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1. WO2007007851 - PERCUTANEOUSLY ABSORPTIVE OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION COMPRISING EPINASTINE

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DESCRIPTION
PERCUTANEOUSLY ABSORPTIVE OPHTHALMIC PREPARATION COMPRISING

EPINASTINE
Technical Field
The present invention relates to a percutaneously absorptive preparation for preventing or treating allergic eye disease, which comprises ejpinastine or a salt thereof as an active ingredient . In addition, the present invention relates to a method for percutaneously delivering a "therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof to an
anterior ocular segment as well as a method for preventing or treating allergic eye disease . Specifically, these methods comprise applying a percutaneously absorptive preparation comprising epinastine or a salt thereof to tune skin surface including the skin surface of an eyelid, thereby causing transfer of a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof from the preparation to an anterior ocular segment.
Background Art
U. S . Pat . No . 4 , 313 , 931 discloses epinastine ( 3-amino- 9, 1 lb-dihyd.ro- liϊ-dibenz [c, jff] imidazo [ 1, 5-a] az epine) as a therapeutic agent for treating allergic eye diseases .
Conventionally, the most common dosage form of topical ophthalmic formulations is eye drops . In fact, epinastine hydrochloride is used in the form of eye drops for treating allergic conjunctivitis . However, eye drops show low local bioavailability due to the turnover of tear fluid on the surface of the eye, and thiαs eye drops must Ibe frequently administered in order to maintain a pharmaco logical effect on the eye . For example, commercially availabl e eye drops comprising epinastine hydrochloride must be administered everv 6 to 8 hours (i . e . twice or more a day) . In. addition, many eye drops contain a preservative . As a result of the use of such eye drops over a prolonc/ed period, the preservative could cause adverse side effects such as irritation .
In vi- ew of the above, the development of an ophthalmic preparation for treating allergic eye disease such as allergic conjunctivitis, which can persistently deliver a
therapeutically effective amount of a drug to an anterior ocular segment such as conj unctiva, exert a pharmacological effect on the segment over a prolonged period, and which can decrease trie risk of adverse side effects, as compared to conventional preparations such as eye drops ha s been desired.

One of such ophthalmic preparations is reported in WO2004/064817 . WO2004/064817 discloses a percutaneously absorptive preparation which is composed of a support and a plaster layer containing a therapeutic agent f or eye disease formed on the support, and applied to the skin, surface including the anterior surface of an eyelid in. order to transfer the therapeutic agerαt contained in the plaster layer to the local tissues of the eye through the skiin instead of a systemic blood flow. This preparation can tra.nsfer the therapeutic agent to external eye tissues such, as conjunctiva, lacrimal tissue and cornea through the skin in. relatively a short time , and exert a prolonged pharmacologi cal effect on the tissues . As a therapeutic agent for eye disease,
WO2004/064817 discloses ketotifen fumarate .
However, WO2004/064817 does not disclose use of
epinastine for percutaneous l;y absorptive preparations . In addition, U. S . Pat . No . 4, 313 , 931 does not dis close
percutaήeously absorptive preparation as a dos age form of epinastine .
Disclosure of the Invention
It is therefore an obj ect of the present invention to provide a preparation for preventing or treating an allergic eye disease, which can persi stently deliver a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof to an anterior ocular segment siαch as conjunctiva thorough the skin of the eyelid rather than a systemic blood flow, exert a
Pharmacol,ogical effect on the segment over a prolonged period, and whicrα can decrease the risk of adverse side effects, as compared to conventional preparations such as eye drops.
The present inventonrs have conducted intensive studies and found that a therapeutically effective amount of
epinastine or a salt thereof can be persistently maintained in an anterior ocular segment by controlling the content and/or skin permeability of epinsstine or a salt thereof, and/or the period of application to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid. The present inventors have completed the present invention based on these findings. Accordingly, the present invention proΛ/ides the following.
[I] A method for delivering epinastine or a
pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to an anterior ocular segment of a mammalian suUoject, which comprises applying a percutaneously absorptive preparation comprising epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid of the subject, thereby causing transfer of a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof from the preparation to the anterior ocular segment of the subject.
[2 ] The method of [ 1] , wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof i s maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 8 hours.
[3 ] The method of [ 1] , wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof i.s maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 24 hours.
[4] The method of [1], wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof i_s maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 16 hoars after removal of the preparation from the skin.
[5] A method for preventing or treating an allergic eye disease in a mammalian subject, which comprises applying a percutaneously absorptive preparation comprising epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof: to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid of the subject, thereby causing transfer of a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptablee salt thereof from the preparation to an anterior ocular segment of the subject .
[6] The method of [5], wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof is maintained in the anterior ocularr segment of the subject for at least 8 hours.
[7] The method of [5], wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereo f is maintained in the anterior ocular; segment of the subject for at least 24 hours.
[8] The method of [5], wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof is maintained in the anterior ocular: segment of the subject for at least 16 hours after removal of the preparation from the skin.
[9] The method of any of [1] to [8], wherein the
percutaneously absorptive preparation is an adhesive
preparation.
[10] The method of [9], wherein the adhesive preparation is applied to the skin surface for 0.5 to 24 hours.
[11] A percutaneously absorptive preparation comprising epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof four use in preventing or treating an allergic eye disease in a mammaILian subject, which comprises applying it to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid of the subject, therelby causing- transfer of a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thxereof frrom the preparation, to an anterior ocular segment of the siibject .
[12] The preparation of [11], wherein the
therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a
pharmaceutically acceptable salt theireof is maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 24 hours.
[13] The preparation of [11], therein the
therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a
pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 16 hours after removal of the preparation from the skin.
[14] The preparation of any of [11] to [13], wherein the percutaneously absorptive preparation is an adhesive
preparation.
[15] The preparation of [14], "which is applied to the skin surface fox 0.5 to 24 hours .
[16] A percutaneously absorptLve adhesive preparation comprising epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in preventing or treating an allergic eye disease in a mammalian subject, which is applying to "the skin surface for 4 to 8 hours per day.
[17] A use of epinastine or a pharmaceutically -acceptable salt thereof for the production of a percutaneously absorptive preparation for preventing or treating an allergic eye disease in a mammalian subject, which comprises applying it to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid of the subject, thereby causing transfer of a therapeutically e f f ective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt thereof from the preparation to an anterior ocular segment of the subject.
[18] The use of [17], wherein the therapeutically e ff ective amount of: epinastine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 24 hours.
[19] The uise of [17], wherein the therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutical ILy
5 acceptable salt thereof is maintained in the anterior ocular segment of the subject for at least 16 hours after removal of the preparation from the skin.
[20] The vase of any of [17] to [19], wherein the
percutaneously absorptive preparation is an adhesiΛ/e
o preparation.
[21] The vase of [20], wherein the adhesive preparation is applied to the skin surface for 0.5 to 24 hours.
Best Mode for Embodying the Invention
As used in the present specification, the term "the skin s surface including the surface of an eyelid" refers to an anterior skin surface of the upper and lower eyelids and the skin surface adjacent thereto.
As used in the present specification, the term "anterior ocular segment"" refers to eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, O ciliary body, lacrimal tissue and the like.
Examples of the allergic ey'e disease include allergic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunct ivitis, giant papiLlary
conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis and atopic
blepharitis associated with atopic dermatitis.
S Epinastine and a salt thereof can be prepared by a conventional method (for example,- methods disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,313, 931, which is hereby incorporated b>y reference in the present specification) .
The salt of epinastine can be a pharmaceutically
O acceptable salt including, for example, acid addition salts such as hydrochloride, bromate, fumarate, maleate, oxalate, sulfonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate. Epinastine
hydrochloride is preferably used in the present invention.

The prresent percutaneously absorptive preparation is in a dosage form that enables delivery of a therapeutically
effective amount of epinast±ne or a salt thereof by
application thereof to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid . Examples of such a dosage form include external preparations for skin such as adhesive preparation, ointment preparation, gel preparation and cream preparation, and adhesive preparation, ointment preparation and. gel preparation are the preferred dosage forms for use in the present
invention.
As used in the present: specification, ttie term "adhesive preparation" refers to a preparation to be directly applied to the skin surface, such as cataplasma, patch, tape and plaster . Any component general Iy used for manufacturing medicine can be added to the present percutaneously absorptive
preparation^ if desired. Examples of such component include base matrix for adhesive preparation, ointment base, gel base, solvent, oiX, crosslinking agent, surfactant, gum, resin, pH adjuster, stabilizer, antioxidant, preservative, ultraviolet absorbent and wetting agent . In addition, in order to control skin permeability of epinas tine or a salt thereof, which is delivered to an anterior ocular segment through the skin, a percutaneous absorption enlxancer can be added, if desired.
Examples of base matr- ±x for adhesive preparation include acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive, silicone pressure
sensitive adhesive and rubber pressure sensit ive adhesive, and any one of them is appropri ate for use . The inatrix can be retained on one surface of a support generall y used in a preparation to be applied to the skin surface such as tape, patch, catajplasma and plaster, or on one surface of a support composed of any material having no adverse ef fect on the present invention .
Examples of acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive include acrylic acid-octyl acrylate copolymer, acrylate-vinyl acetate copolymer, 2-ethylhexyl acrrylate-vinyl pyrro ILi done copolymer and methaczrylic acid-butyl acrylate copolyme r .
Examples of silicone pressure sensitive adhesive include polymethylphenylsiloxane copolymer and acryl ic acid-dimethylsϋoxane copolymer .
Examples of rubber pressure sensitive adhesive include styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer, natural rubber,
polyisobutylene, polybutene and ethyl ene-vinyl acetate
copolymer (EVA) , to which tackifier resin, s oftener and the like can be added, if desired.
Examples of ointment base include fat and oil bases sucϊi as Vaseline™, paraffin, pl astibase, silicone, vegetable oil, lard, wax and unguentum simplex; and emulsion bases such as hydrophili c ointment (vanishing cream) , hydrophilic Vaseline , absorption ointment, hydrous lanolin, purifL ed lanolin and hydrophili c plastibase (cold cream) .
Examples of gel base include thickening polymers such as carboxyvirxyl polymer, polyacrylic acid, sod-Lum polyacrylate, methylcelLulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene oxide, polyacryl amide, gelatine , acacia gum, tragacanth. , guar gum, xantϋnan gum, agar, chi_tosan and
carageenan.; fatty acid esters such as isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate and propylene glycol oleate; fatty acids such as lactic acid, lauric acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid; aliphatic alcohols such as lauryl alcohol. and oleyl alcohol; and hydrocarbons such as squalene and squalane .
Examples of solvent include purified water, methanol, ethanol, 1— propanol, lower alcohol, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, tert-butyl methyl ether, pyrxolidone, acetic acid, acetonitrile, N,N-dimethylformamide, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl
isobutyl ketone, tetrahydrof"~uran, chloroform, toluene and xylene.
Examples of oil include volatile or involatile oil, solvent and resin . Oil is generally used in an external preparation for skin and may be in a liquid, paste or sol_id form at room temperature . Specifically, for example, higher alcohols such as cetyl alcohol and isoste aryl alcohol; fatty acids such as isosteari c acid and oleic a.cid; polyalcohols such as glycerol, sorbitol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol ; and esters such as myristyl rαyiristate, hexyl laurate, decyl ol eate, isopropyl myristate and glyceryl monos tear ate can be mentioned.
Examples of cross linking agent incLude polyisocyanate, organic peroxide, organ ometallic salt, alkoxide and metal chelate .
Examples of polyi socyanate include m-phenylene
diisocyanate, 2, 6-tolylerxe diisocyanate, p->cylylene diisocyarxate, 4, 4f -C-iphenylmethane diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate .
Examples of organic peroxide include benzoyl peroxide, succinyl peroxide, carbonate peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, dialkyl peroxide(e. g. di (t ert -butyl) peroxide) and d±acyl peroxide.
Examples of organometallic salt include lead salicylate, coppeir salicylate, nickel salicylate, zinc acetate, zinc carbonate, manganese benzoate, magnesium citrate, iron acetate, zinc stearate, ferrous lactate, ammonium lead salicylate, ammonium zinc carbonate and ammonium zinc benzoate .
Examples of alkox ide include lithium methoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium me thoxide, lithium ethoxide, sodium
ethox ±de, potassium eth. oxide, lithium tenrt-butoxide, soddum tert-Doutoxide and potas sium tert-butoxide .
Examples of metal chelate include 1-hydroxyethylidene-1 , 1-diphosphonic acid, disodium edetate, tetrasodium edetate dehydxate and sodium or- potassium salt of citric acid,
polyplhosphoric acid, metaphosphoric acid,- gluconic acid,
phosprioric acid, ascorbic acid and succinic acid .

Examples of sur factant include anionic surfactants
cationic surfactant, nonionic surfactant and amphoteric
surfactant .
Examples of ani onic surfactant include fatty acid salt, alkyl sulfate, polyoxiyethylene alkyl smlfate, alkyl sulfo carboxylate and alkyl ether carboxylate .
Examples of cat ionic surfactant i_nclude amine sal~fc and cjuanternary ammonium salt .
Examples of nonionic surfactant include polysorba-te 80, polyoxyethylene hydro genated castor oil, polyoxyethylen«e fatty acid ester, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether and polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester .
Examples of amphoteric surfactant include alkyl b etaine, dimethylalkylglycine and lecithin .
Examples of gum and resin include sodium polyacryHate, cellulose ether, calcium alginate, carlooxyvinyl polymer , ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer, vinyl pyrrolidone polymer, "vinyl alcohol-vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer, nitrogen-substituted acrylamide polymer, polyac-trylamide, cation! c polymer such as cationic guar gum, dimethylacrylic ammonium polymer, acrylic acid-methacrylic acid copolymer,
polyoxyethylene-polypropylene copolymer, polyvinyl alcohol, pullulan, agar, gelatine, chitosan, polysaccharide fronx
tamarindo seed, xanthan gum, carageena_n, high-methoxyl pectin, low-methoxyl pectin, guar gum, acacia gum, microcrystaL line cellulose, arabinogalactan, karaya gum, tragacanth gum,
alginate, albumin, casein, curdlan, geILlan gum, dextrarx, cellulose, polyethyleneimine, high polymerized polyethy^lene glycol, cationic silicone polymer, synthetic latex, acrrylic silicone, trimethylsiloxysilicate and ±luorinated silicone resin .
Examples of pH adjuster include ammonia water,
ϊiydrochloric acid, citric acid, sodium citrate, acetic acid, sodium acetate, ' ammonium acetate, succinic acid, tarta_ ric acid, L-sodium tartrate , sodium hydrate, potassium hydrate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydro gencarbonate, lactic acid, calcium lactate, sodium lactate, sodium fumarate, sodium propionate, boric acid, ammonium borate, maleio acid, phosphoric acid, sodium hydrogenprαosphate, dl -malic acid, adipic acid ,
triethanol amine, diisopropanolarαine, meglumine,
monoethanolainine, sulfuric acid an.d aluminum potassium sulfate .

Examples of stabilizer include sodium bisulfit e, sodium sulfite, sodium p>yrosulfite, sodium formaldehyde sul foxylate, L-ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, !_.- cysteine, thiogl ycerol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHZV) , bmtylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) , propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate , dl-α- tocopherol,
nordihydroguaiaretic acid, l-hydrojcyethylidene-l, l-dipliosphonic acid, disodium edetate, tetrasodium edetate dehydrate, sodium citrate, sodium polyphosphate, sodium metaphosphate, gluconic acid, phosphoric acid, citric acid, ascorbLc acid and succinic acid.
Examples of wetting agent include glycerol, po lyethylene glycol, sorbitol , maltitol, propyl ene glycol, 1, 3-buLtanediol and hydrogenated maltose syrup .
Examples of antioxidant include sodium bisulfi te, sodium sulfite, sodium jpyrosulfite, sodium formaldehyde suL foxylate, L-ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, IL-cysteine, thiogL ycerol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) , butylated hydroxyto luene (BHT) , propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate , dJ-α- tocopherol and
nordihydroguaiaretic acid.
Examples o f preservative include methylparaben,
propylparaben, clilorobutanol, benz yl alcohol, pheny]_ ethyl alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, ph_enol , cresol, thimerosal, dehydroacetic ac id and sorbic acid .
Examples o f ultraviolet absorbent include octyl
methoxycinnamate , glyceryl monooct anoate di-para-methoxy
cinnamate, 2-hyd-χoxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, para-airdLnobenzoic acid, para-aminolbenzoic acid glycerol ester, N,N-dipropoxy-para-aminobenzαL c acid ethyl ester- , N, N-diethoxy-parra- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, N, N-dimethyl-para-aitiinobenzoic acid ethyl ester, N,N-dimethyl-para-aminobenzoic a.cid butyl ester, homomenthy1 N-acetylanfchranilate, amyl salicylate, menthyl salicylate, homomenth^l salicylate, octyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, benzyl salicylate and p-isoprojpyl phenyl salicylate.
Example s of percutaneous absorption enhances include aliphatic alcohol, fatty acid and a salt thereof, fatty acid ester, polyaILcohol alkyl etheir, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, glyceride, polyalcohol medium chain fatty acid esirer,
polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatt;y acid ester, alkyl lactate ester, terpenes and organic amine. In order to control "the skin permeability of epinastine or a salt thereof, these
percutaneous absorption enhancers can be used alome or in combination of two or more kinds thereof.
Examples of aliphatic alcohol include ethanol, glycerol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol and higher aliphatic alcohols (saturated or unsaturated higher aliphatic alcohol having 12 to 22 carbon atoms su.ch as oleyl alcohol, lau-tryl alcohol and stearyl alcohol) .
Examples of fatty acid and a salt thereof include capric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid, stearic acid, isostearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and llnolenic acid, and a salt thereof (for example, sodium salt, potassium salt, magnesium salt, calcium salt and aluminium salt) .
Examples of fatty acid ester include an ester of a fatty acid such as myristic acid, palmitic acid, lauric acid,
stearic acid,- isostearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid,- pivalic acid, caproic acid, heptanoic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipi_c acid, pimelic acid, crotonic acid, sorbic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid and sebacic acid with a lower aliphatic alcohol such as methanol, ettian'ol, propanol, isopropanol, butanolL, pentanol, hexanol, he;ptanol and octarxol . Specific examples of fatty acid ester include isoprop^l myristate, isoprojoyl palmitate, diisopropyl adipate and diethyl sebacate .
Examp les of polyalcoriol alkyl ether include an ether of a polyalcohol such as glycerol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 1 , 3 — butylene glycol , diglycerol, polyglycerol,
diethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, diprop ylene glycol, polypropyle ne glycol, sorbitan, sorbitol, methyl glucoside, oligosaccharide and reduced oligosaccharide with alkyl alcohol . Alkyl moiet y in polyalcohol alkyl ether prefer ably has 6 to 20 carbon atoiαs .
The preferred polyoxyethylene alkyl ethe x has an alkyl moiety havi ng 6 to 20 carbon atoms and a polyo xyethylene chain having 1 to 9 repeat units (-0-CH2CH2-) . Examples of
polyoxyethylene alkyl ethe:rr include polyoxyeth.ylene lauryl ether, polyoxyethylene cetyl ether, polyoxyetlxylene stearyl ether and polyoxyethylene oleyl ether .
The preferred glyceride is glycerol este r of fatty acid having 6 to 18 carbon atoms (e . g . , monoglyceri. de, diglyceride, triglyceride and a mixture thereof) . Examples of glyceride include glyceryl monolaurate, glyceryl monomyir istate, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl monooleate, glyceryl dL laurate,
glyceryl dimyristate, glyceryl distearate, gl yceryl trilaurate, glyceryl trrimyristate and glyceryl tristearate .
Examples of polyalcohol medium chain fat ty acid ester include ethylene glycol monocaprylate, propylene glycol
monocaprylate, glycerin monocaprylate, mono 2— ethylene glycol ethylhexanoate, mono 2-pro]pylene glycol ethyltxexanoate, di (2-propylene) glycol ethylhexarαoate and propylene glycol
dicaprylate .
Examples of polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester include polLyoxyethylene sonrbitan monolaurate , polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate .

Examples of alkyl lactate ester include methyl lactate, ethyl lactate, methyl 2-rαethoxypropionate and ethyl 2-methoxypropionate .
Examples of terpene include I -menthol and d-limonene .
Examples of organic amine include monoethanolamine, triethanolamine, creatinine and meglumine .
Of the aforementioned percutaneous absorption enhancers , fatty ac±d ester and polyoxyethylene alkyl ether are
preferable, and isopropyl myristate and pol yoxyethylene oleyJ_ ether are particularly preferable .
Trie present percutaneous Iy absorptive preparation
comprising epinastine or a salt thereof can. be prepared by a conventional method.
Trie adhesive preparation (for example , cataplasma, patoh, tape and plaster) can be prepared by comple tely mixing
epinastine or a salt thereof with base matr-ix and/or gum and optional ly the aforementioned solvent, oil, surfactant, resin, percutaneous absorption enhancer and/or wet ting agent,
spreading the obtained ointment over a support composed of nonwoven fabric, textile fabric, plastic fL lm (including sheet) or multiple film thereof and laying a release liner over the support, or spreading the obtained ointment over a release liner and laying the support over the release liner, and pres sure-bonding the ^release liner to the support . The support preferably has enough flexibility to apply to the skrLn surface including the surface of an eyelid. The thickness of the support can be appropriately set according to the dosage form. The preferred support has a thickness ranging from about IO μm to 6000 μm.
Trie ointment preparation can be prepared by completely mixing epinastine or a salt thereof with an ointment base and optionally the aforementioned solvent, oilr surfactant, gum, resin, percutaneous absorption enhancer and/or wetting agent , The gel preparation can be prepared by adding solvent to gel base, neutralizing the mixture with pH adj uster,
optionally mixing the aforementioned solvent, oil, surfa ctant, gum, resin, percutaneous absorption enhancer and/or wett ing agent into the gel base , and completely mixing epinastirxe or a salt "thereof into the gel base .
The cream preparation can be prepared by mixing oi 1 phase with aqueous phase comprising epinastine or a salt there of to give pre-emulsified mixture, emulsifying" the mixture usi ng horaoia±xer, and subjecting the obtained emulsion to
degas if ication, filtration and cooling . The aqueous pha. se can be prepared by mixing epinastine or a sa lt thereof and
moisture retention agent into purified water at about 7O °C .
Examp les of moisture retention agent inc lude propylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, sodium hyaluronate, urea, lactic acid, glycolic acid, glycerin and pyrrolidone carboxylate. The oil phase can be prepared by mixing the aforementioned surfactant, preservative and antioxidant into oil content at about 700C . Example s of oil content include white petrolatum, stearic acid, stearyl alcoriol and cetyl alcohol .
The present percutaneously absorptive preparation can contain one or more ottier ingredients smch as the
aforementioned pH adjuster, stabilizer, antioxidant,
preservative, crosslinlking agent and ultraviolet absorbent as long as they do not exert an adverse influence on the prresent invention .
In addition, the present percutaneously absorptive preparation can contain one or more therapeutic agents other than epinastine or a s a.lt thereof, such as steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, anti-bacterial agent, anti— viral agent, anti— biotic agent, sulfa agent, therapeutic agent for glaucoma, vasopressor, therapeutic agent for
cataract, miotic agent , mydriatic agent and vitamin as long as ttiey do not exert an adverse influence on the present
invention .
While the content of epinastine or a salt thereo f in the present preparation is appropriately set to maintain a.
therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt ttiereof for preventing or treating an allergic eye disease in an. anterior ocular s egment, thereby causing transfer o f epinastine or a salt thereof to an anterior ocular segment trxrough the skin, it is generally 0 . 1 to 40% by weight , preferably 1 to 30% Ib y weight, more preferably 5 to 3O% by weight .
While the cont ent of percutaneous absorption enhancer in trie present preparat ion varies depending on the kind of the acjent, and is appropriately set to maintain a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof for
preventing or treating an "allergic eye disease in an anterior ocular segment by controlling skin permeability of epinastine or a salt thereof, -Lt is generally 1 to 60% by weighty
preferably 5 to 50% by weight, more preferably 10 to 40% by weight .
The proportion of the percutaneous absorption enhancer to epinastine or a salt thereof is generally 1 to 20 parts by weight of the percutaneous absorption enhancer to 1 part by weight of epinastine or a salt thereof , preferably 1 "to 10 parts by weight of the percutaneous absorption enhancer to 1 part by weight of ep^inastine or a s alt thereof , and more preferably 1 to 5 parts by weight o f the percutaneous,
absorption enhancer to 1 part by we ight of epinastine or a salt thereof .
The present preparation can be applied to the skiin surface including trie surface of an eyelid of a mammaILian subj ect ( for example, human, rat, mouse, guinea pig, nrabblt, sheep, swine, bovine, horse, cat, dog, monkey and the like) .

The amount of epinastine or a salt thereof in an anterior ocular segment of the subject varies according to the subject to be applied to, in the case of an adult human, it is
generally about 0.005 ng/g tissue to about 100 μg/cj tissue, preferably about 0.05 ng/g tissue to about 20 μg/g tissue.
Furthermore, the period of application to the skin surface is generally about 0.5 to about 24 hours, preferably about 2 to about 12 hours, more preferably about 4 to about 8 hours. In the case of the adhesive preparation, the period of application to the skin surface is generally about 0.5 to about 24 hours, preferably about 2 to about 12 hourrs, more preferably about 4 to about 8 hours.
The present percutaneously absorptive preparation can persistently prevent or treat allergic eye disease by
application thereof the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid, thereby causing transfer of a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a pharmaceutically
acceptable salt tliereof from the preparation to an anterior ocular segment through the skin o x the eyelid rather than a systemic blood flow. In addition., the present percutaneously absorptive preparation can maintain and/or regulate the amount of epinastine or a salt thereof in an anterior ocular segment by controlling th.e content and/or skin permeability/ of
epinastine or a salt thereof, ancL/or the period of application to the skin surfa.ce including the surface of an eyelid.
Therefore, the present preparation can exert a
pharmacological e ffect over a pro longed period by a single application, as compared to conventional preparations such as eye drops. For example, as to tb_e present percutaneously absorptive preparation such as adhesive preparation, ointment preparation, gel preparation and cream preparation, a
therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof for preventing or treatirxg allergic eye disease can be maintained in an anterior ocular segment for at least 8 hours, preferably at least 24 hours, after application of the
preparation to the skin surface including the sur face of an eyelid. Particularly, when the present percutaneousIy
absorptive preparation is applied to the skin surface
including the surface of an eyelid for about 8 hoiαrs, a
therapeuticaliy effective amount of epinastine or- a salt thereof for preventing or treating allergic eye disease can be maintained in an anterior ocular segment for a long time (e.g., 8 hours or moire, preferably 16 hours or more), affter removal of the preparation from the skin. Furthermore, even when the present percutaneously absorptive preparation is applied to the skin surface including the surface of an eyeiid for a short time (e.g., 4 to 8 hours) , a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof for preventing or treating allergic eye disease can be maintained in an anterior ocular segment for a long time (e.g., 8 to 12 hoars or more) after removal of the preparation from the skin.
When the adhesive preparation of the present invention is applied to the skin surface including the surface of an eyelid for about 8 hours, a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof for preventing or treating
allergic eye disease can be maintained in an anterior ocular segment for a long time (e.g., 16 hours or more) after removal of the preparation from the skin.
The dose and the administration period of the present percutaneously/ absorptive preparation vary depending on the target disease, symptom, administration subject,
administration route and the like. For example, an adhesive preparation containing epinastine or a salt thereof in a proportion of about 0.1 to 40% by weight is adhered 1 to 5 times a day for 0.5 to 24 hr, preferably 1 to 3 times a day for 2 to 12 h:tr, more preferably once a day for 4 to 8 hr.'
Since the adhesive can afford an antiallergic effect even after being removed, an allergic eye disease can be treated or prevented by applying the aclliesive to the surface of the eyelid only during the nighttime for about 8 hours , without lowering the QOL by the appl ication of the adhesive during the daytime .
ThLe dose of epinastine or a salt thereof in the present percutaneously absorptive preparation is generally 0 . 05 mg to 5 g/day , preferably 0 . 1 mg to 1 g/day, more preferably 1 mg to 0 .2 g/day, for an adult .
Trie administration period of the present percutaneously absorptiΛ/e preparation is desirably 1 day to about 3 months and repe titive administration during such period is desirable .

Trie present invention will be described in more detail with ref erence to the following examples, whicli are not
intended to limit the present invention .

Examples
(Test example 1 : Pharmacological test us ing a guinea pigj" model for histamine-induced chemosis of conjunctiva)

1 . Preparation of test preparations
(Example 1 : Adhesive preparation containing ep inastine )

epinast-Lne hydrochloride 0 .3 g
isopropy'l myristate 1 .2 g
acrylic pressure 1.485 g (as solids content) sensitive adhesive (PE-300 ]
polyisooyanate compound 0 . 00675 g ( as solids content ) (CK 101 ) '
ethyl acetate proper quantity
total amount 3 g

Epinastine hydrochloride (SANYO KAGΔKU KIENKYUSYO CO . , LTD . ) was mixed with about 2 niL of ethyl acetate . The mixture was subj ect to ultrasonication in disposable cup for about 30 seconds in order to dissolve or disperse epinastine
hydrochloride, and fully mixed with isopropyl myristate .
Acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive 3.7125 g (PE-300 ; acrylate copolymer; solid content of 40% by weight (ethyl acetate/toluene mixed solvent) : 1.485 g; .Nippon Carbide Indααstries Co . , Ltd. ) and polyisocyanate compound (crosslinking agent) 0 . 015 g (CK 101 ; metal chelate; solid content of about 45% by weight (ethyl acetate solvent) : 0.00675 g; Nippon Carbide Industries Co . , L-itd. ) were sequentially added to the mixture . The mixture was fmlly mixed and degassed. The mixture was spread over release li_ner using metering knife or baker applicator, and stood until the organic solvent was completely evaporated . Subsequently, support was laid over trie release liner and compressed using rol ler, and subj ected to crosslinking in "temperature
controlled bath for 8 to 12 hours at about 40°C to give
adhesive preparation containing epinastine hydrochloride .

(Example 2 : ointment preparation)
epinastine hydrochloride 0.3 g
isopropyl myristate 1.2 g
White petrolatum 1.5 g
total amount 3 g

(Example 3 : gel preparation)
epinastine hydrochloride 0.3 g
isopropyl myristate 1.2 g
2% oarboxyvinyl polymer <jel 1.5 g
total amount 3 g (Example 4 : cream preparation)
epinastine hydrochloride 1.0 g
stearic acid 0.2 g
cetyl alcohol 0.3 g
white petrolatum 1.0 g
i-sopropyl myristate 4.0 g
propylene glycol 0.5 g
polysorbate 80 0.5 g
inethylparaben 0.02 <3
propylparaben 0.002 g
ascorbic acid 0.1 g
potassium hydrate propeztr quantity
purified water propeiir quantity
total amount 10 g

( Comparative exampl e 1 : Eye drops containing epinastine)

epinastine hydrochloride 0.05 g
sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate 0.1 g
sodium chloride 0.9 g
disodium. edetate 0.01 g
1 % benzalkonium chloride solution 1 mL
( 10-fold dilution with purified water)
sodium hydroxide proper guantity
purified water proper quantity
total amount 100 mL (pH 7 ;

Sodium dihydirogen phosphate dihydrate, sodium chHoride, ciisodium edetate and 1% benzalkonium chloride solution, were dissolved in purif±ed water . Subsequently, epinastine
hydrochloride (SANYO KAGAKU KENKYUSYO CO . , LTD . ) was dissolved in the mixture, and the volume of ttie solution adjusted to 100 rnl with purified water to give eye drops containing ejoinastine , 2 . Test method
2-1 . Animal
4-week-old male Sic : Hartley guinea pigs were purchased from Japan SLC . Each of the guinea pigs was kept in a
5 breeding room within the conventional area under the condition of temperature of 23 ± 2°C and h-umidity of 55 ± 10% .

2-2 . Test groups
Table 1 stαows the constitution of the test groups ,
I O
Tabi e 1


2-3. Preparation of histamine solution
In order to prepare 2% histamine solution, histamine is dihydrochloride (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd . ) was dissolved in physiological saline, and any impurity was removed through a filter having pore size of 0.22 μαπi (MILLEX TM GV) .

2O 2-4. Preparation of dye (Evans blue) solution
In1 order to prepare 2% dye solution, Evans blue (Merck) was dissolved in physiological saline, and any impu-xity was removed through a filter having pore size of 0 .22 μm (MILLEX TM - GV) .
3
2-5. Induction of chemosis of conjunctiva with hist amine
In order to anesthetize ttie test guinea pig, 0 .5 mL/kg of equivalent mixture of 50 mg/mL of ketamine-containing injection solution (Ketalar™ 50 for animal; SANKYO) and 20 mg/itiL xylazine injection solution (Selactar™ 2% injection solution; Bayer) was intramuscularly administered to the guinea pig d-n the muscle of trie thigh of the hiridlimb using 1 mL syringe with a 25G needle. At 3 to 4 minutes after
intramuscular administration, 1.0 mL/kg (20 mg/k:g) of 2% Evans blue solution was intravenously injected to an ear of the anesthetized guinea pig using 1 mL syringe with a 3OG needle. At 5 minutes after intramuscular administration,- 50 μL of aqueous histamine solution (0.2%) was injected to the
conjunctiva covering the loweir eyelid of the lefϊt eye and then that of the right eye using 1OO μL syringe with a 3OG needle in order to induce conjunctivitis in the test guinea pig. At 30 minutes after induction of conjunctivitis, the guinea pig was sacrificed. The head of the guinea pig was shaved with electric clippers, and the eyelid and conjunctiva region, which had been stained in blue due to the enhanced vascular permeability associated with conjunctiva in the eyelid, were excised.

2-6. Administration of test preparations
Administration of test preparations is described as follows .

Physiological saline :
At 0. 5 hour before induction of conjunctivitis, 10 μL of eye drops containing physiolo gical saline was administered to one eye of the guinea pig using micropipette .

Eye drops o f Comparative example 1 :
At 8 lαours before induction of conjunctivitis, 10 μL of eye drops o f Comparative example 1 was administered to one eye of the guinea pig using micropipette .

Adhesive preparation of Example 1 :
(Treatment A) At 8 hoiαrs before induction of
conjunctivitis, 0 .5 cm2 (0 . 5 cm x 1 cm) of adhesive preparation of Example 1 was applied to the skin of the l eft lower eyelid ( shaved) o f the guinea pig .
(Treatment B) At 16 hours before induct ion of
conjunctivitis, 0.5 cm2 (0 . 5 cm x 1 cm) of adtiesive preparation. of Example 1 was applied to the skin of the l eft lower eyelid

( shaved) o f the guinea pig, and at 8 hours be fore induction off conjunctivitis, adhesive preparation of Example 1 applied was removed.

2-7 . Excis ion of a tissue suffered from chemo sis of
conjunctiva and quantitative determination of: extracted dye from the excised tissue
After excision of a t issue suffered from chemosis of conjunctiva, the tissue was immersed in 0. 8 inL of IN potassium hydroxide solution, and incubated overnight at 37°C (CO2
incubator MCO-345; SANYO) i n order to lyse trie tissue . The obtained lysate was neutral ized and dye-extracted by mixing 7 .2 inL of 5 : 13 (V: V) mixtur-e of 0 . 6 N phosphoric acid and acetone into the lysate . The obtained mixturre was subj ected to centrif ugation (3, 000 rpm for 15 min) . 620 nm absorption of the supernatant was measured using spectrophotometer (U-3010 ; Hitachi ) . On the o trier, the absorption of standard
Evans blue solution was measured, and the amount of extracted dye from each sample tissue s was determined from these
absorptions .

2-8 . Evaluation method
The inhibitory effect on chemosis of conjunctiva was evaluated by the inhibitors rate calculated from the amount of dye extracted in each group and following formula.

inhibitory rate (%) ={!- (X/N) }xlOO
X: average amount of extracted dye in test group
N: average amount of extracted dye in physiological saline (Control) administration group

3. Results
Table 2 shows the evaluated results of pharmacological effect on guinea pig model of histamine- induced chemosis of conjunctiva.

Table 2
Group Inhibitory rate(%)
Treated eye Untreated eye
(one e;ye) (Opposite eye)

Administered with eye drops 34.6 ± 6.1 18.6 ± IO .0 of Comparative exampLe 1
Applied with adhesive
preparation of ExampILe 1 58.3 ± 2.3 17.9 ± 12 .1 (treatment A)
A-pp lied with adhesive
preparation of Example e 1 48.2 ± 6.3 10.9 ± 12 .6 (treatment B)
Each value represents mean ± standard errror.

-As shown in Table 2, both of the groups applied with the adhesive preparation, of Example 1 (Treatments A and B) showed a higher inhibito my effect on his tamine-induced
chemosis of conjunctiva than did the group administered wi_th eye drops of Comparative example 1. Particularly, the group applied with adhesive preparation of Example 1 (treatment B) showed a, pharmacological effect even at 8 hours after removal of the preparation from the skin.
In addition, the eye applied with the adhesive
preparation of Example L showed a higher inhibitory effect on histamine-induced chemosis of conjunctiva than did the
opposite eye without application of the preparation.

The results show that epinastine hydrochloride Wa-S del ivered to an anterior ocular segment through the skLn of the eyelid rather than a systemic blood flow .
Therefore, the present percutaneously absorptive
preparation can exert a persistent pharmacological effect (anti-allergic effect ) for a long time . In addition, the pre sent preparation can locally exert a pharmacologica-L effect by application to the skin surface including the surface of an eye lid of the eye to be treated.

(Te st example 2 : Evaluation of drug delivery to the eye tis sue)

The present per cutaneously absoztrptive preparation is applied on the skin o f upper and/or lower eyelids on tine eye .

The quantity of epinastine hydro chloride in eye t issue (tear and conjunctiva ) is determined "using high-perforrnance liquid chromatography (HPLC) .

(Test example 3 : Phar-macological test using a guinea pzLg model for: histamine-induced chemosis of conj unctiva)

1 . Preparation of tes t preparation
Example 1 : Adhe sive preparation containing epinastine in Test example 1 was us ed as a test preparation.

2 . Test method
2-1 . Animal
4-week-old male SIc : Hartley guinea pigs were purchased from Japan SLC . Each, of the guinea pigs was kept in a
breeding room within the conventionaL area under the condition of temperature of 23 ± 2°C and humidity of 55 ± 10% .

2-2 . Test groups
Table 3 shows the constitution of the test groups .

Table 3


2-3 . Preparation of histamine solution
In order to prepare 2% histamine solution, histamine dihydrochloride (Wako Pure Chemical- Industries, Ltd. ) was dissolved in physiological saline, and any impurity was removed through a filter having poire size of 0 .45 μiti (GL chromatodisc 25A) .

2-4 . Preparation of dye (Evans blue) solution
In order to prepare 2% dye solution, Evans blue (SIGMA) was dissolved in physiological saline, and any impurity was removed through a filter having po-tre size of 0 .45 μm (GL chromatodisc 25A) .

2-5 . Induction of chemosis of conjunctiva with histamine
In order to anesthetize the test guinea pig, 0 . 5 mL/kg of equivalent mixture of 50 mg/mL of Retamine-containing
inj ection solution (Ketalar™ 50 fo r animal ; SANKYO ) and 20 mg/mL xylazine inj ection solution (Selactar™ 2% inj ection solution; Bayer) was intramuscularly administered to the guinea pig in the muscle of the thigh of the hindlimb using 1 iuL syringe with a 25G needle . At 3 to 4 minutes after
intramuscular administration, 1 . 0 nαL/kg (20 mg/kg) o f 2% Evans blue solution was intravenously inj ected to an ear o f the anesthetized guinea pig using 1 rαL syringe with a 3OG needle .

At 5 minutes after intramuscular administration, 50 μL of aqueous hi stamine solution ( 0 . 2 %) was inj ected t o the
conjunctiva, covering the lower: eyelid of the lef t eye and then that of th.e right eye using I OO μL syringe with a 3OG needle in order to induce conjunctiviti s in the test guine a pig. At 30 minutes after induction of conjunctivitis, the oj~uinea pig was sacrificed . The head of the guinea pig was shaved with electric clippers, and the eyelid and conjunctiva region, which had been stained in blue due to the enhanced vascular permeabildL ty associated with conjunctiva in the eyelid, were excised.

2-6 . Administration of test preparations
AdmzLnistration of test preparations is described as follows .

PhysiologiLcal saline :
At 0 . 5 hour before induction of conjunctivitis, IO μL of eye drops containing physiolo gical saline was administered to one eye O-E" the guinea pig using micropipette .

Adhesive preparation of Examp le 1 :
(Treatment C) At 8 hour s before induction of
conjunctivitis, 0 . 5 cm2 ( 0.5 cm x 1 cm) of adhes ive preparation of Example 1 was applied to trie skin of the left lower eyelid

(shaved) of the guinea pig.
(Treatment D) At 24 hours before induction, of
conjunctivitis, 0 .5 cm2 ( 0.5 cm x 1 cm) of adhesive preparation of Example 1 was applied to trie skin of the left lower eyelid ( shaved) of the guinea pig, and at 16 hours before induction of conjunctivitis, adhesive preparation of Example 1 applied was removed .

2-7. Excision of a tissue suffered from chemosis of
conjunctiva and quantitative determination of extracted dye from the excised tissue
After excision of a tissue suffered from chemosis of conjunctiva, the tissue was immersed in 0.8 mL of IN potassium hydroxide solution, and incubated overrnight at 37°C (COz incubator MCO-345; SANYO) in order to lyse the tissue. The obtained lysate was neutralized and dye-extracted by mining 7.2 mL of 5:13 (V:V) mixture of 0.6N phosphoric acid and acetone into the lysate. The obtained mixture was subjected to centrifugation ( 3, 000 rpm for 15 min) . 620 nm absorption of the supernatant "was measured using spectrophotometer (U-3010; Hitachi) . On the other, the absorption of standarrd Evans blue solution, was measured, and the amount of extracted dye from each sample tissues was determined from these
absorptions .

2-8. Evaluation method
The inhibitory effect on chemosis of conjunctiva was evaluated by the inriibitory rate calculated from the amount of dye extracted in each group and following formula.

inhibitory rate (%) = {1- (X/N) }xlOO
X: average amount of extracted dye in test group
N: average amount of extracted dye in physiological sal ine (Control) administr-ation group

3. Results
Table 4 shows the evaluated resταlts of pharmacological effect on guinea p:Lg model of histamine-induced chemosLs of conjunctiva.

Table 4



Each value represents mean ± st andard error .

As shown in Table 4 , the groups applied with, the adhesive preparation of Example 1 (Treatments D) showed a pharmacological effect (anti-al lergic effect ) even at 16 hours after removal of the preparation from the skin.

Industrial Applicability
The preparation of the present invention can persistently deliver a therapeutically effective amount of epinastine or a salt thereof to an anterior ocular segment through the skin of the eyelid ratlher than a systemic blood flow, exert a
pharmacological effect on the s egment over a prolonged period, and can decrea se the risk of adverse side effects, and
therefore, can. be used as an agent for preventing or treating an allergic ey"e disease .

This application is based on a patent appl ication No . 60/ 697 , 369 fi led in USA, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety .