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1. (WO2008041241) THE PROCESS OF USING ATOMIC HYDROGEN AS A FUEL IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND OTHER COMBUSTION ENGINES
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Title: - THE PROCESS OF USING ATOMIC HYDROGEN AS A FUEL IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND OTHER COMBUSTION ENGINES

Field of the invention: -

The present invention relates to atomic hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine, more particularly relates to use of atomic hydrogen in the same field.

Background: -

Hydrogen has long been recognized as an engine fuel offering interesting possibilities. On one hand, hydrogen combustion produces very few hydrocarbons (CRC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) because titers are no carbon in cites fuel. Rather, carbonaceous exhaust constituents arise from small amounts of lubricating oil participating in the combustion event. Hydrogen is thus a desirable fuel from an exhaust emissions standpoint. Because of its combustion characteristics, in particular its extremely lean fiammabiliiy limit, it is possible to operate a hydrogen fuel engine at extremely fuel lean air/fuel ratios. For the purposes of this specification, discussion will be made of equivalence ratio, O, which in common automotive parlance means the ratio of the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio to the actual air/fuel ratio. Accordingly, values of O equivalence ratio less than one correspond to lean air/fuel ratio, and equivalence ratios greater than one correspond to rich air/fuel ratios. With a system according to the present invention, purging of a NOx trap will occur at rich air/fuel ratios (i.e. O>1) regardless of engine speed and load.

A problem with the use of hydrogen as a motor fuel arises due to the high flame speed of hydrogen. Although the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for hydrogen is about 34.2:1 , in the absence of re-circulated exhaust gas (EGR), most engines cannot be run at 0=1 (i.e., stoichiometric air/fuel ratio) because of problems with auto ignition. Simply stated, auto ignition is the tendency for the mixture within the combustion chamber to self-ignite prior to the arrival of the flame front propagating through the mixture as a result of the spark ignition. Because of concerns related to auto ignition, engines fueled with hydrogen have been required to run at extreme fuel lean conditions (air/fuel ratio of about 65:1) in order to prevent auto ignition and to provide stable combustion. However, if high levels of EGR are used, an engine may be able to operate at O=1, albeit with a concomitant loss of fuel economy. Accordingly, it is desirable to operate at O<1 in order to maximize fuel economy. Another problem associated with known hydrogen fuel engines arises from the need to maintain compression ratio at relatively lower values in order to avoid the previously described auto ignition. In one engine, which has been the subject of published research, the engine was operated with hydrogen at a compression ratio of about 10:1. The present inventors, have determined, however, that it is possible to operate an engine on hydrogen at 14:1 15:1 compression ratio, provided the engine is controlled according to the present specification and claims.

Where as the present invention relates to use of atomic hydrogen as fuel in the internal combustion engine, which is not being reported in any documents,

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION:-

An object of the present invention is that it can be stated that the use of atomic hydrogen for combustion has a greater output in the same amount of hydrogen used as compared to the combustion of molecular hydrogen, which is conventionally used.

Further object of the present invention that the emissions and the use of atomic hydrogen will have negligible the only bi-product formed is water vapor making it environment friendly. The emission levels of NOx and other carbon compounds will be nil making this engine completely environment friendly.

Important object of the present invention is that atomic hydrogen as fuel would also make possible the use of lean mixtures, which will increase the fuel efficiency of the engine. The use of atomic hydrogen as fuel could facilitate increased power or low consumptions of fuel for the same power required as compared to other fuels. A combination of increased power and low fuel consumption is also possible according to requirement.

Further most important object of the present invention is that the both these process technologies can also be utilized in other combustion engines such as wankel engines, rotary piston engines and quasiturbines (the three engines are similar to internal combustion engines) turbojets, ramjets etc. In any of these combustion engines the combustion process should be direct injection or indirect injection; wherein the conventional injection systems are replaced by the process technologies described above.

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The concept is to use atomic hydrogen as fuel in an internal combustion engine. Hydrogen obtained by the electrolysis of water or other hydrogen storage devices is dissociated to form atomic hydrogen which is further used as a fuel for the internal combustion engine. The essentials features of the concept are:
1. Technology to produce atomic hydrogen (H+) i.e. making possible the dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen.
2. Modifications and alterations in combustion engines for the use of atomic hydrogen as a fuel in combustion engines.

1. Technology to produce atomic hydrogen (H)
The technology to produce atomic hydrogen is utilized to the hydrogen that is obtained either by electrolysis or hydrogen storage devices to convert it into atomic hydrogen. This can be made possible by using a catalyst viz. hydrogen dissociation catalyst or use of platinum metals (platinum, palladium, rhodium, zirconium iridium, nickel etc.) whichever is suitable or catalysts of such metals or alloys of such metals or methods like thermal cracking of hydrogen etc; in short any process that would make possible the dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen.
Another way to produce atomic hydrogen is by passing it through an electric arc. A jet of hydrogen is dissociated as it passes through an electric arc. When an arc is established in hydrogen, between two electrodes, molecular hydrogen dissociates into atomic hydrogen. This phenomenon can take place ideally in the fuelling system of the internal combustion engine. The most important aspect of using atomic hydrogen in combustion engines is to ascertain that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection i.e. atomic hydrogen is injected in the engine for combustion. Care is taken when processing which will ensure that safety norms are complied with.

2. Modification and application in an internal combustion engine
An ideal way to use atomic hydrogen in combustion engine is to feed it into a common rail direct injection system, which serves as the fuel line for the engine wherein the fuel line is suitable to inject atomic hydrogen for combustion. Alternatively, to design a fuel line that would facilitate the dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen and would inject atomic hydrogen for combustion. There are a few modifications to be made in the fuel line of the engine viz.
• The entire fuel line has to be in accordance with the technology to produce atomic hydrogen.
• The injectors also have to be altered according to the technology to produce atomic hydrogen.

Molecular hydrogen obtained from any source such as a hydrolysis unit or some other hydrogen storage device is further stored in a reservoir of a capacity calculated according to the size of the engine at a desired pressure, which is again calculated according to the quantity of fuel required. The hydrogen stored under pressure is then directed towards the fuel supply system of the engine where in it is processed i.e. dissociated into atomic hydrogen and used as a fuel for combustion. The hydrogen can be directed to the fuel supply system using a high pressure steel tube which will not allow the hydrogen to escape and would maintain the pressure of hydrogen.

XPL T,ON F THE CONCEPT

This concept is based on the fact that hydrogen when used in the atomic form (atomic hydrogen / nascent hydrogen) for combustion produces approximately three times more energy as compared to the energy produced when molecular hydrogen is used for combustion.
Following are the equations which will explain the phenomenon:
2H (g) H2 (g) + 104.18 kcal / mole — (1)

H2 (g) + V2O2 (g) *- H2O (g) + 57.80 kcal / mole — (2)

2H (g) + Y2O2 (g) ► H2O (g) + 161.98 kcal / mole — (3)

The first equation i.e. equation (1 ) shows the energy produced by the formation of molecular hydrogen from atomic hydrogen. Equation (2) shows the energy produced by the formation of water vapor from molecular hydrogen and oxygen i.e. when molecular hydrogen is used for combustion. Equation

(3) is derived by the addition of equations (1) and (2). Therefore, equation (3) shows the formation of water vapor from atomic hydrogen and molecular oxygen i.e. when atomic hydrogen is used for combustion. It can be clearly seen when equations (2) and (3) are compared, that the energy produced by the combustion of atomic hydrogen i.e. equation (3) is much greater (approx. three times) than the energy produced by the combustion of molecular hydrogen i.e. equation (2). To be more precise the energy produced by combustion of atomic hydrogen is 2.8024 times greater than the energy produced by combustion of molecular hydrogen.
The total energy produced by the combustion of atomic hydrogen is- 161.98 kcal / mole
It is known that 1 Calorie = 4.184 Joules.
Therefore, the energy produced by using atomic hydrogen for combustion is- 677.72 kJ / mole
Now, 1 kW-hr = 1 kilowatt-hour = 3.6 x 106 Joules
Therefore, the energy produced by using atomic hydrogen for combustion in kilowatt-hours is- 0.1883 kW-hr / mole

The basic idea to put this technology into practice would be to use a suitable hydrogen dissociation catalyst / unit / setup etc. for the purpose of dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION: -

The present invention relates to the use of atomic hydrogen in the internal combustion engine comprising the following are two different approaches in ■which atomic hydrogen can be used as fuel in an internal combustion engine.

1. An injector and electrodes setup for the injection of atomic hydrogen in the combustion chamber.
2. The use of an atomic hydrogen injector, which would convert molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen and inject it into the combustion chamber.

(Note: Most people who are knowledgeable about internal combustion engines, especially the engines using injection technology, know what an electronic control unit is. But before the explanation of the injector electrode setup a brief explanation about the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) is important. An electronic control unit; is a unit which controls the injection timing, duration of the injectors in any type of electronic fuel injection system / engine. The electronic control unit is assisted by six basic sensors such as, cam sensor, throttle position sensor, speed sensor etc. that are fitted on the engine. These sensors provide the ECU vital information about the engine such as the RPM, the position of the pistons etc. Using these sensors the electronic control unit calculates the timing and duration of the injection of fuel.

The electronic control unit has micro processors having a program that define the optimum injection of fuel by the injectors under whichever condition the engine is performing. The electronic control unit can be used to perform tasks other than injection control too. Any function that has electrical circuits can be governed by using the electronic control unit; by providing necessary sensors and specific programs for the micro processor.) 1. THE INJECTOR ELECTRODE SETUP

This setup shall be used in petrol engines as well as diesel engines. The injection shall be a direct injection system (D.I. System) or an indirect injection system (I.D.I. System). In both the cases, the setup of the injector and the electrodes remains the same. This setup works on the principle that "a jet of hydrogen is dissociated as it passes through an electric arc. When an arc is established in hydrogen between two electrodes, molecular hydrogen dissociates into atomic hydrogen."
The Injector and Electrode Setup is an arrangement wherein, the injector is ideally any solenoid / piezo injector which can perform the function of injecting hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine (hydrogen direct injection; commonly known as H2DI), at pressures ranging between 25 kg/cm2 to 100 kg/cm2. The electrodes are two tungsten electrodes in a shielding gas atmosphere of hydrogen viz. cathode and anode which are attached to the injector and are placed in such a way that an electric arc is formed near the nozzle of the injector when a current is supplied to the electrodes. Figure 1.1 and 1.2 are schematic diagrams illustrating the arrangement of the injector and the electrodes for direct injection petrol and diesel engines. There is an insulator present between the electrodes and the injector to avoid contact between the electrode and the solenoid injector.

Preferably, the injector used in this setup, would be a gas direct injection injector (such injectors are readily available for the purpose of Compressed Natural Gas direct injection or Hydrogen direct injection), with a desired flow rate according to the size of the engine. The injector could be a solenoid injector or a piezo injector. Any other injector / device that could serve the purpose of hydrogen direct injection (H2DI) can also be utilized for this setup. The timing of injecting hydrogen in the combustion chamber varies at different engine speeds (RPM); and is controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU). The injection in this setup can be said to be similar to the injection in common rail diesel injection (CRDI) systems or even gas / hydrogen direct injection systems.

At the end of the compression stroke hydrogen is injected from the injector through its nozzle and an electric current is supplied to the electrodes which results in the formation of an electric arc. When molecular hydrogen passes through this arc, it dissociates into atomic hydrogen that will combust to power the engine. The hydrogen injection and the formation of the arc can be done simultaneously by using the sensors of the injector to activate the supply of current to the electrodes or by using the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) of the engine to commence the formation of the electric arc. There is no difference in the approach for the use of this technology in petrol engines and diesel engines. The difference lies in the construction of these engines itself; mainly the combustion chamber. In a petroi engine the combustion chamber is generally in the cylinder head whereas, in the case of a diesel engine the combustion chamber is generally present in the piston.

Also, a provision for an additional swirl chamber, in the piston should be made, in the case of a petrol engine.

Indirect injection (I.D.I.) system engines i.e. engines having a pre-combustion chamber, can also use this process in the same way it used in direct injection (D.I.) system engines. In some conventional indirect injection diesel engines there is no provision of a secondary combustion chamber; even those engines can use this particular process technology. Figures 1.3 and 1.4 are schematic diagrams illustrating the arrangement of the injector and the electrodes for indirect injection diesel engine and engine having a pre combustion as well as main combustion chamber in the cylinder head.

In the engine having a pre combustion chamber and the main combustion chamber in the cylinder head, an additional swirl chamber should be provided in the piston. The injector used in this particular injector electrode setup, would be ideally, the injector used for direct injection hydrogen engines. Such injectors are solenoid operated and can be controlled through the electronic control unit (ECU) of the engine.

There could be some variations in this particular injector electrode setup. The variations could be the type of injector used for this setup. Cam operated injectors that do not require electrical circuits to operate can be used for this process. Such injectors as the name suggests are governed by the camshaft of the engine i.e. the injection timings are decided by the camshaft. Other injectors wherein the injection timings are decided by the fuel pump can be used for this particular setup too. But in such cases, the pump has to comply with the requirements of hydrogen or has to be modified / altered / redesigned accordingly.

In any of the above cases, or any other case, the important factor is the injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, while passing it through the electric arc formed by the electrodes, in the injector electrode setup.

Placement of Electrodes in the Injector and Electrode Setup:

The electrodes in the Injector and Electrode Setup can be placed in a similar way as shown in the figure 1.1 , 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 or can be placed in any other way wherein, there is no contact between the injector and the electrodes, which is to avoid a short circuit or a possibility of current leakage in the system. If there is a way by which the above mentioned problem could be solved, the injector and electrodes coming in contact is not an issue.

The significance of the placement and the way in which the injector and electrodes is to be arranged is that, the electric arc to be formed between the electrodes should be as close as possible to the nozzle of the injector and the combustion chamber. Keeping this as the principle and the primary aim / objective; the arrangement, position and the placement of the injector and the electrodes can be varied. The principal idea of this setup is the significance of the placement as explained previously in this paragraph.

.

This process technology is an improved / advanced process as compared to the conventional direct and indirect injection engines which use solenoid injectors for fuel injection. Here the difference lies in the injector. A specially designed solenoid injector or piezo injector makes the injection of atomic hydrogen possible.

Definition of Atomic Hydrogen Injector (Using Hydrogen Dissociation Catalyst):

A device that dissociates / converts / changes molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen alternatively, generates atomic hydrogen from molecular hydrogen using a Hydrogen Dissociation Catalyst or with the support of a Hydrogen Dissociation Catalyst at any given pressure and temperature for the purpose of injection in a system is known as Atomic Hydrogen Injector (Using Hydrogen Dissociation Catalyst).

A device which can inject hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber (of an I.C. / Combustion Engine) can be modified or can be converted to an atomic hydrogen injector. This can be done by coating the parts of the device that come in contact with molecular hydrogen, with a hydrogen dissociation catalyst. Alternatively, such parts could be made from a hydrogen dissociation catalyst, if possible / feasible.

desired working of the atomic hydrogen solenoid injector and atomic hydrogen piezo injector, respectively.

Construction of the Atomic Hydrogen Solenoid Injector (Ideal Design):

The yellow part is the solenoid setup, which would activate when electricity is supplied to it. The green and black shade shows the arrangement of the piston return spring which would enable the piston to return to its original position. The red, tube like lining, is the fuel supply line from where hydrogen will enter the injector and flow towards the nozzle which is the point of injection. The blue lining wherever shown in the figure is the hydrogen dissociation catalyst which will be present wherever atomic hydrogen (fuel) would be flowing: Even the nozzle which is the exit point for the fuel has the hydrogen dissociation catalyst to ensure that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection and when it enters the combustion chamber. The orange shade shows the piston and the needle, which will be of the same metal having magnetic properties. Please note that, the piston as well as the needle are also coated / plated with hydrogen dissociation catalyst. The light grey shade indicates the injector body and the dark grey linings is the guide for the piston and the needle. The inner side of the guide is also plated / coated with the hydrogen dissociation catalyst to ensure the atomic state of hydrogen.

The solenoid acts as the controller of fuel in the case of solenoid injectors. The flow of fuel can also be controlled by using piezo electric crystal(s) as in the case of piezo injectors. The flow of fuel or the fuel supply line, however, would change in piezo injectors. In piezo injectors also the entire fuel supply line i.e, the line which directs hydrogen towards the point of injection should be coated / plated with the hydrogen dissociation catalyst.

Placement of the Hydrogen Dissociation Catalyst:-

It has to be noted that the hydrogen dissociation catalyst, can be placed according to the requirement i.e. for the process of dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen in the following ways:
• A coating / plating of the hydrogen dissociation catalyst can be done to the parts where the process of dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen takes place.
• The parts which would facilitate the dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen can be made of the hydrogen dissociation catalyst.

Either of these ways can be used suitably according to the requirement for the process of dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen.

Working of the Atomic Hydrogen Solenoid Injector:

The fuel in the injector is present continuously at a pre determined pressure. When an electric current is supplied to the solenoid, it will become a temporary magnet and attract the piston towards itself. This would result in the piston moving in the upward direction, which would in turn allow the fuel to flow. The moment the supply of electricity is stopped the solenoid will loose its magnetic effect and the return spring will force the piston back to its original position which will stop the flow of fuel. This is how the fuel supply would be controlled to the engine. This can be done using conventional micro processors like the Electronic Control Unit (E. C. U.) of the vehicle which is generally used in case of solenoid injectors. The injector will work at pressures ranging between 25 - 100 bars (kg / cm2).

Also, since the operating pressures are quiet low as compared to conventional diesel engines, no fuel return line would be required in the injector. The fuel line inside the injector which directs the flow of the fuel from the inlet of the injector to the nozzle of the injector should have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably placed as mentioned above, which would facilitate the dissociation of the molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen prior , „. *, . , , _, „- , - ,
Construction of the Atomic Hydrogen Piezo Injector (Ideal Design):

The yellow part is the piezo valve setup, which would activate when electricity is supplied to it. The green and black shade is the linkage between the piston and the piezo valve setup. This would control the movement of the piston which would result in controlling the flow of atomic hydrogen (fuel). The red, tube like lining, is the fuel supply line from where hydrogen will enter the injector and flow towards the nozzle which is the point of injection. The blue lining wherever shown in the figure is the hydrogen dissociation catalyst which will be present wherever atomic hydrogen (fuel) would be flowing. Even the nozzle which is the exit point for the fuel has the hydrogen dissociation catalyst to ensure that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection and when it enters the combustion chamber. The orange shade shows the piston and the needle, which will be of the same metal having magnetic properties. Please note that, the piston as well as the needle are also coated / plated with hydrogen dissociation catalyst. The light grey shade indicates the injector body and the dark grey linings is the guide for the piston and the needle. The inner side of the guide is also plated / coated with the hydrogen dissociation catalyst to ensure the atomic state of hydrogen.

(Note: The schematic diagrams of the atomic hydrogen solenoid injector illustrated in figure 2.1 and of the atomic hydrogen piezo injector illustrated in figure 2.6 are for demonstrating the idea! construction, working and functioning of an atomic hydrogen injector. There could be many other designs developed for the atomic hydrogen injector using solenoid, piezo crystal(s) etc. The injection technique, pattern etc. could vary as in the case of ball type, pintel type, or disc type injectors. Since all the designs cannot be depicted / demonstrated due to the enormous variations and possibilities; only two designs have been illustrated.) o e in ec on o a om c y rogen n e com s ion c am e o . Even the nozzle which is the exit point for the fuel should have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably placed as mentioned above to ensure that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection and when it enters the combustion chamber. The needle and the piston (if coming in contact with hydrogen) should also have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably place as mentioned above to ensure that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection and when it enters the combustion chamber.

Working of the Atomic Hydrogen Piezo Injector:

The fuel in the injector is present continuously at a pre determined pressure. When an electric current is supplied to the piezo valve setup, the piezo crystal(s) will expands i.e. it would push in the upward direction where the linkage between the piezo setup and the piston is present. Due to the linkage, the piston will move in the upward direction, which would in turn allow the fuel to flow. The moment the supply of electric current is stopped the piezo valve setup will resume its original size / position and thus the piston will also be back to its original position which will stop the flow of fuel. An additional return spring can also be facilitated for the return of the piston. This is how the fuel supply would be controlled to the engine. This can be done using conventional micro processors like the Electronic Control Unit (E. C. U.) of the vehicle which is generally used in case of solenoid injectors. The injector will work at pressures ranging between 25 - 100 bars (kg / cm2).

Also, since the operating pressures are quiet low as compared to conventional diesel engines, no fuel return line would be required in the injector. The fuel line inside the injector which directs the flow of the fuel from the inlet of the injector to the nozzle of the injector should have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably placed as mentioned above, which would facilitate the dissociation of the molecular hydrogen to atomic hydrogen prior to the injection of atomic hydrogen in the combustion chamber of the engine. Even the nozzle which is the exit point for the fuel should have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably placed as mentioned above to ensure that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection and when it enters the combustion chamber The needle and the piston (if coming in contact with hydrogen) should also have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably place as mentioned above to ensure that hydrogen is in the atomic form at the time of injection and when it enters the combustion chamber

Adding to this, the parts such as the fuel rail / common rail, the connecting tubes from the rail to the injector, if any etc should also have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst placed suitably as mentioned above This is to increase the rate of dissociation of hydrogen This would ensure the atomic state of hydrogen at the time of injection, which is desired The supply line from the hydrogen storage device to the fuel rail / common rail could also have the hydrogen dissociation catalyst suitably placed as mentioned above When molecular hydrogen passes over the hydrogen dissociation catalyst, it will dissociate into atomic hydrogen The presence of the catalyst till the point of injection would ensure the injection of atomic hydrogen in the combustion chamber

Description of the use of the Atomic Hydrogen Injector:

This setup can be used in petrol engines as well as diesel engines The injection can be a direct injection system (D I System) or an indirect injection system (I D I System) i e the provision of a pre-combustion chamber and the main combustion chamber

The arrangement of the Atomic Hydrogen Injector in the engine, injection timings and the process of combustion is similar to that in direct injection diesel engines, gasoline direct injection (G D I ) engines, gas direct injection engines and indirect injection engines Figures 2 2 and 2 3 illustrate direct injection diesel and petrol engines respectively, with the Atomic Hydrogen Injector It is to be noted that in the figures / diagrams of the petrol engines (with pre combustion chamber and without pre combustion chamber) i e Figure 2 3 and Figure 2 5 the spark plug is not illustrated so that the process technology can be illustrated in detail and due to lack of space available in the diagram. Therefore, it should be noted that in the case of direct injection petrol engines a spark plug would be required which would be placed as in conventional Gasoline Direct Injection Engines. Whereas, in the engine having a pre combustion as well as main combustion chamber in the cylinder head, a spark plug should be present in the pre combustion chamber.

As stated earlier this process can also be used in indirect injection diesel and petrol engines i.e. engines having a pre combustion chamber. Figures 2.4 and 2.5 illustrate indirect injection diesel and petrol engines respectively. A provision for a swirl chamber should be made in case of a petrol engine even in this type.

Adding to this, it is to be noted that, some catalysts function effectively at a certain temperature. For e.g. palladium when used as hydrogen dissociation catalysts works at a temperature ranging between one hundred and fifty degrees centigrade to two hundred and fifty degrees centigrade (15O0C -25O0C). In such a design where the catalyst is required to be heated to a certain temperature, an additional heating coil can be incorporated in the injector, wherever the catalyst is present, to facilitate the catalysis. Alternatively, the entire injector could also be heated up using the heating coil. In any of the two cases, care is to be taken so that no electrical leakages or short circuits take place. Required insulation or cut offs should be provided so that the hazards of accidents due to electrical contact with humans and other parts is minimized. Also the other parts of the injector should be made of material that can withstand and function in the prescribed temperatures.

Another important aspect to be noted here is that, in the development of an atomic hydrogen injector, variations in the designs are possible. For e.g. an atomic hydrogen injector of ball valve type with solenoid actuator can be developed, wherein all the parts which come in contact with the atomic hydrogen (fuel), would be coated, plated or made from the hydrogen dissociation catalyst. Adding to this, a similar injector with a piezo electric crystal(s) or piezo valve setup as an actuator can also be developed. Similarly, there could be variations in the injection procedure, pattern or technique too. For e.g. the ball valve can be substituted with a disc valve etc. Thus, numerous variations in the design for an atomic hydrogen injector are possible. Since it is not feasible or possible to consider all the variations in the designs, only two types have been explained in this paper.

Also, as mentioned- earlier about the provision of heating coil, for the effective catalysis / working of the hydrogen dissociation catalyst, there are many ways by which, a heating coil can be incorporated in an injector. Demonstrating / illustrating all the variations in such a case is also not possible. Therefore, since the numerous variations in the design of the atomic hydrogen injector, based on their construction, working etc. are according to different requirements according to various engines, the designs can be altered according to the need.

FUELING SYSTEM:

In both the setups i.e. (1) the injector electrode setup and (2) when using an atomic hydrogen solenoid / piezo injector, a common fueling system would be used for making hydrogen available for dissociation and injection. Thus, the fueling system up to the common rail feeding the injectors; either in (a) injector electrode setup or (b) the atomic hydrogen injectors will remain the same as described below:

The fueling system as described earlier is similar to the common rail diesel injection (CRDI) system. A provision for a hydrogen storage / feed tank should however, is made so that molecular hydrogen is available at any given time for starting the engine. The capacity of this hydrogen feed tank would be defined according to the size of the engine. The pressure at which hydrogen is to be stored in the feed tank would also be decided according to the requirement of the engines.

The fueling system when is in accordance with the additional concept of adding a hydrolysis unit as a source of hydrogen supply must have a twin chamber facility. The first chamber will have variable pressures as the pump that is pumping the hydrogen to the feed tank will keep supplying hydrogen. This chamber will direct the pressurized hydrogen to the second chamber wherein, hydrogen is stored at a constant pre determined pressure. The second chamber would act as an actual feed to the common rail direct injection system, which is the main fueling system of the engine.

ADDITION TO THE CONCEPT (USE OF ATOMIC OXYGEN)

A further advancement in the technology could be the use of atomic oxygen during the phase of combustion.. This would further increase the output of the engine as the formation of molecular oxygen from atomic oxygen is also a highly exothermic process and is accompanied by approximately 59.16 kcal / mole i.e. approximately 247.52 kJ / mole. This can be made possible by injecting atomic oxygen in the combustion chamber along with atomic hydrogen i.e. both atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen should be injected simultaneously in the combustion chamber for combustion. Alternatively, atomic oxygen is to be injected at the same time as atomic hydrogen is injected for combustion.

The following equations will explain and give an idea of the increased output by the use of atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen for combustion:
2H (g) H2 (g) + 104.18 kcal / mole (1)

O (g) »► 1/2 O2 (g) + 59.16 kcal / mole (2)

H2 (g) + V2O2 (g) ► H2O (g) + 57.80 kcal / mole - — (3)

2H (g) + O (g) H2O (g) + 221.14 kcal / mole - — (4)

Here, equation (1) gives the energy produced during the formation of molecular hydrogen from atomic hydrogen. Equation (2) shows the energy produced during the formation of molecular oxygen from atomic oxygen. Equation (3) gives the energy produced by the combustion of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The fourth equation i.e. equation (4) is derived by the addition of the first three equations, thus showing the total energy produced by using atomic hydrogen and oxygen for the purpose of combustion, which is 221.14 kcal / mole or 925.25 kJ / mole.

The use of atomic hydrogen in an internal combustion engine as an energy additive can be made possible by using an atomic oxygen injector. Though e concep o e a omic y rogen mpc or JS inna e e ronowing can υ considered as the definition for the atomic oxygen injector.

Definition of Atomic Oxygen Injector (Using Oxygen Dissociation Catalyst):

A device that dissociates / converts / changes molecular oxygen to atomic oxygen alternatively, generates atomic oxygen from molecular oxygen using an Oxygen Dissociation Catalyst or with the support of an Oxygen Dissociation Catalyst at any given pressure and temperature for the purpose of injection in a system is known as Atomic Oxygen Injector (Using Oxygen Dissociation Catalyst).

The ideaf atomic hydrogen fπjector is preferably similar to the atomic hydrogen injector; the only difference being that, the catalyst used in the atomic oxygen injector would be an oxygen dissociation catalyst. The injector design could have the same construction, working principles etc. as the atomic hydrogen injector, with all the possible variations.

ADDITION TO THE CONCEPT (COUPLING OF HYDROLYSIS UNIT)

As stated earlier hydrogen when used in the atomic form (atomic hydrogen / nascent hydrogen) for combustion produces approximately three times more energy as compared to the energy produced when molecular hydrogen is used for combustion. This extra energy which is produced by using atomic hydrogen as a fuel for combustion can be used to facilitate the on-board production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water i.e. the engine will have the energy to power its own hydrolysis unit and would also have energy for other applications. This extra energy can also power any other unit which splits water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Reconsider the energy equation and the explanation previously illustrated:

2H (g) H2 (g) + 104.18 kcal / mole (1)

H2 (g) + V2O2 (g) ► H2O (g) + 57.80 kcal / mole - — (2)

2H (g) + Y2O2 (g) H2O (g) + 161.98 kcal / mole - — (3)

The first equation i.e. equation (1) shows the energy produced by the formation of molecular hydrogen from atomic hydrogen. Equation (2) shows the energy produced by the formation of water vapor from molecular hydrogen and oxygen i.e. when molecular hydrogen is used for combustion. Equation (3) is derived by the addition of equations (1 ) and (2). Therefore, equation (3) shows the formation of water vapor from atomic hydrogen and molecular oxygen i.e. when atomic hydrogen is used for combustion. It can be clearly seen when equations (2) and (3) are compared, that the energy produced by the combustion of atomic hydrogen i.e. equation (3) is much greater (approx. three times) than the energy produced by the combustion of molecular hydrogen equation (2). To be more precise the energy produced by combustion of atomic hydrogen is 2.8024 times greater than the energy produced by combustion of molecular hydrogen.

The total energy produced by the combustion of atomic hydrogen is- 161.98 kcal / mole
It is known that 1 Calorie = 4.184 Joules.
Therefore, the energy produced by using atomic hydrogen for combustion is- 677.72 kJ / mole
The energy required for the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water is- 0.0660 kW-hr / mole
Now, 1 kW-hr = 1 kilowatt-hour = 3.6 x 106 Joules.
Therefore, the energy required for the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water is- 237.6 kJ / mole

Considering the above calculations, it can be stated that if one mole of hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water and is dissociated to form atomic hydrogen for the purpose of combustion an extra energy of 440.12 kJ / mole is available for use; subtracting the energy required for the production of one mole of hydrogen. If an internal combustion engine with an efficiency of 50% is utilized for this purpose, it would convert the heat energy of 677.72 kJ into 338.86 kJ of usable mechanical energy. A further consumption of 237.6 kJ would take place for the production of one mole hydrogen thereafter and the remainder of the produced energy i.e. 101.26 kJ could be used for further applications.

The hydrolysis unit could be preferably a specially developed water electrolysis unit. The special features in this particular hydrolysis unit are as follows:

1. The electrodes viz. the cathode and anode in the hydrolysis unit used for the purpose of electrolysis of water are made of copper and are nickel plated. This is because copper provides maximum conductivity avoiding losses and nickel acts as a conductor as well as corrosion resistant coating, increasing the life of the electrodes.

2. The placement of the electrodes is as close as possible. During experiments the electrodes were placed at a distance of approximately five centimeters (5 cm) from each other. The current passed during that particular experiment was two hundred and fifty amperes (250 amps) with a potential difference / voltage of approximately nine to ten (9 - 10) volts. On the basis of the success of this experiment, my reckoning is that the electrodes can be placed at a distance of one centimeter (1 cm) from each other and the safety of probability of hazards is negligible.
3. The electrodes should have a partition between them which starts from the top of the hydrolysis unit and is of half the height of the electrodes. This would facilitate the separation of gases produced during the hydrolysis process viz. hydrogen and oxygen, as the gases would escape to the top without mixing with each other, from the sides of their respective electrodes.
4. The electrolyte level of the hydrolysis unit should always be full. A suitable electrolyte feed is provided which tops up the electrolyte level from time to time whenever the level drops.

This is the preferred embodiment of the hydrolysis unit. Any other hydrolysis unit can also be used for this purpose keeping in mind the efficiency of the same. Lower efficiency will result in energy losses and possibility of system failure.