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1. WO2006098934 - APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MAKING MICROREPLICATED ARTICLE

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

APPRATUS AND METHOD FOR MAKING MICROREPLIC ATED ARTICLE

Field
The disclosure relates generally to the continuous casting of material onto a web, and more specifically to the casting of articles having a high degree of registration between the patterns cast on opposite sides of the web.
Background
In the fabrication of many articles, from the printing of newspapers to the fabrication of sophisticated electronic and optical devices, it is necessary to apply some material that is at least temporarily in liquid form to opposite sides of a substrate. It is often the case that the material applied to the substrate is applied in a predetermined pattern; in the case of e.g. printing, ink is applied in the pattern of letters and pictures. It is common in such cases for there to be at least a minimum requirement for registration between the patterns on opposite sides of the substrate.
When the substrate is a discrete article such as a circuit board, the applicators of a pattern may usually rely on an edge to assist in achieving registration. But when the substrate is a web and it is not possible to rely on an edge of the substrate to periodically refer to in maintaining registration, the problem becomes a bit more difficult. Still, even in the case of webs, when the requirement for registration is not severe, e.g. a drift out of perfect registration of greater than 100 micrometers is tolerable, mechanical expedients are known for controlling the material application to that extent. The printing art is replete with devices capable of meeting such a standard.
However, in some products having patterns on opposite sides of a substrate, a much more accurate registration between the patterns is required. In such a case, if the web is not in continuous motion, apparatuses are known that can apply material to such a standard. And if the web is in continuous motion, if it is tolerable, as in e.g. some types of flexible circuitry, to reset the patterning rolls to within 100 micrometers, or even 5 micrometers, of perfect registration once per revolution of the patterning rolls, the art still gives guidelines about how to proceed.

However, in e.g. optical articles such as brightness enhancement films, it is required for the patterns in the optically transparent polymer applied to opposite sides of a substrate to be out of registration by no more than a very small tolerance at any point in the tool rotation. Thus far, the art is silent about how to cast a patterned surface on opposite sides of a web that is in continuous motion so that the patterns are kept continuously, rather than intermittently, in registration within 100 micrometers.

Summary
A roll to roll microreplication apparatus is described. This apparatus forms a microreplicated article including a web having first and second opposed surfaces. The apparatus includes a first patterned roll, first nip roll and first coating die; the first coating die is disposed adjacent the web substrate first side and the web substrate is disposed between the first patterned roll and first nip roll. The first nip roll touches the web substrate second side and the first patterned roll touches the web substrate first side. The apparatus includes, a second patterned roll, second nip roll and second coating die, the second coating die is disposed adjacent the web substrate second side and the web substrate is disposed between the second patterned roll and second nip roll. The second nip roll touches the web substrate first side and the second patterned roll touches the web substrate second side. A drive assembly is configured to rotate the first patterned roll and the second patterned roll such that the first and second rolls maintain a continuous registration within 100 micrometers, or to within 75 micrometers, or to within 50 micrometers, or to within 10 micrometers, or to within 5 micrometers.
Another aspect of the present disclosure is directed to a method of making a microreplicated article using this apparatus. The method includes disposing a first curable liquid on a first side of a web to form a first side coated web; passing the first side coated web between a first nip roll and a first patterned roll, where the first patterned roll forms a first microreplicated pattern in the first curable liquid on the first side of the web; curing the first microreplicated pattern to create a cured first microreplicated pattern; disposing a second curable liquid on a second side of a web to form a second side coated web; passing the second side coated web between a second nip roll and a second patterned roll, where the second patterned roll forms a second microreplicated pattern in the second curable liquid on the second side of the web; and curing the first microreplicated pattern to create a cured first microreplicated pattern. The first and second cured microreplicated patterns are registered to within 100 micrometers. In some embodiments, the first and second cured microreplicated patterns are registered to better than 100 micrometers, or to within 75 micrometers, or to within 50 micrometers, or to within 10 micrometers, or to within 5 micrometers.

Definitions
In the context of this disclosure, "registration," means the positioning of structures on one surface of the web in a defined relationship to other structures on the opposite side of the same web.
In the context of this disclosure, "web" means a sheet of material having a fixed dimension in one direction and either a predetermined or indeterminate length in the orthogonal direction.
In the context of this disclosure, "continuous registration," means that at all times during rotation of first and second patterned rolls the degree of registration between structures on the rolls is better than a specified limit.
In the context of this disclosure, "microreplicated" or "microreplication" means the production of a microstructured surface through a process where the structured surface features retain an individual feature fidelity during manufacture, from product-to-product, that varies no more than about 100 micrometers.

Brief Description of the Drawings
In the several figures of the attached drawing, like parts bear like reference numerals, and:
FIG. 1 illustrates a perspective view of an example embodiment of a system including a system according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 2 illustrates a close-up view of a portion of the system of FIG. 1 according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 3 illustrates another perspective view of the system of FIG. 1 according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 4 illustrates a schematic view of an example embodiment of a casting apparatus according to the present disclosure;

FIG. 5 illustrates a close-up view of a section of the casting apparatus of FIG. 4 according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 6 illustrates a schematic view of an example embodiment of a roll mounting arrangement according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 7 illustrates a schematic view of an example embodiment of a mounting arrangement for a pair of patterned rolls according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 8 illustrates a schematic view of an example embodiment of a motor and roll arrangement according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 9 illustrates a schematic view of an example embodiment of a means for controlling the registration between rolls according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram of an example embodiment of a method and apparatus for controlling registration according to the present disclosure;
FIG. 11 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an illustrative article made according to the present disclosure; and
FIG. 12 illustrates an elevation view of an example embodiment of a system including a second nip roll according to the present disclosure.

Detailed Description
Generally, the disclosure of the present disclosure is directed to a apparatus and method of making a flexible substrate coated with microreplicated patterned structures on each side. The microreplicated articles are registered with respect to one another to a high degree of precision. The structures on opposing sides can cooperate to give the article optical qualities as desired, in some embodiments, the structures are a plurality of lens features.
Referring to FIG. 11, illustrated is an example embodiment of a two-sided microreplicated article 1200. The article 1200 includes a web 1210 substrate having opposed first and second surfaces 1220, 1230. First and second surfaces 1220, 1230 include first and second microreplicated structures 1225, 1235, respectively. First microreplicated structure 1225 includes a plurality of features 1226, which in the embodiment shown are cylindrical lenses with an effective diameter of about 142 micrometers. Second microreplicated structure 1235 includes a plurality of saw-tooth or pyramidal prismatic features 1236. It is understood that the opposed first and second microreplicated structures 1225, 1235 can be any useful form and/or shape other than the particular shapes illustrated in FIG. 11.
In the example embodiment shown, first and second features 1226, 1236 have the same pitch or period of repetition P, e.g., the period of the first feature is from 10 to 500 micrometers, from 50 to 250 micrometers or about 150 micrometers, and the period of repetition of the second feature is the same. The ratio of the period of the first and second features can be a whole number ratio (or the inverse), though other combinations are permissible.
In the example embodiment shown, opposed microreplicated features 1226, 1236 cooperate to form a plurality of lens features 1240. In the example embodiment shown, the lens features 1240 are lenticular lenses. Since the performance of each lens feature 1240 is a function of the alignment of the opposed features 1229, 1239 forming each lens, precision alignment or registration in a second dimension of the lens features is preferable. In many embodiments, the distance from the lens to the opposite feature is at a distance equal to a focal length of the lens.
Optionally, the article 1200 also includes first and second land areas 1227, 1237. The land area is defined as the material between the substrate surfaces 1220, 1230 and the bottom of each respective feature, i.e., valleys 1228, 1238. In many embodiments, the first land area 1228 can be at least about 10 micrometers on the lens side and the second land area 1238 can be about at least about 25 micrometers on the prism side. The land area can assist in the features having good adherence to the web and also aid in replication fidelity. The land area positioning may also be used to coordinate features on first and second sides of the web, as desired. The second nip roll, described below, can assist in controlling the first land area 1228 and/or second land area 1238. In one embodiment, the first land area 1228 and/or second land area 1238 are controlled to ensure the distance from the lens to the opposite feature is substantially equal to the focal length of the cylindrical lens.
The article 1200 described above can be made using an apparatus and method for producing precisely aligned microreplicated structures on opposed surfaces of the web, the apparatus and methods which are described in detail below.

The first microreplicated structure can be made on a first patterned roll by casting and curing a curable liquid onto the first side of the web. The first curable liquid can be any photocurable acrylate resin solution such as, for example, Photomer 6010, available from Cognis Corp., Cincinnati, Ohio; SR385 tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate and SR238 (70/15/15 %) 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate, both available from Satomer Co., Expon, Pennsylvania; Camphorquinone, available from Hanford Research Inc., Stratford, Connecticut; and Ethyl-4-dimethylamino Benzoate (0.75/0.5 %), available from Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The second microreplicated structure can be made on a second patterned roll by casting and curing a curable liquid onto the second side of the web. The second curable liquid can be the same or different as the first curable liquid. In some embodiments, the first and second curable liquid is disposed on the web surface prior to passing through the first and second patterned roll, respectively. In other embodiments, the first curable liquid is disposed on the first patterned roll and the second curable liquid is disposed on the second patterned roll, which is then transferred to the web from the patterned rolls.
After each respective structure is cast into a pattern, each respective pattern is externally cured using a curing light source including an ultraviolet light source. A peel roll can then be used to remove the microreplicated article from the second patterned roll. Optionally, a release agent or coating can be used to assist removal of the patterned structures from the patterned tools.
Illustrative process settings used to create the article described above are as follows. A web speed of about 0.3 meter (1 foot) per minute with a web tension into and out of casting apparatus of about 8N (2 pounds force). A peel roll draw ratio of about 5% was used to pull the web off the second patterned tool. A nip pressure of about 16N (4 pounds force). A gap exists between the first and second patterned rolls of about 0.025 cm (0.01 inch). Resin can be supplied to the first surface of the web using a dropper coating apparatus and resin can be supplied to the second surface at a rate of about 1.35 ml/min, using a syringe pump.
Curing the structures can be achieved using a radiation source that is tuned to the photo-initiator in the curable liquid.

The first patterned roll included a series of negative images for forming cylindrical lenses with a 142 micrometer diameter at 150 micrometer pitch. The second patterned roll included a series of negative images for forming a plurality of symmetric prisms with 60 degree included angle at 150 micrometer pitch.
Generally, the article described above can be made by a system and method, disclosed hereinafter, for producing two-sided microreplicated structures with registration of better than about 100 micrometers, or better than 50 micrometers, or less than 25 micrometers, or less than 10 micrometers, or less than 5 micrometers. The system generally includes a first patterning assembly and a second patterning assembly. Each respective assembly creates a microreplicated pattern on a respective surface of a web having a first and a second surface. A first pattern is created on the first side of the web and a second pattern is created on the second surface of the web.
Each patterning assembly includes means for applying a coating, a patterning member, and a curing member. Typically, patterning assemblies include patterned rolls and a support structure for holding and driving each roll. Coating means of the first patterning assembly dispenses a first curable coating material on a first surface of the web. Coating means of the second patterning assembly dispenses a second curable coating material on a second surface of the web, wherein the second surface is opposite the first surface. Typically, first and second coating materials are of the same composition.
After the first coating material is placed on the web, the web passes over a first patterned member, wherein a pattern is created in the first coating material. The first coating material is then cured to form the first pattern. Subsequently, after the second coating material is placed on the web, the web passes over a second patterned member, wherein a pattern is created in the second coating material. The second coating material is then cured to form the second pattern. Typically, each patterned member is a
microreplicated tool and each tool typically has a dedicated curing member for curing the material. However, it is possible to have a single curing member that cures both first and second patterned materials. Also, it is possible to place the coatings on the patterned tools. The system also includes means for rotating the first and second patterned rolls such that their patterns are transferred to opposite sides of the web while it is in continuous motion, and said patterns are maintained in continuous registration on said opposite sides of the web to better than about 100 micrometers or better than 10 micrometers.
An advantage of the present disclosure is that a web having a microreplicated structure on each opposing surface of the web can be manufactured by having the microreplicated structure on each side of the web continuously formed while keeping the microreplicated structures on the opposing sides registered generally to within 100 micrometers of each other, or within 50 micrometers, or within 20 micrometers, or within 10 micrometers, or within 5 micrometers.
Referring now to FIGS. 1-2, an example embodiment of a system 110 including a roll to roll casting apparatus 120 is illustrated. In the depicted casting apparatus 120, a web 122 is provided to the casting apparatus 120 from a main unwind spool (not shown). The exact nature of web 122 can vary widely, depending on the product being produced, as described above. However, when the casting apparatus 120 is used for the fabrication of optical articles it is usually convenient for the web 122 to be translucent or transparent, to allow curing through the web 122. The web 122 is directed around various rollers 126 into the casting apparatus 120.
Accurate tension control of the web 122 is beneficial in achieving optimal results, so the web 122 may be directed over a tension-sensing device (not shown). In situations where it is desirable to use a liner web to protect the web 122, the liner web is typically separated at the unwind spool and directed onto a liner web wind-up spool (not shown). The web 122 can be directed via an idler roll to a dancer roller for precision tension control. Idler rollers can direct the web 122 to a position between nip roller 154 and first coating head 156.
A variety of coating methods may be employed. In the illustrated embodiment, first coating head 156 is a die coating head. The web 122 then passes between the nip roll 154 and first patterned roll 160. The first patterned roll 160 has a patterned surface 162, and when the web 122 passes between the nip roller 154 and the first patterned roll 160 the material dispensed onto the web 122 by the first coating head 156 is shaped into a negative of patterned surface 162.
While the web 122 is in contact with the first patterned roll 160, material is dispensed from second coating head 164 onto the other surface of web 122. In parallel with the discussion above with respect to the first coating head 156, the second coating head 164 is also a die coating arrangement including a second extruder (not shown) and a second coating die (not shown). In some embodiments, the material dispensed by the first coating head 156 is a composition including a polymer precursor and intended to be cured to solid polymer with the application of curing energy such as, for example, ultraviolet radiation.
Material that has been dispensed onto web 122 by the second coating head 164 is then brought into contact with second patterned roll 174 with a second patterned surface 176. In parallel with the discussion above, in some embodiments, the material dispensed by the second coating head 164 is a composition including a polymer precursor and intended to be cured to solid polymer with the application of curing energy such as, for example, ultraviolet radiation.
At this point, the web 122 has had a pattern applied to both sides. A peel roll 182 may be present to assist in removal of the web 122 from second patterned roll 174. In some instances, the web tension into and out of the roll to roll casting apparatus is nearly constant.
The web 122 having a two-sided microreplicated pattern is then directed to a wind-up spool (not shown) via various idler rolls. If an interleave film is desired to protect web 122, it may be provided from a secondary unwind spool (not shown) and the web and interleave film are wound together on the wind-up spool at an appropriate tension.
Referring to FIGS. 1-3, first and second patterned rolls are coupled to first and second motor assemblies 210, 220, respectively. Support for the motor assemblies 210, 220 is accomplished by mounting assemblies to a frame 230, either directly or indirectly. The motor assemblies 210, 220 are coupled to the frame using precision mounting arrangements. In the example embodiment shown, first motor assembly 210 is fixedly mounted to frame 230. Second motor assembly 220, which is placed into position when web 122 is threaded through the casting apparatus 120, may need to be positioned repeatedly and is therefore movable, both in the cross- and machine direction. Movable motor arrangement 220 may be coupled to linear slides 222 to assist in repeated accurate positioning, for example, when switching between patterns on the rolls. Second motor arrangement 220 also includes a second mounting arrangement 225 on the backside of the frame 230 for positioning the second patterned roll 174 side-to-side relative to the first patterned roll 160. In some cases, second mounting arrangement 225 includes linear slides 223 allowing accurate positioning in the cross machine directions.
Referring to FIG. 4, an example embodiment of a casting apparatus 420 for producing a two-sided web 422 with registered microreplicated structures on opposing surfaces is illustrated. Assembly includes first and second coating means 456, 464, a nip roller 454, and first and second patterned rolls 460, 474. Web 422 is presented to the first coating means 456, in this example a first extrusion die 456. First die 456 dispenses a first curable liquid layer coating 470 onto the web 422. First coating 470 is pressed into the first patterned roller 460 by means of a nip roller 454, typically a rubber covered roller. While on the first patterned roll 460, the coating is cured using a curing source 480, for example, a lamp, of suitable wavelength light, such as, for example, an ultraviolet light source.
A second curable liquid layer 481 is coated on the opposite side of the web 422 using a second side extrusion die 464. The second layer 481 is pressed into the second patterned tool roller 474 and the curing process repeated for the second coating layer 481. Registration of the two coating patterns is achieved by maintaining the tool rollers 460, 474 in a precise angular relationship with one another, as will be described hereinafter.
Referring to FIG. 5, a close-up view of a portion of first and second patterned rolls 560, 574 is illustrated. First patterned roll 560 has a first pattern 562 for forming a microreplicated surface. Second pattern roll 574 has a second microreplicated pattern 576. In the example embodiment shown, first and second patterns 562, 576 are the same pattern, though the patterns may be different. In the illustrated embodiment, the first pattern 562 and the second pattern 576 are shown as prism structures, however, any single or multiple useful structures can form the first pattern 562 and the second pattern 576.
As a web 522 passes over the first roll 560, a first curable liquid (not shown) on a first surface 524 is cured by a curing light source 525 near a first region 526 on the first patterned roll 560. A first microreplicated patterned structure 590 is formed on the first side 524 of the web 522 as the liquid is cured. The first patterned structure 590 is a negative of the pattern 562 on the first patterned roll 560. After the first patterned structure 590 is formed, a second curable liquid 581 is dispensed onto a second surface 527 of the web 522. To insure that the second liquid 581 is not cured prematurely, the second liquid 581 can be isolated from the first curing light 525, by a locating the first curing light 525 so that it does not fall on the second liquid 581. Alternatively, shielding means 592 can be placed between the first curing light 525 and the second liquid 581. Also, the curing sources can be located inside their respective patterned rolls where it is impractical or difficult to cure through the web.
After the first patterned structure 590 is formed, the web 522 continues along the first roll 560 until it enters the gap region 575 between the first and second patterned rolls 560, 574. The second liquid 581 then engages the second pattern 576 on the second patterned roll and is shaped into a second microreplicated structure, which is then cured by a second curing light 535. As the web 522 passes into the gap 575 between first and second patterned rolls 560, 574, the first patterned structured 590, which is by this time substantially cured and bonded to the web 522, restrains the web 522 from slipping while the web 522 begins moving into the gap 575 and around the second patterned roller 574. This removes web stretching and slippages as a source of registration error between the first and second patterned structures formed on the web.
By supporting the web 522 on the first patterned roll 560 while the second liquid 581 comes into contact with the second patterned roll 574, the degree of registration between the first and second microreplicated structures 590, 593 formed on opposite sides 524, 527 of the web 522 becomes a function of controlling the positional relationship between the surfaces of the first and second patterned rolls 560, 574. The S-wrap of the web around the first and second patterned rolls 560, 574 and between the gap 575 formed by the rolls minimizes effects of tension, web strain changes, temperature, microslip caused by mechanics of nipping a web, and lateral position control. Typically, the S-wrap maintains the web 522 in contact with each roll over a wrap angle of 180 degrees, though the wrap angle can be more or less depending on the particular requirements.
Typically, the patterned rolls are of the same mean diameter, though this is not required. It is within the skill and knowledge of one having ordinary skill in the art to select the proper roll for any particular application.
Referring to FIG. 6, a motor mounting arrangement is illustrated. A motor 633 for driving a tool or patterned roll 662 is mounted to the machine frame 650 and connected through a coupling 640 to a rotating shaft 601 of the patterned roller 662. The motor 633 is coupled to a primary encoder 630. A secondary encoder 651 is coupled to the tool to provide precise angular registration control of the patterned roll 662. Primary 630 and secondary 651 encoders cooperate to provide control of the patterned roll 662 to keep it in registration with a second patterned roll, as will be described further hereinafter.
Reduction or elimination of shaft resonance is important as this is a source of registration error allowing pattern position control within the specified limits. Using a coupling 640 between the motor 633 and shaft 650 that is larger than general sizing schedules specify will also reduce shaft resonance caused by more flexible couplings. Bearing assemblies 660 are located in various locations to provide rotational support for the motor arrangement.
In the example embodiment shown, the tool roller 662 diameter can be smaller than its motor 633 diameter. To accommodate this arrangement, tool rollers may be installed in pairs arranged in mirror image. In FIG. 7 two tool rollers assemblies 610 and 710 are installed as mirror images in order to be able to bring the two tool rollers 662 and 762 together. Referring also to FIG. 1, the first motor arrangement is typically fixedly attached to the frame and the second motor arrangement is positioned using movable optical quality linear slides.
Tool roller assembly 710 is quite similar to tool roller assembly 610, and includes a motor 733 for driving a tool or patterned roll 762 is mounted to the machine frame 750 and connected through a coupling 740 to a rotating shaft 701 of the patterned roller 762. The motor 733 is coupled to a primary encoder 730. A secondary encoder 751 is coupled to the tool to provide precise angular registration control of the patterned roll 762. Primary 730 and secondary 751 encoders cooperate to provide control of the patterned roll 762 to keep it in registration with a second patterned roll, as will be described further hereinafter.

Reduction or elimination of shaft resonance is important as this is a source of registration error allowing pattern position control within the specified limits. Using a coupling 740 between the motor 733 and shaft 750 that is larger than general sizing schedules specify will also reduce shaft resonance caused by more flexible couplings. Bearing assemblies 760 are located in various locations to provide rotational support for the motor arrangement.

Because the feature sizes on the microreplicated structures on both surfaces of a web are desired to be within fine registration of one another, the patterned rolls should be controlled with a high degree of precision. Cross- web registration within the limits described herein can be accomplished by applying the techniques used in controlling machine-direction registration, as described hereinafter. For example, to achieve about 10 micrometers end-to-end feature placement on a 10-inch circumference patterned roller, each roller must be maintained within a rotational accuracy of ± 32 arc-seconds per revolution. Control of registration becomes more difficult as the speed the web travels through the system is increased.
Applicants have built and demonstrated a system having 10-inch circular patterned rolls that can create a web having patterned features on opposite surfaces of the web that are registered to within 2.5 micrometers. Upon reading this disclosure and applying the principles taught herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate how to accomplish the degree of registration for other microreplicated surfaces.
Referring to FIG. 8, a schematic of a motor arrangement 800 is illustrated. Motor arrangement 800 includes a motor 810 including a primary encoder 830 and a drive shaft 820. Drive shaft 820 is coupled to a driven shaft 840 of patterned roll 860 through a coupling 825. A secondary, or load, encoder 850 is coupled to the driven shaft 840. Using two encoders in the motor arrangement described allows the position of the patterned roll to be measured more accurately by locating the measuring device (encoder) 850 near the patterned roll 860, thus reducing or eliminating effects of torque disturbances when the motor arrangement 800 is operating.
Referring to FIG. 9, a schematic of the motor arrangement of FIG. 8, is illustrated as attached to control components. In the example apparatus shown in FIGS. 1-3, a similar set-up would control each motor arrangement 210 and 220. Accordingly, motor arrangement 900 includes a motor 910 including a primary encoder 930 and a drive shaft 920. Drive shaft 920 is coupled to a driven shaft 940 of patterned roll 960 through a coupling 930. A secondary, or load, encoder 950 is coupled to the driven shaft 940.
Motor arrangement 900 communicates with a control arrangement 965 to allow precision control of the patterned roll 960. Control arrangement 965 includes a drive module 966 and a program module 975. The program module 975 communicates with the drive module 966 via a line 977, for example, a SERCOS fiber network. The program module 975 is used to input parameters, such as set points, to the drive module 966. Drive module 966 receives input 480 volt, 3-ρhase power 915, rectifies it to DC, and distributes it via a power connection 973 to control the motor 910. Motor encoder 912 feeds a position signal to control module 966. The secondary encoder 950 on the patterned roll 960 also feeds a position signal back to the drive module 966 via to line 971. The drive module 966 uses the encoder signals to precisely position the patterned roll 960. The control design to achieve the degree of registration is described in detail below.
In the illustrative embodiments shown, each patterned roll is controlled by a dedicated control arrangement. Dedicated control arrangements cooperate to control the registration between first and second patterned rolls. Each drive module communicates with and controls its respective motor assembly.
The control arrangement in the system built and demonstrated by Applicants include the following. To drive each of the patterned rolls, a high performance, low cogging torque motor with a high-resolution sine encoder feedback (512 sine cycles x

4096 drive interpolation » 2 million parts per revolution) was used, model MHD090B-035-NGO-UN, available from Bosch-Rexroth (Indramat). Also the system included synchronous motors, model MHD090B-035-NG0-UN, available from Bosch-Rexroth (Indramat), but other types, such as induction motors could also be used.
Each motor was directly coupled (without gearbox or mechanical reduction) through an extremely stiff bellows coupling, model BK5-300, available from R/W
Corporation. Alternate coupling designs could be used, but bellows style generally combines stiffness while providing high rotational accuracy. Each coupling was sized so that a substantially larger coupling was selected than what the typical manufacturers specifications would recommend.
Additionally, zero backlash collets or compressive style locking hubs between coupling and shafts are preferred. Each roller shaft was attached to an encoder through a hollow shaft load side encoder, model RON255C, available from Heidenhain Corp., Schaumburg, IL. Encoder selection should have the highest accuracy and resolution possible, typically greater than 32 arc-sec accuracy. Applicants' design, 18000 sine cycles per revolution were employed, which in conjunction with the 4096 bit resolution drive interpolation resulted in excess of 50 million parts per revolution resolution giving a resolution substantially higher than accuracy. The load side encoder had an accuracy of +/- 2 arc-sec; maximum deviation in the delivered units was less than +/- 1 arc-sec.
In some instances, each shaft may be designed to be as large a diameter as possible and as short as possible to maximize stiffness, resulting in the highest possible resonant frequency. Precision alignment of all rotational components is desired to ensure minimum registration error due to this source of registration error.
Referring to FIG. 10, in Applicants' system identical position reference commands were presented to each axis simultaneously through a SERCOS fiber network at a 2 ms update rate. Each axis interpolates the position reference with a cubic spline, at the position loop update rate of 250 microsecond intervals. The interpolation method is not critical, as the constant velocity results in a simple constant times time interval path. The resolution is critical to eliminate any round off or numerical representation errors. Axis rollover must also addressed. In some cases, it is important that each axis' control cycle is synchronized at the current loop execution rate (62 microsecond intervals).
The top path 1151 is the feed forward section of control. The control strategy includes a position loop 1110, a velocity loop 1120, and a current loop 1130. The position reference 1111 is differentiated, once to generate the velocity feed forward terms 1152 and a second time to generate the acceleration feed forward term 1155. The feed forward path 1151 helps performance during line speed changes and dynamic correction.
The position command 1111 is subtracted from current position 1114, generating an error signal 1116. The error 1116 is applied to a proportional controller 1115, generating the velocity command reference 1117. The velocity feedback 1167 is subtracted from the command 1117 to generate the velocity error signal 1123, which is then applied to a PID controller. The velocity feedback 1167 is generated by
differentiating the motor encoder position signal 1126. Due to differentiation and numerical resolution limits, a low pass Butterworth filter 1124 is applied to remove high frequency noise components from the error signal 1123. A narrow stop band (notch) filter 1129 is applied at the center of the motor — roller resonant frequency. This allows substantially higher gains to be applied to the velocity controller 1120. Increased resolution of the motor encoder also would improve performance. The exact location of the filters in the control diagram is not critical; either the forward or reverse path are acceptable, although tuning parameters are dependent on the location.
A PID controller could also be used in the position loop, but the additional phase lag of the integrator makes stabilization more difficult. The current loop is a traditional PI controller; gains are established by the motor parameters. The highest bandwidth current loop possible will allow optimum performance. Also, minimum torque ripple is desired.

Minimization of external disturbances is important to obtain maximum
registration. This includes motor construction and current loop commutation as previously discussed, but minimizing mechanical disturbances is also important. Examples include extremely smooth tension control in entering and exiting web span, uniform bearing and seal drag, minimizing tension upsets from web peel off from the roller, uniform rubber nip roller. In the current design, a third axis geared to the tool rolls is provided as a pull roll to assist in removing the cured structure from the tool.
The web material can be any suitable material, as described above, on which a microreplicated patterned structure can be created. The web can also be multi-layered, as desired. Since the liquid is typically cured by a curing source on the side opposite that on which the patterned structure is created, the web material can be at least partially translucent to the curing source used. Examples of curing energy sources are infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, visible light radiation, microwave, or e-beam. One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that other curing sources can be used, and selection of a particular web material/curing source combination will depend on the particular article (having microreplicated structures in registration) to be created.
An alternative to curing the liquid through the web would be to use a two part reactive cure, for example, an epoxy, which would be useful for webs that are difficult to cure through, such as metal web or webs having a metallic layer. Curing could be accomplished by in-line mixing of components or spraying catalyst on a portion of the patterned roll, which would cure the liquid to form the microreplicated structure when the coating and catalyst come into contact.
The liquid from which the microreplicated structures are created can be a curable photopolymerizable material, such as acrylates curable by UV light. One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that other coating materials can be used, and selection of a material will depend on the particular characteristics desired for the microreplicated structures. Similarly, the particular curing method employed is within the skill and knowledge of one of ordinary skill in the art. Examples of curing methods are reactive curing, thermal curing, or radiation curing.
Examples of coating means that useful for delivering and controlling liquid to the web are, for example, die or knife coating, coupled with any suitable pump such as a syringe or peristaltic pump. One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that other coating means can be used, and selection of a particular means will depend on the particular characteristics of the liquid to be delivered to the web.
Another aspect of the present disclosure provides for creating a uniform tension zone between the two microreplication tools, thus creating a uniform peel angle from tool one and a controllable, more uniform coating thickness for the pattern from tool two. A controllable and more uniform coating thickness translates into caliper specifications and tolerances as dictated by the required end product. The uniform peel angle helps to create a more optically uniform product.
One can achieve the uniform tension zone, by creating the second tool with a small percentage larger diameter than the first tool. By rotating the tools at exactly the same number of revolutions per minute, the small percentage larger diameter on the second tool results in the second tool having a slightly higher surface rotational velocity than the first tool. This results in a slightly higher tension zone, thus elimination the pouch that is formed. To maintain alignment of cross tool features, which turn into down web features, the second tool is diamond turned with all cross tool features at exactly the same rotational angle as the feature on the first tool. The difference between this invention and the previous approach is that a draw zone is created between the two tools. Draw zones can be used to create a uniform tension zone when peeling material from a tool. The uniform tension will reduce or eliminate the difference in web span between the two tools created by the dynamics of the pouch. As the cross web width of the pattern increases, the amount of tension required to achieve a uniform peel angle increases. Patterns with higher features also require higher tensions to achieve a uniform peel. Peel angle is also important for creating an optically uniform material. When peeled at different angles from a tool, different areas experience different bending. This differential bending results is small optical non-uniformities on the product. By eliminating the dynamic flutter created by the pouch, a more uniform peel will be achieved. This will result in better alignment, more uniform land and a more uniform optical appearance.
Another exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure is directed to controlling the land thickness created by the second, downstream tooling roll. This method and apparatus include using a second nip roll, which presses down on the film or substrate after it has wrapped onto the second tool. The direct pressure of the nip onto the film squeezes down the not-yet cured resin underneath. The layer thickness of the resin determines the base height or land of the microreplicated features after curing. By adjusting the nip pressure land thickness can be controlled directly and independently from other process parameters.
Referring to FIG. 12, an example embodiment of a casting apparatus 421 for producing a two-sided web 422 with registered microreplicated structures on opposing surfaces is illustrated. Assembly includes first and second coating means or coating dies 456, 464, a first and second nip roller 454, 482 and first and second patterned rolls 460,

474. Web 422 is presented to the first coating means 456, in this example a first extrusion coating die 456. First coating die 456 dispenses a first curable liquid layer coating 470 onto the web 422. First coating 470 is pressed into the first patterned roller 460 by means of the first nip roller 454, which in some embodiments is a rubber covered roller. While on the first patterned roll 460, the coating is cured using a curing source 480, for example, a lamp, of suitable wavelength light, such as, for example, an ultraviolet light source.
A second curable liquid layer 481 is then coated on the opposite side of the web 422 using a second side extrusion coating die 464. The second layer 481 is pressed into the second patterned tool roller 474 by means of the second nip roller 482 and the curing process is then repeated for the second coating layer 481. Registration of the two coating patterns is achieved by maintaining the tool rollers 460, 474 in a precise angular relationship with one another, as described herein. In addition, the second nip roller 482 can assist in controlling land area thickness, described above.
Some advantages of using a second nip roller include include: 1) The web tension in between the rolls is not dictated by land thickness requirements. Since tension is not used to control land thickness a wider range of tension settings is allowed to optimize for conditions such as minimum stretch of the web. This in turn improves registration of the patterns on both sides with respect to each other and minimizes curl in the patterned web; and, 2) the effect of fluid dynamics on land thickness control is highly reduced. Without the second nip the amount of resin that is dragged in between web and second tool is strongly dependent on web speed and resin viscosity. Small land thickness can be obtained by using a low viscosity resin and/or low speeds. Increasing web tension helps too but can be undesirable as described under item 1).
Being able to create small land at high speeds and over a large range of resin viscosities is a significant factor in scaling the double-sided microreplication process up to industrial format. FIG. 12 illustrates this exemplary continuous double-sided
microreplication process line including the second nip roll. The resin is fed into the first tool using a first pressure controlled nip. By adjusting the first nip pressure, the land thickness on the first side can be controlled. The nip squeezes down the resin layer thickness that is being fed in between film and tool. The second tool is fed by a gap-controlled nip consisting of tool 1 and tool 2. The small gap between tool 1 and 2 limits the amount of resin that can be fed into tool 2. The gap cannot be set too small (below 25 or 50 micrometers) since a positive clearance has to be present at all times taking into account roll runout, deflection and film gauge variation. Thus there is a short span of web between the 2 tools. The web tension in this span has an effect on land thickness but cannot be controlled very effectively because of its short length. Also, the tension setting is dictated by other parameters as well such as web guiding, peel roll tension, web gauge etc. Thus, land thickness can only be controlled to a certain degree by the web tension.
To increase control over this land thickness of the second microreplicated side a second pressure controlled nip is used on the second tool, as illustrated in Fig. 12.
Because of geometrical constraints, it is desirable for the second nip to be mounted after the web and resin have rolled onto the second tool.
Various modifications and alterations of the present disclosure will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of this disclosure, and it should be understood that this disclosure is not limited to the illustrative embodiments set forth herein.