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1. WO2006093524 - ANTIGEN-CARBOHYDRATE CONJUGATES

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[ EN ]
CLAIMS
What is claimed is:

1. A composition comprising at least one carbohydrate conjugated to a molecule, wherein the composition is capable of binding to a protein present on a cell.

2. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the molecule is a protein or glycoprotein.

3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the molecule is a lipid, chemically modified lipid, or glycolipid. 4. The composition of claim 1, wherein the molecule is a polysaccharide.

5. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the molecule is a small molecule.

6. A composition comprising at least one carbohydrate conjugated to an antigen, wherein the composition is capable of binding to a protein present on an antigen presenting cell.

7. The composition of claim 1 or 6, wherein the protein is a carbohydrate binding protein.

8. The composition of claim 7, wherein the carbohydrate binding protein is a lectin.

9. The composition of claim 8, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

10. The composition of claim 1 or 6, wherein the cell is a dendritic cell.

11. The composition of any one of claims 1-10, wherein the carbohydrate is selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

12. The composition of claim 11 , wherein the oligosaccharide is a branched
oligosaccharide or a linear oligosaccharide.

13. The composition of claim 11 , wherein the composition comprises at least two oligosaccharides.

14. The composition of claim 11, wherein the composition comprises at least three oligosaccharides.

15. The composition of claim 13 or 14, wherein at least two of the oligosaccharides are different.

16. The composition of any one of claims l-15,wherein the addition of the carbohydrate increases the molecular weight of the antigen between 100 daltons and 20 kDa.

17. The composition of claim 11, wherein the addition of the oligosaccharide increases the molecular weight of the antigen by at least 5 kDa.

18. The composition of claim 17, wherein the addition of the oligosaccharides increases the molecular weight of the antigen by at least 15 kDa.

19. The composition of any one of claims 1-18, wherein the carbohydrate is selected from the group consisting of structures 3-1 to 3-7.

20. The composition of any one of claims 1-18, wherein the carbohydrate is a mannose oligosaccharide or an analog thereof.

21. The composition ofany one of claims 1-18, wherein the carbohydrate is
(Man)9(GlcNAc)2.

22. The composition ofany one of claims 1-18, wherein the carbohydrate is conjugated to the antigen by a linker.

23. The composition of claim 22, wherein the linker is a thiol-bearing linker.

24. The composition of claim 23, wherein the linker has the following structure:

25. The composition of claim 6, wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of autoimmune antigens, allergens, tumor antigens, and pathogen antigens.

26 The composition of claim 25, wherein the autoimmune antigen is a glutamate decarboxylase, insulin-B, myelin basic protein, or acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit.

27. The composition of claim 25, wherein the composition is useful for the treatment of a disease or disorder selected from the group consisting of Addison's disease, autoimmune anemia, Goodpasture's syndrome, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, type I diabetes, myasthenia gravis, ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

28. The composition of claim 25, wherein the allergen is selected from the group consisting of airborne particulates, plant pollen, mites, molds, spores, animal hair, dander, shell fish, nuts, fruits, insects, insect venoms, penicillins, sulfonamides, eggs, peas, and beans.

29. The composition of claim 25, wherein the tumor antigen is selected from the group consisting of alpha-fetoprotein, Ig-idiotype, mutant cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Pmel-17, MART-I, pl5 protein, tyrosinase, MAGE 1, 2 and 3, a Gage family member, BAGE, human papilloma virus antigens E6 and E7, an Epstein-barr virus antigen, bcr-abl fusion product, gp75, oncofetal antigen, mucin, telomerase, GM2 ganglioside, GD2 ganglioside, mutant p53, mutant cdk4, p21ras, HER21neu, c-erbB-2, colorectal associated antigen (CRQ-C017-1A/GA733, APC, cyclophilin b, ga733 glycoprotein, Imp-1, EBNA-I, prostate specific antigen, pancreatic tissue antigen, prostate specific membrane antigen, thyroglobulin, carcinoembryonic antigen, NY-ESO-I, HTLV-I, cdc27, and gpl00Pmei1 I7.

30. The composition of claim 25, wherein the composition is useful for the treatment of a cancer selected from the group consisting of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, glioma, bladder cancer, billiary cancer, breast cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, cervical carcinoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia, colon carcinoma, colorectal cancer, choriocarcinoma, epithelial cell-cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, Hodgkins lymphoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, lymphoid cell-derived leukemia, myeloma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, ovarian cancer cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, renal cancer, testicular cancer, thyroid cancer, T cell leukemia, and melanoma.

31. The composition of claim 25, wherein the pathogen antigen is derived from a bacteria, virus, or fungus.

32. The composition of claim 31, wherein the bacteria is selected from the group consisting of Helicobacter' pyloris, Borelia burgdorferi, Legionella pneumophilia, Mycobacteria sps (e.g.,

M. tuberculosis, M. avium, M. intracellular e, M. kansaii, M. gordonae,etc), Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes,
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus), Streptococcus (viridans group), Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus (anaerobic species), Streptococcus pneumoniae, pathogenic Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus antracis, corynebacterium diphtheriae, corynebacterium sp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Clostridium perfiingers, Clostridium tetani, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pasturella multocida, Bacteroides sp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Str'eptobacillus moniliformis, Treponema pallidium, Treponema pertenue, Leptospira, Rickettsia, and Actinomyces israelii.
I
33. The composition of claim 31 , wherein the virus is selected from the group consisting of Retroviridae, human immunodeficiency viruses, Picornaviridae, Calciviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviridae, Coronoviridae, Rhabdoviradae, Coronaviridae, Rliabdoviridae, Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Bungaviridae, Arena viridae, Reoviridae,
Birnaviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Parvovirida, Papovaviridae, Adenoviridae (adenoviruses), Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, and Iridoviridae.

34. The composition of claim 31 , wherein the fungus is selected from the group consisting of Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Candida albicans.

35 The composition of claim 31 , wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of human immunodeficiency virus gpl20 protein, malarial Merozoite Surface Protein- 1 , Apical membrane protein- 1 , Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein, tuberculosis antigen 85 A/B, ESAT-6, tuberculosis heat shock protein 60, influenza Hemaglutinin, influenza neuraminidase, hepatitis B virus antigen.

36. A composition comprising an antigen-carbohydrate conjugate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, the conjugate comprising mannose.

37. The composition of claim 36, wherein the lectin is expressed on a dendritic cell.

38. The composition of claim 36, wherein the dendritic cell is derived from a human.

39. The composition of claim 36, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

40. The composition of claim 36, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

41. The composition of claim 36, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

42. The composition of claim 36, further comprising an adjuvant.

43. The composition of claim 36, further comprising a cytokine.

44. The composition of claim 36, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

45. The composition of claim 36, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

46. The composition of claim 36, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

47. The composition of claim 36, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

48. The composition of claim 36, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

49. The composition of claim 36, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

50. The composition of claim 36, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

51. An immunogenic composition comprising at least one carbohydrate conjugated to an antigen in a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, wherein the composition is capable of modulating an immune response.

52. The immunogenic composition of claim 51 , wherein the carbohydrate-antigen conjugate is capable of enhancing an immune response.

53. The immunogenic composition of claim 51 , wherein the antigen-carbohydrate conjugate is capable of reducing an immune response.

54. The immunogenic composition of claim 51 , wherein the carbohydrate comprises a lectin ligand.

55. The immunogenic composition of claim 51 , wherein the carbohydrate comprises mannose.

56. A composition, comprising:
an antigen-carbohydrate conjugate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells.

57. The composition of claim 56, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

58. The composition of claim 56, wherein the dendritic cell is derived from humans.

59. The composition of claim 56, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

60. The composition of claim 56, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

61. The composition of claim 56, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

62. The composition of claim 56, further comprising an adjuvant.

63. The composition of claim 56, further comprising a cytokine.

64. The composition of claim 56, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

65. The composition of claim 56, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a hexose.

66. The composition of claim 56, wherein the carbohydrate comprises mannose.

67. The composition of claim 56, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

68. The composition of claim 56, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

69. The composition of claim 61, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

70. The composition of claim 61 , wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

71. The composition of claim 61 , wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

72. The composition of claim 61 , wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

73. A method of immunization, comprising:
administering, to a subject, a composition comprising a conjugate of an antigen and a carbohydrate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells, in an amount effective to immunize the subject to the antigen.

74. The method of claim 73, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

75. The method of claim 73, wherein the subject is mammalian.

76. The method of claim 75, wherein the subject is human.

77. The method of claim 73, wherein the composition comprises more than one conjugate type.

78. The method of claim 73, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

79. The method of claim 73, further comprising administering an adjuvant to the subject.

80. The method of claim 73, further comprising administering a cytokine to the subject.

81. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen-carbohydrate conjugate is bound to a hapten.

82. The method of claim 73, wherein the amount is effective to promote dendritic cell maturation.

83. The method of claim 73, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

84. The method of claim 73, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

85. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

86. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen is antigen is derived from a non-human source.

87. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen is derived from a non-living source.

88. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen arises from a biological species that the subject is not a member of.

89. The method of claim 73, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a hexose.

90. The method of claim 73, wherein the carbohydrate comprises mannose.

91. The method of claim 73, wherein the carbohydrate comprises fucose.

92. The method of claim 73, wherein the carbohydrate comprises galactose.

93. The method of claim 73, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

94. The method of claim 93, wherein the carbohydrate comprises at least 2 mannose residues.

95. The method of claim 93, wherein the carbohydrate comprises at least 3 mannose residues.

96. The method of claim 93, wherein the carbohydrate comprises at least 4 mannose residues.

97. The method of claim 93, wherein the carbohydrate comprises at least 5 mannose residues.

98. The method of claim 73, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

99. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is a Type I C-type lectin.

100. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is a Type II C-type lectin.

101. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

102. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is Dectin 1.

103. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is Dectin 2.

104. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is BDCA-2.

105. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin is CLEC-I .

106. The method of claim 98, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

107. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

108. The method of claim 107, wherein the pool of suspected antigens is isolated from a source.

109. The method of claim 107, wherein the pool of suspected antigens is artificially generated.

110. The method of claim 73, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

111. A method of inducing immunological tolerance, comprising:
administering, to a subject, a composition comprising a conjugate of an antigen and a carbohydrate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells, in an amount effective to induce immunological tolerance of the subject to the antigen.

112. The method of claim 111, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

113. The method of claim 111, wherein the amount is effective to inhibit dendritic cell maturation.

114. The method of claim 111, wherein the amount is effective to induce T cell anergy.

115. The method of claim 111, wherein the amount is effective to induce T cell deletion.

116. The method of claim 111, wherein the amount is effective to induce T cell regulatory activity.

117. The method of claim 111, wherein the subject is human.

118. The method of claim 111, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

119. The method of claim 111, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

120. The method of claim 111, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

121. The method of claim 111, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glyco lipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

122. The method of claim 111, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a hexose.

123. The method of claim 111, wherein the carbohydrate comprises mannose.

124. The method of claim 111, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

125. The method of claim 111, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

126. The method of claim 111, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

127. The method of claim 111, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

128. The method of claim 111, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

129. The method of claim 111, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

130. A method, comprising:
administering, to a antigen-presenting cell, an antigen-carbohydrate conjugate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on the antigen-presenting cell but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells.

131. The method of claim 130, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

132. The method of claim 130, wherein the subject is human.

133. The method of claim 130, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

134. The method of claim 130, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

135. The method of claim 130, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

136. The method of claim 130, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

137. The method of claim 130, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a hexose.

138. The method of claim 130, wherein the carbohydrate comprises mannose.

139. The method of claim 130, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

140. The method of claim 130, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

141. The method of claim 130, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

142. The method of claim 130, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

143. The method of claim 130, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

144. The method of claim 130, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

145. A method of modulating an immune response in a cell, the method comprising contacting a cell of a subject with a composition of any one of claims 1-72, wherein the contacting modulates an immune response.

146. A method of reducing, stabilizing, or ameliorating the symptoms of an allergic response in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising contacting a cell of the subject with a composition of any one of claims 1-72, wherein the contacting reduces, stabilizes, or ameliorates an allergic response.

147. The method of claim 146, wherein the method ameliorates a disease or disorder selected from the group consisting of eczema, allergic rhinitis, coryza, hay fever, conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, allergic asthma, urticaria, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, food allergy, drug allergy, and angioedema.

148. A method of reducing, stabilizing, or ameliorating the symptoms of an autoimmune response in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising contacting a cell of the subject with a composition of any one of claims 1-72, wherein the contacting reduces, stabilizes, or ameliorates an autoimmune response.

149. The method of claim 148, wherein the method treats a disease or disorder selected from the group consisting of Addison's disease, autoimmune anemia, Goodpasture's syndrome, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, type I diabetes, myasthenia gravis, ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

150. A method of reducing, stabilizing, or ameliorating a pathogen infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising contacting a cell of the subject with a composition of any one of claims 1-72, wherein the contacting reduces, stabilizes, or ameliorates a pathogen infection.

151. The method of claim 150, wherein the pathogen infection is a bacterial infection, a viral infection, or a fungal infection.

152. The method of claim 151, wherein the bacteria is selected from the group consisting of Helicobacter pylons, Borelia burgdorferi, Legionella pneumophilia, Mycobacteria sps (e.g., M. tuberculosis, M. avium, M. intracellular, M. kansaii, M. gordonae, etc.), Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Listeria monocytogenes,
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus), Streptococcus (viridans group), Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus (anaerobic species), Streptococcus pneumoniae, pathogenic Campylobacter sp., Enterococcus sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus antracis, corynebacterium diphtheriae, coiynebacterium sp. , Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Clostridium perfiingers, Clostridium tetani, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pasturella multocida, Bacteroides sp. , Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptobacillus moniliformis, Treponema pallidium, Treponema pertenue, Leptospira, Rickettsia, and Actinomyces israelii.

153. The composition of claim 151, wherein the virus is selected from the group consisting of Retroviridae, human immunodeficiency viruses, Picornaviridae, Calciviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviridae, Coronoviridae, Rhabdoviradae, Coronaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Bungaviridae, Arena viridae, Reoviridae,
Birnaviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Parvovirida, Papovaviridae, Adenoviridae (adenoviruses), Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, and Iridoviridae.

154. The method of claim 151, wherein the fungus is selected from the group consisting of Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Candida albicans.

155. A method of treating a neoplasm in a subject, the method comprising contacting a cell of the subject in need thereof with a composition of any one of claims 1-72, wherein the contacting reduces, stabilizes, or ameliorates the symptoms of a neoplasm.

156. The method of claim 155, wherein the neoplasm is selected from the group consisting of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, glioma, bladder cancer, billiary cancer, breast cancer, cervical carcinoma, colon carcinoma, colorectal cancer, choriocarcinoma, epithelial cell-cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular cancer, hodgkins lymphoma, lung cancer, lymphoid cell-derived leukemia, myeloma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, ovarian cancer cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, renal cancer, testicular cancer, T cell leukemia, and melanoma.

157. The method of any one of claims 145-156, wherein the cell functions in an adaptive immune response.

158. The method of any one of claims 145-156, wherein the cell is an antigen-presenting cell.

159. The method of claim 158, wherein the antigen-presenting cell is a dendritic cell.

160. The method of any one of claims 145-156, wherein the cell is ex vivo.

161. The method of any one of claims 145-156, wherein the cell is in vivo.

162. A method of enhancing antigen presentation by a cell, the method comprising contacting an antigen-presenting cell with at least one oligosaccharide conjugated to an antigen or antigen mimetic, wherein the contacting enhances antigen presentation by the antigen-presenting cell.

163. A method of increasing T cell proliferation in a subject, the method comprising contacting an antigen-presenting cell with at least one oligosaccharide conjugated to an antigen or antigen mimetic, wherein the contacting enhances antigen presentation by the antigen-presenting cell.

164. The method of any one of claims 145-163, wherein the cell is an antigen-presenting cell.

165. The method of claim 164, wherein the antigen-presenting cell is a dendritic cell.

166. The method of any one of claims 145-163, wherein the cell is ex vivo.

167. The method of any one of claims 145-163, wherein the cell is in vivo.

168. A kit for modulating an immune response, the kit comprising the composition of any one of claims 1-72.

169. The kit of claim 168, further comprising directions for administering the composition to the subject.

170. A method of generating an antigen carbohydrate conjugate, the method comprising: conjugating an antigen to a carbohydrate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells.

171. The method of claim 170, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

172. The method of claim 170, wherein the dendritic cells are derived from humans.

173. The method of claim 170, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

174. The method of claim 170, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

175. The method of claim 170, further comprising administering an adjuvant to the subject.

176. The method of claim 170, further comprising administering a cytokine to the subject.

177. The method of claim 170, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

178. The method of claim 170, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a hexose.

179. The method of claim 170, wherein the carbohydrate comprises mannose.

180. The method of claim 170, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

181. The method of claim 170, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

182. The method of claim 170, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

183. The method of claim 170, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

184. The method of claim 170, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

185. The method of claim 170, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

186. A method, comprising:
providing a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells;
screening a carbohydrate library to identify carbohydrates able to bind the lectin; and
conjugating an antigen to one of the identified carbohydrates able to bind the lectin.

187. The method of claim 186, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

188. The method of claim 187, wherein the dendritic cell is derived from humans.

189. The method of claim 188, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

190. The method of claim 188, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

191. The method of claim 186, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

192. The method of claim 187, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

193. The method of claim 187, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

194. The method of claim 187, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

195. The method of claim 186, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

196. The method of claim 186, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

197. A method of immunization, comprising:
administering, to a subject, a composition comprising a conjugate of an antigen and a carbohydrate, comprising mannose, that is able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, in an amount effective to immunize the subject to the antigen.

198. The method of claim 197, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

199. The method of claim 197, wherein the subject is human.

200. The method of claim 197, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

201. The method of claim 197, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

202. The method of claim 197, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

203. The method of claim 197, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

204. The method of claim 197, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

205. The method of claim 197, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

206. The method of claim 197, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

207. The method of claim 197, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ IDNO: 10.

208. The method of claim 197, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

209. The method of claim 197, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

210. A method of inducing immunological tolerance, comprising:
administering, to a subject, a composition comprising a conjugate of an antigen and a carbohydrate, comprising mannose, that is able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, in an amount effective to induce immunological tolerance of the subject to the antigen.

21 1. The method of claim 210, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

212. The method of claim 210, wherein the amount is effective to inhibit dendritic cell maturation.

213. The method of claim 210, wherein the amount is effective to induce T cell anergy.

214. The method of claim 210, wherein the amount is effective to induce T cell deletion.

215. The method of claim 210, wherein the amount is effective to induce T cell regulatory activity.

216. The method of claim 210, wherein the subject is human.

217. The method of claim 210, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

218. The method of claim 210, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

219. The method of claim 210, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

220. The method of claim 210, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

221. The method of claim 210, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

222. The method of claim 210, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

223. The method of claim 210, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

224. The method of claim 210, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

225. The method of claim 210, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

226. The method of claim 210, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

227. A method, comprising:
administering, to an antigen-presenting cell, an antigen-carbohydrate conjugate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on the antigen-presenting cell, the conjugate comprising mannose.

228. The method of claim 227, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

229. The method of claim 227, wherein the subject is human.

230. The method of claim 227, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

231. The method of claim 227, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

232. The method of claim 227, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

233. The method of claim 227, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

234. The method of claim 227, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

235. The method of claim 227, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

236. The method of claim 227, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

237. The method of claim 227, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

238. The method of claim 227, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

239. The method of claim 227, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

240. A method, comprising:
conjugating an antigen to a carbohydrate able to bind a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells, the carbohydrate comprising mannose.

241. The method of claim 240, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

242. The method of claim 240, wherein the dendritic cells are derived from humans.

243. The method of claim 240, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

244. The method of claim 240, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

245. The method of claim 240, further comprising administering an adjuvant to the subject.

246. The method of claim 240, further comprising administering a cytokine to the subject.

247. The method of claim 240, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

248. The method of claim 240, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a plurality of mannose residues.

249. The method of claim 240, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

250. The method of claim 240, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

251. The method of claim 240, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

252. The method of claim 240, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

253. The method of claim 240, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.

254. A method, comprising:
providing a lectin that is expressed on antigen-presenting cells but is not substantially expressed on non-antigen-presenting cells;
screening a carbohydrate library to identify carbohydrates able to bind the lectin; and
conjugating an antigen to one of the identified carbohydrates able to bind the lectin.

255. The method of claim 254, wherein the lectin is expressed on dendritic cells.

256. The method of claim 254, wherein the dendritic cell is derived from humans.

257. The method of claim 254, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell in vivo.

258. The method of claim 254, wherein the lectin is expressed on the dendritic cell ex vivo.

259. The method of claim 254, wherein the antigen comprises a protein, chemically-modified lipid, glycolipid, glycoprotein, polysaccharide, or small molecule.

260. The method of claim 254, wherein the lectin is an I-type, S-type, P-type, or C-type lectin.

261. The method of claim 254, wherein the lectin is DC-SIGN.

262. The method of claim 254, wherein the lectin comprises a sequence SEQ ID NO: 10.

263. The method of claim 254, wherein the antigen arises from a pool of suspected antigens.

264. The method of claim 254, wherein the antigen is pre-selected.