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1. (WO2007005565) FLUID DELIVERY DEVICE HAVING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL PUMP WITH AN ION-EXCHANGE MEMBRANE AND ASSOCIATED METHOD
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A fluid delivery device, comprising:
an electrochemical pump for transporting water;
an electrochemical pump product chamber being capable of retaining water transported by the electrochemical pump;
a reservoir being capable of containing a fluid to be delivered;
a displaceable member positioned between the electrochemical pump product chamber and the reservoir, wherein the displaceable member is responsive to transporting water;
a controller operably connected to the electrochemical pump wherein a rate of water transport being responsive to electrical current flowing through the control circuit; and, a housing containing the electrochemical pump, the electrochemical pump product chamber, the displaceable member, and the reservoir therein.
2. The fluid delivery device of claim 1 , wherein the electrochemical pump comprises: an active electrode;
an active electrode chamber containing the active electrode;
an auxiliary electrode in ionic communication with the active electrode;
the active electrode and the auxiliary electrode being operably connected to the control circuit;
an ion-exchange membrane positioned between the active electrode and the auxiliary electrode, the ion-exchange membrane being sealed to the active electrode chamber and facilitating movement of the displaceable member in response to transport of transporting water.
3. The fluid delivery device according to claim 2, wherein, the auxiliary electrode is positioned within the housing.
4. The fluid delivery device according to claim 2, wherein, the auxiliary electrode is positioned external to the housing.
5. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, wherein the electrochemical pump being

inserted within a body, the electrochemical pump further including:
at least one protective porous separators being permeable to H2O molecules or saline, the at least one protective separator being attached to the housing wherein either electrode or the ion-exchange membrane are indirectly exposed and not in direct contact with a body tissue or fluid.
6. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, further comprising:
a galvanic couple composed of the auxiliary electrode and active electrode.
7. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, wherein the ion exchange membrane is an anionic or cationic type.
8. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, wherein the ion-exchange membrane is a polymer or ceramic material.
9. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, wherein the ion-exchange membrane includes a geometry being a sheet, a hollow fiber, or a tube.
10. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, further including a second or multiple ion-exchange membrane.
11. The fluid delivery device of claim 10, wherein the ion-exchange membranes are of similar type.
12. The fluid delivery device of claim 10, wherein the ion-exchange membranes are of different type.
13. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the displaceable member is selected from the group consisting of a piston, a bladder, a flexible bag, a bellows, a diaphragm, a plunger, and a combination thereof.
14. The fluid delivery device of claim 13, wherein the piston comprises a tubing and a plunger.
15. The fluid delivery device of claim 14, wherein the plunger is a ball, a bubble, a solid, a separating fluid, a bung, or a gel.
16. The fluid delivery device of claim 2 further comprising:
a chamber being impermeable to body fluid, the chamber containing saline, water, and the auxiliary electrode; and,
a second displaceable member being operably connected to the chamber wherein the second displaceable member retracts in response to transfer of water from the auxiliary electrode.
17. The fluid delivery device of claim 2 further comprising: a chamber being impermeable to body fluid, the chamber containing saline, water, and the auxiliary electrode wherein the chamber collapses in response to transfer of water from the auxiliary electrode.
18. The fluid delivery device according to claim 1, wherein the electrochemical pump further includes an activation switch for operating the fluid delivery device.
19. The fluid delivery device of claim 18, wherein the activation switch is of an ionic, electronic, or mechanical type.
20. The fluid delivery device of claim 19, wherein the activation switch is controlled by the control circuit.
21. The fluid delivery device of claim 2, wherein the electrochemical pump further includes:
a support member for supporting the ion-exchange membrane.
22. The fluid delivery device of claim 21, wherein the support member is a porous solid material selected from group consisting of plastic; ceramic; glass, corrosion stable metal, or a combination thereof.
23. The fluid delivery device of claim 21, wherein the support member includes a structure selected from group consisting of fabric, perforated plate, and, mesh.
24. The fluid delivery device of claim 21 wherein the support member includes a geometry being flat, concave, convex, or tubular.
25. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the fluid to be delivered is a biological, a drug, a lubricant, a fragrant fluid, a chemical agent, or a mixture thereof.
26. The fluid delivery device of claim 1 wherein the fluid is homogenous.
27. The fluid delivery device of claim 1 wherein the fluid is layered to provide intermittent delivery of an active or multiple and different actives.
28. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the fluid is a gel, a paste, or a suspension with or without dispersant.
29. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the fluid is a solid or semi-solid material.
30. The fluid delivery device of claim 29, wherein the fluid is a rod or encapsulated pill.

31. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the reservoir includes a plurality of apertures.
32. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, further including at least one catheter being operably connected to the reservoir.
33. The fluid delivery device of claim 32 wherein the at least one catheter is flexible.

34. The fluid delivery device of claim 32 wherein the at least one catheter is perforated.

35. The fluid delivery device of claim 32 wherein the at least one catheter includes a diffusive outlet.
36. The fluid delivery device of claim 32 wherein the at least one catheter includes a check valve.
37. The fluid delivery device of claim 1 being implanted within a body.
38. The fluid delivery of claim 37, wherein the controlling electrical circuit is present within the body.
39. The fluid delivery device of claim 37, wherein the control circuit being capable of remote adjustment external to the body.
40. The fluid delivery device of claim 1, wherein the control circuit being capable of varying a fluid delivery rate in response to varying the resistance of the circuit.
41. A fluid delivery device capable of being implanted within a body, the fluid delivery device comprising:
an electrochemical pump for transporting water;
a control circuit including an output signal, the control circuit being operably connected to the electrochemical pump wherein a rate of water transport being responsive to electrical current flowing through the control circuit;
an active electrode and an auxiliary electrode being in ionic communication with each other and operably connected to the control circuit;
a reservoir being capable of containing a fluid to delivered;
a displaceable member positioned between the electrochemical pump product chamber and the reservoir, wherein the displaceable member is responsive to transporting water;
an ion-exchange membrane positioned between the active electrode and the auxiliary electrode, the ion-exchange membrane being sealed to the active electrode chamber and facilitating movement of the displaceable member in response to transport of transporting water;
at least one protective porous separator being permeable to H2O molecules or saline and positioned such that either electrode or the ion-exchange membrane is indirectly exposed to the body tissue or body fluids; and,
a housing containing the electrochemical pump, the displaceable member, and the reservoir therein, wherein the auxiliary electrode is external to the housing.
42. The fluid delivery device of claim 41 wherein the at least one protective porous separator is a gel.
43. The fluid delivery device of claim 41 further comprising:
an electrochemical pump product chamber being capable of retaining water transported from the electrochemical pump.
44. For the fluid delivery device of claim 41, a method for delivering a fluid, the method comprising the steps of:
transporting water using the electrochemical water transporting pump at a rate proportional to the control circuit output signal; thereby expanding a volume of an electrochemical pump product chamber;
generating sufficient pressure from the expanded electrochemical pump product chamber; and,
displacing a displaceable member, and, in turn, controllably expelling fluid from the reservoir.
45. The method of claim 44 further including adjusting a fluid delivery rate profile.

46. The method of claim 44 further includes adjusting a fluid delivery rate.
47. The method of claim 46 wherein adjusting a fluid delivery rate includes changing the output signal of the control circuit.
48. The method of claim 44, further including the steps of:
providing a switch operably coupled between the active electrode and the auxiliary electrode; and,
activating the switch to control delivery of the fluid.