400 mL), washed with water and brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The crude 2-chloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)phenol was used in Step B without further purification. Step B: 4-bromo~2-chloro-3~(hydroxymethyl)phenol To the flask charged with 2-chloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)phenol from Step A and a stir bar was added NBS (10.8 g, 60.5 mmol) and TFA (50 mL). The reaction was allowed to stir for 16 hours at RT. TLC showed complete reaction at that point. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was re-dissolved in EtOAc, washed with water, and purified by silica gel flash chromatography, A pair of regio-isomers was collected from the separation. The less polar spot was the desired 4-bromo-2-chloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)phenol according to noe NMR analysis. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.42 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, IH), 6.92 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, IH), 4.96 (s, 2H).

Step C : 4rchlpro: 5-hydroxy-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/j)-one

To a flask charged with 4-bromo-2-chloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)phenol (2.44 g, 10.3 mmol) and a stir bar was added CuCN (2.76 g, 30.8 mmol) and DMF (25 mL). The flask was fitted with a condenser and purged three times with Nitrogen. The solution was then heated to 145 0C for 2 hours. At that point, water (0.555 mL, 30.8 mmol) was added to the reaction via a syringe, and the reaction was kept at 1000C for another 24 hours. The reaction was cooled to RT, diluted with DCM (100 mL), and filtered through a pad of celite to remove the solids. The filtrate was washed with saturated NH4OAc, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated and purified by silica gel flash chromatography. 4-Chloro-5-hydroxy-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one was collected after removal of solvents. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 9.13 (broad, IH), 7.68 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, IH), 7.19 (d, J= 8.5 Hz5 IH), 5.23 (s, 2H). Step D: 4-chloro-5-ethenyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one To a cold solution of 4-chloro-5-hydroxy-2-benzofuran-l(3//)~one (1.39 g, 7.53 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) was added Hunig's Base (3.29 mL, 18.8 mmol) and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (2.54 mL, 15.1 mmol). The mixture was allowed to stir for 16 hours. Analysis by TLC showed complete consumption of all SM. The reaction was diluted with Hexane and washed with water. The solution was dried with sodium sulfate, concentrated, and purified by flash chromatography on a silica column. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give intermediate triflate. LC-MS (M+l = 317).

To the triflate was added a stir bar, potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (1,33 g, 9.90 mmol), PdCl2(dppf) (0.243 g, 0.332 mmol), triethylamine (1.89 mL, 13.3 mmol), and iso-propanol (50 XDL). The mixture was purged three times with nitrogen, and heated to 60 0C for 2 hours. TLC showed complete reaction at that point. Most of the solvent was removed under vacuum. The crude residue was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL), washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by flash chromatography to give 4-chloro-5-ethenyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.82 (d, J= 8-0 Hz, IH), 7.70 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH)5 7.18 (dd, J

= 11, 17.5 Hz, IH), 5.97 (d, J- 17.5 Hz, IH), 5.65 (d, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.31 (s, 2H).

Step E: 4-chloro-5-oxiran-2-yI-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a solution of 4-chloro~5-ethenyl~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.1 g, 5.7 mmol) in DCM (40 mL) was added m-CPBA (1.9 g, 8.5 mmol). The solution was allowed to stir at RT for 16 hours. Analysis by TLC and LC showed formation of the desired product, along with some untouched starting material. The reaction was diluted with DCM (200 mL), washed with aqueous Na2S2O3 and Na2CO3, dried over sodium sulfate, concentrated, and purified by silica gel flash chromatography to afford 4-chloro-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.86 (d, J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.48 (d, J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.34 (s, 2H), 4.33 (m, IH), 3.33 (m, IH), 2.75 (m, IH).

INTERMEDIATE 12 (racemate and individual enantiomers)


6-methyI-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-OΏQ Step A: 5-prop-2-en-l-yI-2-benzofuran-U3i/)-one

A mixture of 5-bromo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (15.0 g, 70.4 mmol), allyl-tributyl-stannane (25.6 g, 77.5 mmol), LiCl (11.8 g, 282 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (1.2 g, LO mmol) in 100 mL toluene was heated under N2 at 90-1000C overnight. After cooling to r.t, the mixture was diluted with 250 mL EtOAc and filtered. The filtrate was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified via column (DCM/Petrol Ether=l:5) to give 5-prop-2-en-l-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Step B: 5-f2-hvdroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-U3H)-one

To a solution of 5-prop-2-en-l-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (13.5 g, 45.2 mmol) in 200 mL DCM/MeOΗ (VfW=I : 1) was bubbled O3 at -78 0C for 30 mins and N2 was bubbled for another 15 min at -78 0C. Then 20 mL of Me2S were added, and the mixture was stirred at r.t. overnight before concentrating to dryness. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (100 mL) and then cooled to 0 0C. NaBH4 (5.9O g, 155 mmol) was added in portions. The resulting mixture was stirred at 00C for 1 h, then quenched with citric acid (aq.) and extracted three times with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with NaHCO3 (aq.) and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified via column chromatography (EtOAc/ Petrol Ether =1 :5) to give 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.86 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.41 (d, J=7.8 Hz5 IH), 7.38 (s, IH), 5.29 (s, 2H), 3.92-3.98 (m, 2H), 3.01 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 2H). Step C: 5-f2-hydroxyethyl)-6-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3ff)-one

To a cooled (0 0C) solution of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl>2-benzoforan-l(3H)-one (9.00 g, 50.6 mmol) in 100 mL of TfOH was added NIS (12.5 g, 55.6 mmol), then the mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 2 hrs and then poured into ice- water (500 mL). The solution was extracted three times with 500 mL of EtOAc and the combined organic layers were washed with saturated NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (EtOAc/ Petrol Ether =1:5) to give the desired 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-6-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (6 g) and isomeric by-product 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-iodo-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one . 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.84 (d, J=7.8 Hz3 IH), 7.46 (d, J-7.8 Hz, IH), 5.09 (s, 2H), 3.93 (q, J-6.3 Hz, 2H)S 3.16 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (t, J=5.5 Hz, IH). Step D: 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a flask charged with 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-6-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (6.00 g, 19.7 mmol) and a stir bar was added Pd2(dba)3 (452 mg,0.493 mmol), PPh3 (1 g, 4 mmol) and NMP (50 mL). The mixture was purged with N2 and heated to 50 0C for 10 min, followed by addition of CuI (375 mg, 1.97 mmol). After the mixture was heated for another 10 min, Sn(CΗ3)4 (5.30 g, 29.6 mmol) was added into the reaction, and it was heated to 1200C for 2 h. After cooled to room temperature, the mixture was diluted with saturated NH4CI (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3*200 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.72 (s, IH), 7.33 (s, IH), 5.27 (s, 2H), 3.93 (t, J-6.3 Hz,

2H), 3.01 (t, J-6.3 Hz, 2H)5 2.44 (s5 3H).

Step E: 2-(6-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl methanesulfonate

To a solution of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.20 g, 6.25 mmol) and TEA (2.5 g, 25 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) was added MsCl (1.40 g5 12.5 mmol) at 0 0C. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature overnight, then was washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried and concentrated to dryness. The collected 2-(6-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl methanesulfonate was used for the next step without any purification. Step F: 5-ethenyl-6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a mixture of 2-(6-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl methanesulfonate (2.00 g I,, 7.41 mmol) and TEA (5 mL) in DCM (50 mL) was added DBU (5 mL) slowly at 00C. The mixture was stirred at r.t overnight, and then was diluted with 50 niL of DCM, washed with 2 N HCl in three times and brine. The organic layer was dried and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-TLC to give 5-ethenyl-6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one. Step G: 6-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-U3H)-one To a solution of 5-ethenyl-6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-°ne (1-00 g, 5.75 mmol) in 50 niL of DCM was slowly added mCPBA (3.50 g, 17.4 mmol) in 50 mL of DCM at 00C. The mixture was warmed to room temperature, and stirred for 2 days. The mixture was washed with aqueous Na2SO3 until KI indicator paper didn't change color. The organic layer was washed with brine and then concentrated. The residue was purified via silica column to give product 6-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC-MS M+l (calc. 191, found 191).

The enantiomers of the product were resolved via chiral HPLC (Column: Chiralpak AD-H 250*4.6mm I.D., 5um; Mobile phase: methanol 15% in MeCN). Isomer A: LC-[MS M+l] 191. Isomer B: LC-[MS M+l] 191.

INTERMEDIATE 13


4-(rnethylpxy)-5 ~oxiran~2-yl~2-benzofuran~ 1 (3H)-one Step A: , (3-Bromo~2-methoxyphenyl)methanol

In a 250 ml round bottom flask, 3-bromo-2-methoxybenzoic acid (4.0 g5 17 mmol. 1.0 eq) was dissolved in THF (100 mL). The solution was cooled to 0 0C. To above solution was added dropwise borane/THF complex (1 N, 17.3 mL, 17.3 mmol). The solution was warmed to r.t. and let stirred at r.t for 15 hr. The reaction was quenched with addition of aqueous ammonium chloride and concentrated. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with 1 N HCl followed by aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, brine and water. The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was used without purification. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 200.95 [M + 1-OH]+; tR = 2.27 min. Step B : 5 -Bromo-4-methoxy-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)- one To a flask charged with (3-bromo-2-methoxyphenyl)methanol ( 3.0 g, 14 mmol, 1.0 eq) was added thalllic trifluoroacetate (10.0 g, 18.4 mmol, 1.3 eq). To above mixture was added trifiuoroacetic acid (25 mL). The reaction was stirred at r.t. for 16 hr, then concentrated. The excess TFA was removed using high vacuum pump. To the residue was added palladium chloride (245 mg, 1.38 mmol, 0.1 eq), magnesium oxide (1.10 g, 27.6 mmol, 2.0 eq) and methanol (35 mL). The reaction was flushed with carbon monoxide three times and stirred under CO at r.t. for 2 hr. To this solution was added ethyl acetate. The mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with EtOAc. The filtrate was concentrated and loaded on silica gel column. The fractions containing 5-bromo-4-methoxy-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one were concentrated. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.72 (IH, aromatic, d5 J- 8.0 Hz), 7.49 (IH, aromatic, d, J= 8.0 Hz), 5.44 (2H, s, CH2 lactone), 4.00 (3H, s, Me). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 244.8« [M + I]+; tR = 2.67 min. Step C: 4-Methoxy-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a 100 mL round bottom flask was added 5-Bromo-4-methoxy-2-benzoruran-l(3H)-one (430 mg, 1.8 mmol, 1.0 eq), potassium triftuoro(vinyl)borate (474 g, 3.5 mmol, 2.0 eq), [1,1'-bis(diphenylposphino)-ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) complex with dichloromethane(l : 1 ) ( 144 mg, 0.2 mmol, 0.1 eq) and triethylamine (493 μL, 3.5 mmol, 2.0 eq). To above mixture was added ethanol (12 mL). The flask was degassed and filled with nitrogen. The reaction was heated to reflux for 12 hr. The mixture was then diluted with EtOAc, filtered through a pad of celite and washed with brine. The organic phase was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and purified by flash column chromatography using biotage and the solvent systems (0-50% EtOAc/Hexane). The fractions containing desired product were collected and concentrated to 4-methoxy-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3,) δ in ppm: 7.62 (IH5 aromatic, d, J= 7.9 Hz), 7.55 (IH, aromatic, d, J= 7.9 Hz), 7.02 (IH, -CH=CH2, dxd, J= 11.3 Hz, J- 17.8 Hz), 5.79 (IH, -CH=CH2, ds J= 17.7 Hz), 5.24 (IH, -CH=CH2, d, J= 11.3 Hz), 5.39 (2H, CH2-O-, s), 3.88 (3H, Me, s). Step D: 4-Methoxy-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

4-Methoxy-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (120 mg, 0.63 mmol, 1.0 eq) was added into a 100 mL round bottom flask and dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). The solution was cooled to 0 0C, and 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (327 mg, 1.89 mmol, 2.0 eq) was added portion wise. The mixture was then purged with N2 and stirred at r.t. for 18 hr. To above solution was added water (5 mL). The crude product was extracted with dichloromethane. The organic phase was washed with brine (5 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated and purified by flash column chromatography (hexane/EtOAc 0-50%). The desired product was obtained. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.56 (IH, aromatic, d, J= 7.6 Hz), 7.31 (IH, aromatic, d, J- 7.6 Hz), 5.50 (2H, m, CH2 lactone), 4.23 (IH, m), 4.02 (3H, s, Me), 3.22 (IH, m), 2.72 (IH, m).

INTERMEDIATE 14


2-(4-Methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanal Step A: 4-memyl-5-prop-2-en-l-yl-2~benzofuran-l(3ff)-one A mixture of 5-bromo-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (980 mg, 4.3 mmol), allyl-tributyl-stannane (1.7 g, 5.2 mmol), LiCl (550 mg, 12.9 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (0.1 g) in anhydrous toluene was stirred at reflux under N2 overnight. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified with silica gel column chromatography to give the product 4-methyl-5-prop-2-en- 1 -yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/i)-one.

Step B: (4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetic acid

To a stirred solution of 4-methyl-5-prop-2-en-l-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one (2.10 g, 11.2 mmol) in CCl4 (50 mL), acetonitrile (50 mL) and water (75 mL) was added sodium periodate (12 g, 55.8 mmol) and ruthenium oxide hydrate (210 mg) and the resulting mixture was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The mixture was diluted with 100 mL DCM and 100 mL of water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with silica gel column chromatography to afford (4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetic acid. Step C : IJ -dimethylethyl (4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetate To a solution of (4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 153-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetic acid ( 100 mg, 0.48 mmol) in anhydrous DCM (10 mL) was added l,l-dimethylethyl-N,N-bis(l-methylethyl)imidocarbamate (485 mg, 2.50 mmol) dropwise at 00C under N2. Then the mixture was stirred at r.t. over night. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was washed with 2N HCl and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative TLC to give I5I -dimethylethyl (4-memyl-l-oxo-l53-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetate. !H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.70(d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.38 (d, J=7.0 Hz, IH),

5.25 (s, 2H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 2.27 (s, 3H)5 1.44 (s, 9H).

Step D: 1,1 -dimemylethyl-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanoate

A solution of 1,1 -dimethylethyl (4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetate (770 mg, 3.1 mmol) in 30 mL of anhydrous THF was cooled to -780C. NaHMDS (4.0 mmol) was added to the reaction dropwise at -780C. After the addition, the mixture was stirred at -780C for 1 h and then CH3I (462 mg, 3.20 mmol) was added dropwise at -780C. The reaction was warmed to room temperature slowly and stirred at ambient temperature over night. The reaction was quenched with NH4Cl solution, and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via preparative TLC to afford l,l-dimethylethyl-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanoate.

1H-NMR (400 MHz9 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.67(d, J-7.8 Hz, IH), 7.37 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 5.19 (s, 2H), 3.80(dd, J-7.0 Hz, IH), 2.24 (s, 3H), 1.40 (d, J-7.0 Hz, IH), 1.32 (s, 9H). Step E : 2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yDpropanoic acid

To a solution of lsl-dimethylethyl-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanoate (400 mg, 1.4 mmol) in 10 mL of anhydrous DCM was added TFA (2.5 mL) dropwise at r.t.

Then the mixture was stirred for 1 hour. The solvent was removed under vacuum to give the crude 2-(4-memyI-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanoic acid, which was used for next step without purification.

Step F: 5-(2-hvdroxy-l-methylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one To a solution of 2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanoic acid

(300 mg, 1.4 mmol) in 18 mL of anhydrous THF was added BH3.THF (2 mL, 2 mmol) dropwise at 0 0C. Then the mixture was warmed to room temperature slowly and then stirred for 3 hours.

Then the mixture was quenched with MeOH and the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was the purified via prep-TLC to give 5-(2-hydroxy-l-methylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.73(d5 J-7.8 Hz, IH), 7.40 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 5.23 (s, 2H),

3.77(ds J-7.0 Hz5 2H)5 3.36-3.42 (m, IH), 2.30 (s, 3H), 1.27 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 3H).

Step G: 2-(4-Methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propa,nal

5-(2-Hydroxy-l-methylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one (161 mg, 0.781 mmol, 1.0 eq) was dissolved in DCM (6 ml). To above solution was added Dess-MartinPerϊodinane (397 mg,

0.937 mmol, 1.2 eq). The reaction was stirred at rt for 2 hr. To the reaction was added DCM

(10 Ml), Na2S2C>3 (6 mL) and H2O (6 mL). The mixture was stirred at r.t. for 30 minutes and formed two layers. The bottom layer was separated and washed with aqueous NaHCθ3, brine and water, dried over Na2SOφ filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The crude product was used to next step without purification.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 9.70 (IH, s, CHO), 7.79 (IH, d, J= 7.8 Hz), 7.28 (IH, d, J= 7.8 Hz), 5.28 (2H5 s), 3.27 (IH, m), 2.32 (3H, s), 1.50 (3H, d, J= 7.2 Hz).

INTERMEDIATE 15


4-methyl-5-( 1 -methyl-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

Step A: tert-Butyl-4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

In a 100 mL round bottom flask, 2-(4-raethyl-l-oxo-l53-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)propanal

(100 mg, 0.49 mmol, 1.0 eq) and Boc-piperazine (91 mg, 0.49 mmol, 1.0 eq) was dissolved in DCM (10 mL). To above solution was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (208 mg, 0.98 mmol, 2.0 eq). The reaction was stirred at r.t. for 16 hr. The reaction was then diluted with DCM (10 mL), washed with aqueous bicarbonate, water and brine. The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The product was obtained after purification by flash column chromatography (5% MeOH/DCM). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 375.41 [M + I]+; tR = 2.47 mm.

Step B : 4-Methyl-5 -(I -methyl-2-piρerazin- 1 -ylethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one tert-Butyl-4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2~benzofuran-5-yl)propyl]piperazme- 1 -carboxylate (160 mg, 0.43 mmol) was stirred in TFA (3 mL) at r.t for 3 hr. The reaction was concentrated and pump over high vacuum pump overnight to give the desired product, which could be converted to it's freebase by partitioning between an organic solvent and saturated NaHCO3 solution. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 275.38 [M + I]+; tR = 0.38 min.

INTERMEDIATE 16


5-(2-piperazin- 1 ~ylethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)~one hydrochloride Step A: S-(L3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3/f)-one

A three-neck 5L round bottomed flask equipped with a stir bar, firestone valve, thermocouple, condenser and heating mantle was charged with tri-t-butyl phosphonium tetrafluoroborate (500 mg, 1.72 mmol), palladium (II) acetate (250 mg, 1.1 mmol) and 5-bromo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (100 g, 469 mmol). DMF (1.88 L) was added to the flask, and the mixture was degassed three times by alternating vacuum and nitrogen purge. Commercially available bromo(l ,3-dioxolan-2-ylmelhyl)zinc solution (1.033 L, 516 mmol) was added via canula and the mixture was again degassed three times. The mixture was then heated at 85 0C for 5 h. Analysis by HPLC-MS indicated the reaction was not complete. The mixture was stirred at 85 0C for 5 more h. The mixture was then allowed to return to room temperature for overnight. 2-methylTHF (2L) and brine were added, and the mixture was stirred for 5 min. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted again with 2-methylTHF. The organic layers were combined, washed three times with brine (4L each), dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (1.5 kg silica cartridge), eluting with 0-20% ethyl acetate in dichlromethane to afford 5-(l;3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one. MS: m/z 221 (M+l)+.

Step B : (1 -oxo- 1.3 -dihydrg-2-ben2ofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde

5-(l,3-Dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-2-berizofuran-l(3/i)-one (61 g, 280 mmol) was combined with water (2.2 L) in a 5 L round bottomed flask equipped with a Claisen adapter, thermocouple, stir bar and nitrogen bubbler. Aqueous HCl solution (2M, 1.14 L, 2.29 mo!) was added and the resulting mixture was heated at 40 0C for 8 h. Then the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The mixture was extracted three times with 2 L of ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were concentrated to give (l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde. MS: m/z l77 (M+l)+.

Step C : 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4- \2-( 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5 -yljethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

A three neck 5 L round bottomed flask equipped with a nitrogen bubbler, thermocouple, and stirbar was charged with (l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde (46.1 g, 262 mmol) and dichloromethane (IL). 1-Boc-piperazme (48.7 g5 262 mmol) in 1 L of dichloromethane was added and the mixture was stirred for 5 mm. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (111 g, 523 mmol) was added in portions at room temperature and the resulting mixture was stirred for 1 h. Water (1 L) was added and the mixture was stirred for 10 min. After gas evolution subsided the organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with methylene chloride (1 L). The organic layers were combined, washed with brine, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by silica gel MPLC eluting with a 0-100% gradient of 5% methanol/DCM solution (Solvent A) to pure DCM (Solvent B) to afford 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4- [2-(l -oxo- 1,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate. Step, P : 5 -(2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyϊ)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride To 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl-4- [2-( 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (120 g, 347 mmol) in dioxane (800 mL) was added 4 N HCl in dioxane (87.0 mL, 347 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature over night. The reaction mixture was concentrated and stored under vacuum overnight to afford 5 -(2-piperazin- l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride. This can be used as is or converted to the free base by partitioning between an organic solvent and saturated NaHC(B solution. MS: m/z 247 (M+ 1)+.

INTERMEDIATE 17


4-methyl-5 -(2-piperazin- l~ylethyl)-2-benzofur an- l(3H)-one hydrochloride Step A: 4-methyl-5-prop-2-en-l-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one To a flask charged with 5-bromo-4-methyl~2-benzofuran-l(3iϊ)-one (320 mg, 1.409 mmol) and a stir bar was added allyl tri-n-butyltin (0.655 ml, 2.11 mmol), Pd(PPh3)4 (244 mg, 0.211 mmol), lithium chloride (179 mg, 4.23 mmol), and toluene (15 mL). The reaction was purged with nitrogen 2 times then was heated at reflux for 4 hours. The product was separated by silica gel chromatography to give 4-methyl-5-prop-2-en-l-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Step B : (4-methyI- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde

A solution of the above olefin (220 mg, 1.2 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was cooled to -78 0C. To this solution was bubbled ozone until the reaction turned blue. Nitrogen was bubbled through the reaction to drive off excess ozone, followed by addition of DMS (0.870 mL, 11.7 mmol).

The reaction was allowed to warm up to RT. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography to afford (4-memyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 9.78 (s, IH), 7.75 (d, J= 7.5 Hz5 IH)5 7.34 (d, J- 7.5 Hz5 IH), 5.27 (s, 2H), 3.90 (s, 2H), 2.23 (s, 3H). Step C: lJ-dimethylethyl-4-f2-(4-rnethyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazme-1-carboxylate

To a solution of (4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro~2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde (160 mg, 0.84 mmol) and 1-Boc Piperazine (234 mg, 1.26 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was added NaCNBH3 (149 mg, 2.52 mmol) and a few drops of acetic acid. The reaction was allowed to stir at RT for 16 hours. TLC at that point showed good and complete reaction. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL), washed with aq. NaHCO3 solution and brine, dried OVCrNa2SO4, adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by MPLC. 1, 1 -Dimethyl ethy 1-4- [2-(4-methyl-l-oxo- 1,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazine- 1-carboxylate was collected after removal of solvents. LCMS: m/z 361 (M+l)+. Step D: 4-methyl-5-(2-piperazin.-l-ylethyl)-2-ben2θfuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride

1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl-4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5 -yl)ethyl] piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (245 mg) was treated with 4N HCl in dioxane solution and the reaction was monitored until completion. The mixture was concentrated to afford 4-methyl-5-(2-pipera-rin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride. The hydrochloride can be converted to free base as needed by partitioning between organic solvent (EtOAc, DCM, or 30%IPA/CHC13) and saturated Na2CO3 solution.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ ppm 12.4 (broad, IH), 9.80 (broad, 2H), 7.71 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH), 5.53 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH), 5.44 (s, 2H), 3.81 (m, 2H), 3.64-3.27 (ra, 10H).

INTERMEDIATE 18


2~(methyloxy)-4-(2-oxoemvDbenzonitrile

Step A: Ethyl (3-methoxy-4-{[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)oxy)phenyl)acetate Ethyl (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) acetate, 12 g, 57 mmol] was dissolved in anhydrous dichloromethane (200 mL). 4-Dimethylammopyridme (0.70 g, 0.10 equiv) was added, followed by triethylamine (9.6 mL, 69 mmol). The solution was then cooled to -78 0C in a dry ice and acetone bath while under nitrogen. Trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (9.6 mL, 57 mmol) was slowly added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was then diluted with dichloromethane (200 mL) and washed with water (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure to yield ethyl (3-methoxy-4-{[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy}phenyl)acetate, which was used without further purification. LC/MS [(M+l)- CO2Et]+ = 269.0; tR = 3.5 min.

Step B: Ethyl C4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyD acetate

Ethyl (3-methoxy-4-{[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy}phenyI)acetate (16.6 g) was dissolved in anhydrous dimethylformamide (100 mL). Zinc cyanide (3.4 g5 29 mmol) was added, and the solution was purged thoroughly with nitrogen. Tetrakis(triphenylρhosphme)palladium(0) (5.6 g, 4.9 mmol) was then added and the reaction mixture was heated to 80 0C for 4h. After allowing the reaction mixture to cool to ambient temperature and diluting with water (200 mL), ethyl acetate (400 mL) was added and the mixture was filtered to remove any solids. The filtrate was transferred to a separatory funnel, and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was re-extracted with ethyl acetate (2 * 100 mL). The organic layers were combined and dried over magnesium sulfate. The dry organics were then filtered and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and excess dimethylformamide was removed by evaporation in vacuo at 65 0C for 1.5 h to yield crude product. The crude product was purified through silica gel chromatography (ethyl acetate/hexanes, 2:3) to yield ethyl (4-cyano-3-melhoxyphenyl) acetate. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-rftf), δ 7.67 (d, J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.0 (d, J- 8.0 Hz5 IH)5 4.10 (q, J- 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.89 (s; 3H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 1.19 (t, J- 7.1 Hz, 3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ - 220.17; tR - 1.36 min. Step C: 4-(2-Hydroxy ethyl V2-methoxybenzonitrile

LiBH4 (1.7 mL, 3.4 mmol, 2 M in THF) was added to a stirred solution of ethyl (4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)acetate (0.50 g, 2.4 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 0C. The resulting solution was stirred for 12 h. Water (15 ml) was added, and the resulting solution was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 50 ml). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography eluting with EtOAc-Hexanes (7:3 → 1:1) to give 4-(2-hydroxyethγl)-2-methoxybenzom"trile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.52 (d, IH5 J= 7.0 Hz ), 6.91 (d, IH5 J- 7.8 Hz ), 6.88 (s, IH), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.92 (t5 2H5 J= 6.4 Hz), 2.93 (t, 2H, J- 6.4 Hz); LCMS: [(M+l)]+ - 178.3; tR - 2.1 min. Step D: 2-Methoxy-4-(2~oxoethyl)benzonitrile

To a stirred solution of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile (1.5 g, 8.5 mmol) in dry CH2Cl2 (30 mL) at 0 0C was added Dess-Martin periodinane (3.6 g, 8.5 mmol) in one portion. The mixture was stirred for 12 h at rt and quenched with a 1 : 1 mixture of saturated Na2S2O3 (40 mL) and saturated NaHCθ3 (40 mL). The resulting mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 (70 mL) and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated in vacuo to give 2-methoxy-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile. The residue was used in the next step without further purification. 1H NMR (500 MHz5 CDCl3) δ 9.77 (s, IH), 7.52 (d, IH5 J= 8.8 Hz), 6.86 (dd, IH, J- 1.1 Hz), 6.79 (S5 IH), 3.92 (s, 3H), 3.76 (s, 2H); LCMS: [(M+l)]+ - 176.26; tR - 1.98 min. INTERMEDIATE 18 (method 2)


2-(methyloxy)-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile Step A: 2-(methyloxy)-4-prop-2-en-l-ylbenzoMtriie

To a 50 mL flask containing a stir bar were added 2-methoxy-4-bromobenzonitrile (0.30 g, 1.4 mmol), palladium tetrakis (82 mg, 0.071 mmol), allyltri-n-butyltin (0.877 mL, 2.83 mmol), and lithium chloride (0.120 g, 2.83 mmol). The resulting mixture was then dissolved in anhydrous toluene (16 mL); the flask was placed in an oil bath and heated at 130 0C; LC as well as TLC (hexanes/EtOAc =1/0.3) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The flask was taken out of the oil bath and cooled to room temperature. To the flask was poured EtOAc (40 mL) and the mixture was transferred into a separatory funnel and washed with aqueous NaCl. The organic phase was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. It was then dissolved in DCM and absorbed into silica gel. The slica gel was then loaded onto a silica column for separation with the solvent systems of hexanes/EtOAc (1/0.3); this gave 2-(methyloxy)-4-prop-2-en-l-ylbenzonitrile. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 174 [M + I]+; IR = 2.10 mm. Step B: 2-(methyloxyV4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile To a 25 mL flask containing a stir bar was added compound 2-(methyloxy)-4-prop-2-en~l -ylbenzonitrile (0.150 g, 0.866 mmol) and MeOH (8 mL). The flask was placed in a cold bath of -78 0C. Ozone was bubbled through the flask for about 10 min. followed by addition of dimethyl sulfide (1.5 mL, 0.024 mmol). The flask was taken out of the cold bath and stirred at room temperature for 1 h; LC indicated completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness to give 2-(methyloxy)-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 176 [M + I]+; tR = 1.49 min.

INTERMEDIATE 19


2-(methyloxy)-4-(2-oχoρropyl)benzonitrile Step A: 4-(2-Hydroxypropγl)-2-methoxγbenzonitrile

To a stirred solution of 2-methoxy-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile (1.5 g, 8.5 mmol) in dichloromethane (30 mL) at 0 0C was added 2.8 mL (8.5 mmol) of a 3.0 M solution of methylmagnesium bromide in THF. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to rt and stirred for 12 h. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 10 mL of 1 N hydrochloric acid and extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 30 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried with magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified on silica (30% EtOAc/hexanes as eluent) to afford 4-(2-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.47 (d, IH, J- 7.8 Hz ), 6.85 (dd, IH, J- 3.4 Hz ), 6.82 (s, IH), 4.05 (m, IH), 3.93 (d, 2H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 1.25 (d, 2H, J= 6.1 Hz); LCMS: [(M+l)]+ - 192.30; tR = 2.39 min.

Step B: 2-Methoxy-4-(2-oxopropγl)benzonitrile To a stirred solution of 4-(2-hydroxyρropyl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile (1.5 g, 7.6 mmol) in dry CH2Cl2 (30 mL) at 0 0C was added Dess-Martin periodinane (4.2 g, 9.9 mmol) in one portion. The mixture was stirred for 12 h at rt and quenched with a 1:1 mixture of saturated Na2S2O3 (20 mL) and saturated NaHCO3 (20 mL). The resulting mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 (50 mL) and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated in vacuo to give 2-methoxy-4-(2-oxopropyl)benzonitrile. The crude residue was used in the next step without further purification. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.55 (dd, IH, J- 1.6 Hz ), 6.87 (d, IH, J-7.8 Hz ), 6.83 (s, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 2H), 2.25 (s, 3H); LCMS: [(M+l)f - 190.32; tR -2.31 min.

INTERMEDIATE 20


2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile

Step A: 4-Formyl-2-methoxyphenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate To a solution of vanillin (20.0 g, 131 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) at room temperature was added potassium carbonate (36 g, 263 mmol) and 4-nitrophenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (54.0 g, 197 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 8 h. EtOAc (600 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and the organic layer was washed three times with water, dried, filtered, and concentrated. The crude compound was then purified by flash chromatography (ethylacetate/hexanes 1 :9 → 3:7) to provide 4-formyl~2-methoxyphenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate.

!H NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz) δ 10.02 (s, IH), 7.60 (s, IH), 7.55 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.45 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH)5 4.04 (s, 3H); LC/MS (IE, m/z) 284.98 [M + I]+; tR = 3.31 min. Step B: 4~Formyl~2-methoxybenzonitrile A mixture of 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (37.0 g, 130 mmol), zinc cyanide (61.0 g, 521 mmol) and tetrakis triphenylphosphine palladium (0) (22.6 g, 19.5 mmol) in DMF (300 mL) were stirred at 110 0C for 8 h. EtOAc was added to the reaction mixture and the organic layer was washed two times with water, dried, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was then purified by column chromatography (silica gel, ethylacetate/hexanes 3:7) which afforded 4-formyl-2-methoxybenzonitrile.

1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 10.08 (s, IH), 7.80 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH), 7.55 (d, J= 7.5 Hz. IH),

7.51 (s, IH), 4.06 (s, 3H); LC/MS (IE, m/z) 162.07 [M + I]+.

Step C: 2-Methoxy-4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzom'trile

To a cool solution of NaH (0.16 g, 3.9 mmol) in THF (40 ml) was added dropwise a solution of trimethylsulfonium iodide (0.91 g, 4.5 mmol) in DMSO (20 ml). The resulting mixture was stirred at 00C under N2 for 20 min. The solution of 4-formyl-2-methoxybenzonitrile (0.60 g, 3.7 mmol) in THF (20 ml) was added. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at O 0C under N2 for 1 hr, and then it was warmed gradually to room temperature and stirred at that temperature for 12 hr. The starting material was consumed as indicated by TLC (25% ethyl acetate/hexanes). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 0C and quenched by drop- wise addition of water. The S mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 70 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine, then dried (MgSO4) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified via column chromatography (silica gel, 10-30% EtOAc-hexanes) to afford 2-methoxy-4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.57 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 6.99 (dd, J- 1.1 Hz, J- 1.2 Hz, IH), 6.89 (s, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.94-3.92 (m, IH), 3.22 (dd, J = 0 5.2, Hz, J= 4.1 Hz, IH), 2.77 (J= 2.5 Hz, IH); LC/MS (IE, m/z) 176.33 [M + I]+; tR = 2.55min.

INTERMEDIATE 21


4-( 1 -methyl-2-oxoethyl)-2~(methyloxy)benzonitrile Step A: Ethyl 2-(4-cyano-3-rnethoxvphenyl)propanoate 5 To a suspension solution of NaH (0.18 g, 4.6 mmol, 60% dispersion in mineral oil) in THF (50 mL) at 0C under N2 atm was added a solution of ethyl (4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl) acetate (LO g, 4.6 mmoi) in THF (10 mL) drop-wise and the mixture was stirred for 30 min at the same temperature. The mixture was then allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The mixture was then allowed to cool back to 00C. Methyl iodide (0.28 mL, 4.6 mmol) was added and the reaction 0 mixture was stirred for 1 h. The reaction mixture was acidified with 1 M hydrochloric acid and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane/EtOAc 15/1) to give ethyl 2-(4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl) propanoate. 1H NMR (500 MHz , CDCl3) δ 7.53 (d, IH, J- 8 Hz ), 6.98 (d, IH, J- 8 Hz ), 6.95 (s, IH), 4.17 5 (q, 2H, J= 3.4 Hz), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.76 (q, IH, J- 9.1 Hz ), 1.53 (d, 3H, J- 7.1 Hz), 1.25 (t, 3H, J = 7.1 Hz); LCMS: [(M+l)]+ = 234.28; tR = 3.12 min. Step B; 4-(l-Hγdroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile

LiBH4 (0.55 mL, 1.1 mmol, 2 M in THF) was added to a stirred solution of ethyl 2-(4-cyano-3- methoxyphenyl) propanoate (0.17 g, 0.73 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 0C. The resulting solution 0 was stirred for 12 h. Water (15 mL) was added, and the resulting solution was extracted with dichloromethane (2 * 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography eluting with EtOAc-Hexanes (7:3 → 1:1) to give 4-(l-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.49 (d, IH, J- 7.9 Hz ), 6.88 (dd, IH, J- 1.4 Hz ), 6.83 (s, IH), 5 3.92 (s, 3H), 3.72 (d, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz), 2.97 (q, IH, J- 6.8 Hz), 1.28 (d, 3H, J- 6.9 Hz);

LCMS: [(M+l)]+ = 192.32; tR = 2.32 min. Step C: 2-Memoxy-4-(l-oxopropan-2-yl)beiizonitrile

To a stirred solution of 4-(l-hydroxypropan~2-yl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile (0.12 g, 0.63 mmol) in dry CH2Cl2 (30 niL) at 0 0C was added Dess-Martin periodinane (0.35 g, 0.82 mmol) in one portion. The mixture was stirred for 12 h at rt and quenched with a 1 : 1 mixture of saturated Na2S2O3 (20 mL) and saturated NaHCO3 (20 mL). The resulting mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 (50 mL) and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated in vacuo to give crude 2-methoxy-4-(l-oxopropan-2-yl)benzonitrile. The crude residue was used in subsequent reactions without further purification. LCMS: [(M+l)]+ - 190.32; tR - 2.47 min.

INTERMEDIATE 22


4-( 1 , 1 -dimethyl-2-oxoethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrileι Step A: Ethyl (S-methoxy^-^^triflμoromethyOsulfonylJoxyjphenyDacetate

Ethyl (4-hydroxy-3-m.ethoxyph.enyl) acetate (12.0 g, 57.1 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous dichloromethane (200 mL). 4-Dimethylaminopyridine (0.70 g, 0.10 equiv) was added, followed by triethylamine (9.55 mL, 68.5 mmol). The solution was then cooled to in a dry ice and acetone bath while under nitrogen. Trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (9.60 mL, 57.1 mmol) was slowly added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was then diluted with dichloromethane (200 mL) and washed with water (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure to yield the crude ethyl (3-methoxy-4-{[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy}phenyl)acetate. LC/MS [(M+l)- CO2Et]+ = 269.0; tR = 3.5 min. Step B: Ethyl (4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl) acetate

The crude ethyl (3-methoxy-4-{[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy}phenyl)acetate (16.61 g) was subsequently dissolved in anhydrous dimethylformamide (100 mL). Zinc cyanide (3.42 g, 29.1 mmol) was added, and the solution was purged thoroughly with nitrogen. Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (5.61 g, 4.85 mmol) was then added and the reaction mixture was heated to 80 0C for 4h. After allowing the reaction mixture to cool to ambient temperature and diluting with water (200 mL), ethyl acetate (400 mL) was added. The combined layers were filtered to remove any solids, the filtrate transferred to a separatory funnel, and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was re-extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL), the organic portions were combined and dried over magnesium sulfate. The dry organics were then filtered and evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and excess dimethylformamide was removed by evaporation in vacuo at 65 0C for 1.5 h to yield the crude title compound (20 g). The crude product was purified through silica gel chromatography (ethyl acetate/hexanes, 2:3) to yield ethyl (4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl) acetate. NMR (500 MHz5 DMSO-O6), δ 7.67 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.0 (d, J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 4.10 (q, J= 7.1 Hz5 2H), 3.89 (s, 3H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 1.19 (t, J - 7.1 Hz, 3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 220.17; tR = 1.36 mm.

Step C: Ethyl 2-f4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyIpropanoate

To a suspension solution of NaH (0.365 g, 9.12 rnmol, 60% dispersion in mineral oil) in THF (50 mL) at 0C under N2 atm was added a solution of ethyl (4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl) acetate (1.0 g, 4.56 rnmol) in THF (10 mL) dropwise and the mixture was stirred for 30 min at the same temperature. The mixture was then allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The mixture was then allowed to cool back to 0C. Methyl iodide (0.570 mL, 9.12 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h. The reaction mixture was acidified by 1 M hydrochloric acid and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane/EtOAc 15/1) to give ethyl 2-(4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoate. 1H NMR (500 MHz , CDCl3) δ 7.54 (d, IH, J- 8.0 Hz ), 7.02 (dd, IH5 J- 1.6 Hz ), 6.95 (d, IH, J- 1.4 Hz), 4.17 (q, 2H, J- 7.2 Hz), 3.96 (s, 3H), 1.61 (s, 6H), 1.23 (t, 3H, J = 7.1 Hz); LCMS: [(M+l)f - 248.33; tR - 3.28 min. Step D : 4-( 1 -Hydroxy~2-methylpropan-2-yl)-2-methoxyberizomtrile LiBH4 (0.485 mL, 0.971 mmol, 2 M in THF) was added to a stirred solution of ethyl 2-(4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoate (0.160 g, 0.647 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 0C. The resulting solution was stirred for 12 h. Water (15 mL) was added, and the resulting solution was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography eluting with EtOAc-Hexanes (7:3 — > 1 : 1 ) to give an inseparable mixture containing primarily 4-( 1 -hydroxy-2-methylproρan-2-yl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.55 (d, IH, J- 8.0 Hz), 6.88 (d, IH, J- 8.0 Hz ), 7.02 (s, IH), 3.98 (s, 3H), 3.69 (s, 2H), 1.38 (s, 6H); LCMS: [(M-H )]+ - 206.35; tR - 2.65 min. Step E: 2~methoxy-4~(2-methyi-l-oxopropan-2-yl)benzonitrile To a stirred solution of 4-( 1 -hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile (0.120 g,

0.585 mmol) in dry CH2Cl2 (30 mL) at 0 0C was added Dess-Martin periodinane (0.322 g, 0.760 mmol) in one portion. The mixture was stirred for 12 h at rt and quenched with a 1 : 1 mixture of saturated Na2S2Os (20 mL) and saturated NaHCO3 (20 mL). The resulting mixture was diluted with CH2CI2 (50 mL) and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2 χ 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and concentrated in vacuo to give crude aldehyde. The crude residue was used in the next step without further purification. LCMS: [(M-H )]+ - 204; tR = 2.95 min.

INTERMEDIATE 23


5-fluoro-2-(methyloxy)-4-(2-oxoethyi)benzρnitrile Step A: di-tert-Butyl (4-cyano-2-fluoro:5-methoxyphenyl)propanedioate

A suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 0.33 g, 8.3 mmol) in dry DMF (20 mL) was stirred and cooled to 0 0C, and di-tert-bυtyl malonate (1.5 g, 7.1 mmol) was added. The mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature before addition of 4, 5-difluoro-2-methoxybenzonitrile (1.0 g, 5.9 mmol). The mixture was heated at 80 0C for 4 h with stirring, then the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into a mixture of ice- water (100 mL) and AcOEt (100 mL). The layers were separated, and the organic layer was washed successively with water, and brine, then dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, EtOAc/hexanes, 0 -> 10%) to give the di-tert-butyl (4-cyano-5-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl) propanedioate. LCMS: [(M+ I)-MSu, CO2-/~Bu]+ = 210.1; tR = 2.2 min. Step B: (4-Cyano-2-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid

Trifiuoroacetic acid (5 mL) was added to a solution of di~tert-butyl (4-cyano-5-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl) propanedioate (1.3 g, 28 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred over night, then concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was treated with Et2O (10 mL) to induce crystallization. The crystals were collected by filtration to give (4-cyano-2-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid .

3H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.44 (d, J- 5.3 Hz, IH), 7.19 (d, J= 5.4 Hz5 IH)5 3.96 (s, 3H),

3.78 (s, 2H); LC/MS: [(M+l)f - 210.1; tR = 0.62 min.

Step C: Methyl (4-Cvano-2-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl)acetate

To a solution of (4-cyano-2-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid (5.0 g, 24 mmol) in methanol (50 mL) at 0 0C was added thionyl chloride (2.3 mL, 31 mmol) drop-wise. The mixture warmed slowly to rt and stirred 12 h, then was concentrated in vacuo and dried under high vacuum to provide methyl (4-Cyano-2-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl)acetate. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.35 (d, J= 5.3 Hz, IH), 7.19 (d, J= 5.4 Hz, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.81 (s, 2H). Step D: 5-Fluoro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile To a solution of methyl (4-Cyano-2-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl)acetate (5.0 g, 22 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at 0 0C was added lithium borohydride (14.6 mL, 29.1 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 12 h, then was diluted with saturated ammonium chloride solution and extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated. Silica gel column chromatography (50 ->100% EtOActhex.) provided 5-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.19 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, IH)5 6.89 (d, J- 5.4 Hz5 IH)5 4.21 (br S5 IH)5 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.82 (m, 2H)5 2.92 (m, 2H);

LC/MS: [(M+l)f = 196.2; tR = 0.58 min.

Step E: 5-Fluoro-2-methpxy-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile

To a solution of 5-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)~2-methoxybenzonitrile (175 mg, 0.900 mmol) in Dichloromethane (4 mL) was added Dess-Martin Periodinane (0.53 g, 1.2 mmol). The solution was stirred for 2 h at ambient temperature, then was diluted with NaHCO3 (sat.) and Na2S2O3 (sat.) and stirred for 30 min. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane twice. The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered, and concentrated to provide the desired aldehyde, which was used directly without further purification.

INTERMEDIATE 24


5-Fluoro-2-methoxy-4-oxiran-2~ylbenzonitrile

To a solution of 5-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxybenzonitrile (0.68 g, 3.5 mmol) and Et3N (0.82 mL, 5.9 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added methanesulfonyl chloride (0.33 mL, 4.2 mmol) at 0 0C. After 15 min. the reaction mixture was poured into saturated ammonium chloride and extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organics were washed with 1 N HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (MgS 04) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was re-dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL), treated with DBU (0.79 mL, 5.2 mmol) and stirred for 2 h. TLC monitoring showed conversion to the olefin. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organics were washed with 1 N HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (MgS 04) and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting olefin was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL) and treated with meta-chloro perbenzoic acid (0.72 g, 4.2 mmol) at 0 0C. After 3 h, the mixture was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with dichloromethane (twice). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS 04), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude epoxide was purified by silica gel column chromatography (5->80% EtOAc:hexane) to provide 5-fluoro-2-methoxy~4-oxiran-2-yϊbenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz5 CD3OD) δ 7.32 (d, J- 5.3 Hz5 IH), 6.82 (d, J= 5.4 Hz5 IH)5 4.19 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 3.27 (m, IH), 2.76 (m, IH); LC/MS: [(M+l)f = 194.1; tR = 0.58 min.

INTERMEDIATE 25

(27Chlorp-4-cyano-3 -methoxyphenyl)ethylene oxide

Step A: /:Butyl, methyl (R,S)-2-(2-chlpro-4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)malonate t-Butyl, methyl malonate (7.5 g, 43 mmol) in DMF (50 mL) was cooled in an ice bath before NaH (60% in mineral oil, 1.0 g, 42 mmol) was added portionwise over 5 minutes with hydrogen evolution. The suspension was allowed to warm to RT for 30 minutes at which time everything was in solution. 3-Chloro-2,4-difluorobenzonitπle (5.0 g, 28.8 mmol) was added as a solid and the reaction was heated to 90 0C for 4 hours and then at RT for 12 hours. TLC (15% ethyl acetate/hexanes) indicated still some starting material but mostly product at a slightly lower Rf. The reaction was diluted with ether and quenched into water containing 2N HCl. The mixture was extracted twice with ether and the ether layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was taken up in 1 : 1 methanol :dichloromethane (50 mL) and 2M trimethylsilyldiazomethane in ether was added until the yellow color persisted to re-esterify any acid. The excess diazomethane was quenched with acetic acid and the mixture was reconcentrated. The product mixture was separated by flash chromatogrphy (5-10% ethyl acetate/hexanes, then 10-20%) to afford first some recovered starting material, then a mixture of product and isomeric t-butyl, methyl (R,S)-2-(2-chloro-6-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)malonate by NMR (900 mg), followed by clean title product isomer. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 1.46(s, 9H), 3.79 (s, 3H)5 5.15 (s, IH), 7.448 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.56 (dd, J = 6.0, 8.2, IH).

Step B: Methyl (2-cnlorιo-4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)acetate

A solution off-butyl, methyl (R,S)-2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)malonate (4.80 g, 14.6 mmol) in 1 :1 TFA:dichloromethane (50:50 mL) was stirred at RT for 20 hours and then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in methanol and heated to reflux until the decarboxylation was complete by HPLC/MS and TLC. The mixture was reconcentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (10-40% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to afford clean title product isomer. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 2H), 7.234 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.56 (dd, J = 6.1, 8.0 Hz, IH). Step C: Methyl C2-chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxypheriyl)acetate A solution of methyl (2-chloro-4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)acetate (1.40 g, 6.15 mmol) in methanol (30 mL) was divided into two 20 mL microwave (MW) vials. Potassium carbonate (2x 850 mg) was added to each MW vial. Each was heated in a microwave at 130 0C for 60 minutes at which time HPLC/MS indicated no starting material was left and the product was all hydrolyzed to the acid. Most of the methanol was removed in vacuo and the residue was diluted with water, acidified with 2M HCl and the mixture was extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was taken up in 1:1 methanol :dichloromelhane (50 mL) and 2M trimethylsilyldiazomethane in ether was added until the yellow color persisted to re-esterϊfy the acid. The excess diazomethane was quenched with acetic acid and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (40% DCM/hexanes to 100% DCM) to give the title product. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.83 (s, 2H)5 4.07 (s, 3H), 7.139 (d, J - 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.468 (d, J - 8.0, IH). Step D: 2-(2-Chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol To a solution of methyl (2-chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)acetate (700 mg, 2.92 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added 2M lithium borohydride (1.46 mL, 2.92 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 hours. The reaction was diluted with ether and quenched into water containing 2N HCl. The mixture was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and the organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The product mixture was separated by flash chromatography (10-40% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to afford the title product. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 3.10 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.94 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H)5 4.08 (s, 3H), 7.175 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.46 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, IH). Step E: 2-(2-Chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate A solution of 2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (205 mg, 0.969 mmol) DIPEA (0.846 mL, 4.84 mmol) and pyridine (0.078 mL, 0.969 mmol) in DCM (3 mL) was treated dropwise with mesyl chloride (0.110 mL, 1.417 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 2 hours and was then diluted with DCM and washed twice with aq. citric acid, then washed with brine, and dried over sodium sulfate. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (20-50% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to afford the title intermediate. 1H-NMR (500 MHz9 CDCl3) δ ppm 3.00 (s, 3H), 3.30 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H)S 4.11 (s, 3H)5 4.50 (t, J - 6.6 Hz, 2H), 7.189 (d, J - 8.0 Hz5 IH), 7.508 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH). Step F: (2-Chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)ethylene

A solution of 2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate (207 mg, 0.714 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) was treated with DBU (0.538 mL, 3.57 mmol) and stirred overnight at 40 0C. TLC (50% ethyl acetate/hexanes) showed complete conversion to a faster intense UV band for product. The reaction was then diluted with DCM and aq. citric acid and the mixture was extracted twice with DCM. The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the residue by flash chromatography (5-20% ethyl acetate/hexanes) afforded the title intermediate. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 4.09 (s, 3H), 5.59 (d, J = 11 Hz, IH)5 5.87 (d, J - 17.4 Hz5 IH), 7.11 (dd> J - 11, 17.4 Hz, IH), 7.40 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, IH)5 7.47 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, IH). Step G: (2-Chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyρhenyl)ethylene oxide A solution of (2-chloro-4-cyano-3-methoxyρhenyl)ethylene (120 rag, 0.620 mmol) in DCM (6 mL) was treated with 85% m-CPBA (208 mg, 0.930 mmol) and stirred for 5 hours at RT. The reaction was then diluted with DCM and stirred with sat'd sodium bicarbonate containing some sodium bisulfite. The mixture was then extracted twice with DCM and the organic layers were washed with another portion of sodium bicarbonate and brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford the crude title epoxide. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.68 (dd, J = 2.6, 5.8 Hz, IH), 3.28 (dd, J = 4.1, 5.5 Hz, IH), 4.12 (s, 3H), 4.24 (dd, J - 2.5, 3.9 Hz, IH), 7.13 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.52 (d, J = 8.0 Hz5 IH).

INTERMEDIATE 26


(2-Chloro-4"Cyano~5-methoxyphenyl)ethylene oxide

Step A: Di-MButyl 2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-5-fluorophenyl)malonate

To sodium hydride (60% in mineral oil, 3.75 g, 94 mmol) under nitrogen was added dry DMF

(150 mL) and the suspension was cooled in an ice bath. Di-t-butyl malonate (8.1 g, 37.5 mmol) was added dropwise over 15 minutes via syringe with hydrogen evolution. The suspension was stirred for 30 minutes after which time 5-chloro-2,4-difluorobenzonitrile (5.0 g, 28.8 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added dropwise over 15 minutes and the reaction was heated to 80 0C for 12 hours when TLC (15% ethyl acetate/hexanes) indicated mostly product. The reaction was diluted with ether and quenched into water containing aq. ammonium chloride. The mixture was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and the organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified on silica gel (2-10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to give the title product. NMR indicated about a 6:1 mixture of product and the isomeric di-f-butyl, 2-(4-chloro-2-cyano-5-fluorophenyl)malonate. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 1.46(s, 18H), 5.05 (s, IH), 7.55 (d, J - 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.71 (d, J = 6.0, IH) (major isomer) and 1.46(s, 18H), 4.95 (s, IH), 7.63 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.78 (d, J = 6.0, IH) (minor isomer). Step B: Methyl (2-chloro~4-cyano-5-fluorophenyl)acetate

A solution of dW-buτyl 2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-5-fluorophenyl)malonate (9.10 g, 24.6 mmol) in 1 :2 TFA:dichloromethane (25:50 mL) was stirred at RT for 3 hours and then concentrated in vacuo to give a solid (5.05 g) after twice evaporating toluene. An aliquot of 4 g of solid was taken up in 1:1 methanokdichloromethane (50 mL) and 2M trimethylsilyldiazomethane in ether was added until the yellow color persisted. Excess diazomethane was quenched with acetic acid and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (5-15% ethyl acetate/hexanes containing 5% DCM for solubility) to give separation from the higher Rf 4-chloro-2-cyano-5 -fluorophenyl isomer and still impure title product isomer. Flash chromatography was repeated (50-100% DCM/hexanes) to afford clean title product by NMR.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 2H), 7.21 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, IH), 7.62 (d, J - 5.8 Hz, IH).

Step C: Methyl (2-chloro-4-cyaπo-5-methoxyphenyl)acetate

A solution of methyl (2-chIoro-4-cyano-5-fluorophenyl)acetate (1.40 g, 6.15 mmol) in methanol (30 mL) was divided into two 20 mL microwave vials. Potassium carbonate (2x 850 mg) was added to each vial. Each was heated in a microwave at 130 0C for 60 minutes at which time HPLC/MS indicated no starting material was left and the product was all hydrolyzed to the acid. Most of the methanol was removed in vacuo and the residue was diluted with water, acidified with 2M HCl and the mixture was extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was taken up in 1 :1 methanol :dichloromethane (50 mL) and 2M trimethylsilyldiazomethane in ether was added until the yellow color persisted to re-esterify the acid. The excess diazomethane was quenched with acetic acid and the mixture was concentrated. Flash chromatography (40% DCM/hexanes to 100% DCM) gave the methyl (2-chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyl)acetate. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.83 (s, 2H), 4.07 (s, 3H), 7.139 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.468 (d, J - 8.0, IH).

Step D: 2-(2-chloro-4-cvano-5-methoxyphenyl)ethanol

To a solution of methyl (2-chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyl)acetate (200 mg, 0.835 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added 2M lithium borohydride (0.835 mL, 1.67 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 hours. The reaction was diluted with ether and quenched into water containing 2N HCl. The mixture was extracted twice with ethyl acetate and the organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The product mixture was separated by MPLC (40+S; 20-60% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to afford the title product. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 3.04 (t, J - 6.4 Hz5 2H)5 3.93 (t5 J = 6.4 Hz5 2H), 3.93 (S5 3H)5 6.927 (s5 IH), 7.536 (s, IH).

Step E: 2-(2-Chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate A solution of 2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (205 mg, 0.969 mmol) DIPEA (0.846 mL, 4.84 mmol) and pyridine (0.0780 mL, 0.969 mmol) in DCM (3 mL) was treated dropwise with mesyl chloride (0.110 mL, 1.42 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 2 hours and was then diluted with DCM and washed twice with aq. citric acid, then washed with brine, and dried over sodium sulfate. Purification of the residue by flash chromatography (20 - 50% ethyl acetate / hexanes) afforded the title intermediate. 1H-NMR (500 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.24 (t5 J = 6.6 Hz, 2H)5 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.49 (t, J - 6.6 Hz5 2H)5 6.962 (s, IH), 7.563 (s, IH). Step F: (2~Chloro-4-cyano-5~methoxyphenyl)ethylene A solution of 2-(2-chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyρhenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate (274 mg, 0.945 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) was treated with DBU (0.712 mL, 4.73 mmol) and stirred for 3 hours at 50 0C5 then at RT for 12 hours. TLC (50% ethyl acetate/hexanes) showed complete conversion to a faster intense UV band for the product The reaction was then diluted with DCM and aq. citric acid and the mixture was extracted twice with DCM. The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the residue by flash chromatography (10-20% ethyl acetate/hexanes) afforded the title intermediate. 1H-NMR (500 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 3.98 (s, 3H), 5.59 (d, J = 11 Hz5 IH)5 5.86 (d, J - 17.4 Hz, IH), 7.09 (dd, J = 11, 17.4 Hz, IH), 7.115 (s} IH), 7.557 (s, IH). Step G: f2-Cbioro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyl)ethylene oxide

A solution of (2-chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyl)ethylene (130 mg, 0.671 mmol) in DCM (6 mL) was treated with 85% m-CPBA (226 mg, 1.10 mmol) and stirred for 5 hours at RT when another portion of m-CPBA (115 mg) was added. The reaction stirred at room temperature for another 16 hours and was then diluted with DCM and stirred with sat'd sodium bicarbonate containing some sodium bisulfite. The mixture was then extracted twice with DCM and the organic layers were washed with another portion of sodium bicarbonate and brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford the crude title epoxide. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.67 (dd, J - 2.6, 5.8 Hz, IH), 3.28 (dd, J - 4.1, 5.5 Hz, IH), 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.22 (dd, J = 2.5, 3.9 Hz, IH), 6.91 (s, IH), 7.564 (s, IH).

INTERMEDIATE 27


6-fluoro~2-methyl-3-oxiran-2-ylbenzom'trile Step A: 3-bromo-6-fluoro-2-methylbenzonitrile

To a cooled (0 0C) solution of 2-fluoro-6-methylbenzonitrile (5.0 g, 37 mmol) in 100 røL of concentrated H2SO4 was added NBS (6.93 g, 38.9 mmol). Then the mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 3 hrs and poured into ice-water (1 L). The solution was extracted three times with EtOAc

(200 mL) and the combined orgianc layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel fash chromatography to give 3-bromo-6-fluoro-2-methylbeπzonitrile.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) S ppm 7.71-7.74 (m, IH), 6.95 (t, J=8.6 Hz, IH), 2.62 (s, 3H).

Step B: 3-ethenyl-6-fluoro-2-methylbenzonitrile

A mixture of 3-bromo-6-fluoro-2-methylbenzonitrile (8.8 g, 41 mmol), tributyl(vinyl)tin (14.3 g, 45.2 mmol), LiCl (5.20 g, 123 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (2.3 g, 2.0 mmol) in toluene (200 mL) was heated at 100- 110 0C under N^ overnight. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography to obtain 3-ethenyl-6-fluoro-2-methylbenzonitrile.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.54-7.58 (m, IH), 6.95 (t, J=8.6 Hz, IH), 6.73-6.81 (m,

IH)5 5.54 (d, J=17.2 Hz5 IH), 5.34 (d, J-11.0 Hz, IH), 2.47 (s, 3H). Step C: 6-fluoro-2-methyl-3-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile To a cooled (0 0C) solution of 3-ethenyl-6-fluoro-2-methylbenzonitrile (6.05 g, 37.6 mmol) in 200 mL of DCM was added m-CPBA (15.30 g, 85 % purity, 75.16 mmol). Then the mixture was stirred at r.t. for 12 hrs and diluted with DCM (300 mL), washed with saturated Na2SO3 (4 X 300 mL) and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography to obtain 6-fluoro-2-methyl-3-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.41-7.44 (m, IH), 7.02 (t, J-8.6 Hz5 IH), 3.95 (t, J=3.1 Hz, IH), 3.16-3.19 (m, IH), 2.60-2.62 (m, 4H).

INTERMEDIATE 28


3-methyl-2-fmethyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-vlbenzonitrile Step A: 4-bromo-2-flυoro-3-methylbenzonitrile

To a solution of DIPA (12.1 g, 0.120 mmol) in 20 mL of dry THF was added 2.5M of n-BuLi (44 mL, 0.11 mmol) dropwise under Ar at -78 0C, and then the reaction was allowed to warm to 0 0C. After stirring for 1 hour, the solution was added to a solution of 4-bromo-2-fluorobenzonitrile (20 g, 0.1 mmol) in 200 mL of dry THF dropwise at -78 0C under Ar and the mixture was stirred for 3 hours, then MeI (15.6 g, 0.110 mmol) was added at one portion and the mixture was stirred for another 30 minutes. Then the reaction was quenched with aq. NH4Cl and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL X 3). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine, dried and concentrated to brown oil, which was purified by silica gel column to give 4-bromo-2-fluoro-3-methylbenzonitrile.

Step B: 4-bromo-3-methyl-2-(methyIoxy)benzonitrile

Sodium (3.00 g, 130 mmol) was added in portions into 80 mL of methanol and the mixture was stirred for 20 min untile the sodium was completely dissolved. Then 4-bromo-2-fluoro-3-methylbenzonitrile (8.00 g, 37.3 mmol) was added and the solution was refluxed for 4 hours before cooling down. The reaction mixture was poured into ice/water (300 mL) and the resulting precipitate was collected by filtration. The solid afforded was dried under reduced pressure at 40 0C to give 4-bromo-3-methyl-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.39 (d, J=8.0 Hz5 1 H), 7.28 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.00 (s, 3H), 2.37 (s, 3H). Step C: 4-ethenyl-3-methvl-2-(methyloχy)benzonitrile The mixture of 4-bromo-3 -methyl-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile (8.10 g, 35.8 mmol), potassium vinyl trifluoroborate (6.24 g.46.6 mmol) and PdC12(dppf)2 (0.55 g, 0.70 mmol) in 160 mL of EtOH and 40 mL of TEA was refluxed under Ar for 4 hours. The mixture was concentrated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE : EtOAc = 20 :1) to afford 4-ethenyl-3-methyl-2-(methyloxy)benzonitriϊe.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.38 (d, J=SA Hz, 1 H), 7.26 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1 H), 6.85-6.92 (m, 1 H)5 5.70 (d, J=17.6 Hz, 1 H), 5.45 (d, J=10.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H). Step D: 3-methyl-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile A mixture of 4-ethenyl-3-methyl-2-(niethyloxy)benzonitrile (3.90 g, 22.5 mmol) and m-CPBA (85 %, 11.7 g, 67.6 mmol) in 300 niL of DCM was stirred at room temperature for 120 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 0C and was washed subsequently with saturated NaHCO3 (50 mL), saturated Na2SO3 (50 mL), 5 % NaOH (50 mL X 2) and brine (50 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE : EtOAc = 20 : 1) to afford 3~methyl-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.39 (d, ./=8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.03 (d, J=8.8 Hz1 1 H), 3.95-3.97 (m, 4 H), 3.17-3.19 (m, 1 H), 2.60-2.62 (m, 1 H).

INTERMEDIATE 29


5-methyl-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile Step A: 4-Hvdroxy-5-methoxy-2-methvlbenzaldehyde

To a solution of 2-methoxy-5-methylphenol (50.0 g, 362 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (1000 mL) at -5 0C were added titanium (IV) chloride (80.0 mL, 724 mmol) slowly via syringe (internal temperature was kept below 0 0C during addition) and dichloromethyl methyl ether (52.9 mL, 593 mmol). After being stirred at room temperature for 3 h, the mixture was poured into ice water. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and then washed with EtOAc and Et2O to afford 4-Hydroxy-5~methoxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde. 1H NMR (CDCI3) δ 10.22 (s, IH), 7.38 (s, IH), 6.81 (s, IH)5 6.14 (s, IH)5 3.96 (s, 3H), 2.62 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE, m/z) (M + I)+ = 167.0; tR = 2.06 min. Step B: 4-Formyl-2-methoxy-5-methylphenyl trifluorρmethanesulfonate To a solution of 4-Hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde (20.0 g, 122 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) at room temperature was added potassium carbonate (33.3 g, 241 mmol) and 4-nitrophenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (49.0 g, 181 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 8 hr. EtOAc (600 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and the organic layer was washed three times with water, dried, filtered, and concentrated. The crude compound was then purified by flash chromatography (ethylacetate/hexanes 1 :9 → 3:7) to provide 4-Formyl-2-methoxy-5-methylphenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 10.34 (s, IH), 7.53 (s, IH), 7.16 (s, IH)5 3.99 (s, 3H)5 2.67 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE5 m/z) [M + I]+ = 298.97; tR = 3.44 min. Step C: 4-Formvl-2-methoxy-5-methylbenzom'trile A mixture of 4-formyl-2-methoxy-5-methylphenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (35.0 g, 117 mmol), zinc cyanide (55.1 g, 469 mmol) and tetrakis triphenylphosphine palladium (0) (20.34 g, 17.60 mmol) in DMF (300 mL) were stirred at 110 °C under nitrogen atmosphere for 8 hr. EtOAc was added to the reaction mixture and the organic layer was washed two times with water, dried, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was then purified by column chromatography (silica gel, ethylacetate/hexanes 3:7) which afforded 4-formyl-2-methoxy-5-methylbenzonitrile. 1H NMR (CDCl35 500 MHz) δ 10.39 (s, IH)5 7.47 (s, IH), 7.44 (s, IH), 4.02 (s5 3H)5 2.66 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE5 m/z) [M + I]+ = 176.06; tR = 2.71 min. Step D: 2-Methoxy-5-methyl~4~(oxiran~2~γl)benzonitrile To a cool solution of NaH (1.20 g, 30.0 mmol) in THF (300 ml) was added dropwise a solution of trimethylsulfonium iodide (8.74 g5 42.8 mmol) in DMSO (80 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 0C under N2 for 20 min. The solution of 4-formyl-2-methoxy-5-methylbenzomtrile

(5.00 g, 28.5 mmol) in THF (60 mL) was added. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 0 0C under N2 for 1 hr, and then it was warmed gradually to room temperature and stirred at that temperature for 12 hr. The starting material was consumed as indicated by TLC (25%ethyl acetate/hexanes). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 0C and quenched with dropwise addition of water. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 200 ml). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine, then dried (MgS O4) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified via column chromatography (silica gel, 10-30% EtOAc-hexanes) to afford 2-methoxy-5-methyl-4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.35 (s, IH), 6.88 (s, IH), 4.01 (s, IH), 3.92 (s, 3H)5 3.25 (s, IH)5 2.65 (d, J= 2.6 Hz, IH), 2.37 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [M + I]+ - 190.0; tR = 2.85 min.

INTERMEDIATE 30


2-fluoro-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile

Step A: {4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)acetic acid

A solution of dry diisopropylamine (16.5 g, 163 mmol) in dry THF (150 mL) under nitrogen was cooled with a -78 0C dry ice/acetone bath, and «-butyϊ lithium (2.50 M in hexane, 65.2 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was warmed to ambient temperature for 10 min and then cooled to -78 0C again. HMPA (30.0 mL, 168 mmol) was added, followed by a solution of 2-fluoro-4-methylbenzonitrile (20.0 g, 148 mmol) in 50 mL of dry THF. After stirring at -78 0C for 2 hours, CO2 was bubbled through the solution for 20 min, and then the mixture was warmed slowly to 0 0C. Then 1 N HCl was added until pH = 2 and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layers were washed with brine and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and concentrated to afford (4-cyano-3-fiuorophenyl)acetic acid.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.58-7.61 (m, IH), 7.19-7.21 (m, 2H), 3.72 (s, 2H). Step B: 2-fluoro-4-(2-hydrpxyethγl)benzomtrile

To a solution of (4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)acelic acid (25.6 g, 143 mmol) in 150 mL of dry THF was cooled by ice/water, and then BH3ZMe2S (10 M, 15.7 mL, 157 mmol) was added slowly. The reaction was warmed to ambient temperature and stirred overnight. The mixture was quenched with MeOH and concentrated to dryness. The residue was partitioned between water and EtOAc. The organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford 2-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.52-7.56 (m, IH), 7.11-7.15 (m, 2H), 3.89 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.92 (t, J-6.3 Hz5 2H). Step C: 2~(4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate

A solution of 2-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzonitrile (22.5 g, 136 mmol) and MsCl (23.3 g, 205 mmol) in 200 mL of dry DCM was added dropwise TEA (27.5 g, 273 mmol) at 0 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight before concentrating to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 300 mL of EtOAc and washed with 1 N HCl and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to afford crude 2-(4~cyano-3~fluorophenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate. MS m/z 244 (M+l )+. Step D: 4-ethenyl-2-fluorobenzonitrile

A solution of 2-(4-cyano-3-fluorophenyl)ethyl methanesulfonate (35.0 g, 144 mmol) and triethylamine (50 mL) in DCM (200 mL) was added DBU (50 mL) dropwise to at 0 0C. After stirring at room temperature overnight, the solution was diluted with DCM, washed with 1 N HQ and brine, and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give 4-ethenyl-2-fluorobenzonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.53-7.57 (m, IH)5 7.20-7.26 (m, 2H), 6.64-6.71 (m, IH), 5.48-5.90 (m, 2H). Step E: 2-fluoro-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile To a solution of 4-ethenyl-2-fluorobenzonitrile (18.0 g, 122 mmol) in 200 mL of DCM was slowly added raCPBA (74.8 g, 367.347 mmol) in portions at 0 0C. The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred overnight. The solution was washed with aqueous Na2SO3 until KI paper didn't change color. The organic layers was washed with brine and then concentrated. The residue was purified via column chromatography to give 2-fluoro~4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 1.59-162 (m, IH), 7.12-7.22 (m, 2H), 3.89-3.91 (m, IH), 3.20-3.22 (m, IH), 2.72-2.74 (m, IH).

INTERMEDIATE 31


1 -formyl-2.3 -dihydro- 1 H-indene-4-carbonitrile Step A: 1 -oxo-2,3-dihydro- 1 H-indene-4-carbomtrile

To a solution of 4~bromo~2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-one (1.00 g, 4.74 mmol) in 5 mL of DMF was added Zn(CN)2 (556 mg, 4.74 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (77 mg, 0.14 mmol), and the reaction mixture was stirred under microwave irradiation for 1 h at 165 0C. The solvent was removed in vacuum to afford the crude compound, which was purified via column chromatography to afford 1 ~oxo-2,3-dihydro-l H-indene-4-carbonitrile.

Step B : ( 1 E)- 1 - [f methyloxy)methylidene] -2,3-dihydro- 1 H-mdene-4-carbonitrile Sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (2 mL, 4 mmol, 2M in THF) was added to a stirred suspension of (methoxy methyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (1.47 g} 4.29 mmol) in dry THF (20 mL) at 0 0C for 35 min and a solution of l-oxo-2,3-dihydro-l H-indene-4-carbonitrile (450 mg, 2.86 mmol) in THF (10 mL) added over 10 min. The mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 2 h and at room temperature for 1 h. Water was added and the mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and brine. The organic layer was dried and concentrated. The crude product was purified via prep-TLC (PE:EtO Ac=I 0:1) to afford (1 E)-I- [(methyloxy)rnethylidene] -2,3-dihydro- lH-indene-4-carbonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 8.00 (d, J=8.3 Hz5 0.4H), 7.42 (d, /=8.3 Hz, 0.6H), 7.30-7.40 (m, IH), 7.18-7.22 (m, IH), 6.70 (s, 0.6H), 6.22 (s, 0.4H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.15 (t, J=5.7 Hz5 2H), 2.70-2.82 (m, 2H). Step C: l-formyl-23-dihydro-l H-indene-4-carbonitrile A solution of (IE)-I - [(methyloxy)methylidene] -2,3-dihydro- 1 H-indene-4-carbonitrile (250 rng, 1.05 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added BBr3 dropwise at -780C under N2. Then the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 3h. It was poured into ice-saturated NaHCO3 solution, and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4. The solvent was removed in vacuo to give crude l-formyl-2,3-dihydro-l H-indene-4-carbonitrile (150mg, crude), which is used for next step directly. 1H-NMR (400 MHz9 CDCl3) 6 ppm 9.72 (s, IH), 7.54 (d, J-7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.34 (t, ./=7.6 Hz, IH), 3.76 (s, IH), 3.18-3.24 (m, 2H)5 2.42-2.58 (m, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 32


1 -(piperazin- 1 -ylmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 /f-isochromene-5-carbonitrile Step A: 2-(2-bromophenyl)ethanol

A solution of (2-bromoρhenyl)acetic acid (100 g, 0.46 mmol) in dry THF (2 L) was added NaBH4 (29 g, 0.77 mol) in portions. The contents were cooled to 0 0C, and BF3. Et2O (123 mL, 0.77 mol) was added drop wise over Ih. The mixture was allowed to warm to 25 0C and stirred for 16 h. The reaction was cooled to 00C and cautiously quenched with aqueous sodium hydroxide. The contents were stirred for 3 h, and then extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried and concentrated to give 2-(2-bromophenyl)ethanol.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.54-7.56 (ra, IH), 7.23-7.28 (m, 2 H), 7.07-7.1 1 (m, IH), 3.88 (s, J=6.6 Hz5 2H), 3.03 (t, J=6.8 Hz, 2H).

Step B: methyl S-bromo-S^-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylate TiCl4 (76 g, 0.4 mol) was added over a period of 10 min to an ice-cooled mixture of 2-(2-bromoρhenyl)ethanol (20 g, 0.1 mol) and ethyl bis(ethyloxy)acetate (21.1 g, 0.120 mol) in 120 niL of CH3NO2. After stirring for 10 min, the ice bath was removed and the mixture was allowed to stire at room temperature overnight. The mixture was poured into ice/aqueous IN HCl. Extracted with DCM and backwashed with IN HCl and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with silica gel cloumn chromatography to give the product methyl 5-bromo-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylate. 1H-NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.42 ~ 7.47 (m, IH), 7.29 (d, J=8.0Hz, IH), 7.02 (t ,J-8.0Hz, IH), 5.22 (s, IH), 4.16 ~ 4.26 (m, 3H)5 3.95 ~ 4.01 (m, IH), 3.46 ~ 3.63 (m, IH), 2.99 - 3.03 (m, IH), 1.24 (t, J=8.0Hz, 3H).

Step C: S-bromo-S^-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid

To a solution of methyl 5-bromo-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylate (12.1 g, 42.4 mmol) in 200 mL of MeOH/THF/H2O (2/2/1) was added LiOH-H2O (5.34 g, 0.127 mol), and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 30 min. The solvents were removed under vacuum, and the residue was added 100 mL of water and extracted with ether. The aqueous layer was then acidified with 4 N HCl to pH - 4~5 in ice bath, and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford 5-bromo-3,4~dihydro~lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid. 1H-NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.41 - 7.47 (m, 2H), 7.05 (t, J=8.0Hz, IH), 5.27 (s, IH), 4.19 -4.25 (m, IH), 3.95 ~ 4.00 (m, IH), 2.80 (t, J=6.0Hz, 2H).

Step D: 5-bromo-N-methyl-N-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-1 -carboxamide A mixture of S-bromo-S^-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid (9.10 g, 35.4 mmol) and CDI (4.14 g, 42.5 mmol) in 200 mL of dry DCM was stirred at r.t. for 30 min and then O,N-dimethyl-hydroxylamine (5.99 g, 42.5 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight. The solvents were removed under vacuum, and the residue was purified with silica gel cloumn chromatography to give 5-bromo-N-methyl-N~(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-1-carboxamide. 1H-NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.40 (d, J-8.0Hz, IH), 6.99 (t, J-S.OHz, IH), 6.93 (d, J=8.0Hz, IH), 5.63 (s, IH), 4.23 ~ 4.28 (m, IH), 3.87 ~ 3.92 (m, IH), 3.71 (s, 3H), 3.19 (s, 3H), 2.71 ~ 2.87 (m, 2H).

Step E: 5-bromo-3,4-dihvdro-lH-isochromene-l-carbaldehyde A solution of 5-bromo-N-methyl-N-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-1 -carboxamide (3.0 g, 10 mmol) in 60 iriL of anhydrous THF was cooled to -3O0C and then DIBAL-H (20 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at -300C for 1 hours. The reaction was quenched with water, extracte with DCM. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The crude 5 ~bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-1-carbaldehyde was used for next step without purification.

Step F : 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4r [(5 -bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl)methyl jpiperazine-; 1 -carboxylate A solution of 5-bromo-3,4~dihydro-l/f-isochromene-l-carbaldehyde (1.62 g, 6.72 mmol), amine (1.25 g, 6.72 mmol) and NaBH(OAc)3 (7.12 g, 33.6 mmol) in 50 mL of anhydrous DCM was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was added 50 mL of DCM and washed with brine.. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with silica gel cloumn chromatography to give l,l-dimethylethyl-4-[(5-bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl)methyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate . 1H-NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.43 (d, J=8.0Hz, IH), 7.14 (d, J-8.0Hz, IH), 7.04 (t, J=8.0Hz, IH), 4.90 (d, J-8.0Hz, IH), 4.15 ~ 4.21 (m, IH), 3.71 ~ 3.77 (m, IH), 3.48 ~ 3.49 (m, 4H), 3.36 (t, J-4.0Hz, IH), 2.76 ~ 2.81 (m, 2H)5 2.50 ~ 2.54 (m, 4H), 2.41 (s, IH), 1.45 (s, 9H). Step G: 1,1 -dimethylethyM- [(5-cyano-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl)methyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate A solution of 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4- [(5 -bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1-yl)methyl]piperazine-l -carboxylate (210 mg, 0.51 mmol), Pd(PPh3)4 (118 mg, 0.100 mmol) and Zn(CN)2 (120 mg, 1.0 mmol) in 10 mL of anhydrous DMF was to 120 0C at N2 atmosphere for 2 hours. After cooled to r.t, the mixtue was partitioned between EtOAc and water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-TLC to afford 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl4- [(5 -cyano-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl)methyl]piperazine- 1 -carboxylate .

Step Η: 1 -fpiperazin- 1 -ylmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene-5-carbonitrile A solution of 1 J-dimethylethyW-ftS-cyano-S^-dihydro-lH-isochromen-l-y^methylJpiperazine-1 -carboxylate (150 mg, 0.42 mmol) in 10 mL of DCM was added 5 mL of 4N HCl / dioxane, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The solvents was removed off under vacuum to afford l-(piperazin-l-ylmethyl)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-5-carbonitrile. 1H-NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ 7.77 (d, J=8.0Hz, IH), 7.72 (d, J=8.Hz, IH), 7.45 (t, J=8.0Hz, IH), 4.11 - 4.17 (m, IH), 3.82 ~ 3.88 (m, 9H), 3.55 ~ 3.61 (m, 2H), 2.87 ~ 2.99 (m, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 33

1 -formyl-3,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-S-carbonitrile Step A: 2-(2-bromophenyl)ethanol

A solution of (2-bromophenyl)acetic acid (100 g, 0.46 mmol) in dry THF (2 L) was added NaBH4 (29 g, 0.77 mol) in portions. The contents were cooled to 0 0C, and BF3. Et2O (123 mL, 0.770 mol) was added drop-wise over Ih. The mixture was allowed to warm to 25 0C and stirred for 16h. The reaction was cooled to 00C and cautiously quenched with aqueous sodium hydroxide. The contents were stirred for 3 h, and then extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried and concentrated to give 2-(2-bromophenyl)ethanol. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.54-7.56 (m, IH), 7.23-7.28 (m, 2 H)5 7.07-7.11 (m, IH), 3.88 (s, J=6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.03 (t, J=6.8 Hz, 2H).

Step B: 5-bromo~3,4-dihydro-lH-isocfaomene-l-carboxylic acid

A solution of 2~(2-bromophenyl)ethanol (40 g, 0.2 mol) and glyoxylic acid (16 g, 0.22 mol) in 100 mL of trifluoacetic acid was refluxed overnight. The solvent was concentrated. Water and ammonium hydroxide was added to the residue to adjust the pH of the solution over 7. The solution was extracted with diethyl ether, and the aqueous layer was adjusted to about 3 with IM HCl5 and then the solution was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was dried and evaporated. The residue was without purification to give 5-bromo~3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-1-carboxylic acid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.52 (d, J=7.6 Hz, IH), 7.12 (t, J=7.8 Hz, 2 H), 5.33 (s, IH), 4.27-4.33 (m, IH)5 3.99-4.06 (m, IH), 2.87-2.89 (m, 2H). Step C: (S-bromo-3,4"dmydro-lH-isochromen-l-yl)methanol

A solution of S-bromo-S^-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid (0.500 g, 1.94 mmol) in 1 mL of TΗF was added BH3.THF (3.88 mL, 3.88 mmol) drop wise at 00C . The mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 2h. The reaction was quenched with water and aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 N, 2 mL). The contents were stirred for 3 h, and then extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried and concentrated to give (5-bromo-3,4-dihydro-l//-isochromen-l-yl)methanol 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.41 (t, J=2.4 Hz, IH), 6.97-7.04 (m, 2 H), 4.75-4.77 (m, IH), 3.88-3.92 (m, IH), 3.73-3.79 (in, 2H), 2.71-2.86 (m, 2H). Step D: l-(hvdroxymethyl)-3,4-dihvdro-lH-isochromene-5-carbonitrile A mixture of (5-bromo-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromen-l-yl)methanol (390 mg, 1.6 mmol), Zn(CN)2 (113 mg, 0.960 mmol), TMEDA (0.37 mg), xantphose (4.6 mg) and Pd(dba)3 (2.6 mg) in anhydrous DMF was micro waved 10 min at 1000C. The reaction was quenched with water and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-ΗPLC to give l-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-5- carbonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ: 7.49-7.50 (m, IH), 7.24-7.48 (m, 2 H), 4.76-4.78 (m, IH), 4.17-4.22 (m, IH), 3.76-3.95 (m, 3H), 3.01-3.09 (m, IH), 2.89-2.95 (m, IH). Step E: l-formyl-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-5 -carbonitrile

A solution of l-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-5-carbonitrile (0.16 g, 0.85 mmol) in 4 ml. of DCM was added Dess-Martin reagent (0.72 g, 1.7 mmol) in one portion at 0 0C. The mixture was stirred at 00C for 1 hour, and then stirred at rt. overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give l-formyl-3 ,4-dihydro- IH-isochromene-5-carbonitrile. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ 9.71 (s, IH), 7.93-7.95 (m, 1 H)5 7.64-7.68 (m, IH), 4.99 (s, IH), 4.03-4.09 (m, 2H), 2.99-3.04 (m, 2H). INTERMEDIATE 34


1 - { f 6-bromo-7-fmethyk>xy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl } pjperazine

Step A: 2-["3-bromo-4-(methyloxy)ph.enyl]ethanol

To a solution of [3 -bromo-4-(methyloxy)phenyl] acetic acid (10.Og, 40.8mmol) in anhydrous THF (5OmL) was added BH3-(CH3) 2S (5.3 mL, 53 mmol) dropwise at 0 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 3h. The mixture was then treated with MeOH until gas evolution subsided, and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was then partitioned between water and EtOAc. The organic layers were washed with brines dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give crude 2-[3-bromo-4-(methyloxy)phenyl]ethanol, which was used without further purification for the next step.

Step B: methyl 6~bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3.,4-ch' hydro- lH-isochromene-1 -carboxylate To an ice-cooled mixture of 2-[3-bromo-4-(methyloxy)phenyl]ethanol (9.5 g, 41 mmol) and ethyl bis(ethyloxy)acetate (8.7 g, 48 mmol) in 60 niL Of CH3NO2 was added TiCl4 (31.2 g, 169 mmol) over a period of 20 min. After stirring for 10 min, the ice bath was removed and the mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature over night. The mixture was poured onto ice/aqueous IN HCl. Extracted by DCM and backwashed with IN HCl and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via column chromatography to give methyl 6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carboxylate. Step C: 6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l//-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid To a solution of 6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carboxylate ( 12 g, 38 mmol) in 50 mL of MeOH/THF/H2O (2/2/1) was added LiOH-H2O (4.79 g, 114 mmol), and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The solvents were removed under vacuum, and to the residue was added 50 mL of water and the mixture was extracted with ether. The aqueous layer was then acidified with 4 N HCl to pH = 3 in ice bath, and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 6-bromo-7-(memyIoxy)-3}4-dihydro4H-isochromene-l- carboxylic acid.

Step D : 6-bromo-N~methyl-N,7-bis(methvloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carbpxamide 5 A mixture of 6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carboxylic acid (5.9 g, 21 mmol) and CDI (4.0 g, 25 mmol) in 60 mL of dry DCM was stirred at r.t. for 0.5 hours and then O,N-diraethyl-hydroxylamine (2.4 g, 25 mmol) was added. The result mixture was stirred overnight. The solvents were removed under vacuum, and the residue was purified by column to give 6-bromo-N-methyI-N, 7-bis(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carboxamide.

10 Step E : 6-bromo-7-f methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carbaldehyde

A solution of 6-bromo-N-methyl-N ,7-bis(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 - carboxamide (800 mg, 2.4 mmol) in 20 mL of anhydrous TΗF was cooled to -780C and then DIBAL-Η (4.8 mL, 4.8 mmol, IM) was added. The mixture was stirred at-780C for 1 h. The reaction was quenched with water and extracted with DCM. The orgainc layer was washed with

] 5 brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The resulting 6-bromo-7- (methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1-carbaldehyde was used without further purification. Step F: Ll -dimethylethyM- { |"6-bromo-7-f methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 - yl|methyl ) piperazine- 1 -carboxylate To a solution of 6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)- 3 f4-dihydro-l H-isochromene- 1-carbaldehyde (700 mg,

20 2.6 mmol) in 20 mL of DCM was added 1,1-dimethylethyl piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (481 mgs 2.60 mmol) and NaBH(OAc)3 (2.7 g, 12 mmol), and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was diluted with DCM, and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC to give 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl-4- { [6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 - 25 yl] methyl } piperazine- 1 -carboxylate .

Step G: 1 - { [6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyU piperazine To a solution of 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4- {[6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 - yl]methyl } piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (150 mg, 0.34 mmol) in 5 mL of DCM was added 5 mL of TFA and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction was concentrated and

30 the l-{[6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromen-l-yl]methyl}piperazine was directly used in next step.

INTERMEDIATE 35

5-fluoro- 1 -f piperazin- 1 -ylmethyl)-2,3 -dihydro- 1 H-indene-4-carbonitriIe

Step A: 3-(2-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid

To a flask charged with 2-bromo-l-(bromomethyl)-3-fluorobenzene (2.0 g, 7.5 mmol) and a stir bar was added dimethyl malonate (20.0 mL, 174 mmol). The solution was cooled to 0 0C in an ice bath. To this solution was carefully added sodium hydride (0.597 g, 14.9 mmol) in small portions. When the addition was done, the reaction was kept stirring for another 30 minutes. The reaction was quenched with NH4C1, extracted with EtOAc, washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in acetic acid (50 mL). To this solution was added HCl (50 ml, 330 mmol), and the reaction was heated to reflux for 16 hours. Analysis by LC showed formation of the desired acid. Most of the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator. The remaining solution was diluted with 50 mL of water, and extracted with ether (50 mL x 3). The extracts were combined, and washed with IN NaOH (50 mL x 2). At that point, all the acid was in. the aqueous as the salt. The aqueous washes were combined, acidified, and back extracted with DCM (100 mL x2). The extracts were combined, dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated to afford 3-(2-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid. Step B: 4-bromo-5-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-one

A flask charged with PPA (20 mL) and a stir bar was heated to 900C. 3-(2-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid (2.0 g) was charged to the mixture. The reaction mixture was heated to 1000C, and all the solids slowly dissolved. The reaction mixture was poured into ice water, and some fluffy solids precipitated. The solids were collected by filtration to afford 4-bromo~5-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-one. LC-MS M+l (calc. 229, found 229). Step C: 5-fluoro-l-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH'-indene-4-carbonitrile

To a microwave tube charged with 4-bromo-5~fluoro-2,3-dihydro~lH-inden-l-one (500 mg, 2.2 mmol) and a stir bar was added Pd2(dba)3 (40.0 mg, 0.044 mmol), S-phos (45 mg, 0.11 mmol), zinc cyanide (333 mg, 2.84 mmol), DMF (15 mL), and Water (0.15 mL). The tube was sealed, and purged three times with nitrogen. The reaction was then heated to 175 0C for 3 minutes in a microwave reactor. TLC showed formation of the desired product, along with a small amount of the dimethylaniline adduct. The crude product mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, adsorbed onto silica, and purified by MPLC. After removal of solvent, 5-fluoro-l-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carbonitrile was collected. LC-MS M+l (calc. 176.05, found 276.17).

Step D : 5 -fluoro- 1 -methylidene-2, 3 -dihydro- 1 /i-indene-4-carbomtrile Methyl triphenylphosphine bromide (816 mg, 2.28 mmol) was dissolved in TΗF (10 mL) and placed in a cool bath at -20 0C. The mixture was then treated with n-butyl lithium (913 μl, 2.28 mmol), and stirred for 20 min. at -20 0C. To the mixture was then added 5-fluoro- l-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden.e-4-carbonitrile (200 mg, 1.14 mmol) via cannula and subsequently stirred for 20 min at — 20 0C; LC as well as TLC (hexanes/EtOAc =1/0.3) indicated that reaction was half complete. To the mixure wa poured NH4CI, and the solution was transfered into separatory funnel, diluted with EtOAc, washed with NH4Cl, NaCl9 dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was then absorbed into silica gel and separated over a silica column with the solvent systems of hexanes/EtOAc (1/0.3) to give 5-fluoro-l-methyKdene-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carbonitrile. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 174 [M + I]+; tR = 2.10 min. Step E: 5-fluoro-l-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH'-indene-4-carbomtrile 5-Fluoro-l-methylidene-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carbonitrile (100 mg, 0.577 mmol) in TΗF (6 mL) at 00C was treated with borane tetrahydrofuran (1 M, 0.751 ml, 0.751 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred for overnight at room temperature; LC analysis indicated consumption of starting material. To the mixture was added a combination of hydrogen peroxide (0.083 ml, 0.81 mmol) and 2M NaOH (0.404 ml, 0.808 mmol). The resulting mixture was then stirred for 2 hours. LC analysis indicated completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was absorbed into silica gel and loaded into silica column for separation with the solvent systems of hexanes/EtOAc (1/1) to give the desired product 5-fluoro-l-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carbonitrile.

Step F: 1 ,1 :dimethylethyl-4- [(4-cyano-5-fluoro-2,3-dihydro- 1 H-inden- 1 -ypmethyljpiperazine- 1 -carboxylase 5-Fluoro-l-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carbonitrile (0.055 g, 0.29 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) was added to a flask containing a stir bar; the flask was then placed in a cooingl bath at 0 0C. To the mixture was then added Dess-Martin Periodinane (0.183 g, 0.431 mmol) and the resulting solution was subsequently stirred for 2 h; LC analysis indicated completion of the reaction. To the mixture was then added DCM (10 mL) and aq. Na2S2Oj (10 mL) and the mixture was subsequently stirred for 2 h. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM, washed with NaCl, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness; the resulting organic residue (0.060 g, 0.13 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (10 mL). To this solution was added ter/-butyl piperazlne-1-carboxylate (0.118 g, 0.634 mmol), sodium cyanoborohydride (0.199 g, 3.17 mmol) and few drops of AcOH. The reaction mixture was then stirred overnight under N2. LC analysis indicated completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness, re-dissolved in EtOAc, washed with NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was absorbed into silica gel and loaded onto a silica column for separation with the solvent system of 5% DCM in MeOH to give the desired product, 1, 1-dimethylethy 1-4- [(4~cyano-5-fluoro-2, 3 -dihydro-1 H-inden- 1 -yl)methyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 360 [M + I]+; tR = 2.55 min. Step G; 5-flμoro-l-(ρiperazm- l-ylmethyl)-23-dihydro-lH~indene~4~carbomtrile To a solution l,l-dimethylethyl-4-[(4-cyano-5-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-l-yl)methyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (0.06Og) in DCM (2 mL) was added 4N HCl (2 mL) at RT.

The mixture was allowed to stir at RT for 2 hours. The solvents were removed on a rotary evaporator, and the residue was redissoved in aq NaHCO3 solution. The solution was extracted with IPA-CHCB (3 :1) twice (50 mL each). The extractions were combined, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give 5-fluoro-l-(piperazin-l-ylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-l/i-indene-4-carbonitrile. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 260 [M + I]+.

INTERMEDIATE 36


6-(piperazin- 1 -ylmethyP-l ,6 ,7,8-tetrahydro-3H-indeno[4,5-c]furan-3-one Step A: methyl 3-bromo-2-but-3-en-l-ylbenzoate To a flask charged with freshly prepared LDA (42 mmol) from n-BuLi and 1-Pr2NH was dropped a solution of 3-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (3.0 g, 14 mmol) at -78 0C. The reaction turned red right away. After stirring the mixture for 15 minutes, allyl bromide (8.4 g, 70 mmol) was dropped into the reaction. The reaction was allowed to warm up to 0 0C. The reaction was quenched with IN HCl, and extracted with EtOAc (100 mL X 2). The extracts were combined, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give a light yellow oil. The oil was dissolved in toluene (30 mL) and methanol (10 mL) and treated with excess TMSdiazo methane (10 mL, 2.0 M in ether). Excess TMSdiazomethane was quenched with acetic acid when TLC indicated the reaction was done. The the mixture was concentrated and crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford methyl 3-bromo-2-but-3-en-l-ylbenzoate. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.76 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.15 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.98 (m, IH), 5.12 (d, 17 Hz, IH), 5.04 (d, J = IO Hz, IH), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.18 (m, 2H), 2.41 (m, 2H).

Step B: methyl l-methylidene-2,3-dihydro-lH"-indene-4-carboxylate To a microwave tube charged with methyl 3-bromo-2-but-3-en-l-ylbenzoate (800 mg, 3.0 mmol) and a stir bar was added palladium(II) acetate (67 mg, 0.30 mmol), triphenylphoshpine (310 mg, 1.19 mmol), potassium carbonate (2.46 g, 18.0 mmol), and acetonitrile (20 mL). The reaction tube was sealed, and the solution was purged three times with nitrogen, and heated in a microwave apparatus to 1200C for 10 minutes. TLC showed a big blue spot right below the SM.

The product was isolated by silica gel chromatography. LC-MS M+l (calc. 189, found 189). Step C: 2.3-dihvdro-lH-indene-1.4-diyldimethanoI

To a solution of methyl l-methylidene-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carboxylate (1.4 g, 7.4 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added borane THF complex (1.0 M, 9.7 mL, 9.7 mmol) at 00C. The mixture was allowed to stir for 3 hours. To the reaction was added 2N sodium hydroxide (7.5 mL, 15 mmol) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (1.7 mL, 15 mmol). The mixture was then allowed to warm to RT. LC analysis showed complete reaction within 30 minutes. The reaction was neutralized with NH4C1, diluted with water, extracted with EtOAc, dried over sodium sulfate, and purified by silica gel chromatography. The intermediate hydroxyester (LIg) was collected after removal of solvents. To a DCM (10 mL) solution of the hydroxyester (750mg, 3.6 mmol) was added DIBAL-H (18 mL, 18 mmol) at -78°C. The reaction was allowed to stir for 16 h, warming to RT slowly. The reaction was diluted with DCM (30 mL), and worked up with Roschelle's salt. The organic layer was separated using a separatory funnel, dried over sodium sulfate, and the crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford 2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-l,4-diyldimethanol. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppra 7.25-7.30 (m, 3H)S 4.72 (s, 3H), 3.85 (m, 2H), 3.42 (m, IH), 3.03 (m, IH), 2.95 (m, IH), 2.34 (m, IH)5 2.04 (m, IH). Step D : 6-(hydroxymethyl)- 1,6,7,8 -tetxahyάϊo-3H-mdeno [4 , 5 -c] furan-3 -one

To a flask charged with 2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-l,4-diyldimethanol (210 mg, 1.2 mmol) and a stir bar was added thallium trϊfluoroacetate (770 mg, 1.4 mmol) and TFA (2 mL) at 00C. The mixture was allowed to stir for 16 hours. LC showed no SM left at that point. The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was dissolved in DCM and concentrated twice to affect azeotropic removal of all TFA. After pumping the residue under high vacuum for 20 minutes, palladium chloride (21 mg, 0.18 mmol), lithium chloride (75mg, 1.8 mmol), magnesium oxide (190 mg, 4.7 mmol), and MeOH (10 mL) were added to the flask. The mixture was treated under an atmosphere of CO for 2 hours. To this mixtue was added DCM and EtOAc to precipitate all the inorganic solids. The crude solution was filtered through a celite pad, and the filtrate was collected, adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by MPLC to afford 6-(hydroxymethyl)- 1 ,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3H-indeno[4,5-c]furan-3-one.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.79 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.52 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.27 (s, 2H), 3.91 (d, J - 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.85 (dd, J = 6.O5 3.5 Hz, IH)5 3.50 (m5 IH), 3.00 (m, IH), 2.93 (m, IH), 2.45 (m, IH), 2.14 (m, IH). Step E: 3-oxo-3,6,7,8-tetrahydro-lH-indeno[4,5-c]fiiran-6~carbaldehyde

To a solution of 6-(hydroxymethyl)-l56;7,8-tetrahydro-3H-indeno[4,5-c]furan-3-one (55 mg, 0.27 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added Dess-Martin Periodate (171 mg, 0.400 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at RT for 3 hours. LC analysis showed formation of the desired product, and there was little SM left. The solution was diluted with DCM (30 mL), and to that was added Na2S2O3 (10% aq solution, 15 mL) to consume the excess Dess-Martin reagent. The mixture was stirred until the two layers separated. The bottom DCM layer was collected, washed with aq Na2CO3, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give 3-oxo-3,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l//-indeno[4,5-c]furan-6-carbaldehyde. LC-MS (IE, m/∑): 203 [M + I]+; tR = 0.58 min. Step F: lJ-dimethylethvI-4-[f3-oxo-3,6.7,8-tetrahvdro-lH-indenor4,5-c1furan-6-vDmethyllpiperazine- 1 -carboxylate

To 3-oxo-3,657,8-tetrahydro-lH-indeno[455-c]furan-6-carbaldehyde obtained above was added 1-Boc Piperazine (1 lOmg, 0.59 mmol), NaCNCΗ3 (186 mg, 3.0 mmol), MeOH (6 mL)5 and three drops of acetic acid. The mixture was then allowed Io stir at RT overnight. LC analysis showed complete reaction. The crude solution was then concentrated to dryness, redissolved in EtOAc (50 mL), washed with NaHCCβ and brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and purified by silica gel flash chromatography to furnish l?l-dimethylethyl-4-[(3-oxo-3,6,7,8-tetrahydro-lH-indeno[4,5-c]furan-6-yl)methyl]piperazine-l~carboxylate. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 373 [M + I]+; tR = 2.51 min. Step G: 6-(ρiρerazin-l:ylmethyl)-l ,6,7,8-tetrahvdro-3H-indeno[4,5-clfuran-3-one To a solution of the SM (0.05Og) in DCM (2 mL) was added 4N HCl (2 mL) at RT. The mixture was allowed to stir at RT for 3 hours. The solvents were removed on a rotary evaporator, and the residue was redissoved in aq NaHCO3 solution. The solution was extracted with IPA-CHC 13 (3 :1) twice (50 mL each). The extractions were combined, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give 6-(piperazin-l-ylmethyl)-l}6,7j8-tetrahydro-3H-indeno[4J5-c]furan-3-one. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 273 [M + I]+.

INTERMEDIATE 37A and 37B

Me 5-r2-(3,8-diazabicvclor3.2J]oct-3-yl)4-hvdroxyethvl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l('3H)-one

Step A: 5-1 l-hydroxy^-rS-fphenylfflethyiys.S-diazabicvcloP^.1 ]oct-3~yl1 ethyl M-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3ff)-one

A mixture of 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3Jf/)-one (1.0 g, 3.7 mmol) and 8-(phenylmethyl)-3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (748 mg, 3.68 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition (1500C) for 1 hr. After cooling to rt., the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL), extracted with EtOAc (3 X 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4, then concentrated. The residue was purified by TLC (MeOH/DCM=l:15) to obtain S-il-hydroxy^-fS-φhenylmethy^-S^-diazabicyclotS^.ljoct-S-yl]ethyl}-4-methyl-2-ben2:ofuran-l(3H)-one. The two isomers were separated by SFC chiral chromatography to obtain two single isomers, isomer A and isomer B with the same MS m/z 393 (M+l)+.

Step B: 5-r2-(3.8-diazabicvclof3.2.11oct-3-vlVl-hydroxvethvl1-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-K3H)-one To a solution of isomer A from Step A (230 mg, 0.585 mmol) in 50 mL of EtOAc was added 100 mg of Pd/C, and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature under H2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by pep-TLC (MeOH/DCM-l:15) to give one isomer (37A) of 5-[2-(3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-l-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. MS m/z 303 (M+l)+. To a solution of isomer B from Step A (210 mg, 0.536 mmol) in 50 mL of EtOAc was added 100 mg of Pd/C under Ar, and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature under H2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (MeOH/DCM-1 : 15) to give the second isomer (37B) of 5-[2-(3,8-diazabicyclo [3.2.1] oct-3 -yl)~ 1 -hydroxyethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran~ 1 (3H)-one. MS m/z 303 (M+l)+. isomers)


5-r2-(2.5-dia2abicvclor2.2.21oct-2-yl)-l-hvdroxyethyl1-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H')-one Step A: 1,1 -dimethylethylS- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -y Qethyl] -2.5 -diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane-2-carbox ylate A mixture of 4-methyl-5 -oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one (700 mg, 3.68 mmol) and 1,1-dimethylethyl 2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylate (748 mgs 3.68 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition (15O0C) for 1 hr. After cooling to rt, the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL), extracted with EtOAc (3 X 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO45 then concentrated. The residue was purified by TLC (MeOHZDCM=I : 15) to obtain l,l-dimethylethyl5-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylate as a mixture of 4 isomers, which was separated by SFC chiral chromatography to obtain four chiral isomers or isomer mixtures A, B, C and D with the same MS m/z 403 (M+l)+. Step B: 5-[2-(Z5-diazabicvclo|"2.2.21oct-2-yl)-l -hvdroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 GH)-one

A solution of isomers A, B, C, and D from Step A above (150-190 mg) in 5 mL of DCM were added 5 mL of TFA and the mixture was stirred for 2 h before concentrating. The residues were then dissolved in 20 mL Of CH3CN and added 500 mg OfNa2CO3. The mixture was stirred at r.t. overnight and then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give the corresponding free amines single isomers of 5-[2~(2f5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-yl)-l-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one (38A, 38B, 38C, and 38D) with same MS m/z 303 (M+l)+.

INTERMEDIATE 39


5-r2-(2,5-diazabicvclor2.2.1]hept-2-yl)-l-hvdroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one StepA: phenylmethyl-5-f 2-hvdroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5~yl)ethyl] -2,5-diazabicyclof 2.2.11heptane-2-carboxylate

A mixture of 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (700 mg, 3.68 mmol) and phenylmethyl 2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (748 mg, 3.68 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition (1500C) for 1 hr. After cooling to rt, the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL), extracted with EtOAc (3 X 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4, then concentrated. The residue was purified by TLC (MeOH/DCM=T:15) to obtain the racemϊc product (950 mg), which was separated by SFC chiral chromatography to obtain two isomer mixtures of phenylmethyl-5-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3~dihydro-2-ben2ofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate Isomers A and Isomers B with the same MS m/z 423 (M+l)+. Step B: 5-r2-r2,5-diazabicvclo[2.2Jlhept-2-ylVl-hvdroxyethylV4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l('3H)-one

A solution of isomers A of phenylmethyl-5-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (340 mg, 0.804 mmol) in 50 mL of EtOAc was added 100 mg of PoVC under Ar, and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature under H2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (MeOH/DCM-1 : 15) to give isomers A of 5-[2-(2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)4-hydroxyemyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one. MS m/z 289 (M+l)+.

A solution of isomers B of phenylmethyl-5-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran~5-yl)ethyl]-255-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (470 mg, 1.114 mmol) in 50 mL of EtOAc was added 100 mg of Pd/C under Ar, and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature under H2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (MeOHZDCM=I :15) to give isomers B of 5-[2-(2,5-diazabϊcyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-yl)-l -hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/Q-one. MS m/z 289 (M+l)\ INTERMEDIATE 40


5-(bromoacetyl)-4,6-dimethyI-2-benzofuran.- 1 (3H)-one

Step A: 5-acetyl-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-U3H)-one

To a 20 mL microwave tube containing a stir bar were added 4,6-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one (from the synthesis of INTERMEDIATE 9, 1.0 g, 4.2 mmol), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0) (0.240 g, 0.207 mmol), and tributyl(l-ethoxy-vinyl)tin (2.20 g, 6.22 mmol); to the mixture was added anahydrous toluene (18 mL) and the tube was capped, degassed and purged with N2. The tube was then placed in an oil bath and heated at 110 0C for 12 h; LC indicated some product formation. The tube was taken out of the oil bath and cooled to room temperature. The solution was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and the resulting residue was then treated with 4M HCl (10 mL); the resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 1 h; LC analysis indicated completion of the reaction. The solution was concentrated to dryness and the residue was re-dissolved in DCM, was absorbed in silica gel and was then loaded into silica column for seperation with the solvent systems of Hexanes/EtOAc (1/1); this yielded 5-acetyl-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l (3H)-one.

1H-NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz), δ 7.645 (s, IH), 5.271 (s, 2H), 2.558 (s, 3H), 2.393 (s, 3H), 2.623

(s, 3H). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 205 [M + I]+; tR - 3.08 min.

Step B: 5-(bromoacetylV4.6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a solution of 5-acetyl-4?6-dimethyI-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (370 mg, 1.8 mmol) in TΗF (4 mL) was added Copper(II) dibromide (486 mg, 2.20 mmol) at RT. The mixture was allowed to stir at RT for 16 hours. TLC showed formation of the desired product. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL), washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and purified by silica gel flash chromatography. 5-(Bromoacetyl)-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/^)-one was collected after removal of solvent. 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz), δ 7.671 (s, IH), 5.286 (s, 2H), 4.314 (s, 2H), 2.414 (s, 3H), 2.288 (s, 3H)

INTERMEDIATE 41


4-Methoxy-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile

Step A: 5-Bromo-2-chloro-4-methoxypyridine To a solution of 2-chloro-4-methoxypyridine (10.0 g, 69.7 mmol) in 50 mL of sulfuric acid at 0

°C was added NBS. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir and warm up to room temperature for 2 hour and then heated at 60 0C for 5 h. Then it was cooled to room temperature and neutralized with 1 N NaOH (pH ~ 7), diluted with water (50 mL) and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL). The organic layers were washed with water (2 * 50 mL), sat. NaHCO3, brine, dried over Mg2SO4 and concentrated to provide an oil, which was chromatographed. On elution with 0-25% EtOAc / hexanes.,of the final product was obtained.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^), δ 8.4 (s, IH), 7.29 (s, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H);

LC/MS (M+l)+ - 223.81; tR = 2.75 min.

Step B: ό-Chloro^-methoxypyridine-Sjcarbonitrile A solution of 5-bromo-2-chloro-4-methoxypyridine (5.0 g, 22.48 mmol) in DMF (80 mL) was purged with nitrogen for 15 min. Al this point, Zn(CN)2 (3.96 g, 33.7 mmol) and Pd(Ph3P)4

(2.60 g, 2.25 mmol) were added, successively. The resulting suspension was stirred at 95 0C for 12 h under nitrogen atm. The reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, filtered to remove inorganic solid. The solvent (DMF) was evaporated to provide the crude residue as an oil, which was purified on silica gel and eluted with 0-30% ethyl acetate / hexanes to afford the product. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^), δ 8.69 (s, IH), 7.50 (s, IH), 4.04 (s, 3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ - 168.96; tR - 2.05 min. Step C: 6-Ethenyl-4-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile A 20 mL microwave tube was charged with 6-chloro-4-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile (200.0 mg, 1.2 mmol), bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(π), complex with dichloromethane (97.0 mg, 0.12 mmol), potassium vinyl trifluoroborate (318.0 mg, 2.37 mmol), and triethylamine (0.33 mL, 2.37 mmol), and EtOH (6 mL). The microwave tube was evacuated and filled with nitrogen (two times) and heated to 140 0C. After 1 h, the reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4. The extracts were concentrated and chromatographed over a column of SiO2 (0-30% EtOAc / hexanes as eluent). Evaporation of the solvent yielded the title compound. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-<4), δ 8.65 (s, IH), 6.89 (s, IH), 6.83 (dd, J= 10.7 Hz, IH), 6.42 (d, J= 7.3 Hz, IH), 5.70 (d, J- 10.6 Hz, IH) 4.05 (s, 3H); LC/MS (M+l )+ - 161.03 ; tR = 1.67 min.

Step D : 6-(2-Bromo- 1 -hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxypyridine-3 -carbonitrile

A solution of 6-ethenyl-4-methoxypyridine~3 -carbonitrile (80.0 mg, 0.499 mmol) in 1, 4-dioxane (8 mL) and H2O (4 mL) was treated with N-bromosuccinirnide (89.0 mg, 0.499 mmol, 1.0 equiv). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into H2O (8 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated aqueous NaCl (l >< 30 mL), dried over Na2SO4. Evaporation of the solvent gave an oil that was purified over SiO2 (0-30% EtOAc / hexanes as eluent) yielding 6-(2-bromo-l -hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxypyridine~3-carbonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^4), δ 8.65 (s, IH), 7.19 (s, IH), 5.05 (t, J= 5.4 Hz, IH), 4.05 (s, 3H), 3.85 (dd, J= 4.5 Hz, IH), 3.75 (dd, J= 6.1 Hz, IH); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 240.89; tR = 1.31 min. Step E : 4-Methoxy:6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile

A solution of 6-(2-bromo-l-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxypyridine-3 -carbonitrile (74,0 mg, 0.288 mmol) in anhydrous methanol (7 mL) was treated with sodium carbonate (61.0 mg, 0.576 mmol, 2.0 equiv), and allowed to stir at room temperature overnight. The solvent was evaporated. The residue was taken up in EtOAc (30 mL) and washed with water and brine. After drying over Na2SO4, the organic layer was removed and the residue was purified over SiO2 (10-45% EtOAc / hexanes as eluent) to yield 4-methoxy-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine~3 -carbonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-40, δ 8.64 (s, IH), 6.87 (s, IH), 4.08 (dd, J= 2.6 Hz, J= 2.3 Hz, IH), 4.03 (s, 3H), 3.26 (dd, J= 4.6 Hz, J= 5.4 Hz, IH), 2.87 (dd, J= 2.2 Hz, J= 2.4 Hz, IH); LC/MS (M+ 1)+ = 177.11; tR = 1.68 min.

INTERMEDIATE 42


6-("Oxiran-2-yl) pyridine-3 -carbonitrile Step A: ό-Ethenvlpyridine-S-carbonitrile To a stirring solution of 6-bromopyridine- 3 -carbonitrile (2.0 g, 10.9 mmol), in EtOH (70 mL) were added bis[(diphenylphosphIno)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II)J complex with dichloromethane (0.892 mg, 0.10 mmol), potassium vinyl trifluoroborate (2.93 g, 21.9 mmol), triethylamine (3.0 mL, 21.9 mmol), and water (0,5 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux. Upon completion as determined by reverse phase HPLC-MS (1-2 h) and TLC (eluent: 10% ethyl acetate in hexanes), the reaction was cooled to room temperature, and then was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over MgSO4. The extracts were concentrated and chromatographed over a column of SiO2 (0-20% EtOAc / hexanes as eluent). Evaporation of the solvent yielded 6-ethenylpyridine-3-carbonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3), δ 8.85 (s, IH), 7.94-7.93 (m, IH), 6.89-6.83 (m, IH), 7.45 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, IH)5 6.85 (dd, J== 10.8, Hz, IH)5 6.42 (d, J- 17.4 Hz, IH); LC/MS (M+l)+ - 131.06. Step B: 6-(Oxiran-2-γl) pyridine-3 -carbonitrile

A solution of 6-ethenylpyridine-3 -carbonitrile (0.742 g, 5.70 mmol) in a 2:1 ratio of H2O: t-BuOH (30 mL) was treated with iV-bromosuccinimide in portions over 5 min (1.07 g, 5.99 mmol) and stirred at 400C for Ih. After cooling to 5 0C, the reaction was basified with drop wise addition of solution of sodium hydroxide (0.684 g in 5 mL of H20, 17.1 mmol) and stirred for another Ih. The reaction mixture was poured into H2O (10 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated aqueous NaCl (1 x 30 mL) and dried over MgSO4. Evaporation of the solvent and purification over SiO2 (0-30% EtOAc / hexanes as eluent) provided 6-foxiran-2~yl) pyridine-3~carbonitrile.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3), δ 8.87 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, IH), 7.40 (d, J- 8.1 Hz, IH),

4.11 (s, IH), 4.08 (dd5 J- 2.6 Hz, J= 2.3 Hz, IH), 3.29 (m, IH), 2.94 (m, IH); LC/MS (M+l)+ =

147.09.

Resolution of the epoxides was carried out (prep SFC, 160 mL/min., 10% MeOH in SC CO2, AD-H) to provide: Isomer A: (M+l)+ - 147.09. Isomer B: (M+l)+ = 147.09.

INTERMEDIATE 43

4-Methyl-6-(Oxiran-2-vπpyridine-3-carbonitrile

4-Methyl-6-(oxiran~2-yl) pyridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of INTERMEDIATE 42 starting from 6-chloro-4-methylpyridine-3-carbonitrile. LC/MS (M+l)+ - 161.13.

INTERMEDIATE 44


5-Methyl-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile

5-Methyl-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of INTERMEDIATE 42 starting from 6~chloro-5-methylpyridine~3-carbonitrile.

LC/MS (M+l)+ = 161.10.

INTERMEDIATE 45


2-Methyl-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile

2-Methyl-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of INTERMEDIATE 42 starting from 6-chloro-2-methylpyridine-3-carbonitrile.

LC/MS (M+l)÷ = 161.16.

INTERMEDIATE 46


5-chloro-6-(oxiran~2-yl)pwidine-3-carbomtrile 5-Chloro-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of INTERMEDIATE 42 starting from 5,6-dichloropyridine-3-carbonitrile.

LC/MS (M+l)+ = 180.99.

INTERMEDIATE 47


4-cγclopropyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

Step A: 5-bromo-4-iodo-2-ben2;ofuran-l(3H)-one

To a cooled (0 0C) solution of 5-bromo-2~benzofuran-l(3H)-one (50 g, 0.235 mol) in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (400 niL) was added iV~iodosuccinimide (55.5 g, 0.247 mol). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then poured slowly into ice water (2 L), filtered and the filtrate extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried and concentrated to give 5-bromo-4-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Step B: 5-bromo-4-vinyl~2~benzofuran-U3H)-one A mixture of 5-bromo-4-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1 g, 2.95 mmol), potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (474 mg, 3.54 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (200 mg) in 20 mL of TEA and 20 mL of EtOH was heated to reflux under N2 for 2 hours. TLC showed complete reaction. Most of the solvent was removed, and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL). The solution was washed with 0.1 N HCl, sodium bicarbonate, and brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide 5-bromo-4-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Step C: 5-bromo-4-cyclopropyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a cooled (00C) mixture of 5-bromo-4-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (2.2 g, 9.21 mol) and Pd(OAc)2 (100 mg) in EtOAc (50 mL) was added a solution Of CH2N2 in ether (100 rnL) slowly. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then quenched with acetic acid, filtered and the filtrate washed with water and brine, dried and concentrated to provide 5-bromo-4-cyclopropyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one. Step D: 4-cyclopropyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

A mixture of 5-bromo-4-cyclopropyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (760 mg, 3.004 mmol), potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (805 mg, 6.008 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (100 mg) in 20 mL of TEA and 20 mL of EtOH was heated to reflux under N2 for 8 hours. When TLC showed complete reaction most of the solvent was removed, and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL). The solution was washed with 0.1 N HCl, sodium bicarbonate, and brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The resulting oil was purified by column chromatography to give 4-cyclopropyl- 5 - vinyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one .

1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppra 7.74 (d, J=8.6 Hz5 IH), 7.67 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH)5 7.34-7.41 (m, IH), 5.81 (d, /=17.2 Hz, IH), 5.50 (d5 J=I l .0 Hz5 IH)5 5.38 (s, 2H), 1.84-1.90 (m, IH), 1.04-1.09 (m, 2H), 0.61-0.65 (m, 2H). Step E: 4-cyclopropyl-5-oxirart-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one: To a solution of 4-cyclopropyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (440 mg, 2.2 mmol) in 50 mL of DCM was slowly added mCPBA (1.14 g, 6.6 mmol) in 50 mL of DCM at 0 0C. After warming to room temperature, the mixture was stirred for 12 hours. The mixture was washed with aqueous Na2SO3 until KI paper didn't change color. The organic layers were combined, washed with brine and then concentrated. The residue was purified via prep-TLC to give product 4-cyclopropyl-5 -oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.77 (d, J-8.6 Hz, IH), 7.39 (d, J-7.8 Hz, IH), 5.39 (s, 2H), 4.43.4.45 (m? IH), 3.26-3.28 (m, IH), 2.68-2.70 (m, IH), 1.94-2.01 (m, IH), 1.08-1.12 (m, 2H), 0.65-0.75 (m, 2H).

INTERMEDIATE 48


4-ethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)- one

Step A: 5-bromo-4-ethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)~one

A mixture of 5-bromo-4-vinyl-2-benzofuran~l(3H)-one (2.0 g, 8.37 mmol) and Pd/C (400 mg) in

50 mL of MeOH was stirred at rt. under H2 (1 atm) overnight, and then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated. The resulting oil was purified by column chromatography to give 5-bromo-4-ethyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.71 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.59 (d, J-7.8 Hz, IH), 5.28 (s, 2H),

2.76 (q, J-7.4 Hz, 2H), 1.21 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 3H).

Step B: 4-ethyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one A mixture of 5-bromo-4-ethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.81 g, 7.51 mmol), potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (1.21 g, 9.01 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (200 mg) in 20 mL of TEA and 20 mL of EtOH was heated to reflux under N2 overnight and then concentrated. The resulting oil was purified by column chromatography to give 4-ethyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.73 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.66 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.00-7.07 (m, IH)5 5.82 (d, J=17.2 Hz, IH), 5.51 (d, J=I 1.0 Hz, IH), 5.28 (s, 2H), 2.69 (q, J-7.4 Hz, 2H)5

1.19 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 3H).

Step C: 4-ethyI-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

A solution of 4-ethyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (1.1 g, 5.85 mmol) in 50 mL of DCM was slowly added mCPBA (3.60 g, 85% purity, 17.6 mmol) in 50 mL of DCM at 0 0C. Warmed to room temperature, the mixture was stirred for 3 days. The mixture was washed with aqueous Na2SO3 until KI paper didn't change color. The organic layers were combined, washed with brine and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give product 4-ethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.75 (d, J-8.6 Hz, IH), 7.41 (d, /=7.8 Hz, IH), 5.30 (s, 2H), 4.11-4.13 (m, IH), 3.23-3.25 (m, IH), 2.75-2.82 (m, 2H), 2.70-2.72 (m, IH), 1.27 (t, J=IA Hz, 3H).

INTERMEDIATE 49


4J-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one Step A: 3-Bromo~2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid

A solution of 2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid (20 g, 133 mmol) in 100 mL of cone, sulfuric acid was cooled to 0 0C, and then N-bromosuccinimide (24 g, 139 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred at 0 0C for 1.5 hours. The mixture was poured onto ice/water, extracted with EtOAc, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to afford 3-bromo-2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.73 (s, 1 H), 7.60 (s, 1 H), 2.66 (s, 3 H), 2.343 (s, 3 H). Step B: (3-bromo-2,5-dimethγlphenyl)methanol To a solution of 3-bromo-2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid (3.5 g, 15 mmol) in anhydrous THF was added borane THF complex (1.0 M, 25 mL, 25 mmol) at 00C , then the reaction was warmed to ambient temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with MeOH and concentrated to afford (3-bromo-2,5-dimethylρhenyl)methanol. Step C: 5-bromo~4,7-dimethyl-2~benzofuran-lf3H)-one To a solution of (3-bromo-2,5-dimethylphenyl)methanol (1.6 g5 7.4 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid (20 mL) was added T1(OOCF3)3 (4 g, 7.4 mmol) at r.t, then the reaction was stirred at r.t overnight under N2. The mixture was concentrated under pressure. The residue solids, LiCl (0.6 g, 14.9 mmol), MgO (0.6 g, 14.9 mmol) and PdCl2 (0.13 g, 0.74 mmol) in MeOH were stirred under CO at 1 Mpa over night. EtOAc was added to the mixture and filtered. The organic phase was concentrated to afford 5-bromo-4,7~dimethyl~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Step D: 4.7-dimethyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-lf3H)-one

A mixture of 5-bromo-4,7-dimethyl~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (0.7 g, 2.9 mmol), potassium vinyltrifiuoroborate (0.544 g, 4 mmol) and Pd(dppf)2Cl2 (0.07 g) in 20 mL of EtOH and 20 mL of TEA was refluxed under N2 for 4 hours. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography to afford 4s7-Dimethyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.30 (s, 1 H), 6.85-6.92 (ra, 1 H)5 5.70 (d, J= 17.3 Hz5I H),

5.40 (d, J= 11.0 Hz,l H), 5.18 (s, 2 H), 2.64 (s, 3 H)5 2.24 (s, 3 H).

Step E: 4.7-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzoftiran-U3H)-one

To a solution of 4,7-dimethyl-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (0.4 g, 2.1 mmol) in 60 mL of DCM was slowly added mCPBA (85 %, 0.7 g, 4.2 mmol) at 00C. After warming to room temperature, the mixture was stirred for 48 hours. The mixture was washed subsequently with saturated NaHCO3, aqueous Na2SO3, 5% NaOH and brine. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography to afford 4,7-dimethyl-5-oxiran-2-yI-2-benzofuran-l(3H)~one as white solid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.07 (s, 1 H), 5.13 (s, 2 H), 3.96-3.98 (m, 1 H), 3.14-3.16

(ra, 1 H), 2.61-2.63 (m, 1 H), 2.56 (s, 3 H), 2.24 (s, 3 H).

INTERMEDIATE 50


4-iluoro-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one Step A: 5~Bromo~4~fluoro-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

A solution of n-BuLi (40 mL, 100 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of diisopropylamine (10.6 g, 105 mmol) in 150 mL of THF at -70 0C. The mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 15 minutes and then cooled to -70 0C again. A solution of 4-bromo-3-fluorobenzoic acid (10 g, 45.7 mmol, in 50 mL of THF) was added dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred at -70 0C for 1 hour then CH2O gas (generated by heating 5.1 g of Para formaldehyde to 200 0C) was bubbled into the mixture. The resulting mixture was stirred at -700C for 1 hour then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for another 2 hours. HCl gas was bubbled into the suspension for 15 minutes to give a clear solution. The mixture was diluted with 1 L of EtOAc and washed subsequently with water, saturated Na2CO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to give 5-bromo-4-fluoro-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one as white solid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.72-7.75 (m, 1 H), 7.58 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1 H)5 5.36 (s, 2 H). Step B: 4-fluoro-5-vinyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one A mixture of 5-bromo-4-fluoro-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (5.0 g, 21.6 mmol), potassium vinyltrifiuoroborate (4.4 g, 32.5 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (500 mg) in 100 mL of TEA and 100 mL of EtOH was heated to reflux under N2 for 4 hrs and then concentrated. The resulting oil was purified by column chromatography to give 4-fluoro-5-vinyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.67-7.68 (m, 2H), 6.90-6.97 (m, IH)5 6.00 (d, J=17.2 Hz5 IH), 5.60 (d, J=I LO Hz5 IH)5 5.35 (s, 2H).

Step C: 4-fluoro-5-oxiranyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one

To a solution of 4-fluoro-5-vinyl-3H-isobenzoferan-l-one (4.0 g, 17.3 mmol) in 100 mL of DCM was slowly added mCPBA (6.0 g, 85% purity, 34.6 mmol) in 50 mL of DCM at 0 0C. After warming to room temperature, the mixture was stirred overnight. The mixture was washed with aqueous Na2SO3 until KI paper didn't change color. The organic layers were washed with brine and then concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give product A-fiuoro-5-oxiranyl-3H-isobenzofuran- 1 -one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.71 (d, J-7.8 Hz, IH), 7.37-7.40 (m, IH), 5.37 (s, 2H),

4.21-4.22 (m, IH), 3.25-3.27 (m, IH)5 2.80-2.82 (m, IH).

INTERMEDIATE 51


7-fluoro-5~oxiran-2-yl-2~benzofuran-l(3H)-one Step A: 2.4-dibromo~6-fluorobenzoic acid A solution of n-BuLi (20 mL, 50.0 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of diisopropylamine (5.6 g, 55.0 mmol) in 200 mL of THF at -700C. The mixture was stirred at 00C for 15 minutes and then recooled to -70 0C. A solution of l,3-dibrorno-5-fluorobenzene (12.7 g, 50.0 mmol, in 50 mL of THF) was added dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred at -70 0C for 2 hours then poured into fresh dry ice and stirred overnight. The mixture was diluted with 1 L of ether and washed with water twice. The combined water layer was washed with ether then acidified to pH = 2 with hydrochloric acid and extracted with EtOAc twice The combined EtOAc layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to give 2,4-dibromo-6-fluorobenzoic acid as white solid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ ppm 7.85 (s, 1 H), 7.76 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H). Step B: 5-bromo-7-fluoro-2-benzofμran-l(3H)-one

A solution of n-BuLi (36.7 mL, 91.6 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 2,4-dibromo-6-fluorobenzoic acid (13.0 g, 43.6 mmol, in 200 mL of THF) at -70 0C. The resulting solution was stirred for 15 minutes before CH2O gas (generated by heating 5.1 g of Para formaldehyde to 200 0C) was bubbled into the mixture at -70 0C. The suspension was stirred for 1 hour then warmed to room temperature and stirred for another 2 hours. HCl gas was bubbled into the suspension for 15 minutes to give a clear solution. The mixture was diluted with 1 L of EtOAc and washed subsequently with water, saturated Na2CO3 and brine, then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (PE:EtOAc=5: 1) to give 5-bromo-7-fluoro~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one as white solid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDC13) δ ppm 7.46 (s, 1 H), 7.36 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.29 (s, 2 H).

Step C: 7-fluoro-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

A mixture of 5-bromo-7-fluoro-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (4.6 g, 20.0 mrnol), potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (2.9 g, 22 πunol) and Pd (dppf)2Cl2 (0.5 g) in 40 mL of EtOH and 40 niL of

TEA was refluxed under Ar for 4 hours. After concentration, the residue was purified by column chromatography (PE : EtOAc = 20 :1) to afford 7-fluoro-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.23 (s, 1 H), 7.17 (d, J=I 0.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.70-6.77 (m, 1 H),

5.89 (d, J-17.2 Hz, 1 H)5 5.51 (d, J-11.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.28 (s, 2 H).

Step D: 7~fluoro-5-oxiran~2-yl~2-benzofuran-U3H)-one mCPBA (85 %, 9.9 g, 48.9 mmol) was added to a solution of 7-fluoro-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran~ l(3H)-one (2.9 g, 16.3 mmol) in 300 mL of DCM at 0 0C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours before being cooled to 0 0C. The mixture was washed sequentially with saturated NaHCO3 (50 mL), aqueous Na2SO3 (50 mL x 2), 5% NaOH (50 mL) and brine, then concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography eluted with DCM to afford

7-fluoro-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one as white solid. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.20 (s, 1 H), 7.09 (d, J=9.6 Hz, 1 H)5 5.29 (s, 2 H), 3.94- 3.96 (m, 1 H), 3.21-3.24 (m, 1 H), 2.75-2.77 (m, 1 H); MS m/z 195 (M+l)+.

INTERMEDIATE 52


7-fluoro-4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one Step A: 3-bromo-5-fluoro-2-rnethyl-benzoic acid

To a cooled (0 0C) solution of 5-fluoro-2-methyl-benzoic acid (20 g, 130 mmol) in cone, sulfuric acid (200 mL) was added ΪV-bromosuccmimide (24.3 g, 136 mmol) portionwise. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 3 hrs, then warmed to room temperature and stirred for 16 hrs. Then the mixture was poured slowly into ice water (2 L), and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried and concentrated to provide 3-bromo-5-fluoro-2-methyl-benzoic acid, which was used directly in the next step.

Step B: (3-bromo-5-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-methanol

To a cooled (0 0C) solution of 3-bromo-5-fluoro-2-methyl-benzoic acid (3 g, 12.9 mmol) in dry THF (20 mL) was added boraneTHF complex (25.8 mL, 1 M in THF, 25.8 mmol) slowly. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then quenched with MeOH and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give (3-bromo-5-fluoro-2-methyl-phenyl)-methanol. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.25 (dd, J=8.6 Hz, J-3.1 Hz, IH), 7.15 (dd, J=8.6 Hz, J=2.3 Hz, IH)54.71 (s, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H). Step C: 5-Bromo-7-fluoro-4-methyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one To a solution of (3-bromo-5-fluoro-2-methyl-ρhenyl)-methanol (1.7 g, 7.76 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid (20 mL) was added Tl(CF3COO)3 (4.2 g, 7.76 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then concentrated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (50 mL). To the mixture was added PdCl2 (137 mg, 0.776 mmol), LiCl (652 mg, 15.5 mmol) and MgO (652 mg, 15.5 mmol). The resulting mixture was reacted under a CO (50 psi) atmosphere at room temperature overnight, and then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography to give 5-bromo-7-fluoro-4-methyl-3 H-isobenzofuran- 1 -one. Step D: 7-Fluoro-4-methyl-5~vmyl~3H-isobenzofuran-l-one A mixture of 5-bromo-7-fluoro-4-methyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one (0.6 g, 2.45 mmol), potassium vinyltrifiuoroborate (492 mg, 3.67 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (100 mg) in 20 mL of TEA and 20 mL of ElOH was heated to reflux under N2 for 4 hrs and then concentrated. The resulting oil was purified by prep-TLC to give 7-fluoro-4-methyl-5 -vinyl-3 H-isobenzofuran- 1 -one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) 6 ppm 7.26 (d, J=9.4 Hz, IH), 6.89-6.97 (m, IH), 5.80 (d, J=I 7.2 Hz, IH), 5.60 (d, J=I 1.0 Hz, IH), 5.23 (s, 2H), 2.24 (s, 3H).

Step E: 7-Flupro-4-me^ 1 (3H)-one

A solution of 7-fluoro-4-methyl-5-vinyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one (420 mg, 1.71 mmol) in 10 mL of DCM was slowly added mCPBA (741 mg, 85% purity, 3.43 mmol) in 10 mL of DCM at 0 0C. After warming to room temperature, the mixture was stirred overnight. The mixture was washed with aqueous Na2SO3 until Kl paper didn't change color. The organic layers was washed with brine and then concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give product 7-fluoro-4-memyl-5-oxiranyl-3H-isobenzofuran-l-one. The enantiomers of the product were resolved via SFC (Column: Chiralpak AD-H 250*4.6mm LD. , 5um; Mobile phase: methanol (0.05% DEA) in CO2 from 5% to 40%; Flow rate: 2.35mL/min; Wavelength: 220nm). MS m/z 209 (M+l)+.

INTERMEDIATE 53


6-Cvclopropyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

Step A: 5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-6-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one To a 500 ml flask containing a stir bar was added 5-(2~hydroxyethyl)-6-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (5 g, 16.4 mmol), Potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (3.3 g, 24.7 mmol), Pd(dppi)Cl2 (0.6 g, 0.822 mmol) and TEA (2.3 mL). The mixture was then dissolved in EtOH (50 mL) and heated at 100 C in a silicon oil bath for 2 h; TLC showed complete reaction. The flask was cooled to room temperature, treated with EtOAc (150 mL) and poured into a separatory funnel and washed with brine (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was then separated, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness. The resulting organic residue was dissolved in DCM and absorbed into silica gel and purified by MPLC (hexanes/EtOAc ;1/1 eluent) to provide 5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-6-vinyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one.

1H NMR (SOO MHz, CD3Cl) δ 8.03 (s, IH), 7.38 (s, IH), 7.023-7.08 (m, IH), 5.79 (d, J- 17 Hz, IH), 5.47 (d, J= HHz, IH), 5.31-5.36 (m, 3H), 3.91-3.94 (m> 2H), 3.08-3.11 (m, 2H). Step B: 6-Cvclopropyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one To a 100 ml flask containing a stir bar was added 5~(2-Hydroxyethyl)-6-vmyl-2-ben2ofuran-l(3H)-one (0.9 g, 4.41 mmol), and Palladium diacetate (0.049 g, 0.220 mmol), followed by addition of a freshly prepared diazornethane (3.7 g, 88 mmol) in diethyl ether (10 mL) over a course of 20 minutes. The resulting mixture was then stirred at room temperature in a shielded environment for 1 h. When the reaction was complete, the solvent, was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in EtOAc, and washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to dryness. The resulting residue was used for the next step without further purification. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3Cl) δ 7.56 (s, IH), 7.38 (s, IH) 5.28-5.32 (m, 3H), 3.97-4.03 (m, 3H), 3.23-3.26 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.73 (m, 4H); LC/MS: [(M+l)f - 219. Step C: ό-Cyclopropyl^S-viriyl-^-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

To a 100 ml flask containing a stir bar was added compound 6-cycloproρyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one, (0.5 g, 2.29 mmol), TEA (20 mL) followed by addition of dichioromethane (25 mL). The flask was placed in a cool bath of C, and slowly treated with methanesulfonyl chloride (6.5 mL, 83 mmol). The resulting mixture was then stirred for 20 min. TLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/1) indicated completion of the reaction. The mixture was poured into saturated ammonium chloride and extracted with DCM. The combined organics were washed with 1 N HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue (LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 297; t& - 1.01 min) was dissolved in dichioromethane (25 mL) and treated with DBU (0.7 mL, 4.72 mmol) and stirred for 2 h. TLC monitoring showed conversion to the olefin. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with dichioromethane. The combined organics were washed with IN HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The material was used in the next step without further purification. Step D; 6-Cyclopropyl:5 -oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1(3 H)-one

6-Cyclopropyl-5-vinyI-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (0.45 g, 2.25 mmol) was dissolved in dichioromethane (10 mL) and treated with meta-chloro perbenzoic acid (1 g, 6.3 mmol) at 0 C and stirred for 12h. TLC indicated completion of the reaction; the mixture was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with dichioromethane (2x). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The epoxide was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/1) to give 6- Cyclopropyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. The oxirane was further resolved over a chiral column giving two isomers:

Oxirane A- 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3Cl) δ 7.63 (s, IH), 7.41 (s, IH)5 5.29-5.33 (m, 2H), 4.21-4.42 (m, IH)5 3.16-3.34 (m, IH), 2.71-2.72 (m, IH) 2.09-2.11 (m, IH), 1.07-1.14 (m, 2H), 0.76-0.88 (m, 2H).

Oxirane B- 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3Cl) 6 7.63 (s, IH), 7.41 (s, IH), 5.29-5.30 (m, 2H), 4.412-4.42 (m, IH), 3.31-3.33 (m, IH)5 2.71-2.72 (m, IH), 2.09-2.12 (m, IH), 1.07-1.60 (m, 2H), 0.76-0.87 (m, 2H)

INTERMEDIATE 54


7-Methoxy-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

Step A: Methyl 4-allyl-2-formyl-6-methoxybenzoate

To a flask containing 5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3~methoxyberizaldehyde (5.0 g, 26.0 mmol) and JV-phenyl-trifluoromethanesulfonimide was added DCM (75 mL). The flask was placed at 0 C and treated with Et^N (4 mL) and stirred for 2 days at room temp. The mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with IN HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue in a flask was treated with dppf (0.18 g, 0.45 mmol), PdOAc2 (0.1 g, 0.44 mmol), and Et3N (8 mL5 56 mmol) followed by addition of DMF (45 mL) and MeOH (30 mL). The reaction mixture was then degassed and purged with CO 3 times and stirred under CO for 6 h at 70 C. When LC indicated consumption of starting material, the solution was concentrated to dryness. The organic residue was purified by MPLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/0.2) to provide methyl 4-allyl-2-formyl-6-methoxybenzoate. Step B: 5-Allyl-7-methoxy-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a flask charged with methyl 4-allyl-2-formyl-6-methoxybenzoate (0.77 g, 1 mmol) was added sodium borohydride (0.36 g, 9.33 mmol); the mixture was then dissolved in MeOH (10 mL) and stirred for 18 h at room temp. LC indicated completion of the reaction. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc (150 mL) and washed with brine (2X100 mL). The organic layer was then separated, dried(Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was purified by MPLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/0.5) to provide 5-allyl-7-methoxy-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC/MS: [(M+l)]+= 205.

Step C: (7-Methoxy- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde To a flask containing 5-allyl-7-methoxy-2~yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (0.24 g, 1.18 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) at -78 °C was bubbled ozone for 10 min. followed by addition of dimethyl sulfide (5 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temp. LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The mixture was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give (7-methoxy-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde. LC/MS: [(M+ I)J+ = 207.

Step D: 5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofiiran-l(3H)rpne

A solution of (7-methoxy-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzoruran-5-yl)acetaldehyde (0.12 g, 0.58 mmol) was treated with sodium borohydride (0.05 g, 1.45 mmol) and methanol (10 mL); the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The solution was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in EtOAc and washed with water, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 209. Step E: 7-Methoxy-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

A dichloromethane solution of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one was placed cooled to 0 0C, and slowly treated with methanesulfonyl chloride (0.11 mL, 1.4 mmol) and TEA (0.2 mL, 1.44 mmol). The resulting mixture was then stirred for 20 min. TLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/1) indicated completion of the reaction. The mixture was poured into saturated ammonium chloride and extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organics were washed with 1 N HCl5 saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo. To the residue (LC/MS: [(M+l)f - 287; tR = 0.81 min) (0.16 g, 0.56 mmol) was added DBU (OJ 9 mL, 1.26 mmol) and dichloromethane (2 mL) and stirred for 2 h. TLC monitoring showed conversion to the olefin. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organics were washed with IN HCl, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and brine, then dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to dryness. The resulting oil was used in the next step without further purification. Step F: 7-Methoxy-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one

To a solution of 7-methoxy-5-vinyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one in DCM (5 mL) was added meta-chloro perbenzoic acid (0.18 g, 1.05 mmol) at 0 C and stirred for 12h. TLC indicated completion of the reaction; the mixture was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with DCM (2x). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting epoxide was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/1) to give 7-methoxy-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 207.

INTERMEDIATE 55


5 -[2-(piperazin- 1 ryl)ethyl] -2 ,13 -benzoxadiazole Step A: 5-(prop-2-en-l-yl)-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole


5-Bromo-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole (10 g, 50.3 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (300 mL) and treated with lithium chloride (6.39 g, 151 mmol) , Pd(Ph3P)4 (2.90 g, 2.51 mmol), and allyltributylstannane (18.66 ml, 60.3 mmol). Degassed and refluxed the mixture under N2 for 3 hrs. The reaction mixture turned black. Poured the reaction mixture into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried, and evaporated to dryness. The residue was chromatographed through 12Og ISCO Redi-Sep column and eluted with 0-10% ethyl acetate / hexane to yield 5-(prop-2-en-l-yl)-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole. Step B: 5-[2-(piperazm-l-yDemyl1-2 J3-benzoxadiazole


5-(Prop-2-en-l-yl)-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole (480, 3.0mmole) was dissolved in DCM and cooled to -78 0C. Ozone was bubbled in until the reaction mixture reached a bluish tint, then nitrogen was bubbled through the mixture to get rid of excess ozone. Boc- piperazine ( 558mg, 3.0 mmol) was then added followed by sodium triacetoxyborohydride (2541 mg, 11.99 mmol) . The reaction mixture was warmed up to RT and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into 1 N NaOH and extracted with ethyl acetate twice. The ethyl acetate layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified through a 40 g Redi-sep column to yield tert-butyl 4-[2-(2,l,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl)ethyl]ρiperazine-l-carboxylate, which was dissolved in dioxane and treated with 7 mL of 4M HCl in dioxane. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT overnight. The solvent was evaporated, then the residue was taken up in ethyl acetate and made alkaline by addition of IN NaOH. The ethyl acetate was separated, washed with brine, then dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by MPLC chromatography using 5% (1 NH4OH:10 MeOH)in 95%DCM to yield 5-)~2-{piperazin-l-yl)ethyl] -2,1,3 -benzoxadiazole.

1H-NMR (600 MHz,CDC13): δ 7.72(d, J- 9.2Hz, IH), 7.28 (d, J= 9.2Hz, IH), 2.92( t, J= 4.9 Hz, 2H), 2.88 ( t, J= 7.6Hz, IH), 2.65 (t, J-7.6Hz, IH) LC-MS: M+l= 233.

INTERMEDIATE 56


5-(oxiran-2-yl)-2, 1 ,3 -benzoxadiazole Step A: 5 -ethenyl-2, 1,3 -benzoxadiazole

5-Brorno-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole (5.5 g, 27.6 mmol)), potassium vinylfluoroborate (7.40 g, 55.3 mmol), and PdC12(dppi>CH2C12Adduct (1.088 g, 1.332 mmol) were suspended in ethanol (75 ml) then added TEA (7.70 ml, 55.3 mmol). The reaction mixture was then degassed and heated to reflux for 3hrs. The reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified through a 330g ISCO Redi-Sep silica gel plug and eluted with 20%ETOAc/hexane to yield 5-ethenyl-2 , 1 , 3 -benzoxadiazole.

1H-NMR (600 MHz5 CDCl3): δ ppm 7.81(d, J=9.3 Hz, IH), 7.66 (s, IH), 7.63 (d, J-9.3 Hz, IHX 6.35 (d, J=10.9 Hz, 0.5H), 6.80 (d, J-10.9 Hz, 0.5H)s 5.94 (d. J-17.5 Hz, IH)5 5.55 (d, J= H Hz5 IH). Step B: 5-foxiran-2-yl)-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole


5 -Ethenyl-2, 1,3 -benzoxadiazole (2.82g, 19.30 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (100 ml) then added mCpBA (9.99 g, 57.9 mmol) and stirred for 48 hrs. The reaction mixture was washed with 10% aqueous NaS2O3 (1 x 25ml), then with IN NaOH (1 x 25 ml), followed by brine (1 x 25 ml) and dried over Na2SO4. The mixture was filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by MPLC using 12Og ISCO Redi-sep column and eluted with 0%-100% EtOAc/ hexane solvent system to yield 5 -(oxiran-2-yl)-2, 1,3 -benzoxadiazole. 1H-NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 7.83(d, J=9.8 Hz5 IH)5 7.82(s, IH), 7.24 (d, J-9.3 Hz, IH), 3.98(t, J=3.8Hz, IH), 3.24 (t, J=4.5Hz, IH), 2.84(dd. J=5.2 Hz, J= 2.5 Hz, IH).

INTERMEDIATES 57A and 57B


Step A: ferf-Butyl 4-[2-(5-cvano-4-methoxy-2-pyπdyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate


A 20 mL Pyrex vessel was charged with magnetic stirring bar, (1.68 g, 9.54 mmol) of 4-methoxy-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile, (2.66 g, 14.3 mmol) of tert-butyl piperazine-1-carboxylate, and 10 mL of EtOH. Then it was introduced in the microwave reactor and irradiated at 150 0C for Ih. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solvent was evaporated and the resulting residue was purified by column chromatography (silica gel, 1-10% MeOH / dichloromethane) which afforded the product as an isomeric mixtures. LC/MS: (IE5 m/z) 307.09

[(M + I) - I-Bu]+.

This mixture was further separated into its enantiomers using SFC-HPLC a 21 x

250 mm on a Chiralpak AD-H column, eluting with 10% MeOHZCO2 + 0.2% IBA with a flow rate of 70 mL/min, 100 bar, 50 mg/mL in (1 : 1 MeOH:MeCN), 4OC, 220 ran, Thr - 200.

Enantiomer A eluted around 4.56 min, and Enantiomer B eluted around 5.72 min.

Isomer A: Analytical chiral HPLC (4.6 x 250 mm Chiralpak AD-H column, 15%

MeOH(0.2%IBA) / CO2, eluting at 2.4 mL/min): tR = 4.56 min. LC/MS: (IE, m/z) tR - 2.25 min; f(M + l) - t-Bu]+ = 307.07. Isomer B: Analytical chiral HPLC (4.6 x 250 mm Chiralpak AD-H column, 15%

MeOH(0.2%IBA) / CO2, eluting at 2.4 mL/min): tR = 5.72 min. LC/MS: (IE, m/z) tR - 2.25 min;

[(M + l) - t-Bu]+ = 307.07.

Step B : β-( 1 -Hydroxy-2-piperazin- 1 -yI-ethyl)-4-methoxy-ρvridine-3-carbonitrile


Enantiomer A of tert-Butyl 4-[2-(5-cyano-4-methoxy-2-pyridyI)-2-hydroxy-ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (1.30 g, 3.59 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL of TFA and stirred at room temperature for 2h. The mixture was concentrated to 1A the original volume and diluted with 10 mL of diethyl ether. The precipitate was filtered and dried under high vacuum to offer amine TFA salt. This intermediate was diluted with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate with follow up addition of IO N NaOH to bring the pH of extraction above 10. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide the product. LC/MS: (IE, m/z) tR = 0.39 min; [M +I]+ = 263.12 Enantiomer B of tert-Butyl 4-[2-(5-cyano-4-methoxy-2-pyridyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate ( 1.0 g, 2.76 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL of TFA and stirred at room temperature for 2h. The mixture was concentrated to 1A the original volume and diluted with 10 mL of diethyl ether. The precipitate was filtered and dried under high vacuum to offer amine TFA salt. This intermediate was diluted with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate with follow up addition of IO N NaOH to bring the pH of extraction above 10. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide the product. LC/MS: (IE, m/z) tR = 0.62 min; [M +I]+ = 263.09


6-( {4- [2-hydroxy-2-f 4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydio-2-benzofuian-5-yl)ethyr| piperazin- 1 -vUmethyl)-8,9-dihvdro-lH-fwof3,4-f1isocruOmen-3(6H)-one

Step A: 5-bromo-4-iodo-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H) -one

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (5.00 g, 23.5 mmol) at 0 0C in TfOH (100 mL) was added NIS (5.55 g, 24.6 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature over night; LC analysis of the reaction mixture indicated completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture was then poured slowly into ice-water (1 L) with stirring. To the solution was then added EtOAc (500 mL) and subsequently stirred for 10 min. The mixture was filtered and the organic layer separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 X 200 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (500 mL), brine (500 rnL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness; it was absorbed into silica gel and separated with the solvent systems of (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/1) to yield 5-bromo-4-iodo-2-benzofuran-l(3H]-one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.80 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.74 (d, J- 8.5Hz, IH)5 5.07 (s, 2H). Step B : 5-bromo-4-prop-2-en- 1 -yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)- one A mixture of 5-bromo-4-iodo-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H]-one (2.42 g, 7.13 mmol), allyltributyltin (2.36 g, 7.13 mmol), LiCl (1.50 g, 35.7 mmol) and Pd (PPh3)4 (200 g, 0.173 mmol) in toluene (50 mL) was heated at 90-1000C under N2 overnight; LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion, to the solution was poured EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness, absorbed into silica gel and was then separated over silica gel column to give 5 -bromo-4-ρroρ-2-en-l -yl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.795 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 7.680 (d, J= 8 Hz, 8.5 Hz, IH), 5.938-5.925 (m, IH), 5.302 (s, 2H), 5.192-5.172 (m, IH), 5.075-5.041 (m5 IH), 3.611-3.599 (m, 2H) Step C : 5-bromo-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one To a solution of 5 ~bromo-4-prop-2-en-l -yl-2-benzofuran- 1(3 H)-one (1.27 g, 5.02 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) and DCM (50 mL) was bubbled O3 at -78 0C until the solution turned blue; excess ozone was removed on high vacuum. After the solution's color changed into colorless, NaBH4 (0.8 g, 20 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and subsequently stirred at room temperature for 30 min; LC and TLC indicated that reaction had gone to completion; solvent was removed on high vacuum, the residue was then re-dissolved in EtOAc and washed with water, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The organic residue was absorbed into silica gel and was separated on silica gel column to give 5-bromo-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 5H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) S ppra 7.7 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.5 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 5.37 (s, 2H), 3.94 (t, J= 6.3 Hz5 2H), 2.98 (t, J= 6.3 Hz, 2H) Step D: 5-ethenyl-4-(2-hvdroxyethylV2-benzofuran-l(3Jjr)-one A mixture of 5-bromo-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l (3H)-one (0.460 g, 1.78 mmol), tributyl(vinyl)tin (0.676 g, 2.13 mmol), LiCl (0.224 g, 5.33 mmol) and Pd (PPh3)4 (0.10 g, 0.087 mmol) in toluene (50 mL) was heated at 100-1 10 0C under N2 overnight; TLC indicated that reaction had gone to completion and to the solution was poured EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with brine, water, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was then absorbed into silica gel and separated over silica column to give 5-ethenyl-4-(2-hydroxyethyI)~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.74 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.67 (d, J- 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.00-7.07 (m, IH), 5.79-5.84 (m, IH), 5.50-5.53 (m, IH)5 5.35 (s, 2H), 3.86 (t, J= 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.93 (t, J- 6.3 Hz5 2H). Step E: 4-r2-hvdroxyethyl)-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one 5-Ethenyl-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3if)-one (1.2 g, 5.9 mmol) was added to a flask containing a stir bar. To the flask was then added dichloromethane (20 mL). The flask was placed in a cool bath of O0C; to the flask was poured mCPBA (1.5 g, 8.8 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for overnight; LC as well as TLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/1) indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The solution was treated with dichloromethane and washed with NaHCO3, Na2S2O3, and water, the organic layer was then dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness, it was then treated with AcOH (20 mL) and stirred overnight; LC indicated formation of cyclized product. The solvent was removed and the resulting residue was absorbed into silica gel and 6-(hydroxymethyI)-8,9~ dihydro-lH-furo[3,4-f]isochromen-3(6iϊ)-one was isolated with the solvent systems of hexanes/EtOAc (1/1). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.807 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 7.337 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 5.279 (s, 2H), 4.985 (s, IH), 4.302-4.302 (m, IH), 4.183-4.084 (m, 2H)5 3.954-3.912 (m, 2H), 3.006-2.944 (m, IH), 2.717-2.686 (m, IH), 2.179-2.172 (m, 2H)

Step F: (3-oxo-3,6,8,9-tetrahydro- lH-furo[3,4-f|isρchromen-6-yl)methyl-4-methylbenzenesuIfonate 6-(Hydroxymethyl)-859-dihydro-l/i-furo[3,4-fJisochromen-3(6//)-one5 in DCM (10 mL) was treated with p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride (0.40 g, 2.3 mmol); to the mixture was added pyridine (2 mL) and the resulting mixture stirred at room temperature for 12 h. TLC (hexanes/EtOAc = 1/0.5) and LC indicated the consumption of starting material and formation of the desired product. Reaction mixture was treated with dichloromethane and washed with NaCl, water and dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness, absorbed into silica gel and was then subjected for purification over silica gel; (3-oxo-3,6,8,9-tetrahydro-lH-furo[3,4-fJisochromen-6-yl)methyl-4-methylbenzenesulfonate was isolated with the solvent system of hexanes/EtOAc (1/0.5). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.781 (d, J= 8Hz, IH)5 7.727 (d} J= 8Hz, IH), 7.367 (d, J- 8Hz, IH)5 7.257 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, IH), 7.206 (d, J= 8 Hz, IH), 5.253 (s, 2H), 5.110 (s, IH), 4.481-4.452 (m, 2H), 4.419-4.385 (m, 2H), 4.196-4.153 (m, 2H), 2.495 (s, 3H). Step G: 6-( (4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)-8,9-dihydro- lH-furo [3 ,4-f]isochromen-3(6H)-one To a 5 mL microwave tube were added (S-oxo-S^jS^-tetrahydro-l/f-forofS^-flisochromen-ό--yl)methyl-4-methylbenzenesulfonate (50 mg, 0.13 mmol), the free base generated by aqueous bicarbonate wash of l-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-ium chloride (55 mg, 0.20 mmol), and a stir bar; the mixture was dissolved in acetonitrile (2.5 mL). The tube was capped, degassed and purged with N2. The tube was then placed in a microwave reactor and heated at 120 0C for 1 h; LC indicated formation of the desired product. The solution was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MeOH (3.5 mL), filtered and was then subjected to mass-directed HPLC for purification to give 6-({4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzo furan-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)- 8 ,9-dϊhydro- 1 H-furo[3,4~fjisochromen-3(6H)-one, as a mixture of isomers which could be partially separated under the purification conditions. . LC-MS (IE, m/z): 478 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE IA and IB


and separated isomers 1A and 1B

(6,Sf)-6-({4-|'(2Jg)-2"hvdroxy-2-r4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-vnethvnpiperazin-l-yl}methyl)-8,9-dihydro- l/f-furo[3,4-/1isochromen-3(6ϋ/)-one and

(6J?)-6-((4-j"(2j?)-2-hvdroxy-2-('4-methyl-l-oxo-13-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyllρiρerazin-l-yl}methyl)-8,9-dihydro-lH-furo[3,4-/]isochromen-3(6i/)-one (6S)-6-( {4-[(2J?)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}methyl)-8s9-dihydro- lH-furo[3,4-/]isochromen-3(6H)-one and (6iϊ)-6-({4-[(2i?)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl )ethyljpiperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)-8, 9-dihydro- 1 H-furo[3,4-/|isochromen-3(6i/)-one as two single isomers was prepared in the same way as EXAMPLE 1 (mixture isomers) except that 4-methyl-5-[(2i2)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran- 1(3 H)-one was used as the epoxide reagent and the final mixture of two isomers was separated using SFC chromatography with an OJ-H column.

EXAMPLE 2


5,5'- [piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbisf 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)] bisf 4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)- one) To a microwave tube charged with 4-memyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (194 rag,

1.00 mmol) and piperazine (40 mg, 0.46 mmol) was added a stir bar and EtOH (4 mL). The tube was sealed and heated in a microwave apparatus to 150 0C for 90 minutes. The crude product was adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by flash chromatography (MeOH-DCM 0 ~ 7% gradient). After removal of solvents, 5,5'-[piperazine-l,4-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane-2,l~ diyl)]bis(4-memyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one) was collected.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.79 (s, 4H), 5.25 (s, 4H), 5.10 (dd, J= 10.5, 3.0 Hz, 2H),

4.01 (broad, 2H), 2.90 (broad, 4H), 2.69-2.50 (m, 6H), 2.44 (dd, J= 10.5, 13 Hz5 2H), 2.29 (s, 6H). LCMS M+l (calc. 467, found 467).

The three isomers of 5,5'-[ρiρerazine-l,4-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one), were resolved on a analytical IA column (5u), with the R,R-isomer (EXAMPLE 2A) eluting first at 17.4 min, i?5S-isomer (EXAMPLE 2C) eluting next at 21.0 min, and 5^-isomer (EXAMPLE 2B) eluting last at 22.6 min.

EXAMPLE 2A


5, 5 '-{ piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis[( 1 R)- 1 -hydroxy ethane-2 , 1 -diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one)

Method 1: To a 20 mL microwave tube charged with 4-methyl-5-[(2i?)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (972 mg, 5.11 mmol) and piperazine (200 mg, 2.3 mmol) was added a stir bar and EtOH (16 mL). The tube was sealed and heated in a microwave apparatus to 150 0C for 90 minutes. The crude product was adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by flash chromatography (MeOΗ-DCM 0 ~ 7% gradient). After removal of solvents, 5»5'-{piperazine-1 ,4-diyIbi s [( 1 R)- 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one) was collected. 1H-NMR (500 MHz9 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.80 (s, 4H), 5.25 (s, 4H), 5.11 (d, J= 10.5 Hz5 2H), 4.00 (broad, 2H), 2.90 (broad, 4H)3 2.69-2.50 (m, 6H), 2.44 (t, J= 11 Hz, 2H), 2.29 (s, 6H); LCMS M+l (calc. 467, found 467).

Method 2: Piperazine (4.51 g, 52.4 mmol) and 4-methyl-5-[(2Λ)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-1 (3//)-one (20.0 g, 105 mmol) were charged to a 3-neck 500-mL roundbottom flask, equipped with a reflux condensor, under nitrogen. Toluene (80.0 mL, 751 mmol) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (80 mL, 854 mmol) were added to provide a suspension. The reaction mixture was warmed to 110 0C, becoming homogeneous at 25 0C. After stirring for 4.5 h at 110 0C, the temperature was increased to 115 °C to drive the reaction forward. After stirring for 48 h, the reaction mixture was cooled to RT. On cooling, crystallization occurred. Water was added via addition funnel (45 mL), generating a thick slurry. The suspension was filtered and the solids were washed with 4:1 water :DMA (60 mL), followed by water (2 x 35 mL). The solid was dried on the funnel under vacuum with a nitrogen sweep to constant mass. 5,5'-{Piperazine-l,4-diylbis[(li?)-l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl]}bis(4-methyl-2-beiizofurari-l(3H)-one) was isolated. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.80 (s, 4H), 5.25 (s, 4H), 5.11 (d, J- 11 Hz, 2H), 4.30-3.51 (broad, 2H), 2.90 (broad, 4H), 2.69-2.50 (m, 6H), 2.44 (t, J- 11 Hz, 2H), 2.30 (s, 6H).

Compounds of the present invention are amines and can therefore be converted to a variety of salts by treatment with any of a number of acids. For example, the compound of Example 2A can be converted to several different salt forms as shown in the following representative examples. These are selected examples and are not meant to be an exhaustive list; numerous additional salts can be prepared in a similar fashion using a variety of acids. EXAMPLE 2A-1 (di-HCl salt): 5,5t-{piperazme-l,4-diylbis[(17?)-l-hydroxyethane-2,l- diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one) dihydrochloride To a 250 mL pear shape flask charged with the free base (1.2 g, 2.6 mmol) and a stir bar was added DCM. The solution was stirred until all solids were gone. To this solution was added 4N HCl in dioxane (2.6 mL, 4.0 eq), and the mixture was allowed to stir for another 15 minutes. The solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator, and the product was left dry on a high vacuum pump until there was no weight change. The product was determined to be 5, 5 '-{piperazine- 1,4-diylbis [( 1 R)- 1 ~hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3i?)-one) dihydrochloride. EXAMPLE 2A-2 (HCl salt): 5,5'-{piperazine-l,4-diylbis[(l^)-l-hydroxyethane-2,l- diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 QHVone) hvdrochl oride

To a 20 dram vial charged with the free base (160 mg, 0.34 mmol) and a stir bar was added 0.1 M HCl in IPA. The solution was allowed to stir at RT for 30 minutes, and then heated to 400C for 1 hour. The solvent was removed under vacuum, and the resulting product was left on a high vacuum pump for 16 hours. The product corresponded to 5,5'-{piperazine-l,4-diylbis[(li?)-l-hydroxyethane~2, 1 -diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one) hydrochloride.

EXAMPLE 2A-3 (mono-hydrate of the di-HCl salt): 5, 5'- {piperazine- l,4-diylbis[( Ii?)- 1-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl] Ibis^-niethyl-g-benzofuran-lfS/^-one) dihydrochloride hydrate To a flask charged with the free base (1.0 g, 2.1 rnmol) and a stir bar was added 1 N HCl (50 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir until all solids dissolved. The solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator, and the resulting product was left on a high vacuum pump for 16 hours. The product was determined to be 5,5'-{piperazine-l ,4-diylbis[(li?)-l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl]}bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one) dihydrochloride hydrate.

EXAMPLE 2A-4 (H2SO4 salt): 5.5'-{piperaziiie-l>4-diylbis[(lJΪ)-l-hydioxyethane-2,l- diyl] }bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/f)-one) sulfate (salt) To a 100 mL flask charged with a solution of the free base (154 mg, 0.330 mmol) in DMF : MeOH (3 : 1) (20 mL) and a stir bar was added 0.1 M H2SO4 (3.3 mL). The solution was allowed to stir at RT for 30 minutes, and then heated to 40 0C for 2 hours. A lot of solids formed during that time. The solvent was removed under vacuum, and the white solids were left on high vacuum for 16 hours to afford 5)5l-{piperazine-l,4-diylbis[(lJ?)~l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl] }bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one) sulfate (salt).

EXAMPLE 2B


5,5'- {piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis [( 1 S)- 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl] } bis(4-rnethyl-2-benzofuran- 1(3 H)-one)

To a 2OmL microwave tube charged with 4-methyl-5-[(2iS)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one (980 mg, 5.15 mmol) and piperazine (200 mg, 2.3 mmol) was added a stir bar and EtOH (16 mL). The tube was sealed and heated in a microwave apparatus to 1500C for 90 minutes. The crude product was adsorbed onto silica gel, and purified by flash chromatography (MeOΗ-DCM 0 ~ 7% gradient). After removal of solvents, 5,5'- { piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis [(I S)- 1 -hydroxyethane-2,1 -diyl] }bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one) was collected (560 mg). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.80 (s, 4H), 5.25 (s, 4H), 5.11 (d, J= 11 Hz, 2H), 4.30-3.51 (broad, 2H), 2.90 (broad, 4H), 2.69-2.50 (m, 6H), 2.44 (t, J= 11 Hz5 2H), 2.30 (s, 6H); LCMS M+l (calc. 467, found 467).

EXAMPLE 2C

S-Cd^Vl-hvdroxy^-l^r^^^-hvdroxy-a-^-methyl-l-oxo-l.S-dihvdro-l-benzofuran-S-vDethylipiperazin-l -yl}ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 ( 3H)-one

To a 20 mL microwave tube charged with 5-[(li?)-l-hydroxy-2-piperazin-l-ylethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3//)-one (166 rag, 0.600 mmol) and a stir bar was added 4-methyl-5-[(25)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (171 mg, 0.900 mmol) and ethanol (10 mL). The mixture was heated in a microwave apparatus to 1500C for 90 minutes. After the reaction cooled down, DCM (5 mL) was added to the tube. The mixture was allowed to sit at RT overnight. A lot of solids precipitated during that time; these were collected by filtration. Chiral ΗPLC analysis showed the material was over 95% ee pure 5-((li?)-l-hydroxy-2-{4-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.74 (s, 4H), 5.43 (m, 4H), 6.60-5.80 (broad, 2H), 5.33 (s, 2H), 3.40 (broad, 8H), 3.09 (broad, 4H), 2.32 (s, 6H); LCMS M+l (calc. 467, found 467).

EXAMPLE 3


5,5'-[piperazine-l,4-diylbis(l-hvdroxyethane-2J-diyl)]bis(6-methyl-2-benzofijran-l(3H)-one) The reaction was run in a similar fashion to the general epoxide opening conditions as shown for EXAMPLE 2 starting from 6-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 5,5'-[Piperazine-l,4-diylbis(l -hydroxy ethane-2,l-diyl)]bis(6-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one), was purified by preparative reverse phase HPLC. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.77 (s, 2H), 7.67 (s, 2H), 5.27 (s, 4H)5 5.07 (m, 2H), 4.30-3.70 (broad, 2H), 2.95-2.80 (m, 3H), 2.65-2.50 (m, 5H)5 2.42 (s, 6H)5 2.37 (m, 2H); LCMS M+l (calc. 467, found 467).

EXAMPLE 4


5,5'-|"piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bfe(4-bromo-2-benzoftiran- 1 f 3/TVone) The reaction was run in a similar fashion to the general epoxide opening conditions shown for EXAMPLE 2 starting from 4-bromo~5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. 5;5'-[Piperazine-l54-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl)]bis(4-bromo-2-benzofuraii-l(3/f)~one), a mixture of three diastereomers was purified by preparative reverse phase HPLC. LCMS M+l (calc. 597, found 597).

EXAMPLE 5


5,5'~[piperazine-l ,4-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)1bis(4-chloro-2~beri2θfuran-l (3H)-one The reaction was run in a similar fashion to the general epoxide opening conditions shown in EXAMPLE 2 starting from 4-chloro-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Purification by preparative reverse phase HPLC afforded 5, 5'- [ρiperazine-l54-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2, 1-diyl)]bis(4-chloro-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LCMS M+l (calc. 507, found 507).

EXAMPLE 6


5,51-[piperazine-l,4-diylbisd-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl)]bi$(2-benzoflιraB-K3i7)-one)

The reaction was run in a similar fashion to the general epoxide opening conditions shown for

EXAMPLE 2 starting from 5-oxirane-2~yI-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Purification by preparative reverse phase ΗPLC afforded 5,5'-[ρiperazine-l J4-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl)]bis(2~ benzofuran- 1 (3 Jϊ)-one).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) diastereomer A: δ 7.78 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H)S 7.64 (s, IH), 7.55 (d, J

= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 5.40 (s, 4H), 4.84 (m, 2H), 2.41-2.69 (overlapping m's, 12H); diastereomer B: δ

7.78 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.64 (s, IH), 7.55 (d, J- 7.5 Hz5 2H), 5.30 (s, 4H), 4.03 (m, 2H), 2.41- 2.69 (overalpping m's, 12H); LC/MS: [(M+I)I+ = 438.5.

EXAMPLE 7


5?5'-[piperazine-l , 4-diylbis( l-hvdroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bis[4-fmethyloxy)-2-benzofuxan4 GH)-onel

The reaction was run under the general epoxide opening conditions as shown for EXAMPLE 2 (at 130 0C for 60 min) starting from 4-(methyloxy)-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. Purification by preparative TLC afforded 5,5'-fpiperazine-ls4-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane~2,l-diyl)]bis[4-(methyloxy)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-onej.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3,) δ in ppm: 7.88 (2H, aromatic, d, J= 7.6 Hz), 7.64 (2H, aromatic, d, J= 7.6 Hz), 5.48 (4H, s), 5.14 (2H, m), 3.96 (6H5 s), 3.0-2.1 (12 H, m). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 499.02 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 8


5,5'-["piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bis(4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one)

The reaction was run under the general epoxide opening conditions as shown for EXAMPLE 2

(at 160 0C for 60 min). The crude product was purified by mass-directed preparative HPLC to give the desired product, 5,5'-[piperazine-lf4-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2, 1 ~diyl)]bis(4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/i)-one).

LC-MS (IE, m/z): 495 [M + I]+.


5,5'-[(2-me1hylpiperazine-l,4-diyl)bis(l-hydroxyethane-2J-diyl)]bis(4-me1hvl-2-berizofuran-l(3H)-one)

A mixture of 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofutan-l(3H)-one (700 mg, 3.684 mmol) and 2-methylpiperazine (184 mg, 1.842 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition

(1500C) for 1 hr. After cooling to it., the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL), extracted with

EtOAc (3 X 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over

Na2SO4, then concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-ΗPLC to obtain two peaks (peak 1 and peak 2). Each peak was further separated by SFC chiral chromatography to obtain three chiral isomers for each (of 8 isomers six were obtained, though two may be mixtures of 2 isomers).

Isomer A 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.76 (s, 4H)5 5.20 (s, 4H), 5.00-5.16 (m, 2H),

2.30-3.30 (m, 11H), 2.26 (s, 6H)5 1.16-1.18 (m, 3H). MS m/e 481 (M+l)+.

Isomer B 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s5s, 4H), 5.24 (s, 4H), 5.06-5.15 (m, 2H),

3.02-3.26 (m, 2H), 2.28-2.82 (m, 9H), 2.26 (s, 6H), 1.16-1.18 (m, 3H). MS m/e 481 (M+l)+.

Isomer C 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s54H)5 5.24 (s, 4H), 5.09-5.12 (m, 2H),

3.22-3.28 (m, IH), 3.12-3.18 (m, IH), 2.72-2.80 (m, 3H), 2.35-2.68 (m, 6H), 2.28 (s, 6H), 1.13

(d, J=6.3 Hzs 3H). MS m/e 481 (M+l)+.

Isomer D 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CD3OD) δ ppm 7.68-7.74 (m, 4H), 5.32 (s, 4H), 5.18-5.24 (m,

2H), 2.50-3.38 (m, 1 IH), 2.32 (s,s, 6H), 1.04 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). MS m/e 481 (M+l)+.

- I l l - Isomer E 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.68-7.76 (m, 4H), 5.34 (s, 4H), 5.18-5.24 (m, 2H), 2.50-2.96 (m, 1 IH)5 2.32 (s5s5 6H), 1.02 (d, J-6.4 Hz5 3H). MS m/e 481 (M+ 1)+. Isomer F 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.70-7.80 (m, 4H)5 5.35 (s, 4H), 5.20-5.30 (m, 2H)5 2.50-3.35 (m, 1 IH)5 2.33 (s,s, 6H), 1.22 (d, J-6.4 Hz5 3H). MS m/e 481 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 10 (three separated isomers)


5.5 '- [ 1 ,4-diazepane- 1 ,4-diylbis( 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bisf 4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 ( 3H)-one) The reaction was run in a simlar fashion to general epoxide opening conditions as shown for EXAMPLE 2 (at 150 0C for 60 min) starting from 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 1,4-diazepane. Purification by preparative TLC (MeOH/DCM=l : 15) afforded 5,5'-[ 1 ,4-diazepane- 1 ,4-diylbis( 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2~benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one) The resulting mixture of isomers was then separated to all three pure diastereomers by SFC chiral chromatography. Isomer 1 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.76 (s, 4H)5 5.22 (s, 4H), 4.98-5.00 (m, 2H), 2.98-3.04 (m, 4H), 2.78-2.84 (m, 6H), 2.38-2.44 (m, 2H)5 2.26 (s, 6H), 1.92-1.98 (m, 2H); MS m/e 481 (M+l)+

Isomer 2 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s, 4H)5 5.23 (s, 4H), 4.98-5.02 (m, 2H), 2.97-3.05 (m, 4H), 2.78-2.85 (m, 6H), 2.36-2.45 (m, 2H)5 2.24 (s, 6H), 1.90-1.97 (ra, 2H); MS m/e 481 (M+ 1)+.

Isomer 3 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.72 (s, 4H), 5.20 (s, 4H)5 4.92-4.96 (m, 2H)5 2.88-3.00 (m, 4H), 2.70-2.82 (m, 6H), 2.32-2.38 (m, 2H), 2.20 (s, 6H), 1.82-1.94 (m, 2H); MS m/e 481 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE I l


5.5f-[Piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbisfl -fluorethane-2, 1 -diyl)1bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one) 5,5'-[Piperazine-l,4-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one) (28 mg, 0.060 mmol, 1.0 eq) was dissolved in THF (5 ml). The solution was cooled to 0 °C. To the above solution was added DAST (17 μL, 0.13 mmol, 2.2 eq). The reaction was warmed to r.t. and stirred at that temperature for 30 min. The reaction was quenched with addition of aqueous NH4Cl. The mixture was diluted with DCM, washed with aqueous bicarbonate, water and brine.

The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The product was obtained after purification by flash column chromatography.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.79 (2H, s), 7.61 (2H, d, J= 8.0 Hz)5 5.93 (2H, m), 5.26

(4H, s), 4.0-2.5 (m), 2.30 (6H, s);

LC-MS (IE, m/z): 471.1 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 12 '


5-( 1 -hydroxy-2- (4- [2-f 4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro~2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]ρiperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-4-methyI-2-benzofuran- 1 f 3H)-one 4-Methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-ben2ofuran-l(3H)-one (60 mg, 0.31 mmol, 1.2 mmol) and 4-methyl-5-(2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3ϋ/)-one (68 mg, 0.26 mmol, 1.0 eq) were suspended in ethanol (5 ml) in a microwave tube. The tube was capped, degassed under vacuum, and purged with nitrogen gas. The mixture was heated to 150 0C for 30 min under microwave irradiation. The mixture was then concentrated and purified by flash column chromatography (0-10% MeOH/DCM).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.80 (2H, br-s), 7.70 (IH, d, J= 7.8 Hz), 7.35 (IH5 d, J= 7.8 Hz), 5.25 (4H, br-s), 5.10 (IH, dd, J- 3.1 Hz, J- 10.6 Hz), 3.0-2.4 (14H, m), 2.30 (3H, s), 2.29 (3H5 s); LC-MS (IE, m/z): 451.4 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 13


S-(I -hydroxy-2- (4-[2-(l -oxo-L3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yI)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yUethylV4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

5 -( 1 -Hydroxy-2- {4-[2-( 1 -oxo- 153-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazm- 1 -yl} ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 12 starting from 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 5-(2~piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.80 (2H, m), 7.70 (IH, d, J- 7.8 Hz), 7.35 (IH, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 5.25 (4H, br-s), 5.10 (IH, dd, J= 3.1 Hz, J= 10.6 Hz), 3.0-2.4 (14H, m), 2.30 (3H, s), 2.29 (3H, s); LC-MS (IE, m/z): 437 A [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 14


5-((1R)- 1 -hγdroxy-2- (442-f 4-metfayl- 1 -oxo- 13-dihydro-2-berjzofuran-5-yl)ethyI]piperazu> 1 -yl } ethyl )-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

5-(( 1 R)- 1 -hydroxy-2- {4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuian-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} ethyl )-4-methyl-2~benzofuran-l(3/i)-one was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 12 starting from 4-methyl-5-[(2i?)-oxiran-2-yI]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 4-methyl-5-(2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.79 (2H, m), 7.70 (IH, d, J - 7.9 Hz), 7.35 (IH, d, J =

1.9 Hz), 5.25 (4H, br-s), 5.10 (IH, dd, J = 2.8 Hz, J- 10.2 Hz)5 3.0-2.4 (14H, m), 2.30 (3H5 s),

2.28 (3H, s); LC-MS (IE, m/z): 451.53 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 15


5-(Y IS)-I -hydroxy-2-{4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyljpiperazin-l -yl) ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

5-((IS)-I -hydroxy-2-{4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 f3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l -yl}ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/f)-one was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 12 starting from 4-methyl-5-[(2»S)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-1 (3H)-OΏQ and 4-methyl-5-(2-ρiρerazin- 1 -ylethyl)-2-benzofιiran- 1 (3H)-one. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.79 (2H, m), 7.70 (IH, d, J= 7.9 Hz), 7.35 (IH, d, J = 7.9 Hz), 5.25 (4H, br-s)5 5.10 (IH5 dd, J = 2.8 Hz, J= 10.2 Hz)5 3.0-2.4 (14H, m), 2.30 (3H, s),

2.28 (3H, s); LC-MS (IE, m/z): 451.52 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 16


5-f 2- 14- [2-hydroxy-2-C4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -methylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one

5-(2- { 4- [2-Hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -methylethyI)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 12 starting from 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (58 mg, 0.31 mrnol, 1.2 mrnol) and 4-methyl-5~(l-methyl-2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.78 (4H, br-s), 7.34 (2H, d, J = 7.9 Hz)5 7.40 (2H, d, J = 7.9 Hz), 5.25 (2H5 s), 5.23 (2H, s), 5.06 (2H, m), 3.4-2.3 (m), 2.30 (3H, s), 2.26 (3H, s); LC-MS (IE, m/z): 465.40 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 17


5 - [2- { 4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-vl)ethvl]piperazin-: 1 -yl } - 1 -(methyloxy)ethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 ID-one

4-Methyl-5-[ 1 -(methyloxy)-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl]-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride (40 mg, 0.14 mmol), 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (79 mg, 0.41 mmol), were added to a 5 mL microwave tube containing a stir bar; to the mixture was added EtOH (2 mL) and THF (0.5 Ml). The tube was capped, degassed and purged with N2. It was then placed in a microwave reactor and heated at 120 0C for 1 hour; LC indicated completion of the reaction. The solution was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MeOH (3.5 Ml), filtered and was then purified by mass-directed HPLC to give 5-[2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -y 1 } - 1 -(methyloxy)ethyl] -4-methyl-2~benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 481 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLES 18 AND 19


EXAMPLE 18: 5-0 -(ethvIoxyV2- {4-[2-hydroxy-2-C4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yDethyl]piperazin~ 1 -yl } ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (SffJ-one

EXAMPLE 19: 5-0 ~fluoro-2~ (4- f 2-hvdroxv-2-f 4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yP)ethyl"|piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-pne

4-Methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran~l(3H)-one (75 mg, 0.394 mmol, 1.2 mmol) and 5-(l-fluoro-2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-4~methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one (90 mg, 0.323 mmol, 1.0 eq) were suspended in ethanol (30 ml). The mixture was heated to 150 0C for 30 min under microwave irradiation. The mixture was concentrated and purify by flash column chromatograph (0-10% MeOH/DCM) to afford the expected product 5-(l-fluoro-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-1 -oxo- 153-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one as well as byproduct 5 -( 1 -(ethyloxy)-2- { 4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one. EXAMPLE 19: 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.81 (IH. d, J- 8.0 Hz ), 7.79 (2H, br-s), 7.63 (IH, d, J- 8.0 Hz), 5.96 (IH, dd, J= 8.0 Hz, J= 48.3 Hz), 5.27 (2H, s), 5.25 (2H, s), 5.09 (IH, m), 3.00 - 2.36 (m), 2.31 (3H, s), 2.28 (3H, s); LC-MS (IE, m/z): 469.1 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 18: 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, δ in ppm): 7.76 (2H, d, J= 5.5 Hz ), 7.75 (4H, m), 7.61 (2H, d, J- 8.1 Hz), 5.24 (2H, s), 5.22 (2H5 s), 5.06 (IH, m), 4.83 (IH, m), 3.35 (2H5 m), 2.8 -2.2 (18H, m), 1.19 (3H, m). LC-MS (IE, m/z): 495.1 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 20


6-(f 4-[2-hvdroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-ben2θfuraα-5-γl)ethγl]piperazin-l -γl> methyl)- 1 ,6,7,8-tetrahydrg-3ff-indeno [4,5-ci furan-3-one 6-(Piperazin-l-ylmethyl)-ls6,7s8-tetrahydro-3H-indeno[4,5-c]fiiraα-3-one (40 mg, 0.15 mmol) and 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (55 mg, 0.29 mmol), were added to a 5 mL microwave tube containing a stir bar; to the mixture was added EtOH (2.5 mL). The tube was capped, degassed and purged with N2. It was then placed in a microwave reactor and heated at 150 0C for 30 min; LC indicated formation of the desired product. The solution was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MeOH (3.5 mL), filtered and was then subjected to purification by mass-directed HPLC to give 6-({4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran--5-yl)ethyl3piperazin-l~yl}methyl)-l56,7,8-tetrahydro-3H-indeno[4,5-c]furan-3-one. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 463 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 21


4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- {4- [2-( 1 -oxo- 1 , 3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yDetJhyl] piperazin- 1 -y 1} ethyl)-2- (metihyloxy)benzonitrile

4-( 1 -Hydroxy-2- {4-[2-( 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} ethyl)-2- (methyloxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of

EXAMPLE 12 starting from 5-(2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 2- (methyloxy)-4~oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-<fc), δ 7.84 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.6 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, IH),

7.60 (s, IH), 7.54 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH)5 7.33 (s, IH), 7.18 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.4 (s, 2H), 5.26 (d,

J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.82 (bs, 4H)5 3.42 (bs, 4H), 3.25 (bs, 4H);

LC/MS (M+l)+ = 422.33.

EXAMPLE 22


4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- {4- [2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1.3 -dihydro-2-benzofυran- 5 -yl)ethy2~(methyloxy>4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile

4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-(4-raethyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2~benzofuran-5-yl)ethy2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of

EXAMPLE 12 starting from 4-methyl-5-(l-methyl-2-piperazin-l~ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-yIbenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz9 DMSOΛ), δ 7.76 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.67 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.50 (d, J=

7.8 Hz, IH), 7.35 (s, IH), 7.19 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.40 (s, 2H), 5.27 (d, J= 9.8 Hz, IH), 4.40

(bs, IH), 3.95 (ss 3H)5 3.85-3.43 (m, 8H)5 3.38-3.22 (m, 6H), 2.33 (s, 3H);

LC/MS (M+l)+ = 436.40.

The 2 individual isomers of 4-(l -hydroxy-2- {4-[2-(4-methyl-l -oxo- 1,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethy2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile were obtained by SFC chiral chromatography

(Method Info: 4.6 x 150mm ChiralCel OJ-H5 2.5 mL/min, 100 bar, 30% MeOH+ IBAICO2 at 35

C). Characterization for Isomer 1 (faster eluting from chrial HPLC) and Isomer 2 (slower eluting from chiral HPLC) are below.

Isomer 1 : 1H NMR (500 MHz5 DMSO-4), δ 7.65 (d, J- 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.59 (d, J= 7.8 Hz5 IH)5 7.41 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.22 (s, IH)5 7.08 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 5.37 (s, 2H)5 5.29 (d, J= 3.8 Hz5

IH), 4.77 (bs, IH), 3.91 (s, 3H), 2.87 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H), 2.40-2.38 (m, 12H), 2.25 (s,

3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 436.53.

Isomer 2: 1H NMR (500 MHz5 DMSO-dfe), S 7.65 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.59 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, IH)5

7.41 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, IH), 7.22 (s, IH)5 7.08 (d, J= 7.7 Hz5 IH), 5.37 (s, 2H), 5.29 (d, J= 3.9 Hz, IH), 4.76 (bs, IH), 3.91 (s, 3H)5 2.87 (t, J= 7.5 Hz5 J= 8.0 Hz5 2H), 2.55-2.38 (m, 12H), 2.25 (s,

3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 436.50.

EXAMPLE 23


5-fluoro-4-( 1 -hydrρxy-2- (4-f 2-( 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile 5-fluoro-4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- { 4- [2-( 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran»5-yI)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl}ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 12 starting from 5-(2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 5-fluoro-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-yϊbenzonitrile.

LC/MS (M+1)+ - 440.54.

EXAMPLE 24


5-fluoro-4-(l-hydroxy-2-(4-[2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-13-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-vDethyl]piperazin-1 -yl } ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile 5"fluoro-4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- {4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl3piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 12 starting from 4-methyl-5-(l-methyl-2-pϊperazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-1 (3H)-one and 5-fluoro-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran~2-ylbenzonitrile. LC/MS (M+l)+ = 454.55. EXAMPLE 25 (all four separated isomers)


5 ,5'-[3 ,8-diazabicyclo [3.2.11 octane-3 ,8-diylbJsf 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)lbis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/i)-one) A mixture of isomer (37A) of S-p^sδ-diazabicyclo^^.ljoct-S-y^-l-hydroxyethyli^-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (53 mg, 0.175 mmol) and 4-methyl~5~oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (57 mg, 0.210 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition (1500C) for 1 hr. After cooling to it., the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL), and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4, then concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (MeOH/DCM=l : 15) and then separated by SFC chiral chromatography to obtain two separated isomers A and B of 5,5'-[3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3,8-diylbis(l-hydroxyethane-2,l~diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3#)-one).

Isomer A 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (d, J-3 J Hz, 4H)5 5.24 (s, 4H), 5.05-5.10 (m, 2H), 3.50 (bs, IH), 3.26 (bs, IH), 3.00-3.05 (m ,1H), 2.55-2.85 (m, 5H), 2.30-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.28 (S5 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H)5 1.85-2.01 (m5 4H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+.

Isomer B 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s, 4H)5 5.22 (s, 4H), 4.95-5.06 (m, 2H), 3.42 (bs, IH), 3.20 (bs, IH), 2.96-3.00 (m, IH), 2.64-2.72 (m, 3H), 2.48- 2.58 (m, 2H), 2.26-2.38 (m, 2H), 2.25 (s, 6H), 1.90-2.00 (m, 4H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+. A mixture of isomer (37B) of 5-[2-(358-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-l-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (45 mg, 0.149 mmol) and 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzoruran-l(3H)-one (57 mg, 0.210 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition (15O0C) for 1 hr. After cooling to rt., the mixture was diluted with water (50 mL), and extracted with EtOAc (3 X 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO^ then concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC (MeOH/DCM=l : 15) and then separated by SFC chiral chromatographyto obtain two separated isomers C and D of 5,5'-[3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1 ]octane-3 ,8-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2-benzoruran-l(3#)-one).

Isomer C 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s, 4H)5 5.24 (s, 4H), 5.05-5.10 (m, 2H)5 3.52 (bs, IH), 3.00-3.04 (m, IH), 2.62-2.74 (m ,4H), 2.34-2.44 (m, 2H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.14-2.26 (m, 2H), 1.96-2.04 (m, 4H). MS m/z 493 (M+ 1)+. Isomer D 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.76 (s, 4H), 5.22 (s, 4H), 5.06-5.12 (m5 2H), 3.50 (bs, IH), 3.42 (bs, IH), 3.00-3.05 (m, IH), 2.58-2.88 (m, 5H), 2.32- 2.44 (m, 2H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 1.90-2.02 (m, 4H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 26 (all 8 separated isomers)


5.5'-r2.5~diazabicvclor2.2.21octane-2.5-diylbisα-hvdroxyethane-2J-divl)1bis(4-methvl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one)

In four separate reactions, isomers A-D of 5-[2-(2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-yl)-l-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran~l(3H)-one (about 100 mg, 0.33 mmol) and 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (95 mg, 0.50 mmol) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave condition (1500C) for 1 hr. After cooling to rt., the mixtures were diluted with water (20 mL), extracted with EtOAc (3 X 20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4, then concentrated. The residues were purified by preparative TLC (MeOHZDCM=I: 15) to obtain 5,5f42,5^iazabicyclo[222]octane-2,5-diylbis(l-hydroxyetihane-2,l-diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one) as 4 mixtures of two ismers, which were separated by SFC chiral chromatography to obtain two single isomers for each (eight total). Isomer A 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H), 5.15 (s, 4H), 5.09-5.13 (m, 2H), 3.60-3.66 (m, 2H), 2.96 (s, 2H), 2.86-2.90 (m, 2H), 2.75-2.77 (m, 2H), 2.47-2.61 (m, 4H), 2.23 (s, 6H), 1.93-2.03 (m, 2H), 1.66-1.73 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+. Isomer B 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H), 5.18 (s, 4H), 4.95-5.01 (m, 2H), 3.38-3.44 (m, IH), 3.07-3.18 (m5 2H)5 2.76-2.91 (m, 4H), 2.67-2.69 (m, IH), 2.41-2.52 (m, 2H), 2.24 (d, J-9.7 Hz, 6H), 1.94-2.07 (m5 4H)1 MS m/z 493 (M+l )+.

Isomer C 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m5 4H), 5.15 (s, 4H), 4.90-4.93 (m, 2H), 3.04-3.07 (m, 2H), 2.92-2.95 (m, 4H)5 2.81-2.85 (m, 2H)5 2.40-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.22 (s, 6H), 1.97-2.06 (m, 2H), 1.69-1.75 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+ 1)+. Isomer D 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H)5 5.18 (s, 4H), 4.86-4.93 (m, 2H), 3.28-3.31 (m, IH), 3.13-3.15 (m, IH)5 2.97-2.99 (m, IH)5 2.80-2.87 (m, 2H), 2.63-2.71 (m, 3H), 2.32-2.44 (m, 2H), 2.23 (d, J-9.5 Hz5 6H), 1.87-2.00 (m, 2H)5 1.61-1.73 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+ 1)+.

Isomer E 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H)5 5.15 (s, 4H), 4.88-4.93 (m, 2H), 3.04-3.07 (m, 2H), 2.80-2.95 (m, 4H), 2.66-2.72 (m5 2H)5 2.40-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.22 (s, 6H), 1.97-2.06 (m, 2H), 1.66-1.77 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)"1'.

Isomer F 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H)5 5.15 (s, 4H), 5.00-5.07 (m, 2H), 3.48-3.51 (m, IH), 3.11-3.33 (m, 3H), 2.83-2.99 (m5 4H), 2.48-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.23 (d, J-6.4 Hz, 6H), 1.89-2.00 (m, 2H)5 1.64-1.79 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+. Isomer G 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H), 5.18 (s, 4H), 4.93-4.96 (m, 2H), 3.38-3.41 (m, 2H), 2.84-2.88 (m, 2H), 2.71-2.73 (m, 2H)5 2.37-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.22 (s, 6H), 1.90-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.60-1.66 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+.

Isomer H 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H)5 5.15 (s, 4H), 4.91-4.98 (m, 2H), 3.35-3.38 (m, IH), 3.14-3.17 (m, 2H), 2.81-2.90 (m, 2H)5 2.74-2.77 (m, 2H), 2.66-2.68 (m, IH), 2.37-2.49 (m, 2H), 2.23 (d, J-10.1 Hz5 6H)5 1.90-2.60 (ro, 2H), 1.61-1.73 (m, 2H). MS m/z 493 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 27


5,5'-r2.5-diazabicvclof2.2.11heptane-2.5-diylbisa-hvdroxyethane-2J-divnibisr4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3i/)-one) In separate vessels Isomers A and B of 5,5'-[2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2. l]heptane-2,5-diylbis(l -hydroxyethane-2jl-diyl)]bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one) (80mg-250 mg, 0.33 mraol) and 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)~one (1.5 eq.) in 2 mL DMSO was heated under microwave conditions (1500C) for 1 hr. After cooling to rt, the mixture was diluted with water (20 mL), extracted with EtOAc (3 X 20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4, then concentrated. The residue was purified by TLC

(MeOH/DCM=l:15) to obtain S^'-p^-diazabicycloP^.lJheptane^^-diylbistl-hydroxyethane-2,l-diyl)]bis(4-memyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i)-one) as mixtures of isomers, which were separated by SFC chiral chromatography to afford three single isomers for each. Isomer A: MS m/z 479 (M+l)+. Isomer B: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.74 (m, 4H)5 5.18 (s, 4H), 4.02-5.18 (m, 2H), 3.60-3.66 (m, 2H), 2.90-3.28 (m, 6H), 2.50-2.60 (m, 2H), 2.26 (s, 6H), 1.52-1.60 (m, 2H). MS m/z 479 (M+ 1)+.

Isomer C: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H), 5.18-5.20 (m, 4H), 5.04-5.12 (m, 2H), 2.500-3.70 (m, 10H), 2.24-2.28 (m, 6H), 1.50-1.65 (m, 2H). MS m/z 479 (M+l)+. Isomer D: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.68-7.72 (m, 4H), 5.14-5.20 (s, 4H)5 4.78-4.82 (m, IH), 3.96-4.00 (m, IH), 3.68-3.82 (m, 2H)9 3.14-3.30 (m, 2H), 2.35-3.00 (m, 6H)5 2.18 (s,s, 6H), 1.54-1.74 (m, 2H). MS m/z 479 (M+l)+.

Isomer E: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.72-7.80 (m, 4H), 5.22 (s, 4H), 4.90-5.00 (m, 2H), 3.40-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.00-3.10 (m, 2H), 2.64-2.78 (m, 6H), 2.26 (s, 6H), 1.74-1.78 (m, 2H). MS m/z 479 (M+l)+.

Isomer F: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.68-7.74 (m, 4H), 5.18 (s, 4H)5 5.00-5.12 (m, 2H), 3.62-3.74 (m, 2H), 3.14-3.40 (m, 2H), 2.50-2.86 (m, 6H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 1.82-1.96 (m, 2H). MS m/z 479 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 28


6-fluoro-3 -(I -hydroxy-2- { 4- |[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran~5-yl)ethyl]piperazu> 1 -yl } ethyl)-2-roethylbenzomtrile

6-Fluoro-2-methyl-3-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile (69.2 rug, 0.391 mmol),, 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (54.0 mg, 0.195 mmol) was dissolved in EtOH (5 ml) then microwaved at 1500C for 1 hr. Evaporated off ethanol and the residue was purified by mass directed hplc to yield 6-fluoro-3-(l-hydroxy-2-{4~[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-2~methyϊbenzonitrile . 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO4): δ ppm 7.83 (t, J- 8 Hz, IH)5 7.72 (s, 2H)5 7.38 ( t, d= 8.5 Hz, 1 H)5 5.35-5.43 (q, 2 H), 5.28 (d, J- 7.5 Hz5 IH)5 5.16 ( t, J= 6 Hz5 IH), 3.16-3.41 (b, 7H)5 3.06-3.07 ( m, 5H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.29 ( s5 3H). LC-MS: M+l= 454.

EXAMPLE 29


5-chloro-4-fl-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-ypethyljpiperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzomtriIe

A solution of (2-chloro-4-cyano-5-methoxyphenyI)ethylene oxide (45.50 mg, 0.22 mmol) and 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin-l-ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (0.50 mg, 0.18 mmol) in DMSO (2.00 mL) was stirred at 150 0C via microwave for 1 hour. Added brine and EtOAc, the organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The orgianc layers were dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified via prep-TLC to give pure product as a mixture of isomers which were seaprated via chiral prep-HPLC to afford the resolved 4 isomers of 5-chloro-4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile. Isomer 1: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s, 2H), 7.48 (s, IH)5 7.34 (s, IH)5 5.24 (s, 2H)5 5.08-5.11 (m5 2H)5 3.95 (s, 3H)5 2.81-2.89 (m, 6H)5 2.53-2.58 (m, 6H)5 2.28 (s, 3H);

MS m/e 486 (MH-I)+.

Isomer 2: 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) B ppm 7.79 (s, 2H), 7.49 (s, IH), 7.35 (s, IH), 5.25 (s,

2H), 5.09-5.11 (m, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 2.82-2.89 (m, 6H), 2.55-2.61 (m, 6H), 2.29 (s, 3H);

MS m/e 486 (MH-I)+.

Isomer 3: 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 CDCl3) δ ppm 7.79 (s, 2H), 7.50 (s, IH), 7.35 (s, IH), 5.25 (s,

2H), 5.12 (d, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 2.95-2.32 (m, 12H), 2.29 (s, 3H); MS m/e 486 (M+l)+.

Isomer 4: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.78 (s, 2H), 7.49 (s, IH), 7.35 (s, IH), 5.24 (s,

2H), 5.09-5.11 (m, 2H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 2.82-2.89 (m, 6H), 2.55-2.61 (m, 6H), 2.28 (s, 3H);

MS m/e 486 (MH-I)+.

EXAMPLE 30


4-(l-hvdroxy-2-{4-r2-hvdroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-13-dihvdro-2-benzofurari-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -γl } ethyl)-5 -methyl-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile 4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- { 4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-memyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yI}ethyl)-5-methyl-2-(methyloxy)benzoiiitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLES 2C and 28-29 starting from 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin-l -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one and 5-methyl-2-(methyloxy)~ 4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile. LC/MS (M+l)+ = 466.02.

EXAMPLE 31


4-( i -hydroxy-2- (4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyllpiperazin-l-yl|ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile 4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyI-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitriϊe was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLES 2C and 28-29 starting from 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-beri2:ofuran- 1 (3H)-one and 2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^)5 δ 7.77 (bs, IH), 7.74 (bs, 2H), 7.36 (bs, IH), 7.19 (d, J= 7.3 Hz, IH), 6.48 (bs, IH), 5.58 (bs, IH), 5.42 (dd, J = 8.7 Hz5 2H), 5.26 (bs, IH), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.92-3.76 (m, 5H)5 3.75-3.42 (m, 4H), 3.40-3.21 (m, 4H), 2.36 (s, 3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 452.35. The 4 Individual isomers of 4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzomtrile were obtained by SFC chiral chromatography (4.6 x 250mm ChiralCel OJ-H, 2.4 mL/min, 100 bar, 4-40% MeOH: MeCN/CO2 at 35 °C); isomer 1 : tR = 7.049 min, isomer 2: tR = 7.308 min, isomer 3: tR = 7.740 mm, isomer 4: tR = 7.869 min.

EXAMPLE 32


5-fluoro-4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- (4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -pxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)eth.yl]piperazin- 1 -yl 1 ethyl V2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile

5-fluoro-4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- {4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)~2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLES 2C and 28-29 starting from 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3//)-one and 5-fluoro-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile. LC/MS (M+l)+ - 470.56.

EXAMPLE 33


4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-r2-hvdroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-h3-dihydrp:2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-3 -methyl-2-Cmethyloxy)benzonitrile 4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- {4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-3-methyl-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLES 2C and 28-29 starting from 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)~one and 3 -methyl-2-(methyloxy)-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^)5 δ 7.72 (m, 3H), 7.46 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, IH), 5.60 (d, J= 9.6 Hz, IH), 5.46 (bs, IH), 5.42 (dd, J= 8.9 Hz, 2H), 4.12-3.73 (m, 4H), 3.65-3.45 (m, 4H), 3.42-3.22 (m, 5H), 2.37 (s, 3H), 2.32 (s, 3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 466.02.

EXAMPLE 34

2-fluoro-4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-metih.yl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl"|ρipera2u> 1 -yl } ethyDbenzonitrile

2-fluoro-4-( 1 -hydroxy-2- {4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyI- 1 -oxo- 1 , 3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin~l-yl}ethyl)benzomtrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLES 2C and 28-29 starling from 5-(l-hydroxy-2-piperazin-l~ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 2-ffuoro-4-oxiran-2-ylbenzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-40, δ 7.98 (m, IH), 7.74 (m, IH)9 7.71 (m, IH), 7.60 (d, J= 10.5 Hz, IH), 7.52 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, IH), 5.56 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, IH), 5.42 (dd, J- 8.3 Hz, 2H), 5.38 (bs, IH), 3.95-3.42 (m, 6H), 3.40-3.18 (m, 6H), 2.36 (s, 3H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 440.02.

EXAMPLE 35


4-( 2- {4-[2Tflupro-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran.-5-yl)ethyI]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-2-fmethyloxy)benzonitrile

5 -(I -Fluoro-2-piperazin- 1 -ylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride (30 mg, 0.11 mmol), 2-(methyloxy)-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile (37 mg, 0.22 mmol), sodium cyanoborohydride (67 mg, 1.078 mmol) were added to a 25 mL flask containing a stir bar; to the flask was added MeOH (3 mL) and few drops of AcOH. The reaction mixture was subsequently stirred for 12 h r; LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The solution was concentrated to dryness, redissolved in EtOAc (15 mL) and washed with aq. NaHCO3 and aq. NaCl. The organic phase was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. It was then re-dissolved in MeOH (3.5 mL) again, filtered and shot into mass-directed HPLC for separation to give the desired product. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 450 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 36


4-(2- { 4- [2-(4-methyI- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)-2-(methyloxy)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-2-f memyloxy)benzoni trile

4-Methyl- 5 - [ 1 -(methyloxy)-2-pIperazin- 1 -ylethyl] -2-benzofuran- 1 (3f/)~one hydrochloride (50 mg, 0.17 mmol), 2-(methyIoxy)-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile (60 rng, 0.34 mmol), sodium cyanoborohydride (108 mg, 1.72 mmol) and a stir bar were added to a 25 niL flask and few drops of AcOH. The resulting mixture was then dissolved in MeOH (3 mL) and stirred for 12 h; analysis by LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The reaction mixture was treated with EtOAc (20 mL) and washed with aq. NaHCθ3, aq. NaCl. The organic phase was then dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness; the resulting residue was then dissolved in MeOH (3.5 mL), filtered and shot into Mass-directed HPLC for separation to give the desired product. LC-MS (IE, m/z)\ 481 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 37


4-(2-{4-|"2-rethyloxyV2-r4-methyl-l-oxo-13-dihydro-2-ben2θfιu-an-5-yl)ethyl]piρerazin-l-yl > ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzom trile

5-[ 1 -(Ethyloxy)-2-piperazin-l -ylethyl] -4-methyl~2~benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one hydrochloride (50 mg, 0.16 mmol), 2-(methyloxy)-4-(2-oxoethyl)benzonitrile (40 mg, 0.23 mmol), sodium cyanoborohydride (14 mg, 1.7 mmol) and a stir bar were added to a 25 mL flask and few drops of AcOH. The resulting mixture was then dissolved in MeOH (3 mL) and stirred for 12 h; Analysis by LC indicated that reaction had gone to completion. The reaction mixture was treated with EtOAc (20 mL) and washed with aq. NaHCO3 and aq. NaCl. The organic phase was then dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness; the resulting residue was then dissolved in MeOH (3.5 mL), filtered and shot into Mass-directed HPLC for separation to give the desired product. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 464 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 38


4-(2- {4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl)piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -methylethyl)-2-Cmethyloxy)benzonitrile

To 2-methoxy-4-(l-oxopropan-2-yl)benzonitrile (0.020 g, 0.106 mmol) were added dichloromethane (15 mL) and 5-[l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride [(0.037 g, 0.116 mmol), in dichloromethane (2 mL), and triethylamine (0.029 mL, 0.211 mmol)] , and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (0.112 g, 0.529 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 h. The reaction was quenched with water (5 mL), and the organics were extracted with EtOAc (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (20 mL) and brine (20 mL) and dried (MgSO4). Filtration followed by concentration afforded an oily residue, which was purified via mass-directed reverse-phase HPLC followed by evaporation and drying of the pure fraction obtained which then converted to HCl salt by triturating in IM HCl in diethyl ether (0.50 mL, 2 h). Evaporation and dried under vacuum provided 4-(2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -methylethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitriie.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^), 6 7.75 (bs, IH), 7.73 (d, J- 3.6 Hz, IH), 7.70 (d, J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.29 (s, IH), 7.10 (d, J- 8.0 Hz, IH), 5.53 (d, J- 8.7 Hz, IH), 5.41 (dd, J- 8.5 Hz, 2H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 2.95-2.65 (m, 9H), 3.55-3.25 (m, 4H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 1.32 (bs, 3H); LC/MS (M+1)+ - 450.53.

EXAMPLE 39


4-(2- (4- j"2~hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } propyl)-2-f methyloxy)benzonitrile

4-(2- {4-[2~hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl}proρyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion as described for the preparation of EXAMPLE 38 starting from 5-[l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin~l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl~2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride and 2-methoxy-4-(2-oxopropyl)benzonitrile. LC/MS (M+l)+ - 450.57.

EXAMPLE 40


5-((4-r(2Jg)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-lJ-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyllpiperazin-l-yl}acetyl)-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3i:/)-one To a 5 ml microwave tube were added 5-(bromoacetyl)-4J6-dimethyl-2-benzoftiran-l (3//)-one (0.220 g, 0.777 mmol), l-t(2JS)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyI-l-oxo-l!3-dihydro-2-benzoruran-5-yl)ethyl]piρerazin-l-ium chloride (0.215 g, 0.777 mmol), and a stir bar; the mixture was dissolved in THF (2 mL). The tube was capped, degassed and purged with N2. The tube was then placed in an oil bath and heated at 50 0C for 12 h; LC indicated formation of the desired product. The solution was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MeOH (3.6 mL), filtered and was then subjected to purification by mass-directed HPLC to give 5-({4-[(2i?)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo- 1 ,3-dmydro-2-benzofuτan-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} acetyl)-4,6-dimethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 479 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 41


4-f 1 -fluoro-2- (4- Ϊ2~( 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-vnethyllpiperazin- 1 -yl } ethvO-2- (methyloxy)benzonitrile

Was prepared in a similar as described in EXAMPLE 1 1 starting from 4-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-(l-oxo- 1 , 3 -d ihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl)-2-(methyloxy)benzonitrile. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSCMJ), δ 7.80 (d, J= 3.9 Hz5 IH), 7.66 (s, IH)5 7.57 (bs, IH), 7.49 (bs,

IH), 7.29 (bs, IH), 7.13 (s, IH), 7.18 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 4.11 (bs, 2H), 3.94 (bs, 2H), 3.60 (s,

3H), 3.45 (bs, 8H); LC/MS (M+l)+ = 424.31.


1 -(4-nitrophenyl)-2- {4-P-C4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} ethanone Step A: l-r2-(4-mtrophenyl)ethyllpiperazine hydrochloride Triethylamine (22.6 niL, 161 mmol)was added to a stirred solution of BOC-piperazine (10.0 g, 53.7 mmol)and 4-Nitrophenethyl bromide (12.4 g, 53.7 mmol) in 100 niL DMF then the mixture was heated at 500C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed three times with water, three times with 0.1 N HCl, again with water, then finally with brine. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered, most of the solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and hexane was added. The resulting precipitate was filtered and washed with hexane to yield the Boc-protected intermediate. Analysis by LC-MS showed M+H 336 and M-55 280 for the major peak at 2.4 min. The intermediate was treated with 4N HCl in dioxane (Aldrich) to yield l-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)elhyl]piperazine hydrochloride.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO): δ ppm 9.80 (b, IH), 8.21 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.59 ( d, J= 8.5 Hz, 2H), 3.2-3.8 (m, 12 H); LC-MS: M+l - 236.

Step B: 1 -(4-nitrophenyl)-2- {4-r2-(4-nitroρhenyi)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yUethanone 2-Bromo-l-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone (269 mg, 1.10 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of l-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]piperazine hydrochloride (200 mg, 0.736 rnmol) followed by Hϋnig's base, then was stirred at RT for 1 h. The reaction mixture was poured into saturated NH4CI solution and extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with water, then brine. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative TLC using 5%MeOH/DCM solvent system to yield l-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-{4-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethanone.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 8.32 (d, J- 8.5 Hz, 2H), 8.19 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H, 7.50 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 3.87 (s, 2H), 3.31 (s, 4 H), 2.86 (t, J- 7.5 Hz5 2H), 2.55 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H), 2.45 (b, 4 H); LC-MS : M+l= 399.4.

EXAMPLE 43


1 -(4-nitrophenyl)-2- { 4- [2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl] piperazin- 1 -yl } ethanol

Sodium borohydride (8.0 mg, 0.21 mmol) was added to l-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-{4-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl] piperazin- l-yl}ethanone (20 mg, 0.050 mmol) in ethanol (1 mL) and stirred at RT for 2 h. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted twice with EtOAc, twice with brine, then was dried over MgSO4, and evaporated to dryness. The crude material was purified by preparative TLC using 5% (10% NH4OH in MeOH): 95% DCM solvent system to yield 1 -(4-ni trophenyl)-2- {4- [2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl Jpiperazin- 1 -yl } ethanol . LC-MS: M+l= 401.

EXAMPLE 44


1 - [2-fluoro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl] -4- [2-(4-nitropb.enyl)ethyl] piperazine DAST (6.6 μL, 0.050 mmol) was added to l-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-{4-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethanol (10 mg, 0.025 mmol) in DCM (1 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred at RT for 72 h. Then 1 N NaOH was added and the mixture was extracted twice with DCM. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The crude product was purified by mass directed preparative HPLC to yield l-[2-rluoro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-4~[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)piperazine. LC-MS: M+l= 403.

EXAMPLE 45


2,2'-piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis|T ~(4-nitroρhenyl)ethanol]

Step A: 2,2'-piρerazine- 1 ,4-diylbis[ 1 ~(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone] 2-bromo-l-(4-nitroρhenyl)ethanone (3.117 g, 12.77 mmol) was added to a solution of piperazine (0.500 g, 5.80 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (4.06 mL, 23.2 mmol) in THF (25 mL) at 0 0C. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and was stirred for 1A h. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted twice with DCM. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4 then filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by MPLC using a 120 g. Redi-sep column and eluting with 0%-5% MeOH/DCM solvent system to yield 2,2(-ρiperazine-l ,4-diylbis[l -(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone] (1.9 g, 79%). LC-MS: M+l- 413.

Step B: 2,2'-ρiperazine-l,4-diylbisfl-(4-riitrophenyl)ethanol1 NaBH4(SOS mg, 8.15 mmol) was added to a 25 mL ethanol solution of 2j2'-piperazine-l,4-diylbis[ 1 -(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone] (400 mg, 0.970 mmol) at 0 0C. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and stir overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted twice with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine twice, then dried over MgSO^ filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The residue was purified by preparative TLC using 5% methanol in DCM to yield 2,2'-piperazine-l,4-diylbis[l-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanol].

1H-NMR (500 MHz5DMSO): δ ppm 8.25 (d, J= 8.5Hz, 4H), 7.69 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 4H), 5.19 ( d, J- 10 Hz, 2H), 3.77(s, 2H), 3.56-3.59 (b, 6H), 3.37 (d, J=13Hz, 2H), 3.28 (t, J= 13 Hz, 2H).

LC-MS: M+1- 417.

EXAMPLE 46


l,4-bis[2-fluoro-2-(4:iiitrophenyl)ethyl1piperazine

DAST (464 mg, 2.88 mmol) was added to 2,2'-piperazine-l54-diylbis[l-(4-mtrophenyl)ethanol]

(from EXAMPLE 44, 300 mg, 0.720 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) at 0 0C. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into cold water and extracted twice with DCM. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The crude material was purified by preparative TLC using 5% (10% NH4OH in MeOH) : 95% DCM solvent system to yield 1,4-bis[2-fluoro-2-(4-mtrophenyl)ethyI]piperazine.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO): δ ppm 8.29(d, J= 8.5Hz, 4H), 7.70 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 4H), 6.17 ( d,

J= 9 Hz, IH), 6.07 ( d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 3.40(m, 2H), 3.25(d, J= 14.5 Hz5 2 H)5 3.03-3.20 (m, 8H).

LC-MS: M-H= 421.

EXAMPLE 47


1 , 1 '-(piperazine- 1 ,4-diyldimethanediyl)bis(3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene-5-carbomtrile)

Step A: 1 -[( 5-bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 ff-isochromen- 1 -yF)methyl]piperazine

A solution of ljl-dimethylethyl^-ftS-bromo-S^-dihydro-l/f-isochromen-l-yl)methyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (480 mg, 1.2 mmol) in 10 mL of DCM was added 10 mL of

4N HCl / dioxane, and then stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The solvents was removed under vacuum to afford 1- [(5 -bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- li/-isochromen-l-yl)methyl]piperazine.

1H-NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ 7.55 (d, J-8.0Hz, IH), 7.27 (d, J=8.0Hz, IH), 7.19 (t, J=8.0Hz,

IH), 3.34 (d, J=8.0Hz, IH), 4.23 ~ 4.29 (m, IH), 3.92 ~ 3.95 (m, IH), 3.85 - 3.90 (m, IH)5 3.84

(brs, 4H)5 3.64 ~ 3.71 (m, 6H), 3.58 ~ 3.61(m, IH).

Step B : 1 ,4-bis [(5 -bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 ~yl)methyl]piperazine

To a solution of 1 -[(5 -bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromen-l~yl)methyl]piperazine (160 mg5 0.52 mmol) in DCM/MeOH (1:1, 5 mL) was added DIEA (134 mg, 1.03 mmol), and then mixture was stirred at r.t for 10 min. Then AcOH (62 mg, 1.03 mmol), NaCNBH3 (65 mg, 1.03 mmol) and 5-bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-1-carbaldehyde (125 mg, 0.516 mmol) were added into the mixture. The reaction solution was stirred at ambient temperature overnight The reaction mixture was added water and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-TLC to give the product 1 ,4-bis [(5 -bromo-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl)methyl]piperazine. Step C : 1,1 '-(piperazine- 1 ,4-diyldimethanediyl)bisf3,4-dihvdro- 1 /j-isochromene-5-carbonitrile) A solution of l,4~bis[{5-bromo-3,4-dihydro-l//-isochromen-l-yl)methyI]piρerazme (130 mg. 0.24 mmol), Pd(PPh3)4 (56 mg, 0.050 mmol) and Zn(CN)2 (85 mg, 0.73 mmol) in 5 mL of anhydrous DMF was to 120 0C at N2 atmosphere for 6 hours. After colled to r.t, the mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-TLC to afford l,l'-(piperazine-l,4-diyldimethanediyl)bis(3,4-dihydro-l/i-isochromene-5-carbonitrile)

1H-NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ: 7.64 (d, J=8.0Hz, 2H)5 7.53 (d, J=8.0Hz, 2H), 7.39 (t, J=8.0Hz, 2H), 5.13 (d, J-S.OHz, 2H), 4.22 ~ 4.27 (m, 2H), 3.83 ~ 3.89 (m, 2H), 3.37 ~ 3.41 (m, 2H), 3.20 ~ 3.25 (m, 10H), 3.10 ~ 3.12 (m, 2H), 2.92 ~ 3.08(m, 2H).

EXAMPLE 48


1 -((4-[2-(T -oxo-13-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl3piperazm-l -yUmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- IH-isochromene-5-carbonitrile A mixture of l-formyl-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-5-carbonitrile (65 mg, 0.35 mmol), 5-(2-ρiρerazin-l-ylethyl)-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one hydrochloride (100 mg, 0.35 mmol), DIEA (45 mg, 0.35 mmol), AcOH (21 mg, 0.35 mmol) in 3 mL of DCM was stirred 30 min at room temperature and then NaBH(OAc)3 (440 mg, 2.1 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred over night at room temperature. Water was added and the mixture was extracted with DCM. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give l-({4-[2-(l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } methy l)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 5 -carbonitrile . 1H-NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ 7.68~7.69(m, IH), 7.60~7.61(m, IH), 7.48~7.50(m, 3H), 7.47~7.49(m, IH), 5.32(s, 2H), 5.18~5.19(m, IH), 4.20~4.22(m, IH), 3.79~4.02(m, IH), 3.30~3.55(m, 12H), 2.80-3.2 l(m, 4H). MS: m/z 418 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 49

1 -( {4: [2-(4Tmethyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyllpiperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)-5-(nieth.yloxy)-3,4-dihydro- 1 //-isochromene-6-carbonitrile Step A: methyl (2-hydroxyphenvQacetate To a solution of (2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (11 g, 72.3 mmol) in 100 mL of MeOH was added SOCl2 (17.2 g, 144.7 mmol) at 00C. The mixture was stirred at 50 0C overnight. The reaction was concentrated. The residue was purified column chromatography to give methyl (2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate . Step B: methyl (3-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate To a solution of methyl (2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (14.0 g, 84.3 mmol) in 100 mL of DCM was added diisopropyi-amine (1.70 g, 16.8 mmol) and NBS (15 g, 84.2 mmol) at 00C. The mixture was stirred at 00C for 1 h. The reaction was poured into IN HCl, extracted with DCM, and concentrated to give crude methyl (3-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate. Step C: methyl [3 -bromo-2-(methyloxy)phenyl] acetate To a solution of methyl (3-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (18.7 g, 76.3 mmol) in 200 mL of DMF was added K2CO3 (52.7 g, 382 mmol), MeI (14.0 mL, 229 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 500C for 3 hours. The reaction solution was diluted with EtOAc and water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified column chromatography to give methyl [3-bromo-2-(rnethyloxy)phenyl]acetate. Step D: 2-[3ι-bromo-2-(methyloxy)phenyl3ethanpl

To a solution of methyl [3 -bromo-2-(methyloxy)phenyl] acetate (8.20 g, 31.7 mmol) in 200 mL of dry THF under N2 at room temperature was added LiBH4 (32 mL, 63.32 mmol, 2M THF). After 1.5 hours, the reaction was warmed to reflux for 3 hours, and then cooled to room temperature. The solution was poured into EtOAc/ IN HCl solution, and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water, saturated Na2CO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous Na24 and concentrated to give 2-[3-bromo-2-(methyloxy)phenyl]ethanol Step E: methyl 6-bromo:5-ι(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lff-isochromene-l-carboχylate bromo-2-(methyloxy)phenyl]ethanol (6 g, 26.0 mmol) and ethyl bis(ethyloxy)acetate (5.50 g5 31.1 mmol) in 60 mL of CH3NO2. After stirred for 10 min, the ice bath was removed and the mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature over night. The mixture was poured onto ice/aqueous IN HCl. Extracted by DCM and backwashed with IN HCl and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via column chromatograph to give methyl δ-bromo-S-tmethyloxy^S^-dihydro-l/i-isochromene-l-carboxylate.

Step F: 6-bromo-5-fmethyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid To a solution of methyl 6-bromo-5~(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro4H-isochromene-l -carboxylate (650 mg, 2.06 mmol) in 20 mL of MeOH/THF/H2O (2/2/1) was added LiOH-H2O (347 mg, 8.25 mmol), and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The solvents were removed under vacuum, and the residue was added 50 mL of water and extracted with ether. The aqueous layer was then acidified with 4 N HCl to pH = 3 in ice bath, and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 6-bromo-5-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid. Step G: 6-bromo-N-memyl-N,5-bis(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene~l -carboxamide A mixture of 6-bromo-5-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxylic acid (600 mg, 2.08 mmol) and CDI (475 mg, 2.93 mmol) in 20 mL of dry DCM was stirred at r.t. for 0.5 hours and then O,N-dimethyl-hydroxylamine (285 mg, 2.93 mmol) was added. The result mixture was stirred ovenight. The solvents were removed under vacuum, and the residue was purified by preparative TLC to give 6-bromo-N-methyl-N,5-bis(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-lH-isochromene-l-carboxamide.

Step Η : 6-brρmo-5 -(methχloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene- 1 -carbaldehyde To a solution of 6-bromo-N-methyl-N, 5 -bis(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1/f-isochromene-l-carboxamide (300 mg, 0.9 mmol) in 20 mL of anhydrous TΗF was cooled to -3O0C and then DIBAL-Η (1.3 mL, 1.3 mmol, IM) was added. The mixture was stirred at-300C for 2 hours. The reaction was quenched with water and extracte with DCM. The orgainc layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The crude 6-bromo-5-(memyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-1 -carbaldehyde was used for next step without purification. Step l: ιll:dimethylethιyl-4:{[6-bromo-5-(metfayloxy)ι-3,4:dihydroι-l^ yl] methyl }piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

To a solution of 6-bromo- 5 -(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-1 -carbaldehyde (230 mg, 0.85 mmol) in 10 mL of DCM was added 1,1-dimethylethyl piperazine-1 -carboxylate (189 mg, 1.02 mmol) and NaBH(OAc)3 (720 mg, 3.4 mmol), and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was diluted with DCM, and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC to give l5l-dimethylethyl-4-{[6-bromo-5-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l/i-isochromen-l-yl] methyl } piperazine- 1 -carboxylate).

Step J: 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl-4: { [6-cyano-5 -(methyloxy)-3 ,4,-dihydro- 1 ff-isochrpmen- 1 -yl] methyl } piperazine- 1 -carboxylate To a solution of 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl-4- { [6-bromo-5 -(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl}piperazine-l-carboxylate (50 mg, 0.11 mmol), Pd(PPh3)4 (20 mg) and Zn(CN)2 (26 mg, 0.23 mmol) in 5 mL of anhydrous DMF was to 110 0C at N2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction was cooled to room temperature, extracted by EtOAc, washed by water then by brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-TLC to afford l,l-dimethylethyl-4-{[6-cyano-5-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-liJ-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl jpiperazine- 1 -carboxylate). Step K: 5-(methyloxy)-l -(piperazin- 1 -ylmemyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromene-ό-carboniMle To a solution of l,l-dimethylethyl-4-{[6-cyano-5-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l/i-isochromen-l-yl]methyl}piperazine-l -carboxylate (30 mg, 0.08 mmol) in 5 mL of DCM was added 5 mL of TFA was stirred at room temperature for 1 hours, and the reaction was concentrated. The resulting crude 5-(methyloxy)- 1 -(piperazin- 1 -ylmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochrom.ene-6-carbonitrile was directly used in next step.

Step L: l-((4-f2-(4-methyl-l -oxo-1 J-dihydro^-benzofuran-S-yDethyllpiperazin- 1 -yl}methyl)-5 -(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 HΛ sochroniene-6-carbonitrile

To a solution of 5-{methyloxy)-l -(piperazin- l-ylmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- li7-isochromene-6-carbonitrile (0.04 mmol) in 5 mL of DCM was added (4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde (from Step B, Intermediate 17, 11 mg, 0.06 mmol) and

NaBH(OAc)3 (34 mg, 0.16 mmol), the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was diluted with DCM and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC to give l-({4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl] piperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)-5 -(methyloxy)~3 ,4-dihydro-l/Z-isochromene-ό-carbonitrile.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.62 (d, J=7.8 Hz5 IH), 7.33 (d, J-8.6 Hz, IH), 7.28 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 6.98 (d, J-7.8 Hz, IH), 5.17 (s, 2H)S 4.80-4.90 (m, IH), 4.08-4.13 (m, IH), 3.98 (s, 3H), 3.60-3.67 (m, IH), 2.49-2.79 (m, 16H)5 2.24 (s, 3H).

EXAMPLE 50


1 , 1 '-(Piperazine- 1 ,4-diyldimethanediyl)bis[7-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l/jr-isochromene-6-carbonitrilei Step A: 1 ,4-bis {[6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- lH-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl> piperazine To a solution of l-{[6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l//-isochromen-l-yl]methyl}piperazine (100 mg, 0.3 mmol) in 5 niL of DCM was added 6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- IH-isochroniene-1-carbaldehyde (81 mg, 0.30 mmol) and NaBH(O Ac)a (127 mg, 0.6 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC to give l,4-bis{[6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- IH-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl } piperazine.

Step B : IJ '-(Piperazine- 1 ,4-diyldimethanediyl)bis[7-(methyloxy)ι:3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene-6-carbonitrile] A solution of 1 ,4-bis { [6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)~3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H -isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl}piperazine (30 mg, 0.05 mmol), Pd(PPh3)4 (10 mg) and Zn(CN)2 (58 mg, 0.10 mmol) in 8 mL of anhydrous DMF was heated to 110 0C under a N2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, extracted with EtOAc, washed with water then with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-TLC to afford the title compound.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.22 (s, 2H), 6.94 (s, 2H), 4.11-4.02 (m, 2H), 3.71 (s, 6H), 3.59 (s, 4H), 2.51-2.89 (m, 14H).

EXAMPLE 51


1 -({4-[2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo-13-dihydro-2:benzρfuran-5-γl)ethyl1ρiperazin-l -yl}methyl)-7-(m ethyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene^-carbpnitrile

Step A: 1 , 1 -dimethyleth.yl-4- { [6-cyano-7-(methylpxy)-3,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl } piperazine- 1 -carboxylate

A solution of 1,1 -dimethylethyl-4- {[6-bromo-7-(methyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-l H-isochromen- 1-yl]methyl}piperazine~l-carboxylate (350 mg, 0.79 mmol), Pd(PPlIs)4 080 mg, 0.15 rnmol) and Zn(CN)2 (187 mg, 1.60 mmol) in 10 mL of anhydrous DMF was heated to 1100C under a N2 atmosphere overnight. The reaction was cooled to room temperature, extracted with EtOAc, washed with water then by brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified with prep-TLC to afford l,l-dimethylethyl~4-{[6-cyano-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl}piperazine-l -carboxylate. Step B : 7-(methyloxy)- 1 -(piperazin- 1 -yfmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene-6-carbonitriIe To a solution of l,l~dimethylethyl-4-{[6-cyano-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromen- 1 -yl]methyl} piperazine- 1 -carboxylate (270 mg, 0.697 mmol) in 5 mL of DCM was added 5 mL of TFA and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to afford 7-(methyloxy)-l-(piperazin-l-ylmelhyl)-3,4-dihydro-lH'-isochromene-6-carbonitrile. The residue was directly used in next step.

Step C: l-({4-[2-(4-Methyl-l -oxo-l,3-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl1piperazin-l-γI>methyl)-7-(methyloxy)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene-6-carbonitrile To a solution of 7-(methyloxy)- 1 -(piperazin- 1 "ylmethyl)-3 ,4-dihydro- 1 H-isochromene-6-carbonitrile (50 mg, 0.18 mmol) in 5 raL of DCM was added (4-methyl-l~oxo-l,3-cUhydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)acetaldehyde (from Step B, Intermediate 17, 33 mg, 0.18 mmol) and NaBH(O Ac)3 (100 mg, 0.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-TLC to give the title compound. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ ppm 7.65 (d, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 7.45 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 2H), 6.99 (s, IH), 5.34 (s, 2H), 5.14-5.17 (m, IH), 4.14-4.19 (m, IH), 3.92 (s, 3H), 3.74-3.80 (m, IH), 3.46-3.50 (m, IH), 3.31-3.35 (m, 2H), 3.04-3.27 (m, 10H), 2.86-2.94 (m, IH)5 2.68-2.74 (m, IH), 2.34 (s, 3H); MS m/e 462 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 52


6-( 1 -Hydroxy-2- (4- r2~hydroxy~2~(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5 -yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl ) ethyl)-4-methoxypyridine-3 -carbonitrile To a microwave tube were added 4-methoxy-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3 -carbonitrile

(20.0 mg, 0.114 mmol), 5-[l-hydroxy-2-(piperazm-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (37.6 mg, 0.136 mmol, as a free base), and EtOH (3.0 mL). The mixture was heated in the microwave for 30 min at 150 0C. The solvent was evaporated and the crude product was purified by mass directed reverse-phase ΗPLC Chromatography to give the title compound as an off white foam (TFA salt). Further, the product was treated with 1 M HCl in diethyl ether (1 mL) to give the final product as an HCl salt.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^), δ 8.79 (s, IH)5 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.39 (s, IH), 5.41 (dd, J= 5.9 Hz, J= 5.6 Hz, IH), 5.38 (bs, IH), 4.99 (bss IH)5 4.03 (s, 3H), 3.99-3.42 (m, 8H), 3.05-2.99 (m, 4H), 2.31 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE, m/z) ((U -H)J+ - 453.11.

EXAMPLES 52A and 52B


6-|"π5r)-l-hvdroxy-2-(4-r(2JgV2-hvdroxy--2-('4-metliyl-l-oxo-1.3-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piρerazin-l-yl)ethyl1-4-methoxvpyridine-3-carbonitriIe and 6-rCl-RVl -hvdroxy-2- { 4- |Y 2 Jg)-2-hvdroxy-2-f 4-methγl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2~berizofuran-5 -vDethyllpiperazm- 1 -yl } ethyl] -4-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile

6-[(15)-l-Hydroxy-2-{4-[(2i?)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-lf3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl] -4-methoxypyridIne-3 -carbonitrile and 6- [( 1 J?)- 1 -hydroxy-2- {4-[(2if)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran- 5 -yl)ethyl]ρiρerazin- 1 -yl } ethyl] -4-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile were each individually prepared in an analogous fashion to EXAMPLE 2C from 4-methyl-5-[(2i?)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and either isomer A or B of 6-[l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methoxypyridine-3-carbonitrile. 52ALLCMS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ - 453 52B: LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ - 453

EXAMPLE 53


5-({4-[(21SV2-hydroxy-2-f4~methyl-l -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyi]piperazin- 1 -yl}acetyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3/f)-pne

To a solution of oxalyl chloride (71 uL, 0.82 mmol) in DCM (30 mL) was dropped DMSO (120 uL, 1.6 mmol) at -78 0C. After stirring the mixture for 10 minutes, a DCM solution of 5,5'~ { piperazϊne- 1 ,4-diylbis [( 1 S)- 1 -hydroxyethane-2 , 1 -diyl] } bis(4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-on&) (380 mg, 0.82 mmol) was added into the reaction. The reaction was stir for another 20 minutes before TEA (570 uL, 4.1 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction was then allowed to warm up to RT slowly. TLC analysis showed two new spots right above the SM. LC analysis suggested formation of the mono-ketone as well as the di-ketone. The reaction was diluted with DCM, washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate, and purified by flash chromatography. The title product was collected after removal of solvent.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.83 (d, J = 8 Hz, IH), 7.79-7.76 (m, 3H)5 5.31 (s, 2H), 5.24 (s, 2H), 5.08 (dd> J = I l, 2.5 Hz, IH), 3.76 (s, 2H), 2.86 (broad, 2H), 2.70 (broad, 4H)5 2.62-2.51 (m, 3H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.45-2.39 (m, IH), 2.27 (s, 3H); LCMS M+l (calc. 465.19, found 465.35).

EXAMPLE 54


S-C 1 -hvdroxy-2- (4- [(2Sy2~hydroχy-2-(4-methγl- 1 -oxo- 1.3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran~5-yl)ethvnpiρerazin- 1 - yl j - 1 -methylethyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one To a solution of 5-({4-[(25)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l?3~dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}acetyl)-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (50 mg, 0.108 mmol) in THF (2 mL) in a 25 mL flask was added methyl lithium (2 mg, 0.1 mmol) at 00C . The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min.; LC analysis indicated formation of the desired product. The solution was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MeOH (3.5 mL), filtered and was then purified by mass-directed HPLC to give 5-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[(2S)-2-hydimy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl}- 1 -methylethyl)~4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3#)-one. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 481 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 55


5-fluoro- 1 -( (4- [2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 13 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5~yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)-2,3-dihydro- lff-indene-4-carbonitrile

5-Fluoro-l-(piperazin-l-ylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-lH-indene-4-carbonitrile (60 mg, 0.23 mmol), 4-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3//)-one (88 mg, 0.46 mmol), were added to a 5 mL microwave tube containing a stir bar; to the mixture was added EtOH (2.5 mL). The tube was capped, degassed and purged with N2. It was then placed in a microwave reactor and heated at 120 0C for 1 hour; LC indicated formation of some desired product. The tube was again placed in a microwave reactor and heated again at 1500C for 30 min; LC indicated formation of more product. The solution was concentrated to dryness, re-dissolved in DCM (20 mL) and was then absorbed into silica gel. It was then loaded onto a silica column for separation with the solvent system of (10% MeOH in DCM), to give 5-fluoro-l-({4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl Jpiperazin- 1 -yl } methyl)-2 ,3 -dihydro- 1 H-indene-4-carbonitrile. LC-MS (IE, m/z): 450 [M + I]+.

EXAMPLE 56


4-(2- {4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyI-l-oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l -y 1 } - 1 , 1 dimethylethyl)-2-(methyIoxy)berizorotrile

4-(2- {4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzofiiran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 , 1 dimethylethyl)-2-(methyIoxy)benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion as described for the preparation of EXAMPLE 38. LC/MS (M+l)+ = 464.56.

EXAMPLE 57A and 57B


6-( 1 -Hydroxv-2- (4- \(2 iO-2-hydroxy-2-f4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran~5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl) pyridine-3 -carbonitrile

To a microwave tube were added isomer B of 6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine- 3 -carbonitrile (330 mg, 2.26 mmol), 5-[(lR)-l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one (686 mg, 2.48 mmol, as a free base), and EtOH (7.0 mL). The mixture was heated in the microwave for 60 min at 140 0C. The solvent was evaporated and the crude product was purified by silica gel MPLC (0->10% CH2CH2:Me0H) to provide 6-(l-Hydroxy~2-{4-[(2R)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl) pyridine-3 -carbonitrile as a single isomer. Further, the product was treated with 1 M HCl in diethyl ether to give the final product as an HCl salt. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-^)5 δ 8.92 (s, IH), 8.28 (dd, J - 1.9 Hz, J= 2.0 Hz, IH), 7.68-7.63 (m, 3H), 5.48 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, IH), 5.37 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 2H), 5.20 (d, J= 3.9 Hz, IH), 5.03 (m, IH), 4.78 (m, IH), 2.64 (dd, J= 4.1, IH)5 2.55-2.41 (m, 8H)5 2.33 (dd, J - 3.7 Hz, IH), 2.24 (s, 3H); LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ - 423.04 (57A). The isomer corresponding to inverion of the benzylic hydroxyl stereocenter was also prepared in a similar fashion starting with isomer A of 6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3 -carbonitrile (57B): LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 423.

EXAMPLES 58A and 58B


6-ri-Hvdroxy-2-{4-[f2Jg)-2-hvdroxy-2-f4-methyl-l-oxo-1.3-dihvdro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l -yl} ethyl)-4-methyIpyridine-3-carbonitrile To a microwave tube were added 4-methyl-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridIne-3-carbonϊtrile (40 mg, 0.25 mmol), 5-[(li?)-l-hydroxy-2-φiperazin-l-yl)ethyI]-4-methyl--2--benzofuran-l(3H)--one (69 mg, 0.25 mmol, as a free base), and EtOH (3.0 mL). The mixture was heated in the microwave for 60 min at 140 0C. The solvent was evaporated and the crude product was purified by chiral prep SFC (30% MeOH (0.1% DEA)/CO2 on OJ column) to provide 6-(l-hydroxy-2-{4-[(2i?)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-l;3-dihydro-2-benzoftiran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-4-methylρyridine-3-carbonitrile as individual isomers. Further, the products were treated with 1 M HCl in diethyl ether to give the final products as HCl salts. Isomer A (58A): LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]÷ = 437.07 (Peak 1 from chiral HPLC). Isomer B (58B): LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ = 437.07 (Peak 2 from chiral HPLC).

EXAMPLE 59


6-d-Hγdroxy-2-{4-{'(2JgV2-hvdroxy-2-('4-methyl-l-oxo-L3-dihvdro-2-ben2θfuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-5-methylpyridme-3-carbonitrile

6-(l -Hydroxy-2- {4-[(2Λ)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l -oxo-1 ,3-dihydro-2-benzoruran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl}ethyl)-5-methylpvridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 58 starting from 5-[(liϋ)-l-hydroxy-2- (piperazin- 1 -yl)ethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3 H)-one and 5 -methyl-ό-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3 -carbonitrile.

Isomer A: LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ - 437.06.

Isomer B: LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ = 437.06.

EXAMPLES 6OA and 6OB


6-[l-Hvdroxy-2-[4-[(2J?)-2-hvdroxy-2-f4-methvI-l-oxo-3H-isobenzofυran--5-yl')ethvl1piperazin-l-yl]ethyl]-2-methyl-pyridine-3-carbomtrile

6- [ 1 -Hydroxy-2- [4-[(2iϊ)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo-3 H-isobenzofiiran-5 -yl)ethyl] piperazin-l-yl]ethyl]-2-methyI-pyridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 58 starting from 5-[(l#)-l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one and 2-methyl-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile. Isomer A (60A): LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ - 437.08 (Peak 1 from chiral HPLC). Isomer B (60B): LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ = 437.07 (Peak 2 from chiral HPLC).

EXAMPLE 61


5 -Chloro-6- r 1 -hydroxy-2- [4- r(2ig)-2-hydroxy-2-f 4-methyl- 1 -oxo-3H-isobenzofuran-5 -yDethyllpiperazin-l-yllethylipyridine-S-carbonitrile

5-Chloro-6-[l-hydroxy-2-[4-[(2ii)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l-oxo-3H-isobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l-yl]ethyl]pyridine-3-carbonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 58 starting from 5-[( Iu)-I -hydroxy-2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one and 5-chloro-6-(oxiran-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile. Isomer A: LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1 )f - 457.17. Isomer B: LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +I)J+ - 457.15.

EXAMPLE 62


4-[l -Hydroxy-2-(4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl-l -oxo-3H-isobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl1piperazin-l -yliethylibenzonitrile

4-[l -Hydroxy-2-[4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-methyl- 1 -oxo-3H-isobenzoforan-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin-l -yl]ethyl]benzonitrile was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of

EXAMPLES 2C and 28-29 starting from 5-[(liϊ)-l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl- 2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one and 4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzordtrile.

LC/MS: (IE, m/z) [(M +1)]+ = 422.07.

EXAMPLE 63


5,5'- [piperazme- 1 ,4-diylbis( 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyD]bis(4-fIuoro-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one) 5 ,5'- [piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbis( 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bis(4-fluoro-2-benzofuran- 1 (3/i)-one) was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 2 starting from 4-fluoro-5-oxiranyl-3H-isoben2ofuran-l-one and piperazine.The isomers of the product were obtained via SFC resolution (Column: Chiralcel OJ-H 100*4.6 mm LD. , 5um; Mobile phase: 40% iso-propanol (0.05% DEA) in CO2; Flow rate: 4.5 mL/min; Wavelength: 220nm). Isomer A: 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 MeOD) δ ppm 7.83-7.86 (m, 2H), 7.74 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 2H), 5.42-5.46 (m, 6H), 3.03-3.35 (m, 12H).

Isomer B: 1H-NMR (400 MHz5 MeOD) δ ppm 7.86-7.89 (m, 2H), 7.77 (d, J-8.0 Hz, 2H), 5.45-5.48 (m, 6H), 3.13-3.33 (m, 12H).

Isomer C: 1H-NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ ppm 7.86-7.89 (m, 2H), 7.77 (d, J-8.0 Hz, 2H), 5.43-5.48 (m, 6H), 3.05-3.26 (m, 12H).

EXAMPLE 64


5,5'- [piperazine- 1 ,4-diylbisf 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 :diyl)]bis(7-fluoro-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one)

5,5'- [piperazine- 1 , 4~diylbis( 1 -hydroxyethane-2, 1 -diyl)]bis(7-fluoro-4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one) was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 2 starting from 7-Fluoro-4-methyl-5-oxiran-2~yl-2~benzofuran-l(3H)-one and piperazine.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ ppm 7.47 (d, J=10.3 Hz, IH), 5.34-5.44 (m, 6H), 3.51-3.58 (m,

8H)5 3.17-3.19 (m, 4H), 2.31 (s, 6H).

EXAMPLES 65A and 65B


5-[Y 1 R )- 1 -hydroxy-2- { 4- [2-hydroxy-2-(6-methyl- 1 -oxo- 13-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]ρiperazin- 1 -yl } ethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofUran- 1 (3H)-one

5~[(1R )-l-hydroxy-2-{4-[2-hydroxy-2-(6-methyl-l-oxo-ls3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]ρiperazin-l-yl} ethyl] -4-rnethyl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one was prepared in a similar fashion to that described for the synthesis of EXAMPLE 58 starting from 5-[(lΛ)-l-hydroxy-2- (ρiρerazin-l-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3Η)-one and isomer B of 6-methyI-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran~l(3H)-one (65B).

1H NMR 500 MHz, DMSO) δ 7.64-7.76 (m, 4H), 5.36-5.43 (m, 4H), 2.48-2.51 (m. 16H) 10H),

2.43 (s, 3H), 2.29 (s, 3H); LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ = 467; tR - 1.99 min.

The product obtained from isomer A of 6-methyl-5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3/i/)-one was also prepared (65A): LC/MS: [(M+l)]÷ = 467.

EXAMPLE 66


5-(2- {4- [2-(2, 1 ,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin~ l -yl } - 1 -hydroxyethyl)-2-benzofuran-l{3//)-one

5-(2- {4- [2-(2, 1 ,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -hydroxyethyl)-2~benzofuran-l(3/f)-one was prepared in a similar fashion as to the synthesis described in EXAMPLE 12 starting from 5-[2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole and 5-oxiran-2-yl-2-benzofuran-l(3H)-one. LC/MS: [(M+l)f = 409.

EXAMPLE 67


5-[( 1 Ryi- {4-[2-(2, 1 ,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} - 1 -hydroxyethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofaran- 1 (3H)-one

5-[( 1 R)-2- {4-[2-(2, 153-benzoxadiazol-5-yl)ethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -hydroxyethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzoforan-l(3H)-one was prepared in a similar fashion as to the synthesis described in EXAMPLE 12 starting from 5-[2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethyl]-2sl,3-benzoxadiazole and 4-methyl-5-[(2JR)-oxiran-2-yl]-2-benzoforan-l(3H)-one. LC/MS: [(M+l)]+ - 423.

EXAMPLE 68A and 68B


5-[(lΛ)-2-{4-[(25)-2-(2, 1 ,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl]piperazin-l-yl} - 1 -hydroxyethyl] -4-methyl-2-benzofuran- 1 (3H)-one and

5- [( 1 R)-2- { 4- [(2Λ)-2-(2, 1 ?3 -benzoxadiazol-5 -yl)-2-hydroxyethyl]piperazin- 1 -yl } - 1 -hvdroxyethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzofuran-l(3g)-one The title compounds were prepared as described for the synthesis of EXAMPLES 57-58 starting from 5-[(li?)-l-hydroxy-2-(piperazin-ϊ-yl)ethyl]-4-methyl-2-benzoflιran-l(3H)-one and 5- (oxiran-2-yl)-2,l,3-benzoxadiazole. The resulting two diastereomers were resolved by prep SFC on Chiralcel OJ 30x200mm column eluting with 70mL/min of 30% methanol (0.2% DEA)/CO2 at 35 0C with pressure of 100 bar.

Isomers A and B had retention times of 7.07 and 8.24 respectively.

Isomer A-TFA salt: 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDOD3): δ ppm 7.99(s, IH), 7.95 (d, J=9.3 Hz, IH),

7.84 (d, J=8 Hz, IH), 7.76 (d, J=8 Hz, IH), 7.63 (dd, J=9.5 Hz5 IH), 5.52 (dd. J-9.75Hz , 3.7Hz5

IH), 5.38 (d5 J= 1.5 Hz, 2H), 5.24 (dd, J- 9.5 Hz5 3.05 Hz5 IH)

3.68 (b, 4H)5 3.63 (b, 4H), 3.27-3.41 (m5 4H), 2.4 (s5 3H). LC-MS: M+l= 439.

Isomer B: 1H-NMR (500 MHz5 DMSO): δ ppm 7.96 (d, J-9.3 Hz5 IH), 7.86 (d, J=O.8 Hz, IH),

7.64 (q, 2H), 7.60 (dd5 J-7.75 Hz5 0.75 Hz, IH), 535 (d. J=4Hz 52H), 5.01-5.03 (m, IH), 4.79- 4.82 (m, IH), 2.31-2.55 (m, 12H), 2.22 (s, 3H). LC-MS: M+l= 439.

The following table contains additional examples which were prepared in a manner similar to that which has been described in the examples above using intermediates that are either known or for which the syntheses have been described above. Stereochemistry is as shown where indicated. In some cases the products were prepared as mixtures of isomers, which in some instances were separated.




Several assays may be used to measure functional inhibition of the ROMK channel by compounds of the instant invention. One primary assay that can be used is a functional 86Rb+ efflux assay that measures the ability of ROMK to permeate 86Rb+, in the absence or presence of test compound. Under control conditions, cells loaded with 86Rb+ and incubated in Rb+-free medium display a time-dependent efflux of the isotope,, the rate of which depends on number of functional channels. When cells are incubated in the presence of a channel inhibitor, efflux of 86Rb+ is prevented in a concentration-dependent manner, and IC50 values of inhibition by compounds can be accurately determined. This assay has been established with cell lines expressing either human, rat or dog ROMK channels, and can operate in 96- or 384-well format. Importantly, the human, rat, and dog Rb efflux assays can be carried out in the presence of up to 100% serum allowing, therefore, an accurate estimation of the effect of protein binding on the inhibitory activity of compounds of interest. Another ROMK functional assay makes use of the ability of thallium to permeate through open ROMK channels and increase the fluorescence of a dye previously loaded into the cells. Under control conditions, cells loaded with dye and exposed to thallium-containing medium display a time-dependent increase in fluorescence, the rate of which depends on number of functional channels. When cells are incubated in the presence of a channel inhibitor, the increase in fluorescence is attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner, and IC50 values of inhibition by compounds can be accurately determined.

This assay has been established with cell lines expressing either human, or rat ROMK channels, and operates in 384-well format. Another assay for evaluation of the compounds of the instant invention and for evaluation of mechanism of action of compounds of Formula I relies on the measurement of the electrical current that is generated as potassium permeates through the channel. For these electrophysiological experiments, three different platforms, Ion Works, QPatch, or manual patch clamp, are used, depending on the experimental protocol under consideration. IonWorks operates in a 384-well format and allows accurate determination of

IC50 values for inhibitors. Examples of compounds of the present invention (listed above) all had potencies of at least 1 μM or lower in one or more of the three assays described herein.

86Rb+ Efflux Assay

Cell Culture Conditions- CHO-DHFR- cells stably expressing hROMKl (Kj1-1.1) are grown at 370C in a 10%Cθ2 humidified incubator in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (Gibco 12440) supplemented with HT Supplement, Penicillin/Streptomycin/Glutamine, G418 (500 μg/ml) and 10% FBS. Cells are seeded in Sterile and Tissue Culture Treated Packard CulturPlate White Opaque Microplates at a concentration of 5.0E5 - 7.0E5 cells/ml - PerkinElmer 6005680 (96-well); Corning 3707 (384 well) in complete media containing 1.5 μCi/ml Rubidium-86. Cells are incubated in 370C- 10% CO2 incubator overnight. On the day of the experiment, the media is removed and cells are washed with low K assay buffer. 86Rb+ efflux is initiated after addition of assay buffer ± test compound followed by 35 mϊn incubation at room temperature. ROMK-sensitive component of efflux is defined in the presence of 10 mM BaCl2. Assay buffer is removed and transferred to a plate and cells are solubilized in the presence of SDS. Radioactivity associated with assay and cell plate is determined. Step Protocol 1. Remove cell media and wash cells with low K assay buffer (126.9 mM NaCl, 4.6 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Hepes/NaOH; pH 7.4)

• 200 μl for 96-well plate; 70 μl for 384-well plate

2. Add assay buffer (121.5 mM NaCl, 10 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Hepes/NaOH; pH 7.4) ± test compound to cells • 100 μl for 96-well plate; 50 μl for 384-well plate

3. Incubate at ambient temperature (22-24 C) for 35 min

4. Remove assay buffer add it to a 96- or 384-well plate containing Microscint-20

• 96-well Plate: 100 μl buffer, 170 μl MicroScint 20 (for TopCount)

• 384-well plate: 20 μl buffer, 50 μl Optiphiase (for MicroLux) 5. Completely remove remaining assay buffer from cell plate

6. Solubilize cells with 1 % SDS; than add MicroScint or Optiphase

• 96-well Plate: 30 μl SDS, 170 μl MicroScint 20 (for TopCount)

• 384-well plate: 20 μl SDS, 50 μl Optiphiase (for MicroLux)

7. Seal both cell and supernatant plates and count Data Calculation- Radioactivity associated with the assay plate is normalized to the total radioactivity (assay + cell plates) to provide % efflux, under each condition. % efflux in the presence of 10 mM BaCl2 is subtracted from each experimental point to provide the ROMK-sensitive component of Rb efflux. In the absence of test compound, this number corresponds to 100% control efflux. IC50 values represent the concentration of compound that inhibits 50% of ROMK efflux. Normally, a control compound is included to support that the assay is giving consistent results compared to previous measurements, although the control is not required to obtain the results for the test compounds. The control can be any compound of Formula I of the present invention, preferably with an IC50 potency of less than 1 μM in this assay. Alternatively, the control could be another compound (outside the scope of Formula I) that has an IC 50 potency in this assay of less than 1 μM. Representative examples of data collected for compounds of the present invention using the 86 Rb Efflux Assay are shown in the Table 2 below.

TABLE 2

Thallium Flux Assay

Cell Culture Conditions- HEK293 cells stably expressing hROMK (hKirl .1) are grown at 370C in a 10%CO2 humidified incubator in complete growth media: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with non-essential amino acids, Penicillin/Streptomycm/Glutamine, G418 and FBS. At >80% confluency, aspirate the media from the flask and rinse with 10 ml Calcium/Magnesium-free PBS. Add 5 ml of IX trypsin (prepared in Ca/Mg Free PBS) to T-225 flask and return flask to 37°C/CC>2 incubator for 2-3 minutes. To dislodge the cell, gently bang the side of the flask with your hand. Triturate the cells completely and then transfer the cells to 25 ml complete media. Centrifuge at 1 ,500 rpm for 6 min followed by resuspension in complete growth media and determine cell concentration. For typical re-seeding, 4E6 cells/T-225 flask will attain >80% confluency in 4 days. Under ideal growth conditions and appropriate tissue culture practices, this cell line is stable for 40-45 passages.

FluxOR Kit Components (Invitrogen Fl 0017)

• FluxOR™ Reagent (Component A)

• FluxOR™ Assay Buffer (Component B) - IOX Concentrate

• PowerLoad™ Concentrate (Component C) - IOOX Concentrate • Probenecid (Component D) - Lyophilized sample is kept at -200C. Water soluble, IOOX

. after solubilization in 1 ml water. Store at 4°C.

• FluxOR™ Chloride-free Buffer (Component E) - 5X Concentrate

• Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) Concentrate (Component F) - 125 niM in water. Store at 4°C.

• Thallium sulfate (TI2SO4) Concentrate (Component G) - 50 mM in water. Store at 4°C

• DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, Component H) - 1 ml (100%) Reagent preparation- FϊuxOR Working Solutions

• IOOOX FluxOR™ Reagent: Reconstitute a vial of component A in 100 μl DMSO; Mix well; Store 10 μl aliquots at -2O0C

• IX FluxOR™ Assay Buffer: Dilute Component B 10-fold with water; Adjust pH to 7.4 with Hepes/NaOH; Filter and store at 40C

• Probenecid/Assay Buffer: 100 ml of IX FluxOR™ Assay Buffer; 1 ml of reconstituted component D; Store at 40C

• Loading Buffer (per microplate): 10 μl IOOOX FluxOR™ Reagent; 100 μl component C; 10 ml Probenecid/Assay Buffer • Compound Buffer (per microplate): 20 ml Probenecid/Assay Buffer; 0.3 mM ouabain (10 mM ouabain in water can be stored in amber bottle/aluminum foil at room temperature); Test compound

• IX FluxOR™Chloride-Free Buffer: Prepare IX working solution in water. Can be stored at room temperature • Stimulant Buffer (prepared at 5X final concentration in IX FluxOR™Chloride-Free

Buffer): 7.5 mM Thallium sulfate and 0.75 mM Potassium sulfate (to give a final assay concentration of 3 mM Thallium/ 0.3 mM Potassium). Store at 40C when not in use. If kept sterile, this solution is good for months.

Assay protocol- The ROMK channel functional thallium flux assay is performed in 384 wells, using the FLIPR-Tetra instrument. HEK-hKir 1.1 cells are seeded in Poly-D-Lysine microplates and kept in a 37°C-10%CO2 incubator overnight. On the day of the experiment, the growth media is replaced with the FluxOR™ reagent loading buffer and incubated, protected from light, at ambient temperature (23-250C) for 90 min. The loading buffer is replaced with assay buffer ± test compound followed by 30 min incubation at ambient temperature, where the Thallium/Potassium stimulant is added to the microplate. Step Protocol

1. Seed HEK-hKirl .1 cells (50 μl at 20,000 cells/well) in 384-well PDL coated Microplates

2. Allow cells to adhere overnight in humidified 37°C/10%CO2 incubator

3. Completely remove cell growth media from microplate and replace with 25 μl loading buffer 4. Incubate Microplate at room temperature, protected form light, for 90 min

5. Remove loading buffer and replace with 25 μl 1 x Assay Buffer ± test compound.

6. Incubate microplate at room temperature, protected form light, for 30 min 7. At FLIPR-Tetra 384: Add stimulant (Thallium/Potassium) solution to microplate and monitor fluorescence. Excitation = 400 πm, Emission = 460 & 580 nm. Collect data for ~ lO min.

Data Calculation- The fluorescence intensity of wells containing 3 μM of a standard control ROMK inhibitor of the present invention is used to define the ROMK-sensitive component of thallium flux. Fluorescence in the presence of test compounds is normalized to control values to provide % fluorescence change. IC50 values represent the concentration of compound that inhibits 50% of the ROMK thallium flux signal.

Assay Standard- Normally, a control compound is included to support that the assay is giving consistent results compared to previous measurements, although the control is not required to obtain the results for the test compounds. The control can be any compound of Formula I of the present invention, preferably with an IC50 potency of less than 1 μM in this assay. Alternatively, the control could be another compound (outside the scope of Formula I) that has an IC50 potency in this assay of less than 1 μM.

Representative examples of data collected for compounds of the present invention using the Thallium Flux Assay are shown in the Table 3 below.

TABLE S

Electrophysiology Assay

Block of Kir 1.1 (ROMKl) currents was examined by whole cell voltage clamp (Hamill et. al. Pfluegers Archives 391 : 85- 100 (1981)) using the IonWorks Quattro automated electrophysiology platform (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA). Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing Kirl.l channels were maintained in T-75 flasks in cell culture media in a humidified 10% CO2 incubator at 37 0C. Prior to an experiment, Kirl .l expression was induced by overnight incubation with 1 mM sodium butyrate. On the day of the experiment, cells were dissociated with 2.5 ml of Versene (Invitrogen 15040-066) for approximately 6 min at 37 0C and suspended in 10 ml of bath solution containing (in roM): 150 NaCl, 10 KCl, 2.7 CaCl2, 0.5 MgCl2, 5 HEPES5 pH 7.4. After centrifugation, the cell pellet was resuspended in approximately 4.0 ml of bath solution and placed in the Ion Works instrument. The intracellular solution consisted of (in mM): 80 K gluconate, 40 KCl, 20 KF5 3.2 MgCl2, 3 EGTA, 5 Hepes, pH 7.4. Electrical access to the cytoplasm was achieved by perforation in 0.13 mg/ml amphotericin B for 4 min. Amphotericin B (Sigma A-4888) was prepared as a 40 mg/ml solution in DMSO. Voltage protocols and current recordings were performed using the Ion Works HT software/hardware system. Currents were sampled at 1 kHz. No correction for liquid junction potentials was used. The test pulse, consisting of a 100 ms step to 0 mV from a holding potential of -70 mV, followed by a 100 ms voltage ramp from -70 mV to +70 mV, was applied before and after a 6 min compound incubation period. Test compounds were prepared by diluting DMSO stock solutions into the bath solution at 3x the final concentration and placed in the instrument in 96-well polypropylene plates. Current amplitudes were measured using the IonWorks software. To assess compound potency, the fractional block during the voltage step to 0 mV was calculated in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, CA), and dose-response curves were fitted with Igor Pro 4.0 (WaveMetrics, Lake Oswego, OR). Normally, a control compound is included to support that the assay is giving consistent results compared to previous measurements, although the control is not required to obtain the results for the test compounds. The control can be any compound of Formula I of the present invention, preferably with an IC50 potency of less than 1 μM in this assay. Alternatively, the control could be another compound (outside the scope of Formula I) that has an IC50 potency in this assay of less than 1 μM.

Representative examples of data collected for compounds of the present invention using the ROMK electrophysiology assay titrations are shown in the Table 4 below.

TABLE 4


Rat Diuresis Assay

Experimental protocols for evaluating diuretic efficacy of compounds of the present invention in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats:

1. Adult male SD rats are acclimated to single housing in metabolism cages for at least three (3) days before their use in the diuresis screen. Rats have at lib access to food and water.

2. For most studies the procedure will be to remove food hoppers and water bottles from the metabolic cages l-2h before the start of the diuresis screen. Rats will be dosed with compound (see below) and 30 minutes later dosed with water or saline orally at 18 mL/kg to induce voiding and placed in the metabolic cage where urine is collected over the next 4 hours.

For selected studies an overnight fast may be necessary if saline/water loads larger than those described above are required. For these studies a saline or water dose of up to 27 mL/kg will be given.

3. Following the fasting period (usually 1-2 hours but sometimes overnight), animals are removed from the metabolism cages and temporarily housed in shoebox cages for dosing.

Compound or vehicle is dosed in 70% PEG200 or ImwitoπTween (depending on the physical properties of the compound) at 1 mL/Kg PO.

4. The 30 min time period between compound dosing and water/saline loading may be modified depending on the bioavailability of the compound being tested. 5. Urine is collected from each animal for up to 4hrs at room temperature.

6. The urine volume collected from each animal is measured and recorded. Urine is centrifuged, aliquoted and frozen (-2O0C) until analyzed.

7, Blood (150-200μL) can be obtained from treated animals by jugular vein bleed for compound plasma exposure levels. Note: Rats can be re-tested with additional compounds after 1 week of recovery while housed in metabolism cages. Data - Mean/sem. Data analyzed by one way ANOVA and Dunnett's comparison of treatments to vehicle. The known diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, dosed PO at 10 or 25 mg/kg, can be used as a positive control in this model.

Example No.'s 2A5 2C, 31 (mixture of 4 isomers), 34, 52 A, 52B, 57A and 65 A were tested using the SD rat diuresis model. The results showed a range from about 2 to about 9-fold change, i.e., increase, in urine volume relative to the vehicle control group based on a PO dose of either 1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg.

Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) Assay The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) exhibits age-dependent hypertension that does not require administration of exogenous agents to elevate blood pressure nor does it require the use of a high salt diet to elevate blood pressure. Thus it resembles human essential hypertension and provides an opportunity to assess the dose-dependence of novel agents for their ability to lower blood pressure.

Experimental protocols for evaluating blood pressure lowering efficacy of compounds of the present invention in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR): Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, male, 6 months, Charles River) were implanted with DSI TA11PA-C40 telemetry device (Data Sciences, Inc., St. Paul, MN) under isoflurane or ketamine/metomidine anesthesia. The telemetry unit catheter was inserted into the descending aorta via the femoral artery and the telemetry device was implanted subcutaneously in the left flank area. Animals were allowed to recover from surgery for 14 days before the start of any studies. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity signals from conscious, freely moving rats were recorded continuously for 30 seconds every 10 minutes. HCTZ (25 mg/kg/day, PO) was included as a reference diuretic at a dose giving approximately maximal efficacy in SHR. The blood pressure lowering efficacy of compounds of the present invention compared to vehicle control was evaluated following a single oral gavage each day for a typical duration of three to fourteen days. Data were collected as hourly averages, and changes in blood pressure were calculated by subtracting vehicle control baseline data on an hourly basis. Example numbers 2 A, 52A5 52B, 57A, 58A, 58B, 60A, 65 A, and 65B were evaluated at PO, QD doses of either 3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg and resulted in typical reductions in daily (24 h) mean systolic blood pressure ranging from 8 mmHg to 32 rnniHg by the last day of the studies.

While the invention has been described with reference to certain particular embodiments thereof, numerous alternative embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the teachings described herein. Recitation or depiction of a specific compound in the claims (i.e., a species) without a specific stereoconfiguration designation, or with such a designation for less than all chiral centers, is intended to encompass the racemate, racemic mixtures, each individual enantiomer, a diastereoisomeric mixture and each individual diastereomer of the compound where such forms are possible due to the presence of one or more asymmetric centers. All patents, patent applications and publications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.