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1. WO2010081170 - POLYHYDROGEN FLUORIDE BASED BATTERY

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An electrolyte for an electrochemical battery cell, the electrolyte comprising at least one bifluoride anion.

2. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), where n is from >0 to 10.

3. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the bifluoride anion is of the formula ((F(HF)n"), wherein n = l.

4. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the bifluoride anion is of the formula ((F(HF)n"), wherein n = 2.

5. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 3.

6. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte comprises a plurality of bifluoride anions.

7. The electrolyte according to claim 1 , wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one cation comprising at least one organic group.

8. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the at least one cation comprising at least one organic compound is a tetraalkyl ammonium, and wherein the alkyl is an alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms.

9. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte is a tetralkylammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

10. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte is tetraethyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

11. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte is tetrapropyl ammonium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

12. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte is tetramethyl ammonium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

13. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte comprises a plurality of (HF)nF" containing salts, wherein n is from >0 to 10.

14. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte comprises pyridinium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

15. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte comprises tetramethyl ammonium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

16. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte comprises potassium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

17. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte comprises calcium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

18. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte comprises an ionic liquid comprising (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

19. The electrolyte according to claim 7, wherein the electrolyte comprises an onium (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

20. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte further comprises 1,3-dialkylimidazolium fluorogydrogenate (HF)nF" where n is from >0 to 10.

21. The electrolyte according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte is a catholyte.

22. A fluoride anion conducting material comprising (i) a positive electrode; (ii) a negative electrode; and (iii) an electrolyte comprising a fluoride anion of the formula (HF)nF" wherein n is >0 to 10; whereby the material conducts F- anions.

23. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one metal or at least one carbon, wherein the at least one metal or at least one carbon is in an electrochemically reduced state; and the negative electrode comprises at least one metal fluoride.

24. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 23, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one carbon selected from the group consisting of graphite, a single walled carbon nanotube, and a multiwalled carbon nanotube.

25. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 23, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Bi, Cu, Mo, Fe, Ag, Au, Pd, Ni, Co, Mn and V.

26. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 23, wherein the negative electrode comprises an alkali fluoride.

27. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 23, wherein the negative electrode comprises an alkaline earth fluoride.

28. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 23, wherein the negative electrode comprises an element selected from the group consisting of Zn, Al, Si, and Ge.

29. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one metal fluoride or at least one carbon fluoride, wherein the at least one metal fluoride or at least one carbon fluoride is in an electrochemically oxidized state; and the negative electrode comprises at least one metal.

30. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 29, wherein the positive electrode comprises a graphite fluoride.

31. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 29, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bismuth fluoride, silver fluoride, nickel fluoride, copper fluoride, lead fluoride, cobalt fluoride, molybdenum fluoride and iron fluoride.

32. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 29, wherein the positive electrode further comprises at least one electronically conductive material.

33. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the positive electrode is an electrode where a predominant diffusing species is a fluoride ion.

34. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the positive electrode comprises a nanostructure carbon selected from the group consisting of a nanographite, a carbon nanotube, a buckyball, a mesoporous carbon, and a microporous carbon.

35. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode accepts a fluoride ion.

36. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises lanthanum.

37. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises lithium.

38. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises sodium.

39. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises calcium.

40. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises strontium.

41. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises barium.

42. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises rubidium.

43. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the negative electrode comprises potassium.

44. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one bifluoride anion.

45. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n is from >0 to 10.

46. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 1.

47. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 2.

48. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 3.

49. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte comprises a plurality of bifluoride anions.

50. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one one cation comprising at least one organic group.

51. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the at least one cation comprising at least one organic group is a tetralkylammonium bifluoride, wherein the alkyl is an alkyl from 1 to 10 carbons.

52. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte is a tetraalkyl ammonium (HF)nF", wherein n is from >0 to 10, and wherein the alkyl is an alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms.

53. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte is tetraethyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

54. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein electrolyte is tetrapropyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

55. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte is tetramethyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

56. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte comprises a plurality of (HF)nF" containing organic groups, wherein n is from >0 to 10.

57. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte further comprises diphenylguanidium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

58. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 22, wherein the electrolyte further comprises 1,3-dialkylimidazolium fluorogydrogenate (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

59. The fluoride anion conducting material according to claim 1, wherein the electrolyte is substantially free of HF.

60. A rechargeable electrochemical battery cell comprising:

(i) a negative electrode comprising a metal fluoride;

(ii) an electrolyte comprising (HF)nF- where n is from >0 to 10;

(iii) an optional additional electrolyte; and

(iv) a positive electrode comprising a compound of a low oxidation state,

wherein a predominant diffusing species is a fluoride ion

61. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the negative electrode comprises at least one element selected from the group consisting of lanthanum, lithium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, potassium, and rubidium.

62. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the positive electrode comprises an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, silver, gold, copper, bismuth, nickel, cobalt, molyndenum, manganese, vanadium and palladium.

63. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one nanostructured carbon selected from the group consisting of a nanographite, a carbon nanotube, a buckyball, a mesoporous carbon and a microporous carbon.

64. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the positive electrode is a partially oxidized positive electrode.

65. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 64, wherein the partially oxidized positive electrode comprises at least one compound selected from the group consisting of BiF3, bismuth oxyfluoride, CuF2, MnF2, NiF2, CoF2, CFx where x<l, AgF, a first row transition metal oxide, and a silver oxide.

66. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte is a solid state fluoride conductor.

67. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one bifluoride anion.

68. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 67, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n is from >0 to 10.

69. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 67, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 1.

70. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 67, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 2.

71. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 67, wherein the at least one bifluoride anion is of the formula (F(HF)n"), wherein n = 3.

72. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte comprises a plurality of bifluoride anions.

73. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte comprises at least cation comprising at least one organic group.

74. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 73, wherein the at least one cation comprising at least one organic group is a tetralkylammonium bifluoride, wherein the alkyl is an alkyl from 1 to 10 carbons.

75. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 74, wherein the electrolyte is a tetraalkylammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10, and wherein the alkyl is an alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms.

76. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 73, wherein the electrolyte is tetraethyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

77. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 73, wherein the electrolyte is tetrapropyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

78. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 73, wherein the electrolyte is tetramethyl ammonium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

79. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte comprises a plurality of (HF)nF" containing organic groups, wherein n is from >0 to 10.

80. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte further comprises diphenylguanidium (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

81. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte further comprises 1,3-dialkylimidazolium fluorogydrogenate (HF)nF" wherein n is from >0 to 10.

82. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrolyte is substantially free of HF.

83. The rechargeable electrochemical battery cell according to claim 60, wherein the electrochemical battery cell operates at a voltage greater than or equal to 4 V.