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1. (WO2005026203) DNA PROMOTERS AND ANTHRAX VACCINES
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. An attenuated bacterium which is capable of expressing a heterologous protein, the expression of the heterologous protein being under the control of a promoter, in which the promoter is selected from the group consisting of the promoters of SEQ ID NOs: 1-8 or a functional fraction thereof.
2. An attenuated bacterium according to claim 1 which is an attenuated strain of Salmonella.
3. An attenuated bacterium according to claim 2, which is an attenuated strain of Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Typhimurium.
4. An attenuated bacterium according to any one of the preceding claims, in which the heterologous protein comprises an antigenic sequence derived from a virus, bacterium, fungus, yeast or parasite.
5. An attenuated bacteria according to claim 4 in which the heterologous protein is the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis.
6. A process for the preparation of an attenuated bacterium as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, which process comprises transforming an attenuated bacterium with a DNA construct comprising a said promoter operably linked to a DNA sequence encoding a said heterologous protein.
7. A composition of matter comprising a promoter, in which the promoter is selected from the group consisting of the promoters of SEQ ID NOs: 1-8 or a functional fraction thereof.
8. A living attenuated vaccine, for the immunization against anthrax disease, comprising as the active component an effective dose of an attenuated galactose epimeraseless mutant strain of S. Typhi and a Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) carried thereby.
9. A vaccine according to claim 8 wherein the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is the wild type PA encoded by SEQ ID NO: 9 or an immunogenic fragment thereof.
10. A vaccine according to claim 9, wherein the wild type PA is encoded by SEQ ID NO: 9.
11. A vaccine according to claim 9, wherein the wild type PA is encoded by SEQ ID NO: 10.

12. A vaccine according to Claim 8 wherein the protective antigen (PA) is low-copy plasmid encoded.
13. A vaccine according to claim 12, wherein the plasmid is pGB2.
14. A vaccine according to claim 12, wherein the plasmid promotes the expression of the PA by a nirB promoter.
15. A vaccine according to claim 12, wherein the plasmid promotes the secretion of the PA by a Sec signal sequence.
16. A vaccine according to Claim 8 in freeze-dried form.
17. A vaccine according to Claim 8 wherein the attenuated galactose epimeraseless mutant strain of S. Typhi is S. Typhi Ty21a.
18. A method of immunizing a susceptible host against B. anthracis disease comprising administering to the host an effective amount of the vaccine according to any one of Claims 8-17 to elicit an immunizing response.