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1. WO2007002662 - ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, RADIOPROTECTIVE, AND LONGEVITY ENHANCING CAPABILITIES OF CERIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

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CLAIMS

1. A method of increasing cell longevity, said method comprising:
contacting the cell to cerium oxide nanoparticles of a size of 11 nm to about

500 nm in an amount sufficient to result in increased cell longevity.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is a method of reducing free radical damage within the cell.

3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the cerium oxide nanoparticles are produced from a process other than a sol-gel method.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is a method of treating a subject suffering from a disease, disorder, or dysfunction associated with free radical damage or to prevent or delay a subject from getting a disease, disorder, or dysfunction associated with free radical damage.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein contacting comprises administering to the subject the cerium oxide nanoparticles in an amount sufficient to treat a disease or disorder.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the cerium oxide nanoparticles are delivered via liposomes.

7. The method of claim 5, wherein the cerium oxide nanoparticles are administered with albumin.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is a method of preventing aging of cells of a subject.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the method uses topical administration in the form of makeup or anti-aging cream.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the size of the cerium oxide nanoparticles is from 11 nm to about 50 nm.

11. The method of claim 1 , wherein the size of the cerium oxide nanoparticles is from 40 nm to about 500 nm.

12. The method of claim 1 , wherein the cerium oxide particles have a size of about 20 nm.

13. The method of claim 1 , wherein greater than 95% of the cerium oxide particles have a size of between about 15 nm and about 25 nm.

14. The method of claim 1 , wherein the cerium oxide nanoparticles are administered to a subject in at least one dose comprising from about 0.01 ng to about 1 g of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the at least one dose is 1 ng to 100 mg per kg weight of subject.

16. The method of claim 14, wherein the at least one dose is 10 nM to 1 uM blood or intracellular fluid concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticles

17. The method of claim 14, wherein multiple doses are administered, and each dose is given months or years apart from another.

18. The method of claim 1 , wherein the method is a method of treating a human.

19. The method of claim 1 , wherein the method is a method of treating a non-human animal.

20. The method of claim 1, wherein contacting comprises administration, and wherein the administration is by oral ingestion, through injection, by infusion, through topical administration, through inhalation, through sublingual absorption, through rectal or vaginal delivery, or any combination thereof.

21. The method of claim 1 , which is a method of prevention or treatment of brain disease, a spinal cord disease, or other neurological trauma.

22. The method of claim 1 , which is a method of prevention or treatment of a neurodegenerative disorder.

23. The method of claim 1 , which is a method of prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, toxin-mediated damage, or stroke.

24. The method of claim 1 , which is a method of prevention or treatment of arthritis or joint disease.

25. The method of claim I5 which is a method of prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

26. The method of claim 1, which is a method of prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease.

27. The method of claim 1 , which is a method of prevention or treatment of diabetes.

28. The method of claim 1, which is a method of prevention or treatment of diseases of the retina.

29. The method of claim 1, which is a method of prevention or treatment of an allergic or autoimmune disorder.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the disorder is allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory dysfunction, or an autoimmune disease.

31. The method of claim 1 , which is a method for prevention or treatment of inflammation.

32. The method of claim 31 , wherein the inflammation is at the site of a wound.

33. The method of claim 1, which is an in vitro method.

34. The method of claim 1 , which is an ex vivo method in which at least one cell is removed from a multi-cellular organism, treated with the cerium oxide nanoparticles, and then returned to the organism.

35. The method of claim 34, in which the blood from an organism is exposed to the cerium oxide nanoparticles, and then returned to the organism.

36. The method of claim 1, which is a method of radioprotection of cells exposed to radiation during a cancer treatment regimen.

37. An in vivo method of treating at least one cell with cerium oxide nanoparticles comprising: contacting the cell with cerium oxide nanoparticles of a size of about less than 1 nm to about 500 nm in an amount sufficient to reduce free radical damage within the cell.

38. The method of claim 37, wherein contacting comprises administering at least one dose of the cerium oxide nanoparticles to a subject.

39. The method of claim 37, Wherein the size of the cerium oxide nanoparticles is from 11 nm to about 50 nm.

40. The method of claim 37, wherein the size of the cerium oxide nanoparticles is from 40 nm to about 500 nm, and wherein a majority of the nanoparticles exert their effect outside of the cell by reducing the level of free radicals that can diffuse into the cell.

41. The method of claim 37, wherein the cerium oxide particles have a size of about 20 nm.

42. The method of claim 37, wherein greater than 95% of the cerium oxide particles have a size of between about 15 nm and about 25 nm.

43. The method of claim 37, wherein the cerium oxide nanoparticles are administered to a subject in at least one dose comprising from about 0.01 ng to about 1 g of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

44. The nanoparticles of claim 43, wherein the at least one dose is 1 ng to 100 mg per kg weight of subject.

45. The rianoparticles of claim 43, wherein the at least one dose is 10 nM to 1 uM blood or intracellular fluid concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

46. The method of claim 43, wherein multiple doses are administered, and each dose is given months or years apart from another.

47. The method of claim 37, wherein the method is a method of treating a human.

48. The method of claim 37, wherein the method is a method of treating a non-human animal.

49. The method of claim 37, wherein contacting comprises administration, and wherein the administration is by oral ingestion, through subcutaneous injection, through injection, by infusion, through topical administration, through inhalation, through sub ngual absorption, through rectal or vaginal delivery, or any combination thereof.

50. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of brain disease, a spinal cord disease, or other neurological trauma.

51. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of a neurodegenerative disorder.

52. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, toxin-mediated damage, or stroke.

53. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of arthritis or joint disease.

54. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

55. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease.

56. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of diabetes.

57. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of diseases of the retina.

58. The method of claim 37, which is a method of prevention or treatment of an allergic or autoimmune disorder.

59. The method of claim 58, wherein the disorder is allergy, asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory dysfunction, or an autoimmune disease.

60. The method of claim 37, which is a method for prevention or treatment of inflammation.

61. The method of claim 60, wherein the inflammation is at the site of a wound.

62. The method of claim 37, which is a method of radioprotection of cells exposed to radiation during a cancer treatment regimen.

63. The method of claim 1, which is a method to increase the longevity of cells grown in large scale cell cultures.

64. The method of claim 63, wherein the cell cultures are yeast cultures.

65. The method of claim 63, wherein the cell cultures produce consumable products.

66. The method of claim 63, wherein the cell cultures are mammalian cultures.

67. The method of claim 63, wherein the cell cultures are plant cultures.

68. A method of determining the effects of one or more environmental stimuli on free radical production in a cell, said method comprising:
contacting at least one cell with cerium oxide nanoparticles of a size of at least 11 nm to provide treated cells;
optionally providing identical cells, but which are not contacted with cerium oxide nanoparticles to provide control cells;
observing the treated and, where provided, control cells for detectable changes in free radical levels; and
optionally, comparing the free radical levels in the treated and control cells.

69. The method of claim 68, wherein the environmental stimuli is one or more chemicals.

70. Cerium oxide nanoparticles having a size range of from 11 nm to 500 nm.

71. The nanoparticles of claim 70, wherein the nanoparticles have been sonicated to avoid agglomeration.

72. A composition comprising the nanoparticles of claim 70, further comprising one or more biologically tolerable substances.

73. The composition of claim 72, wherein the biologically tolerable substance is water, a salt, phosphate buffered saline, a lipid, or a combination of any of these.

74. Cerium oxide nanoparticles having a size range of less than 1 nm to about 500 nm, in an amount sufficient to provide a single dose of particles to an animal to reduce or eliminate clinical symptoms resulting from damage due to free radicals in cells of the animal, or to prevent such clinical symptoms.

75. The nanoparticles of claim 74, wherein the single dose is 1 ng to 100 mg per kg weight of subject.

76. The nanoparticles of claim 74, wherein the single dose is 10 nM to 1 uM blood or intracellular fluid concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

77. A composition comprising a pharmaceutically suitable substance and the cerium oxide nanoparticles of claim 74.

78. The composition of claim 77, which is a pharmaceutical composition for therapeutic treatment of the animal.

79. The nanoparticles of claim 74, wherein the animal is a human.

80. A composition comprising the nanoparticles of claim 74, further comprising one or more substances having a beneficial effect on the diet or nutrition of the animal.

81. The composition of claim 80, which is a nutritional supplement for the animal.

82. The composition of claim 80, which is a dietary supplement for the animal.

83. The composition of claim 80, wherein the animal is a human.

84. A container comprising cerium oxide nanoparticles of a size range between 11 nm and 500 nm, inclusive.

85. A kit comprising the container of claim 84.

86. The kit of claim 85, wherein the kit comprises two or more containers.

87. The kit of claim 85, further comprising one or more solvents or carriers for the nanoparticles.

88. A container comprising cerium oxide nanoparticles of a size range between less than about 1 nm and about 500 nm, inclusive, in an amount sufficient to provide one dose for treatment of an animal to reduce or eliminate clinical symptoms resulting from damage due to free radicals in cells of the animal, or to prevent such clinical symptoms.

89. A kit comprising the container of claim 88.

90. The kit of claim 89, wherein the kit comprises two or more containers.

91. The kit of claim 90, wherein each container independently contains an amount of nanoparticles, which may be the same or different from one or more other containers.

92. The kit of claim 90, further comprising one or more solvents or carriers for the nanoparticles.

93. A medical prosthesis made from joint replacements or joint additives coated with or containing cerium oxide nanoparticles of a size of at least about 1 nm to 500 nm in an amount sufficient to reduce inflammation in the subject.