Processing

Please wait...

Settings

Settings

Goto Application

1. WO2007144393 - MASHING PROCESS

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

MASHING PROCESS

REFERENCE TO A SEQUENCE LISTING
This application contains a Sequence Listing in computer readable form. The computer readable form is incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an improved mashing process for production of a brewer's wort and for production of a beer.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
In modern mashing processes enzymes are often added as a supplement when mashing malt is low in enzymes or to allow use of all adjunct grists. Enzymes may also be applied in mashing of well modified malts with high enzyme content in order to increase the extract recovery as well as the amount of fermentable sugars. It is thus well known to apply debranching enzymes, e.g.
isoamylase or pullulanase to increase the yield fermentable sugars. Debranching enzymes may be applied in processes for production of low calorie beer. Such processes are the subject of

Willox, et al. (MBAA Technical Quarterly, 14, 105, 1977), US4528198, US4666718, GB2056484, GB2069527 and US4318927.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present inventors have now surprisingly discovered that by using a certain pullulanase mashing, can be achieved using a smaller amount of enzyme protein.
Accordingly, in a first aspect the invention provides a process for producing a brewers wort comprising forming a mash from a grist, and contacting said mash with a pullulanase (E. C.
3.2.1.41 ), wherein said pullulanase has an amino acid sequence which a) is at least 50% identical to the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3, or b) is encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes under low stringency conditions with i) a complementary strand of a nucleic acid sequence encoding the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3, or ii) a subsequence of (i) of at least 100 nucleotides.
In a second aspect the invention provides a wort produced by the process of the first aspect.

In a third aspect the invention provides concentrated and/or dried wort produced by the process of the first aspect.
In a fourth aspect the invention provides beer produced from the wort of the second and third aspect.

In a fifth aspect the invention provides a composition suitable for use in the process of the first aspect, said composition comprising pullulanase (E. C. 3.2.1.41 ), glucoamylase and optionally alpha-amylase, wherein the pullulanase has an amino acid sequence which a) is at least 50% identical to the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3, or b) is encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes under low stringency conditions with i) a complementary strand of a nucleic acid sequence encoding the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3, or ii) a subsequence of (i) of at least 100 nucleotides.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Brewing processes are well-known in the art, and generally involve the steps of malting, mashing, and fermentation. Mashing is the process of converting starch from the milled barley malt and solid adjuncts into fermentable and unfermentable sugars to produce wort of the desired composition. Traditional mashing involves mixing milled barley malt and adjuncts with water at a set temperature and volume to continue the biochemical changes initiated during the malting process. The mashing process is conducted over a period of time at various temperatures in order to activate the endogenous enzymes responsible for the degradation of proteins and
carbohydrates. By far the most important change brought about in mashing is the conversion of starch molecules into fermentable sugars. The principal enzymes responsible for starch conversion in a traditional mashing process are alpha- and beta-amylases. Alpha-amylase very rapidly reduces insoluble and soluble starch by splitting starch molecules into many shorter chains that can be attacked by beta-amylase. The disaccharide produced is maltose. In addition to the maltose formed during mashing short branched glucose oligomers are produced. The short branched glucose oligomers are non fermentable sugars and add to the taste as well as the calories of the finished beer.
After mashing, when all the starch has been broken down, it is necessary to separate the liquid extract (the wort) from the solids (spent grains). Wort separation, lautering, is important because the solids contain large amounts of protein, poorly modified starch, fatty material, silicates, and polyphenols (tannins). Following the separation of the wort from the spent grains the wort may be fermented with brewers yeast to produce a beer.
Further information on conventional brewing processes may be found in "Technology Brewing and Malting" by Wolfgang Kunze of the Research and Teaching Institute of Brewing, Berlin (VLB), 2nd revised Edition 1999, ISBN 3-921690-39-0.
The short branched glucose oligomers formed during mashing may be further hydrolyzed by addition of exogenous enzymes (enzymes added in addition to the malt). Debranching enzymes such as pullulanase and isoamylase hydrolyses the branching alpha-1-6 glucosidic bonds in these oligomers, thereby releasing glucose or maltose and straight-chained oligomers which are subject to the action of endogenous (malt derived) and/or exogenous enzymes, e.g. alpha-amylases, beta-amylases and glucoamylases.
The present invention provides a new process suitable for producing a wort that is low in non-fermentable sugars. The process applies an expressly selected pullulanase activity.

Definitions
Throughout this disclosure, various terms that are generally understood by those of ordinary skill in the arts, are used. Several terms are used with specific meaning, as defined below.
As used herein the term "grist" is understood as the starch or sugar containing material that's the basis for beer production, e.g. the barley malt and the adjunct. Generally, the grist is does not contain any added water.
The term "malt" is understood as any malted cereal grain, in particular barley.
The term "adjunct" is understood as the part of the grist which is not barley malt. The adjunct may comprise any starch rich plant material, e.g. unmalted grain, such as barley, rice, corn, wheat, rye, sorghum and readily fermentable sugar and/or syrup.
The term "mash" is understood as a starch containing slurry comprising grist steeped in water.

The term "wort" is understood as the unfermented liquor run-off following extracting the grist during mashing.
The term "spent grains" is understood as the drained solids remaining when the grist has been extracted and the wort separated.
The term "beer" is understood as fermented wort, i.e. an alcoholic beverage brewed from barley malt, optionally adjunct and hops.
The term "homologous sequence" is used to characterize a sequence having an amino acid sequence that is at least 70%, preferably at least 75%, or at least 80%, or at least 85%, or 90%, or at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% at least 99% or even at least 100% identical to a known sequence. The relevant part of the amino acid sequence for the homology
determination is the mature polypeptide, i.e., without the signal peptide. The term "homologous sequence" is also used to characterize DNA sequences which hybridize at low stringency, medium stringency, medium/high stringency, high stringency, or even very high stringency with a known sequence. Suitable experimental conditions for determining hybridization at low, medium, or high stringency between a nucleotide probe and a homologous DNA or RNA sequence involves presoaking of the filter containing the DNA fragments or RNA to hybridize in 5 x SSC (Sodium chloride/Sodium citrate, Sambrook et al. 1989) for 10 min, and prehybridization of the filter in a solution of 5 x SSC, 5 x Denhardt's solution (Sambrook et al. 1989), 0.5% SDS and 100 micrograms/ml of denatured sonicated salmon sperm DNA (Sambrook et al. 1989), followed by hybridization in the same solution containing a concentration of 10ng/ml of a random-primed
(Feinberg, A. P. and Vogelstein, B. (1983) Anal. Biochem. 132:6-13), 32P-dCTP-labeled (specific activity > 1 x 109 cpm/microgram) probe for 12 hours at about 45°C. The filter is then washed twice for 30 minutes in 2 x SSC, 0.5% SDS at about 55°C (low stringency), more preferably at about 60°C (medium stringency), still more preferably at about 65°C (medium/high stringency), even more preferably at about 70°C (high stringency), and even more preferably at about 75°C (very high stringency). Molecules to which the oligonucleotide probe hybridizes under these conditions are detected using an x-ray film.
The term "identity" when used about polypeptide or DNA sequences and referred to in this disclosure is understood as the degree of identity between two sequences indicating a derivation of the first sequence from the second. The identity may suitably be determined by means of computer programs known in the art such as GAP provided in the GCG program package
(Program Manual for the Wisconsin Package, Version 8, August 1994, Genetics Computer Group, 575 Science Drive, Madison, Wisconsin, USA 5371 1 ) (Needleman, S. B. and Wunsch, CD., (1970), Journal of Molecular Biology, 48, 443-453. The following settings for polypeptide sequence comparison are used: GAP creation penalty of 3.0 and GAP extension penalty of 0.1. The degree of identity between an amino acid sequence of the present invention and a different amino acid sequence ("foreign sequence") is calculated as the number of exact matches in an alignment of the two sequences, divided by the length of the "invention sequence" or the length of the "foreign sequence", whichever is the shortest. The result is expressed in percent identity.

Wort production
In accordance with the first aspect the invention provides a process for producing a brewers wort comprising forming a mash from a grist, and contacting said mash with a pullulanase (E. C.
3.2.1.41 ), wherein said pullulanase has an amino acid sequence which a) is at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, or at least 85%, or 90%, or at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or even at least 99% identical to the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3, or b) is encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes under low stringency, medium stringency, medium/high stringency, high stringency, or even very high stringency with i) a complementary strand of a nucleic acid sequence encoding the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3, or ii) a subsequence of (i) of at least 100 nucleotides, at least 200 nucleotides, at least 300 nucleotides, at least 500 nucleotides, at least 1000 nucleotides, or even at least 1500 nucleotides. In a preferred embodiment, the pullulanase has an amino acid sequence which differs by no more than 100 amino acids, preferably by no more than 80 amino acids, more preferred by no more than 50 amino acids, more preferably by no more than 30 amino acids, even more preferably by no more than 20 amino acids, and most preferably by no more than 10 amino acids from the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3.

The grist of the first aspect comprises starch containing malted grain and/or adjunct. The grist may preferably comprises from 0% to 100%, preferably from 20% to 1000%, preferably from 30% to 100%, more preferably from 40% to 100%, even more preferably from 50% to 100%, yet more preferably from 100% to 80%, most preferably from 100% to 80% adjunct, or even most preferably from 90% to 100% adjunct, unmalted grain and/or unmalted barley. In a particular embodiment the adjunct is composed of 100% unmalted barley. Furthermore, the grist preferably comprises from 0% to 100%, preferably from 20% to 100%, preferably from 30% to 100%, more preferably from 40% to 100%, even more preferably from 50% to 100%, yet more preferably from 60% to 100%, or most preferably from 70% to 100%, or even most preferably from 90% to 100% malted grain and/or malted barley. In a particular embodiment the grist comprises approximately 50% malted grain, e.g. malted barley, and approximately 50% adjunct, e.g. unmalted grain, such as unmalted barley.
Malted grain used in the process of the first aspect may comprise any malted grain, and preferably malted grain selected from malted barley, wheat, rye, sorghum, millet, corn, and rice, and most preferably malted barley.
The adjunct used in the process of the first aspect may be obtained from tubers, roots, stems, leaves, legumes, cereals and/or whole grain. The adjunct may comprise raw and/or refined starch and/or sugar containing material derived from plants like wheat, rye, oat, corn, rice, milo, millet, sorghum, potato, sweet potato, cassava, tapioca, sago, banana, sugar beet and/or sugar cane. Preferably, the adjunct comprises unmalted grain, e.g. unmalted grain selected from the list consisting of barley, wheat, rye, sorghum, millet, corn, and rice, and most preferably unmalted barley. Adjunct comprising readily fermentable carbohydrates such as sugars or syrups may be added to the barley malt mash before, during or after mashing process of the invention but is preferably added after the mashing process.
According to the invention a pullulanase (E. C. 3.2.1.41 ) enzyme activity is exogenously supplied and present in the mash. The pullulanase may be added to the mash ingredients, e.g. the water and/or the grist before, during or after forming the mash. In a particularly preferred embodiment an alpha-amylase (E. C. 3.2.1.1 ) and/or a glucoamylase (E. C. 3.2.1.3), is added and present in the mash together with the pullulanase.
In another preferred embodiment a further enzyme is added to the mash, said enzyme being selected from the group consisting of isoamylase, protease, laccase, xylanase, lipase,
phospholipolase, phytase, phytin and esterase.

During the mashing process, starch extracted from the grist is gradually hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars and smaller dextrins. Preferably, the mash is starch negative to iodine testing, before extracting the wort.
The mashing process generally apply a controlled stepwise increase in temperature, where each step favors one enzymatic action over the other, eventually degrading proteins, cell walls and starch. Mashing temperature profiles are generally known in the art. In the present invention the saccharification (starch degradation) step in the mashing process is preferably performed between 60 0C and 66 ° C, more preferably between 61 0C and 65 0C, even more preferably between 62 0C and 64 0C, and most preferably between 63 0C and 64 0C. In a particular embodiment of the present invention the saccharification temperature is 64 0C.
Obtaining the wort from the mash typically includes straining the wort from the spent grains, i.e. the insoluble grain and husk material forming part of grist. Hot water may be run through the spent grains to rinse out, or sparge, any remaining extract from the grist. The application of a
thermostable cellulase in the process of the present invention results in efficient reduction of beta-glucan level facilitating wort straining thus ensuring reduced cycle time and high extract recovery. Preferably the extract recovery is at least 80%, preferably at least 81 %, more preferably at least 82%, even more preferably at least 83%, such as at least 84%, at least 85%, at least 86%, at least 87%, at least 88%, at least 89%, at least 90%, and most preferably at least 91 %.
Following the separation of the wort from the spent grains of the grist of any of the aforementioned embodiments of the first aspect the wort may be used as it is or it may be dewatered to provide a concentrated and/or dried wort e.g. The concentrated and/or dried wort may be used as brewing extract, as malt extract flavoring, for non-alcoholic malt beverages, malt vinegar, breakfast cereals, for confectionary etc.
In a preferred embodiment the wort is fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage, preferably a beer, e.g., ale, strong ale, bitter, stout, porter, lager, export beer, malt liquor, barley wine, happoushu, high-alcohol beer, low-alcohol beer, low-calorie beer or light beer. Fermentation of the wort may include pitching the wort with a yeast slurry comprising fresh yeast, i.e. yeast not previously used for the invention or the yeast may be recycled yeast. The yeast applied may be any yeast suitable for beer brewing, especially yeasts selected from Saccharomyces spp. such as S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, including natural or artificially produced variants of these organisms. The methods for fermentation of wort for production of beer are well known to the person skilled in the arts.
The process of the invention may include adding silica hydrogel to the fermented wort to increase the colloidal stability of the beer. The processes may further include adding kieselguhr to the fermented wort and filtering to render the beer bright.

According to an aspect of the invention is provided beer produced from the wort of the second or third aspect, such as a beer produced by fermenting the wort to produce a beer. The beer may be any type of beer, e.g., ales, strong ales, stouts, porters, lagers, bitters, export beers, malt liquors, happoushu, high-alcohol beer, low-alcohol beer, low-calorie beer or light beer.

Enzymes
The enzymes to be applied in the present invention should be selected for their ability to retain sufficient activity at the process temperature of the processes of the invention, as well as under the pH regime in the mash and should be added in effective amounts. The enzymes may be derived from any source, preferably from a plant or an alga, and more preferably from a microorganism, such as from a bacterium or a fungus.
Pullulanase (E.C. 3.2.1.41 )
A preferred pullulanase enzyme to be used in the processes and/or compositions of the invention is a pullulanase having an amino acid sequence which is at least 50%, preferably 60% at least, more preferably at least 70%, even more preferably at least 80%, such as at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 98% or even 100% identical to the sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:3. Most preferably the pullulanase is derived from Bacillus acidopullulyticus. The pullulanase may have the amino acid sequence disclosed by Kelly et al., 1994 (FEMS Microbiol. Letters, 115, 97-106) or a homologous sequence.
Isoamylase (E.C. 3.2.1.68)
Another enzyme applied in the processes and/or compositions of the invention may be an alternative debranching enzyme, such as an isoamylase (E.C. 3.2.1.68). lsoamylase hydrolyses alpha-1 ,6-D-glucosidic branch linkages in amylopectin and beta-limit dextrins and can be distinguished from pullulanases by the inability of isoamylase to attack pullulan, and by the limited action on alpha-limit dextrins. Isoamylase may be added in effective amounts well known to the person skilled in the art. Isoamylase may be added alone or together with a pullulanase.
Alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1 )
A particular alpha-amylase enzyme to be used in the processes and/or compositions of the invention may be a Bacillus alpha-amylase. Well-known Bacillus alpha-amylases include alpha-amylase derived from a strain of B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus. In the context of the present invention a contemplated Bacillus alpha-amylase is an alpha-amylase as defined in WO99/19467 on page 3, line 18 to page 6, line 27. A preferred alpha-amylase has an amino acid sequence having at least 90% identity to SEQ ID NO:4 in WO99/19467, such as at least 92%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, or particularly at least 99%. Most preferred variants of the maltogenic alpha-amylase comprise the variants disclosed in WO99/43794. Contemplated variants and hybrids are described in WO96/23874, WO97/41213, and WO99/19467. Specifically contemplated is an alpha-amylase (E. C. 3.2.1.1 ) from B.
stearothermophilus having the amino acid sequence disclosed as SEQ ID NO:4 in WO99/19467 with the mutations: 1181 * + G182* + N193F.
Bacillus alpha-amylases may be added in the amounts of 1.0-1000 NU/kg DS, preferably from 2.0-500 NU/kg DS, preferably 10-200 NU/kg DS.
Another particular alpha-amylase to be used in the processes of the invention may be any fungal alpha-amylase, e.g. an alpha-amylase derived from a species within Aspergillus, and preferably from a strain of Aspergillus niger. Especially contemplated are fungal alpha-amylases which exhibit a high identity, i.e. at least 50%, at least 55%, at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85% or even at least 90% identity to the amino acid sequences shown SEQ ID NO:1 in WO 2002/038787. Fungal alpha-amylases may be added in an amount of 1-1000 AFAU/kg DS, preferably from 2-500 AFAU/kg DS, preferably 20-100 AFAU/kg DS.
Glucoamylases (E.C.3.2.1.3)
A further particular enzyme to be used in the processes and/or compositions of the invention may be a glucoamylase (E.C.3.2.1.3) derived from a microorganism or a plant. Preferred are glucoamylases of fungal or bacterial origin selected from the group consisting of Aspergillus glucoamylases, in particular A. niger GI or G2 glucoamylase (Boel et al. (1984), EMBO J. 3 (5), p.

1097-1102), or variants thereof, such as disclosed in WO92/00381 and WO00/04136; the A.
awamori glucoamylase (WO84/02921 ), A. oryzae (Agric. Biol. Chem. (1991 ), 55 (4), p. 941-949), or variants or fragments thereof.
Other contemplated glucoamylases include Talaromyces glucoamylases, in particular derived from Talaromyces emersonii (WO99/28448), Talaromyces leycettanus (US patent no. Re.
32,153), Talaromyces duponti, Talaromyces thermophilus (US patent no. 4,587,215). Preferred glucoamylases include the glucoamylases derived from Aspergillus oryzae, such as a
glucoamylase having at least 90%, at least 92%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, or particularly at least 99% or even at least 90% identity to the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2 in WO00/04136. Other preferred glucoamylases include the glucoamylases derived from Talaromyces emersonii such as a glucoamylase having at least 90%, at least 92%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, or particularly at least 99% or even at least 90% identity to the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2 in 60/738,448
Bacterial glucoamylases contemplated include glucoamylases from the genus Clostridium, in particular C. thermoamylolyticum (EP 135,138), and C. thermohydrosulfuricum (WO86/01831 ).

Also contemplated are the commercial products AMG 200L; AMG 300 L; SAN™ SUPER and AMG™ E (from Novozymes); OPTIDEX™ 300 (from Genencor Int.); AMIGASE™ and
AMIGASE™ PLUS (from DSM); G-ZYME™ G900 (from Enzyme Bio-Systems); G-ZYME™ G990 ZR (A. niger glucoamylase and low protease content). Glucoamylases may be added in effective amounts well known to the person skilled in the art.
Protease
Suitable proteases include microbial proteases, such as fungal and bacterial proteases. Preferred proteases are acidic proteases, i.e., proteases characterized by the ability to hydrolyze proteins under acidic conditions below pH 7.
The proteases are responsible for reducing the overall length of high-molecular-weight proteins to low-molecular-weight proteins in the mash. The low-molecular-weight proteins are a necessity for yeast nutrition and the high-molecular-weight-proteins ensure foam stability. Thus it is well-known to the skilled person that protease should be added in a balanced amount which at the same time allows amble free amino acids for the yeast and leaves enough high-molecular-weight-proteins to stabilize the foam. Proteases may be added in the amounts of 0.1-1000 AU/kg DS, preferably 1-100 AU/kg DS and most preferably 5-25 AU/kg DS.

Cellulase (E.C. 3.2.1.4)
The cellulase may be of microbial origin, such as derivable from a strain of a filamentous fungus (e.g., Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Humicola, Fusarium). Specific examples of cellulases include the endo-glucanase (endo-glucanase I) obtainable from H. insolens and further defined by the amino acid sequence of fig. 14 in WO 91/17244 and the 43 kD H. insolens endo-glucanase described in WO 91/17243.
A particular cellulase to be used in the processes of the invention may be an endo-glucanase, such as an endo-1 ,4-beta-glucanase. Especially contemplated is the beta-glucanase shown in SEQ.ID.NO:1 in WO 2003/062409 and homologous sequences. Commercially available cellulase preparations which may be used include CELLUCLAST®, CELLUZYME®, CEREFLO® and ULTRAFLO® (available from Novozymes A/S), LAMINEX™ and SPEZYME® CP (available from Genencor Int.) and ROHAMENT® 7069 W (available from Rohm, Germany).
Beta-glucanases may be added in the amounts of 1.0-10000 BGU/kg DS, preferably from 10-5000 BGU/kg DS, preferably from 50-1000 BGU/kg DS and most preferably from 100-500 BGU/kg DS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Enzymes
Pullulanase 1 derived from Bacillus acidopullulyticus and having the sequence showed in SEQ ID NO:1. Pullulanase 1 is available from Novozymes as Promozyme 400L.
Pullulanase 2 derived from Bacillus deramificans (US Patent 5,736375) and having the sequence showed in SEQ ID NO:2. Pullulanase 2 is available from Novozymes as Promozyme D2.

Pullulanase 3 derived from Bacillus acidopullulyticus and having the sequence showed in SEQ ID N0:3.
Acid fungal alpha-amylase derived from Aspergillus niger and having the sequence showed in SEQ ID N0:1 in WO 2002/038787 (SEQ ID NO: 1 is hereby incorporated by reference).
Glucoamylase G1 derived from Aspergillus niger (Boel et al. supra)

Methods

Alpha-amylase activity (NU)
Alpha-amylase activity may be determined using potato starch as substrate. This method is based on the break-down of modified potato starch by the enzyme, and the reaction is followed by mixing samples of the starch/enzyme solution with an iodine solution. Initially, a blackish-blue color is formed, but during the break-down of the starch the blue color gets weaker and gradually turns into a reddish-brown, which is compared to a colored glass standard.
One Kilo Novo alpha amylase Unit (KNU) equals 1000 NU. One KNU is defined as the amount of enzyme which, under standard conditions (i.e. at 37°C +/- 0.05; 0.0003 M Ca2+; and pH 5.6) degrades 5.26 g starch dry matter (Merck Amylum solubile).
A folder AF 9/6 describing this analytical method in more detail is available upon request to Novozymes A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.

Acid alpha-amylase activity (AFAU)
Acid alpha-amylase activity may be measured in AFAU (Acid Fungal Alpha-amylase Units), which are determined relative to an enzyme standard. 1 FAU is defined as the amount of enzyme which degrades 5.260 mg starch dry matter per hour under the below mentioned standard conditions.

Acid alpha-amylase, an endo-alpha-amylase (1 ,4-alpha-D-glucan-glucanohydrolase, E. C. 3.2.1.1 ) hydrolyzes alpha-1 ,4-glucosidic bonds in the inner regions of the starch molecule to form dextrins and oligosaccharides with different chain lengths. The intensity of color formed with iodine is directly proportional to the concentration of starch. Amylase activity is determined using reverse colorimetry as a reduction in the concentration of starch under the specified analytical conditions.

ALPHA -AMYLASE
STARCH + IODINE 40 : , pH 2,5 > DEXTRINS + OLIGOSACCHARIDES
λ = 590 nm
blue/violet t = 23 sec. decoloration Standard conditions/reaction conditions:
Substrate: Soluble starch, approx. 0.17 g/L
Buffer: Citrate, approx. 0.03 M
Iodine (I2): 0.03 g/L
CaCI2: 1.85 mM
pH: 2.50 ± 0.05
Incubation temperature: 4O0C
Reaction time: 23 seconds
Wavelength: 590nm
Enzyme concentration: 0.025 AFAU/mL
Enzyme working range: 0.01-0.04 AFAU/mL

A folder EB-SM-0259.02/01 describing this analytical method in more detail is available upon request to Novozymes A/S, Denmark, which folder is hereby included by reference.

Glucoamylase activity (AGU)
The Novo Glucoamylase Unit (AGU) is defined as the amount of enzyme, which hydrolyzes 1 micromole maltose per minute at 37°C and pH 4.3.
The activity is determined as AGU/ml by a method modified after (AEL-SM-0131 , available on request from Novozymes) using the Glucose GOD-Perid kit from Boehringer Mannheim, 124036. Standard: AMG-standard, batch 7-1195, 195 AGU/ml. 375 microL substrate (1 % maltose in 50 mM Sodium acetate, pH 4.3) is incubated 5 minutes at 37°C. 25 microL enzyme diluted in sodium acetate is added. The reaction is stopped after 10 minutes by adding 100 microL 0.25 M NaOH. 20 microL is transferred to a 96 well microtitre plate and 200 microL GOD-Perid solution (124036, Boehringer Mannheim) is added. After 30 minutes at room temperature, the absorbance is measured at 650 nm and the activity calculated in AGU/ml from the AMG-standard. A detailed description of the analytical method (AEL-SM-0131 ) is available on request from Novozymes.

Example 1
In the example the ability of different pullulanases to reduce the amount of non-fermentable carbohydrates (dextrin/DP4/4+) in a wort was analysed.
100% well modified malt was mashed using a mashing temperature profile comprising 46°C for 26 minutes, followed by a 1 °C/minute increase till 64°C after which the temperature was held constant. Samples were collected at 98, 128 and 158 minutes.
Enzymes were added at 0 minutes. Glucoamylase and alpha-amylase were added to all treatments in amounts of 1000 AGU/kg DS and 250 AFAU/kg DS respectively. Pullulanase was added according to table 1.

The samples were boiled 10 minutes and filtered (Pore size 0.20μm). The samples were analyzed by HPLC and % non fermentable carbohydrate (DP4/4+) was calculated.


The data in table 1 was used to calculate, by regression, the enzyme dosages of pullulanase 1 and pullulanase 2 needed to get the same effect as 2.74 mg enzyme protein/kg of pullulanase 3. (see table 2).



From these results it can be seen that Pullulanase 3 is the most efficient enzyme. Consequently, less Pullulanase 3 enzyme protein is needed to reduce the amount of non-fermentable carbohydrates (dextrin/DP4/4+) and thereby increase attenuation of the wort.

Example 2
The pH profile and temperature profile of different pullulanases was analyzed in the present example.
The pH and temperature profile investigations were based on relative enzyme activity analysis with the conditions described below.
Principals of the analytical method:
The alpha-1 ,6-glycosidic bounds in pullulan were hydrolyzed by a pullulanase enzyme and the increased reducing sugar capacity was detected by a modified Somogyi-Nelson method.
In the present experiment the activity is assessed as relative activity, where the most active sample is given as 100%. The assay conditions are as follows:
Buffer: citrate 0.1 M + 0.2 M phosphate (adjusted in the pH profile, pH 5 in temperature profile)

Substrate: 0.2 % pullulan Sigma (p-4516)
Temperature: 6O0C in pH profile, adjusted in temperature profile
Reaction time: 30 minutes
The reducing sugars released by pullulanases were detected according to the principle described in Nelson, N. J. Biol. Chem (1944), 153, 375-380 and Somogyi, M. J. Biol. Chem (1945) 160, 61 -68. In brief, the hydrolysis reaction is stopped by adding Somogyi's cobber reagent in a volume corresponding to the sample volume (e.g. 2 ml to a sample of 2 ml). The samples are boiled for 20 minutes and cooled down prior to the color reaction. This reaction is performed by adding
Nelson's reagent corresponding to ΛA the volume of the sample (e.g. 2 ml to 4 ml sample÷

Somogyi's cobber reagent). The samples are mixed for 2 minutes followed by addition of water in the same amount as Nelson's reagent. The samples are incubated 30 minutes in the dark and measured in a spectrophotometer at 540 nm.
Reagents can be prepared as follows:
Somogyi's cobber reagent:
Dissolve 70.2 g Na2HPO4x2H2O and 80.0 g KNAC4H4O6x4 H2O (kaliumsodiumtartrat) in 1000 ml H2O (heat slightly). Furthermore add 60 g NaOH; 16.0 g CuS04x5 H2O and 360.0 g Na2SO4 and fill to 2000 ml. Adjust pH to 10.8 with NaOH
Nelson's reagent:
Dissolve 100.0 g (NH4)6Mo7O24x7 H2O in 1200 ml H2O. Add 84.0 ml H2SO4 carefully. Additionally, dissolve 12.00 g Na2HAs04x7 H2O (disodiumhydrogenarsenate) in 100 ml H2O, and add this solution slowly to the first solution and fill to 2000 ml.

The pH and temperature profiles for the three pullulanases are given in table 3 and 4 below.




These results show that pullulanase 3 has a broad pH profile and activity at high temperatures when compared to the other two pullulanases. These properties make pullulanase 3 a very robust enzyme in brewing (mashing conditions), in particular for saccharification temperatures between 620C and 650C.