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1. (WO2010077247) ELECTRICALLY AND/OR THERMALLY ACTUATED DEVICE
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What is claimed is:

1. An electrically, thermally, or electrically and thermally actuated device, comprising: a substrate; a first electrode established on the substrate; an active region established on the electrode; a second electrode established on the active region; a pattern defined in at least one of the substrate, the first electrode, the second electrode, or the active region; and at least one of grain boundaries within, or surface asperities on, at least one of the first electrode, the second electrode, or the active region, the at least one of the grain boundaries or surface asperities controlled via the pattern.

2. The device as defined in claim 1 wherein the substrate has the pattern directly defined therein, wherein at least one of the first electrode or the active region has the grain boundaries therein, and wherein at least one of the first electrode, the active region, or the second electrode has the surface asperities on at least one surface thereof.

3. The device as defined in claim 1 wherein the substrate is unpatterned, wherein the first electrode has the pattern directly defined therein, and wherein i) formation of the pattern results in surface asperities on at least one surface of at least one of the first or second electrode, or ii) the active region has at least one of grain boundaries formed therein or surface asperities formed thereon.

4. The device as defined in claim 1 wherein a location and a density of the at least one of the grain boundaries or the surface asperities are controlled via the pattern.

5. An electrically, thermally, or electrically and thermally actuated array, comprising: a plurality of the electrically, thermally, or electrically and thermally actuated devices of claim 1 , wherein the substrates of each of the plurality of devices together form a single substrate upon which the electrodes and active region of each device are established, wherein the at least one of the grain boundaries or the surface asperities are substantially uniform from one device to another, and wherein each of the plurality of devices includes one or more features of the pattern.

6. A method for controlling at least one of grain boundaries or surface asperities of one or more components of an electrically, thermally or electrically and thermally actuated device, the method comprising: directly defining a pattern, having a period less than a width of a subsequently formed first electrode, second electrode, or active region of the device, in a surface of a substrate of the device or in a surface of the first electrode of the device, the pattern facilitating the formation of predetermined grain boundaries, predetermined surface asperities or combinations thereof in or on at least one of the subsequently formed first electrode, second electrode, or active region of the device.

7. The method as defined in claim 6 wherein the pattern is directly defined in the substrate surface, and wherein directly defining the pattern is accomplished by: establishing a mask material on the substrate surface in a manner sufficient to achieve the pattern, whereby at least some of the substrate surface remains exposed; etching a portion of a thickness of the exposed substrate surface; and removing the mask material.

8. The method as defined in claim 7 wherein after the pattern is directly defined in the substrate surface, the method further comprises: establishing the first electrode on the substrate surface; and establishing the active region on the first electrode.

9. The method as defined in claim 8 wherein the pattern controls at least one of location or density of at least one of grain boundaries within at least one of the first electrode or the active region, or surface asperities on at least one surface of at least one of the first electrode, the active region, or the second electrode.

10. The method as defined in claim 6 wherein the first electrode is established on the substrate, wherein the pattern is directly defined in the surface of the first electrode, and wherein directly defining the pattern is accomplished by: establishing a mask material on the surface of the first electrode in a manner sufficient to achieve the pattern, whereby at least some of the first electrode surface remains exposed; etching a portion of a thickness of the exposed first electrode surface; and removing the mask material.

11.The method as defined in claim 10 wherein after the pattern is directly defined in the first electrode surface, and the method further comprises establishing the active region on the patterned first electrode surface.

12. The method as defined in claim 11 wherein the pattern controls at least one of location or density of at least one of grain boundaries within the active region or surface asperities on the active region.

13. The method as defined in claim 10 wherein etching the pattern controls surface asperities on the first or second electrode.

14. The method as defined in claim 6, further comprising: directly defining the pattern in a surface of a substrate of at least one other device or in a surface of a first electrode of the at least one other device simultaneously with directly defining the pattern in the substrate surface of the device or in the first electrode surface of the device such that each of the device and the at least one other device include one or more features of the pattern, thereby controlling, among devices, uniformity of at least one of grain boundaries or surface asperities in the electrodes or active regions of the devices.

15. The method as defined in either of claims 7 or 10 wherein the mask material is selected from a self-assembled monolayer, a Langmuir-Blodgett film, or a block copolymer layer.