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1. WO2004018963 - METHOD FOR DETERMINING TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE SURFACE USING A SCANNING MICROSCOPE (SEM) AND ASSOCIATED SCANNING MICROSCOPE

Publication Number WO/2004/018963
Publication Date 04.03.2004
International Application No. PCT/EP2003/009054
International Filing Date 14.08.2003
IPC
G01N 29/22 2006.01
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
29Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
22Details
G01N 29/34 2006.01
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
29Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
34Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
G01Q 60/26 2010.01
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING-PROBE MICROSCOPY
60Particular types of SPM or apparatus therefor; Essential components thereof
24AFM or apparatus therefor, e.g. AFM probes
26Friction force microscopy
G01Q 60/28 2010.01
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING-PROBE MICROSCOPY
60Particular types of SPM or apparatus therefor; Essential components thereof
24AFM or apparatus therefor, e.g. AFM probes
28Adhesion force microscopy
G01B 21/30 2006.01
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
21Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the other groups of this subclass
30for measuring roughness or irregularity of surfaces
G01H 3/00 2006.01
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
HMEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OR ULTRASONIC, SONIC OR INFRASONIC WAVES
3Measuring vibrations by using a detector in a fluid
CPC
G01H 3/00
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
HMEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OR ULTRASONIC, SONIC OR INFRASONIC WAVES
3Measuring ; characteristics of; vibrations by using a detector in a fluid
G01N 2291/02827
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
2291Indexing codes associated with group G01N29/00
02Indexing codes associated with the analysed material
028Material parameters
02827Elastic parameters, strength or force
G01N 2291/101
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
2291Indexing codes associated with group G01N29/00
10Number of transducers
101one transducer
G01N 29/22
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
29Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
22Details ; , e.g. general constructional or apparatus details
G01N 29/346
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
29Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
34Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves ; , e.g. electronic circuits specially adapted therefor
346with amplitude characteristics, e.g. modulated signal
G01Q 60/26
GPHYSICS
01MEASURING; TESTING
QSCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES OR APPARATUS; APPLICATIONS OF SCANNING-PROBE TECHNIQUES, e.g. SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY [SPM]
60Particular types of SPM [Scanning Probe Microscopy] or microscopes; Essential components thereof
24AFM [Atomic Force Microscopy] or apparatus therefor, e.g. AFM probes
26Friction force microscopy
Applicants
  • FRAUNHOFER-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG e. V. [DE]/[DE] (AllExceptUS)
  • REINSTÄDTLER, Michael [DE]/[DE] (UsOnly)
  • RABE, Ute [DE]/[DE] (UsOnly)
  • ARNOLD, Walter [DE]/[DE] (UsOnly)
Inventors
  • REINSTÄDTLER, Michael
  • RABE, Ute
  • ARNOLD, Walter
Agents
  • RÖSLER, Uwe
Priority Data
102 37 627.116.08.2002DE
Publication Language German (DE)
Filing Language German (DE)
Designated States
Title
(DE) VERFAHREN ZUR BESTIMMUNG TRIBOLOGISCHER EIGENSCHAFTEN EINER PROBENOBERFLÄCHE MITTELS EINES RASTERKRAFTMIKROSKOPS (RKM) SOWIE EIN DIESBEZÜGLICHES RKM
(EN) METHOD FOR DETERMINING TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE SURFACE USING A SCANNING MICROSCOPE (SEM) AND ASSOCIATED SCANNING MICROSCOPE
(FR) PROCEDE POUR DETERMINER DES PROPRIETES TRIBOLOGIQUES D'UNE SURFACE D'ECHANTILLON AU MOYEN D'UN MICROSCOPE A BALAYAGE (MEB) ET MICROSCOPE A BALAYAGE ASSOCIE
Abstract
(DE)
Beschrieben wird ein Verfahren zur Untersuchung einer Probenoberfläche mittels eines Rasterkraftmikroskops (RKM), das einen über eine Längserstreckung verfügenden Federbalken aufweist, längs dessen eine Messspitze angebracht ist, die über Steilmittel relativ zur Probenoberfläche gezielt angeordnet und deren räumliche Lage mit einer Sensoreinheit erfasst wird, sowie wenigstens einen Ultraschallwellengenerator vorsieht, der mit einer vorgebbaren Anregungsfrequenz eine Schwingungsanregung zwischen der Probenoberfläche und dem Federbalken, dessen Messspitze in Kontakt mit der Probenoberfläche gebracht wird, derart initiiert, dass die Messspitze in lateral zur Probenoberfläche und orthogonal zur Längserstreckung des Federbalkens orientierte Oszillationen angeregt wird und dass in dem Federbalken sich ausbildende Torsionsschwingungen erfasst und mittels einer Auswerteeinheit analysiert werden. Die Erfindung zeichnet sich dadurch aus, - dass die Schwingungsanregung derart erfolgt, dass die von der Messspitze ausgeführten Oszillationen höher harmonische Schwingungsanteile zur Anregungsfrequenz aufweisen, - dass die Schwingungsanregung mit Anregungsamplituden durchgeführt wird, die innerhalb des Federbalkens zu Torsionsamplituden führen, deren Torsionsamplitudenmaxima trotz zunehmenden Anregungsamplituden einen weitgehend konstanten Plateauwert annehmen und deren Resonanzspektren im Bereich der Torsionsamplitudenmaxima eine spektrale resonante Verbreiterung erfahren, die durch eine Plateaubreite bestimmbar ist, und - dass zur Untersuchung der Probenoberfläche die Resonanzspektren, vorzugsweise der Plateauwert, die Plateaubreite und/oder die Steigung der jeweiligen Resonanzspektren verwendet werden.
(EN)
The invention concerns a method for examining the surface of samples using a scanning microscope (SEM) comprising a flexible beam with longitudinal extension, whereof the longitudinal measuring tip is arranged precisely relative to a sample surface by means of a fixing device, the spatial position of said measuring tip being sensed by a sensing unit. The microscope is further equipped with at least one ultrasound generator which initiates an oscillation at a give excitation frequency between the sample surface and the flexible beam, whereof the measuring tip is in contact with the sample surface, such that the oscillations imparted to the measuring tip are oriented laterally to the sample surface and perpendicularly to the length of the flexible beam. The torsional oscillations of the flexible beam are sensed and analyzed by means of an evaluation unit. The invention is characterized in that the generation of oscillations is such that the oscillations produced by the measuring tip have a higher harmonic vibration relative to the excitation frequency, the oscillation generation is produced at amplitudes which provoke torsional amplitudes in the flexible beam. Those torsional amplitudes have maximum values which form a substantially constant plateau, even when the torsional amplitudes increase, and, in the range of maximum values, said torsional amplitudes have resonance spectra which develop a dispersion capable of being determined by a plateau width. The method for examining a sample surface consists in using the resonance spectra and, preferably, the plateau value, the plateau width and/or the corresponding resonance spectra increase.
(FR)
L'invention concerne un procédé pour examiner la surface d'échantillons au moyen d'un microscope à balayage (MEB) comportant une poutre flexible à extension longitudinale, dont la pointe de mesure longitudinale est disposée avec précision relativement à la surface d'un échantillon au moyen d'un dispositif de fixation, la position spatiale de cette pointe de mesure étant saisie par une unité de détection. Le microscope est également pourvu d'au moins un générateur d'ultrasons qui amorce une oscillation à une fréquence d'excitation donnée entre la surface de l'échantillon et la poutre flexible, dont la pointe de mesure est en contact avec la surface de l'échantillon, de sorte que les oscillations conférées à la pointe de mesure sont orientées latéralement à la surface de l'échantillon et perpendiculairement à la longueur de la poutre flexible. Les oscillations de torsion de la poutre flexible sont saisies et analysées au moyen d'une unité d'évaluation. L'invention est caractérisée en ce que la génération d'oscillations est telle que les oscillations effectuées par la pointe de mesure ont une portion de vibration harmonique plus élevée relativement à la fréquence d'excitation, la génération d'oscillations est réalisée à des amplitudes qui provoquent des amplitudes de torsion dans la poutre flexible. Ces amplitudes de torsion ont des valeurs maximales qui forment un plateau sensiblement constant, même lorsque les amplitudes de torsion augmentent, et, dans la plage des valeurs maximales, lesdites amplitudes de torsion ont des spectres de résonance qui développent une dispersion pouvant être déterminée par une largeur de plateau. Pour examiner la surface d'un échantillon, on utilise les spectres de résonance et, de préférence, la valeur plateau, la largeur de plateau et/ou l'augmentation des spectres de résonance correspondants.
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