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1. (WO2006102370) FUNCTIONAL BRAIN MRI MAPPING AS A MARKER IN CNS DISEASES AND DISORDERS
Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

Claims
1. A method for assessing the likelihood of a subject to have a therapeutic response to a pharmaceutical agent or therapy, comprising
determining a functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject performing a task, wherein the subject is known to have or suspected of having a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder;
comparing the functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject to a control functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes, and assessing the likelihood that the subject will have a therapeutic response to a pharmaceutical agent or therapy based on the comparison of the test and control functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the control functional connectivity is a functional connectivity previously determined in the subject performing the task.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the control functional connectivity is the functional connectivity in a control subject performing the task.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the control subject does not have the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

5. The method of claim 3, wherein the control subject has the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

6. The method of claim 1 , wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the neural network node is a control neural network node.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the control neural network node is in the
occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

11. The method of claim 1 , wherein the task comprises an N-back task.

12. The method of claim 1 , wherein the task comprises a cognitive task.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the cognitive task comprises a semantic reasoning task or a visuospatial recognition task.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein the task comprises a motor task.

15. The method of claim 1 , wherein the task comprises a sensory task.

16. The method of claim 1 , wherein the task is a self-paced task or an externally paced task.

17. The method of claim 1 , wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject during performance of the task.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting task data indicative of functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes during performance of the task; and filtering, from the task data, a contribution to the task data arising from background neural activity.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with performance of a reference task.

20. The method of claim 18, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

22. The method of claim 18, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with the selected region during performance of the task.

23. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
having the subject perform the task during a first plurality of task intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment,
collecting data from each of the first time segments into a first data set,
collecting data from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and filtering, from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

25. The method of claim 23, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

26. The method of claim 1, wherein the pharmaceutical agent or therapy is for the treatment of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein the pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate
(NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

28. The method of claim 27,wherein the cholinesterase inhibitor is galantamine.

29. The method of claim 26, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

31. A method for selecting a therapeutic regimen for a subject known to have or suspected of having a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder comprising:
determining a functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject performing a task, comparing the functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject to a control functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes, and
selecting a therapeutic regimen for the subject based on the comparison of the test and control functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein the control functional connectivity is a functional connectivity previously determined in the subject performing the task.

33. The method of claim 31, wherein the control functional connectivity is the functional connectivity in a control subject performing the task.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the control subject does not have the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

35. The method of claim 33, wherein the control subject has the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

36. The method of claim 31, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

37. The method of claim 36, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

38. The method of claim 31 , wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

39. The method of claim 31 , wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

40. The method of claim 39, wherein the control neural network node is in the
occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

41. The method of claim 31 , wherein the task comprises an N-back task.

42. The method of claim 31 , wherein the task comprises a cognitive task.

43. The method of claim 38, wherein the cognitive task comprises a semantic reasoning task or a visuospatial recognition task.

44. The method of claim 31 , wherein the task comprises a motor task.

45. The method of claim 31 , wherein the task comprises a sensory task.

46. The method of claim 31 , wherein the task is a self-paced task or an externally paced task.

47. The method of claim 31 , wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the test subject during performance of the task.

48. The method of claim 31 , wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting task data indicative of functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes during performance of the task; and filtering, from the task data, a contribution to the task data arising from background neural activity.

49. The method of claim 48, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with performance of a reference task.

50. The method of claim 48, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

51. The method of claim 50, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

52. The method of claim 48, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with the selected region during performance of the task.

53. The method of claim 31 , wherein determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
having the subject perform the task during a first plurality of task intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment,
collecting data from each of the first time segments into a first data set,
collecting data from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and filtering, from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

54. The method of claim 53, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

55. The method of claim 53, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

56. The method of claim 31, wherein the therapeutic regimen comprises administering a pharmaceutical agent or therapy.

57. The method of claim 56, wherein the pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate

(NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

58. The method of claim 57,wherein the cholinesterase inhibitor is galantamine.

59. The method of claim 56, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

60. The method of claim 59, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

61. A method for identifying the onset, progression, or regression of a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in a subject, comprising
determining a first functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subj ect performing a task,
determining a second functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject performing the task at a time later than the determination of the first functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject performing the task, and comparing the first functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes to the second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes, wherein a difference between the first and second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes identifies the onset, progression, or regression of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in the subject.

62. The method of claim 61, wherein an increase or decrease in the second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes compared to the first functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes indicates the onset or progression of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in the subject.

63. The method of claim 61, wherein an increase or decrease in the second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes compared to the first functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes indicates the regression of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in the subject.

64. The method of claim 61, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

65. The method of claim 64, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

66. The method of claim 61, wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

67. The method of claim 61 , wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

68. The method of claim 67, wherein the control neural network node is in the occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

69. The method of claim 61 , wherein the task comprises an N-back task.

70. The method of claim 61 , wherein the task comprises a cognitive task.

71. The method of claim 70, wherein the cognitive task comprises a semantic reasoning task or a visuospatial recognition task.

72. The method of claim 61 , wherein the task comprises a motor task.

73. The method of claim 61 , wherein the task comprises a sensory task.

74. The method of claim 61, wherein the task is a self-paced task or an externally paced task.

75. The method of claim 61 , wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject during performance of the task.

76. The method of claim 61 , wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting task data indicative of functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes during performance of the task; and filtering, from the task data, a contribution to the task data arising from background neural activity.

77. The method of claim 76, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with performance of a reference task.

78. The method of claim 76, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

79. The method of claim 78, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

80. The method of claim 76, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with the selected region during performance of the task.

81. The method of claim 61 , wherein determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
having the subject perform the task during a first plurality of task intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment,
collecting data from each of the first time segments into a first data set,
collecting data from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and filtering, from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

82. The method of claim 81 , wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

83. The method of claim 81 , wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

84. The method of claim 61, wherein the subject has been administered a pharmaceutical agent or therapy as a treatment for the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

85. The method of claim 84, wherein the pharmaceutical agent or therapy is administered between the time of the first and second determinations of the functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject.

86. The method of claim 84, wherein the pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRT)/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

87. The method of claim 86, wherein the cholinesterase inhibitor is galantamine.

88. The method of claim 84, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

89. The method of claim 88, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

90. A method for identifying a candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy for preventing or treating a neurological or psychiatric disorder, comprising
determining a first functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject performing a task, wherein the subject has a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder,
administering a candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy to the subject,
determining after the administration of the candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy a second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject performing the task, and
comparing the first and second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject, wherein a difference between the first and second functional connectivity of the two or more neural networks nodes in the subject identifies the candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy for preventing or treating the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

91. The method of claim 90, wherein the difference is an increase in the second functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject compared to the first functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes.

92. The method of claim 90, wherein the control functional connectivity is a functional connectivity previously determined in the subject performing the task.

93. The method of claim 90, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

94. The method of claim 93, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

95. The method of claim 90, wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

96. The method of claim 90, wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

97. The method of claim 96, wherein the control neural network node is in the
occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

98. The method of claim 90, wherein the task comprises an N-back task.

99. The method of claim 90, wherein the task comprises a cognitive task.

100. The method of claim 99, wherein the cognitive task comprises a semantic reasoning task or a visuospatial recognition task.

101. The method of claim 90, wherein the task comprises a motor task.

102. The method of claim 90, wherein the task comprises a sensory task.

103. The method of claim 90, wherein the task is a self-paced task or an externally paced task.

104. The method of claim 90, wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject during performance of the task.

105. The method of claim 90, wherein the method of determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting task data indicative of functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes during performance of the task; and filtering, from the task data, a contribution to the task data arising from background neural activity.

106. The method of claim 105, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with performance of a reference task.

107. The method of claim 105, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

108. The method of claim 107, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

109. The method of claim 105, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with the selected region during performance of the task.

110. The method of claim 90, wherein determining the functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
having the subject perform the task during a first plurality of task intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment,
collecting data from each of the first time segments into a first data set,
collecting data from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and filtering, from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

111. The method of claim 110, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

112. The method of claim 110, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

113. The method of claim 90, wherein the candidate pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a
dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

114. The method of claim 90, wherein the therapy is use of a medical device or brain surgery.

115. A method for assessing the likelihood of a subject to have a therapeutic response to a pharmaceutical agent or therapy, comprising
determining a resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject, wherein the subject is known to have or suspected of having a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder;
comparing the resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject to a control resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes, and
assessing the likelihood that the subject will have a therapeutic response to a pharmaceutical agent or therapy based on the comparison of the test and control resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes.

116. The method of claim 115, wherein the control resting functional connectivity is a resting functional connectivity previously determined in the subject.

117. The method of claim 115, wherein the control resting functional connectivity is the resting functional connectivity in a control subject.

118. The method of claim 117, wherein the control subject does not have the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

119. The method of claim 117, wherein the control subject has the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

120. The method of claim 115, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, coma, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

121. The method of claim 120, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

122. The method of claim 115, wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

123. The method of claim 115, wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

124. The method of claim 123, wherein the control neural network node is in the occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

125. The method of claim 115, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a resting sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject.

126. The method of claim 115, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting data indicative of resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes; and filtering, from the data, a contribution to the data arising from background neural activity.

127. The method of claim 126, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

128. The method of claim 127, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

129. The method of claim 115, wherein determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
collecting data from the subject during each of a first plurality of intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment, wherein data is collected from each of the first time segments into a first data set, and data is collected from each of the second time segments into a second data set, and
filtering, from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

130. The method of claim 129, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

131. The method of claim 129, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

132. The method of claim 115, wherein the pharmaceutical agent or therapy is for the treatment of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

133. The method of claim 132, wherein the pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRQ/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

134. The method of claim 133, wherein the cholinesterase inhibitor is galantamine.

135. The method of claim 132, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

136. The method of claim 135, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

137. A method for selecting a therapeutic regimen for a subject known to have or suspected of having a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder comprising:
determining a resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject, comparing the resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject to a control resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes, and
selecting a therapeutic regimen for the subject based on the comparison of the test and control resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes.

138. The method of claim 137, wherein the control resting functional connectivity is a resting functional connectivity previously determined in the subject.

139. The method of claim 137, wherein the control resting functional connectivity is the resting functional connectivity in a control subject.

140. The method of claim 139, wherein the control subject does not have the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

141. The method of claim 139, wherein the control subject has the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

142. The method of claim 137, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, coma, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

143. The method of claim 142, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

144. The method of claim 137, wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

145. The method of claim 137, wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

146. The method of claim 145, wherein the control neural network node is in the occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

147. The method of claim 137, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a resting sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject.

148. The method of claim 137, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting data indicative of resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes; and filtering, from the data, a contribution to the data arising from background neural activity.

149. The method of claim 148, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

150. The method of claim 149, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

151. The method of claim 137, wherein determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
collecting data from the subject during each of a first plurality of intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment, wherein data is collected from each of the first time segments into a first data set, and data is collected from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and
filtering, from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

152. The method of claim 151, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

153. The method of claim 151, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

154. The method of claim 137, wherein the therapeutic regimen comprises administering a pharmaceutical agent or therapy.

155. The method of claim 154, wherein the pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

156. The method of claim 155, wherein the cholinesterase inhibitor is galantamine.

157. The method of claim 154, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

158. The method of claim 157, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

159. A method for identifying the onset, progression, or regression of a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in a subject, comprising
determining a first resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject,
determining a second resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes the subject at a time later than the determination of the first resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject, and
comparing the first resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes to the second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes, wherein a difference between the first and second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes identifies the onset, progression, or regression of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in the subject.

160. The method of claim 159, wherein a decrease in the second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes compared to the first resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes indicates the onset, progression, or regression of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in the subject.

161. The method of claim 159, wherein an increase in the second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes compared to the first resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes indicates the onset, progression, or regression of the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder in the subject.

162. The method of claim 159, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, coma, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

163. The method of claim 162, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

164. The method of claim 159, wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

165. The method of claim 159, wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

166. The method of claim 165, wherein the control neural network node is in the occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

167. The method of claim 159, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a resting sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject.

168. The method of claim 159, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting data indicative of resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes; and filtering, from the data, a contribution to the data arising from background neural activity.

169. The method of claim 168, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

170. The method of claim 169, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

171. The method of claim 159, wherein determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
collecting data from the subject during each of a first plurality of intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment, wherein data is collected from each of the first time segments into a first data set, and data is collected from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and
filtering from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

172. The method of claim 171, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

173. The method of claim 171, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

174. The method of claim 159, wherein the subject has been administered a
pharmaceutical agent or therapy as a treatment for the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

175. The method of claim 174, wherein the pharmaceutical agent or therapy is
administered between the time of the first and second determinations of the resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject.

176. The method of claim 174, wherein the pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRJ)/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate
(NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

177. The method of claim 176, wherein the cholinesterase inhibitor is galantamine.

178. The method of claim 174, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

179. The method of claim 178, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

180. A method for identifying a candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy for preventing or treating a neurological or psychiatric disorder, comprising
determining a first resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in a subject, wherein the subject has a neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder, administering a candidate pharmaceutical agent to the subject,
determining after the administration of the candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy a second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject, and
comparing the first and second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject, wherein a difference between the first and second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural networks nodes in the subject identifies the candidate pharmaceutical agent or therapy for preventing or treating the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder.

181. The method of claim 180, wherein the difference is an increase in the second resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes in the subject compared to the first resting functional connectivity of the two or more neural network nodes.

182. The method of claim 180, wherein the control resting functional connectivity is a resting functional connectivity previously determined in the subject.

183. The method of claim 180, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dementia unspecified, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, brain injury, schizophrenia, a sensory neuropathy, a motor neuropathy, a psychotic disorder, migraine, epilepsy, tremor, coma, an affective disorder, stroke, or stroke recovery.

184. The method of claim 183, wherein the neurological or psychiatric disease or disorder is Alzheimer's disease.

185. The method of claim 180, wherein the two or more neural network nodes are located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and/or medial frontal cortex (MFC).

186. The method of claim 180, wherein a neural network node is a control neural network node.

187. The method of claim 186, wherein the control neural network node is in the occipitotemporal cortex (OT).

188. The method of claim 180, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises obtaining a resting sequence of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images of the subject.

189. The method of claim 180, wherein the method of determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes in the subject comprises: collecting data indicative of resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes; and filtering, from the data, a contribution to the data arising from background neural activity.

190. The method of claim 189, wherein the background neural activity comprises neural activity associated with a selected brain region of the subject.

191. The method of claim 190, wherein the selected brain region is a region outside the neural network nodes.

192. The method of claim 180, wherein determining the resting functional connectivity of two or more neural network nodes comprises:
collecting data from the subject during each of a first plurality of intervals, each having at least a first time segment and a second time segment, wherein data is collected from each of the first time segments into a first data set, and data is collected from each of the second time segments into a second data set; and
filtering from the first and second data sets, a contribution to the first and second data sets arising from background neural activity.

193. The method of claim 192, wherein filtering comprises performing a correlation between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

194. The method of claim 192, wherein filtering comprises performing a statistical test between data representative of the background neural activity and the first and second data sets.

195. The method of claim 180, wherein the candidate pharmaceutical agent is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRTj/antidepressant, a psychostimulant, an N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor modulator, an antipsychotic, an anxiolytic, a dopamine/dopaminergic agent, an immune-modulating agent, a cholinesterase inhibitor, or a GABAergic agent.

196. The method of claim 180, wherein the therapy comprises application of a medical device or brain surgery.

197. The method of claim 196, wherein the medical device is deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, or transcranial magnetic stimulation.