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1. (WO2007009183) INDEX DETERMINATION
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THE CLAIMS DEFINING THE INVENTION ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1) A method of determining an index indicative of the presence, absence or degree of left ventricular hypertrophy in a subject, the method including, in a processing system:
(a) determining a measured impedance value for at least one body segment;
(b) for each body segment, and using the measured impedance values, determining at least one impedance parameter value;
(c) using each determined impedance value to determine a fat-free mass for the subject; and,

(d) determining the index at least in part using the fat-free mass.
2) A method according to claim 1, wherein the method includes, in the processing system determining the index using the fat-free mass and an indication of a measured left ventricular mass.
3) A method according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the method includes, in the processing system:

(a) comparing the index to a reference; and,
(b) determining the presence, absence or degree of LVH using the results of the comparison. 4) A method according to claim 3, wherein the reference includes at least one of:
(a) a predetermined threshold;
(b) a tolerance determined from a normal population;
(c) a predetermined range; and,
(d) an index previously determined for the subject.
5) A method according to any one of the claims 1 to 4, wherein the method includes, in the processing system, displaying at least one of:
a) a fat free mass;
b) a determined index;
c) a ventricular mass;
d) normal ranges for the index; and,
e) noπnal ranges for fat free mass; and,
f) normal ranges left ventricular mass.
6) A method according to claim 5, wherein the method includes determining the ranges in accordance with subject parameters.
7) A method according to any one of the claims 1 to 4, wherein the method includes, in the processing system:
(a) determining a plurality of measured impedance values for each body segment, each measured impedance value being measured at a corresponding measurement frequency; and,
(b) determining the impedance parameters based on the plurality of measured impedance values.

8) A method according to any one of the claims 1 to 5, wherein the parameter values include R0 and R00, wherein:
R0 is the resistance at zero frequency; and,
R00 is the resistance at infinite frequency.
9) A method according to claim 6, wherein the method includes, in the processing system, determining the parameter values using the equation:



where:
Z is the measured impedance at angular frequency ω,
τ is a time constant, and
α has a value between 0 and 1.
10) A method according to claim 7, wherein the method includes, in the processing system:
(a) deteπnining the impedance of each body segment at four discrete frequencies; and,
(b) determining values for the parameters by solving the equation using four simultaneous
equations.
H) A method according to claim 7 or claim 8, wherein the method includes, in the processing system, determining the parameter values by:
(a) deteπnining an impedance locus using the measured impedance values; and,
(b) using the impedance locus to determine the parameter values.
12) A method according to any one of the claims 1 to 9, wherein the method includes, in the processing system:
(a) causing one or more electrical signals to be applied to the subject using a first set of
electrodes, the one or more electrical signals having a plurality of frequencies;
(b) determining an indication of electrical signals measured across a second set of electrodes applied to the subject in response to the applied one or more signals;
(c) determining from the indication and the one or more applied signals, an instantaneous
impedance value at each of the plurality of frequencies; and,
(d) determining the index using the instantaneous impedance values.
13) A method according to any one of the claims 1 to 10, wherein the method includes, in the processing system:
(a) determining at least one impedance measurement to be performed;
(b) determining at least one electrode arrangement associated with the determined impedance measurement;
(c) displaying a representation indicative of the electrode arrangement; and, (d) causing the impedance measurement to be performed once the electrodes have been arranged in accordance with the displayed representation.
14) A method according to any one of the claims 1 to 11, wherein the method includes, in the computer system, displaying an indication of at least one of:
(a) the parameter values;
(b) the fat-free mass; and,
(c) an indication of the at least one of the presence, absence or degree of LVH.
15) Apparatus for determining an index indicative of the presence, absence or degree of left ventricular hypertrophy in a subject, the apparatus includes a processing system for:
(a) determining a measured impedance value for at least one body segment;
(b) for each body segment, and using the measured impedance values, determining at least one impedance parameter value; and,
(c) using each determined impedance value to determine a fat-free mass for the subject; and,

(d) determining at least in part the index using the fat-free mass.
16) Apparatus according to claim 13, wherein the apparatus includes:
(a) a current supply for generating an alternating current at each of a plurality of frequencies;

(b) at least two supply electrodes for applying the generated alternating current to a subject;

(c) at least two measurement electrodes for detecting a voltage across the subject; and,
(d) a sensor coupled to the measurement electrodes for determining the voltage, the sensor being coupled to the processing system to thereby allow the processing system to determine the measured impedances.
17) Apparatus according to claim 13 or claim 14, wherein the processing system is for performing the method of claim 1.
18) A method of diagnosing the presence, absence or degree of left ventricular hypertrophy in a subject, the method including, in a processing system:
(a) determining a measured impedance value for at least one body segment;
(b) for each body segment, and using the measured impedance values, determining at least one impedance parameter value;
(c) using each determined impedance value to determine a fat-free mass for the subject; and, (d) determining an index at least in part using the fat-free mass, the index being indicative of the presence, absence or degree of left ventricular hypertrophy.
19) A method according to claim 16, wherein the method is performed in accordance with the method of claim 1.