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1. (WO2002086029) IN SITU RECOVERY FROM A RELATIVELY LOW PERMEABILITY FORMATION CONTAINING HEAVY HYDROCARBONS
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method of freating a relatively low peπneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
confrolling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation is less than about 375 °C; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

3. The method of claim 1 , wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

8. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

9. The method of claim 1 , further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation with a valve coupled to at least one of the one or more heat sources.

10. The method of claim 1, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation with a valve coupled to a production well located in the formation.

11. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of foπnation comprises: heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

16. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

20. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

21. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

22. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

23. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

24. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

25. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

26. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

27. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

28. The method of claim 1, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

29. The method of claim 1, further comprising confrolling formation conditions such that the produced mixture comprises a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture greater than about 0.5 bars.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

31. The method of claim 1, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

32. The method of claim 1, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

33. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

34. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

35. The method of claim 1, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

36. The method of claim 34, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

37. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

38. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the fonnation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

39. The method of clahn 1, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid sfream.

40. The method of claim 1, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas sfream and a liquid stream and separating the liquid sfream into an aqueous sfream and a non-aqueous sfream.

41. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises H2S, the method further comprising separating a portion of the H2S from non-condensable hydrocarbons.

42. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises C02, the method further comprising separating a portion of the C02 from non-condensable hydrocarbons.

43. The method of claim 1, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein the heating is confrolled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor.

44. The method of claim 1, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, the method further comprising heating a wellbore of the production well to inhibit condensation of the mixture within the wellbore.

45. The method of claim 1, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein a wellbore of the production well comprises a heater element configured to heat the foπnation adjacent to the wellbore, and further comprising heatmg the formation with the heater element to produce the mixture, wherein the mixture comprises a large non-condensable hydrocarbon gas component and H2.

46. The method of claim 1, wherein the minimum pyrolysis temperature is about 270 °C.

47. The method of claim 1, further comprising maintaining the pressure within the formation above about 2.0 bars absolute to inhibit production of fluids having carbon numbers above 25.

48. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to confrol an amount of condensable hydrocarbons within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to increase production of condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein the pressure is increased to increase production of non-condensable hydrocarbons.

49. The method of clahn 1, further comprising confrolling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to control an API gravity of condensable hydrocarbons within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to decrease the API gravity, and wherein the pressure is increased to reduce the API gravity.

50. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from at least the portion to a selected section of the formation substantially by conduction of heat;
pyrolyzing at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

51. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

52. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

53. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

54. The method of clahn 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

55. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

56. The method of claim 50, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

57. The method of claim 50, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.0 ° C per day during pyrolysis.

58. The method of claim 50, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the foimation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

59. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

60. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

61. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

62. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

63.' The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

64. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

65. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

66. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

67. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

68. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

69. The method of clahn 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

70. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

71. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

72. The method of claim 50, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

73. The method of clahn 50, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

74. The method of claim 73, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

75. The method of claim 50, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

76. The method of claim 50, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

77. The method of claim 50, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

78. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

79. The method of claim 50, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

80. The method of claim 79, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

81. The method of claim 50, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

82. The method of claim 50, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to foπn a repetitive pattern of units.

83. A method of treating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
confrolling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation is less than about 370 °C such that production of a substantial amount of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 is inhibited;
controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein about 0.1 % by weight of the produced mixture to about 15 % by weight of the produced mixture are olefins, and wherein an average carbon number of the produced mixture ranges from 1-25.

84. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

85. The method of claim 83, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

86. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

87. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

88. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

89. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

90. The method of claim 83, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

91. The method of claim 83 , further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

92. The method of claim 83, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherem the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherem the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

93. The method of claim 83, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises transfening heat substantially by conduction.

94. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

95. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

96. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

97. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

98. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

99. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

lOO.The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

lOl.The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

102.The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

103. The method of clahn 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

104.The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

105. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

106.The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

107.The method of claim 106, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

108.The method of claim 83, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

109.The method of claim 83, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1 lO.The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

I ll .The method of claim 83, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

112.The method of claim 111, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

113.The method of claim 83, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

114.The method of claim 83, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

115. The method of claim 83, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid stream.

116.The method of claim 83, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid sfream and separating the liquid sfream into an aqueous sfream and a non-aqueous stream.

117.The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises H2S, the method further comprising separating a portion of the H2S from non-condensable hydrocarbons.

118. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises C02, the method further comprising separating a portion of the C02 from non-condensable hydrocarbons.

119. The method of claim 83, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein the heating is confrolled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor.

120.The method of claim 83, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, the method further comprising heating a wellbore of the production well to inhibit condensation of the mixture within the wellbore.

121. The method of claim 83, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein a wellbore of the production well comprises a heater element configured to heat the formation adjacent to the wellbore, and further comprising heating the formation with the heater element to produce the mixture, wherein the produced mixture comprise a large non-condensable hydrocarbon gas component and H2.

122.The method of claim 83, wherein the minimum pyrolysis temperature is about 270 °C.

123. The method of claim 83, further comprising maintaining the pressure within the formation above about 2.0 bars absolute to inhibit production of fluids having carbon numbers above 25.

124. The method of claim 83, further comprising confrolling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars absolute, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to control an amount of condensable fluids within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to increase production of condensable fluids, and wherein the pressure is increased to increase production of non-condensable fluids.

125. The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars absolute, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to confrol an API gravity of condensable fluids within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to decrease the API gravity, and wherein the pressure is increased to reduce the API gravity.

126.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

127.The method of claim 126, wherein confrolling the pressure comprises confrolling the pressure with a valve coupled to at least one of the one or more heat sources.

128.The method of claim 126, wherein confrolling the pressure comprises controlling the pressure with a valve coupled to a production well located in the formation.

129.The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

130.The method of claim 126, wherein confrolling foimation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

131.The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

132.The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

133. The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

134.The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

135.The method of clahn 126, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

136.The method of claim 126, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

137. The method of clahn 126, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C,,), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foimation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein w is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

138.The method of claim 126, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

139.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

140.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

141. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

142.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

143. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

144.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

145. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

146.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

147.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherem less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

148.The method of clahn 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

149.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

150.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

151.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

152. The method of claim 126, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

153. The method of claim 152, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

154. The method of claim 126, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

155.The method of claim 126, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

156.The method of claim 126, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

157.The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

158.The method of claim 126, wherein producing the mixture from the formation comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the fonnation for each production well.

159.The method of claim 158, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

160.A method of freating a relatively low penneability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foπnation; and confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute;
confrolling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 375 °C; and
producing a mixture from the foπnation.

161. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

162.The method of claim 159, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

163. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

164.The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

165. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

166.The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

167. The method of claim 159, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

168.The method of claim 159, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

169.The method of claim 159, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherehi heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherehi Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

170.The method of claim 159, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises transfening heat substantially by conduction.

171. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

172.The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

173. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

174.The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

175.The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

176.The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

177. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

178. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

179.The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

180. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

181. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

182.The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

183. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

184.The method of clahn 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

185.The method of claim 159, wherein controlling the heat further comprises confrolling the heat such that coke production is inhibited.

186.The method of claim 159, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

187.The method of claim 186, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

188. The method of claim 159, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

189.The method of claim 159, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

190.The method of claim 159, further comprising: providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

191. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

192.The method of claim 159, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

193. The method of claim 192, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

194. The method of claim 159, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

195.The method of claim 159, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

196. A method of freating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein at least a portion of the mixture is produced during the pyrolysis and the mixture moves through the formation in a vapor phase; and
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section above about 2.0 bars absolute.

197.The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation.

198. The method of claim 196, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

199.The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

200. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

201. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

202,The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

203.The method of claim 196, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

204.The method of claim 196, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

205.The method of claim 196, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of fonnation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherehi the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

206. The method of claim 196, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises ttansfening heat substantially by conduction.

" 207.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

208.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

209.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

210.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

211. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

212.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

213. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

214.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

215. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

216.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

217. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

218. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

219.The method of claim 196, wherem the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

220.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

221. The method of claim 196, wherein the pressure is measured at a wellhead of a production well.

222.The method of claim 196, wherein the pressure is measured at a location within a wellbore of the production well.

223. The method of claim 196, wherein the pressure is maintained below about 100 bars absolute.

224.The method of claim 196, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

225.The method of claim 224, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

226. The method of claim 196, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

227.The method of clahn 196, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the foimation.

228. The method of claim 196, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

229.The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

230. The method of claim 196, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

231. The method of claim 230, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

232.The method of claim 196, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

233. The method of claim 196, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

234.A method of treating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation above 2.0 bars absolute; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity higher than an API gravity of condensable hydrocarbons in a mixture producible from the formation at the same temperature and at atmospheric pressure.

235,The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation.

236.The method of claim 234, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

237. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

238.The method of claim 234, wherem the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

239.The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

240. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

241. The method of claim 234, further comprising confrolling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

242.The method of claim 234, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

243. The method of claim 234, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

244.The method of claim 234, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

245. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

246.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

247.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

248.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

249.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

250. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

251.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

252.The method of clahn 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

253. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

254.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

255. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

256.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

257.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

258.The method of claim 234, wherehi the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

259.The method of claim 234, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

260.The method of claim 234, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

261. The method of claim 234, further comprising altering a pressure within the foπnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

262.The method of claim 234, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

263. The method of claim 234, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

264.The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

265.The method of claim 234, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

266.The method of claim 265, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

267.The method of claim 234, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

268. The method of claim 234, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

269.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation to above 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a fluid from the formation, wherein condensable hydrocarbons within the fluid comprise an atomic hydrogen to atomic carbon ratio of greater than about 1J5.

270.The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

271. The method of claim 269, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

272.The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

273. The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

274.The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

275.The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

276.The method of claim 269, further comprising confrolling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

277.The method of claim 269, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

278.The method of clahn 269, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

279.The method of claim 269, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

280.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

281. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

282.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

283.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

284.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

285. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

286.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

287.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

288.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

289. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

290.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

291. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

292. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

293. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

294.The method of claim 269, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

295. The method of claim 269, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

296. The method of claim 269, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

291. The method of claim 269, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

298. The method of claim 269, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

299.The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

300.The method of claim 269, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

301.The method of claim 300, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

302.The method of claim 269, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

303. The method of claim 269, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

304. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foimation to above 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a higher amount of non-condensable components as compared to non-condensable components producible from the foπnation under the same temperature conditions and at atmospheric pressure.

305. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

306.The method of claim 304, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

307. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

308.The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

309.The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

3 lO.The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

311.The method of claim 304, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

312.The method of claim 304, furtlier comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

313. The method of claim 304, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises: heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foπnation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

314.The method of claim 304, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

315. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

316.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

317.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

318.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

319.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

320.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

321. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

322.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

323. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

324.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

325.The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

326. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

327. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

328. The method of clahn 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

329. The method of claim 304, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

330.The method of claim 304, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

331. The method of claim 304, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foπnation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

332.The method of claim 304, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

333. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

334.The method of claim 304, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

335. The method of claim 334, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

336. The method of claim 304, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

337.The method of claim 304, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

338. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that superhnposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least about 20 % by weight of hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the foπnation.

339. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

340.The method of claim 338, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

341.The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

342.The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

343. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

344.The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

345.The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

346.The method of claim 338, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

347. The method of claim 338, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the fonnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

348.The method of claim 338, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.

349. The method of claim 338, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected foπnation such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

350.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

351. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

352.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

353. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

354.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

355.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

356.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

357.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

358.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

359. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

360.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

361.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

362.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

363.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

364.The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foimation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

365. The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

366.The method of claim 338, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

367.The method of claim 338, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

368.The method of claim 338, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

369.The method of claim 338, further comprising: providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

370.The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

371.The method of claim 338, wherehi allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

372.The method of claim 338, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

373. The method of claim 338, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

374.The method of claim 373, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

375.The method of claim 338, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

376.The method of claim 338, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

377. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more -heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least about 20 % of hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherem the mixture comprises a condensable component having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

378. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

379. The method of claim 377, wherein controlling foimation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

380.The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

381. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

382. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

383. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

384. The method of claim 377, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

385. The method of claim 377, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

386. The method of claim 377, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

387. The method of claim 377, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

388. The method of claim 377, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a theπnal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

389.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

390.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

391. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

392.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

393.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

394.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

395. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

396.The method of clahn 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

397.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

398.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

399.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

400.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

401.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

402.The method of claim 377, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

403. The method of claim 377, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

404.The method of claim 377, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

405. The method of claim 377, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

406.The method of claim 377, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

407.The method of claim 377, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

408.The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

409.The method of claim 377, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

410.The method of claim 377, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

41 l.The method of claim 377, wherem producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

412.The method of claim 411, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

413. The method of claim 377, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

414.The method of claim 377, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

415. A method of freating a layer of a relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the layer, wherein the one or more heat sources are positioned proximate an edge of the layer;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the layer such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

416.The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources are laterally spaced from a center of the layer.

417.The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources are positioned in a staggered line.

418. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources positioned proximate the edge of the layer can increase an amount of hydrocarbons produced per unit of energy input to the one or more heat sources.

419. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources positioned proximate the edge of the layer can increase the volume of foπnation undergoing pyrolysis per unit of energy input to the one or more heat sources.

420. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

421. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

422.The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

423. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

424.The method of claim 415, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

425.The method of claim 415, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.0 ° C per day during pyrolysis.

426. The method of claim 415, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of the layer comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation-containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the foπnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

427. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

428.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

429.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

430.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

43 l.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

432. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

433.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

434.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

435. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

436.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

437. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

438.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

439.The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

440.The method of claim 415, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

441. The method of clahn 415, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherehi a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

442.The method of claim 441, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

443. The method of claim 415, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foπnation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

444.The method of claim 415, further comprising confrolling formation conditions, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

445.The method of claim 415, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

446. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

447.The method of claim 415, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

448.The method of claim 447, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

449.The method of claim 415, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

450.The method of claim 415, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

451.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

452.The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation.

453. The method of claim 451, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

454.The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

455.The method of clahn 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

456.The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

457.The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

458.The method of claim 451, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

459. The method of claim 451, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

460.The method of claim 451, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

461.The method of claim 451 , wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

462.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

463.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

464.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

465.The method of claim 451 , wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

466. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

467.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

468.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

469.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

470.The method of claim 451 , wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

47 l.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

472.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

473. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

474.The method of clahn 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

475. The method of claim 451, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

476.The method of claim 451, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

477.The method of claim 451, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

478.The method of claim 451, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

479.The method of claim 451, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

480.The method of clahn 451, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

481.The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

482. The method of claim 451 , wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

483. The method of clahn 482, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

484. The method of claim 451, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

485.The method of claim 451, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

486. A method of freating a relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foπnation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
confrolling API gravity of the produced mixture to be greater than about 25 degrees API by confrolling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
_ e f-44000 T+ 67]

where/? is measured in psia and Tis measured in ° Kelvin.

487.The method of claim 486, wherein the API gravity of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 30 degrees API, and wherein the equation is:

488.The method of claim 486, wherein the API gravity of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 35 degrees API, and wherein the equation is:
_ [-22000/T+ 38]

489.The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

490.The method of claim 486, wherein confrolling the average temperature comprises maintaining a temperature in the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

491. The method of clahn 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

492.The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

493. The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

494.The method of clahn 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

495.The method of claim 486, further comprising confrolling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

496.The method of claim 486, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

497.The method of claim 486, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherehi heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

498.The method of claim 486, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

499.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

500.The method of clahn 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

501. The method of clahn 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

502.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

503. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

504.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

505.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

506.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

507.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

508. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

509.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

5 lO.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

51 l.The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

512.The method of claim 486, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

513. The method of claim 486, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

514.The method of claim 486, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foπnation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

515. The method of claim 486, wherein controlling foπnation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

516.The method of claim 486, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

517.The method of clahn 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

518. The method of claim 486, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

519.The method of claim 518, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

520. The method of claim 486, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

521. The method of claim 486, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

522.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat to at least a portion of a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons such that a temperature (7) in a substantial part of the heated portion exceeds 270 °C and hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed within the heated portion of the formation;

confrolling a pressure (p) within at least a substantial part of the heated portion of the formation;
vthexe pbar> e [<-Λ /τ> ÷B- 6744] ;
wherein p is the pressure in bars absolute and T is the temperature in degrees K, and A and B are parameters that are larger than 10 and are selected in relation to the characteristics and composition of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and on the required olefin content and carbon number of the pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids; and
producing pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids from the heated portion of the formation.

523.The method of claim 522, wherein A is greater than 14000 and B is greater than about 25 and a majority of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids have an average carbon number lower than 25 and comprise less than about 10 % by weight of olefins.

524.The method of claim 522, wherein T is less than about 390 °C, p is greater than about 1.4 bars, A is greater than about 44000, and b is greater than about 67, and a majority of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids have an average carbon number less than 25 and comprise less than 10 % by weight of olefins.

525. The method of claim 522, wherein Tis less than about 390 °C, p is greater than about 2 bars, A is less than about 57000, and b is less than about 83, and a majority of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids have an average carbon number lower than about 21.

526.The method of claim 522, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the heated portion is less than about 3°C per day during pyrolysis.

527.The method of claim 522, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

528.The method of claim 522, wherein heat is fransfened substantially by conduction from one or more heat sources to the heated portion of the formation.

529.The method of claim 528, wherein the heat sources comprise heaters in which hydrocarbons are either injected into a heaters or released by the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons adjacent to a heater by an oxidant injected into the heater in or adjacent to which the combustion occurs and wherein at least part of the produced combustion gases are vented to surface via the heater in which the combustion occurs.

530.The method of clahn 522, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture flowing through the formation is greater than 0.5 bars.

53 l.The method of claim 530, further comprising, hydrogenating a portion of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen and heating the fluids with heat from hydrogenation.

532. The method of claim 522, wherein the substantially gaseous pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids are produced from a production well, the method further comprising heating a wellbore of the production well to inhibit condensation of the hydrocarbon fluids within the wellbore.

533.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the foimation; and
controlling a weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture to be less than about 20 % by weight by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
_ e [-57000/T+ 83]

where p is measured in psia and Tis measured in ° Kelvin.

534.The method of clahn 533, wherein the weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture is confrolled to be less than about 10 % by weight, and wherein the equation is:
p _ e [-16000/7 + 28]

535.The method of claim 533, wherein the weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture is confrolled to be less than about 5 % by weight, and wherein the equation is:
p _ e [-I2000/T÷ 22J

536.The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

537.The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

538.The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

539.The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

540.The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

541.The method of claim 533, further comprising confrolling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

542.The method of claim 541, wherein confrolling an average temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

543. The method of claim 533, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3.0 °C per day during pyrolysis.

544.The method of claim 533, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

545. The method of claim 533, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the foπnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

546.The method of claim 533, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

547.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

548. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

549.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

550.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

55 l.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

552.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

553. The method of clahn 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

554.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

555.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

556.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

557. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

558.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

559.The method of clahn 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

560.The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

56 l.The method of claim 533, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

562.The method of claim 533, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

563. The method of claim 533, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

564.The method of claim 533, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

565. The method of claim 533, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

566. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

567.The method of claim 533, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

568.The method of claim 567, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foimation for each production well.

569. The method of claim 533, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the fonnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

570.The method of claim 533, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foπnation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

571.A method of freating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;

allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
controlling hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 20 of the produced mixture to be less than about 20 % by weight by confrolling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (7) in the selected section:
_ [-14000,'T + 25]

where p is measured in psia and T is measured in ° Kelvin. •

572.The method of claim 571, wherein the hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 20 of the produced mixture is confrolled to be less than about 15 % by weight, and wherein the equation is:
p = e [-18000 T + 32]_

573.The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

574.The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

575. The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

576.The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

577.The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

578.The method of claim 571, further comprising confrolling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

579.The method of claim 578, wherein confrolling the temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

580.The method of claim 571, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

581.The method of claim 571, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises: heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherehi heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

582.The method of clahn 571, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

583.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

584.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

585. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

586.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

587.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

588. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

589.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

590.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

591. The method of clahn 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

592. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

593. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

594.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

595.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

596.The method of claim 571, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

597.The method of claim 571, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

598. The method of claim 571, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

599.The method of claim 571, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

600.The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method fiirther comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

60 l.The method of claim 571, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foimation for each production well.

602.The method of claim 601, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

603. The method of claim 571, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

604.The method of claim 571, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

605.A method of treating a relatively low permeability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
confrolling an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture to be greater than about 1.7 by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
_ [-38000/T + 61]

where p is measured in psia and Tis measured in ° Kelvin.

606.The method of claim 605, wherem the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture is confrolled to be greater than about 1.8, and wherein the equation is:
_ ef-13000 T + 24J_

607.The method of claim 605, wherein the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 1.9, and wherein the equation is:

608.The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation.

609.The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

610.The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

611.The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

612.The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

613. The method of claim 605, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foimation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

614.The method of claim 613, wherein confrolling the temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the ' selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

615. The method of claim 605, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

616.The method of claim 605, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

617.The method of claim 605, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

618.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

619.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

620.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

62 l.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

622.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

623. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

624.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

625. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

626. The method of clahn 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

627.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

628. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

629. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

630.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

63 l.The method of clahn 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

632.The method of claim 605, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

633. The method of claim 605, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

634.The method of claim 605, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

635. The method of claim 605, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the foπnation.

636.The method of claim 605, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

637.The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

638.The method of claim 605, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

639.The method of claim 638, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foimation for each production well.

640. The method of claim 605, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

641.The method of claim 605, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the fonnation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

642.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
controlling a pressure-temperature relationship within at least the selected section of the formation by selected energy input into the one or more heat sources and by pressure release from the selected section through wellbores of the one or more heat sources; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

643. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

644. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources.

645. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

646.The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

647.The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

648. The method of claim 642, further comprising confrolling the pressure-temperature relationship by confrolling a rate of removal of fluid from the foπnation.

649.The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

650.The method of claim 642, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

65 l.The method of claim 642, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

652. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

653. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

654.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

655. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

656. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

657.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

658.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

659.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

660.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

66 l.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

662. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

663. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

664. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

665.The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

666.The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foimation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

667.The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids and H2, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

668. The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

669. The method of claim 642, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

670. The method of claim 642, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

671.The method of claim 642, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

672.The method of claim 642, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

673. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

674.The method of clahn 642, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

675.The method of clahn 674, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

676.The method of claim 642, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

677.The method of claim 642, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

678.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, wherein foimation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

679.The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with an elecfrical heater.

680.The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with a surface burner.

68 l.The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with a flameless disfributed combustor.

682.The method of clahn 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with at least one natural disfributed combustor.

683.The method of claim 678, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected volume of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

684.The method of clahn 678, further comprising controlling the heating such that an average heating rate of the selected volume is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

685.The method of claim 678, wherein a value for Cv is determined as an average heat capacity of two or more samples taken from the relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons.

686.The method of claim 678, wherein heating the selected volume comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

687.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

688.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

689.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

690.The method of clahn 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

691. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

692.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

693. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

694.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

695. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

696.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

697.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

698.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

699.The method of clahn 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

700.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer

70 l.The method of claim 678, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected volume of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

702.The method of claim 678, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation comprising condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

703. The method of claim 678, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

704.The method of clahn 678, further comprising altering a pressure within the foimation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

705.The method of claim 678, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

706.The method of claim 678, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated volume to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the volume; and heating a portion of the volume with heat from hydrogenation.

707.The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

708. The method of claim 678, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

709. The method of claim 708, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

710.The method of claim 678, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

71 l.The method of claim 678, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

712.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;

allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
controlling heat output from the one or more heat sources such that an average heating rate of the selected section rises by less than about 3 °C per day when the average temperature of the selected section is at, or above, the temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

713. The method of claim 712, wherein confrolling heat output comprises:
raising the average temperature within the selected section to a first temperature that is at or above a minimum pyrolysis temperature of hydrocarbons within the formation;
limiting energy input into the one or more heat sources to inhibit increase in temperature of the selected section; and
increasing energy input into the formation to raise an average temperature of the selected section above the ffrst temperature when production of formation fluid declines below a desired production rate.

714.The method of claim 712, wherein controlling heat output comprises:
raising the average temperature within the selected section to a first temperature that is at or above a minimum pyrolysis temperature of hydrocarbons within the formation;
limiting energy input into the one or more heat sources to inhibit increase in temperature of the selected section; and
increasing energy input into the formation to raise an average temperature of the selected section above the ffrst temperature when quality of formation fluid produced from the formation falls below a deshed quality.

715. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section.

716.The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

717. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

718.The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

719.The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

720. The method of claim 712, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

721.The method of claim 712, wherein the heat is confrolled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.5 °C per day during pyrolysis.

722.The method of claim 712, wherein the heat is controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

723. The method of claim 712, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density.

724.The method of claim 712, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

725. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

726.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

727.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, wherein the condensable hydrocarbons have an olefin content less than about 2.5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein the olefin content is greater than about 0.1 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons.

728.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

729.The method of clahn 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.10 and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

730. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.05 and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

731.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

732.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

733.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

734.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

735.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

736. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

737. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

738.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

739.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

740.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

741. The method of claim 712, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

742.The method of claim 712, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

743. The method of claim 712, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

744.The method of claim 712, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

745. The method of claim 712, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

746.The method of clahn 712, further comprising:
providing H2 to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

747.The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

748. The method of claim 712, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

749. The method of claim 748, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

750.The method of clahn 712, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

75 l.The method of claim 712, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to foπn a repetitive pattern of units.

752. A method of treating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; to heat a selected section of the formation to an average temperature above about 270 °C;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation;

confrolling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3 °C per day during pyrolysis; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

753.The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

754.The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

755.The method of claim 752, further comprising supplying elecfricity to the elecfrical heaters substantially during non-peak hours.

756. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

757. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

758.The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

759.The method of claim 752, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

760.The method of claim 752, wherein the heat is further controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3 °C/day until production of condensable hydrocarbons substantially ceases.

761. The method of claim 752, wherein the heat is further controlled that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.5 °C per day during pyrolysis.

762.The method of clahn 752, wherein the heat is further controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

763. The method of claim 752, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of foπnation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density.

764.The method of claim 752, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

765. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

766. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

767.The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

768. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

769. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

770. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

77 l.The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

772.The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

773. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

774. The method of clahn 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

775. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherehi about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

776. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

777. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

778. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

779.The method of claim 752, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

780. The method of claim 752, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

78 l.The method of claim 780, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

782.The method of claim 752, further comprising altering a pressure within the fonnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

783. The method of claim 752, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

784.The method of claim 752, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

785.The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

786.The method of claim 752, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

787.The method of claim 786, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

788. The method of clahn 752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

789.The method of claim 752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

790.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation through at least one production well;
monitoring a temperature at or in the production well; and
confrolling heat input to raise the monitored temperature at a rate of less than about 3 °C per day.

791.The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

792.The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

793. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

794.The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

795. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

796. The method of claim 790, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

797.The method of claim 790, wherein the heat is confrolled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

798.The method of claim 790, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises: heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the foπnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherehi Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density.

799.The method of claim 790, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

800. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

801. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

802.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

803. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

804.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

805. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

806.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

807.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

808. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

809.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

8 lO.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volmne of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

81 l.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

812.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

813. The method of claim 790, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a maj ority of the selected section of the foimation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

814.The method of claim 790, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

815.The method of claim 814, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

816.The method of claim 790, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

817.The method of claim 790, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the foπnation.

818. The method of claim 790, further comprising:
providing H2 to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

819.The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

820.The method of claim 790, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

82 l.The method of claim 820, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

822.The method of claim 790, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

823. The method of claim 790, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

824.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support oxidation of hydrocarbons within the portion, wherehi the portion is located substantially adjacent to a wellbore;
flowing an oxidant through a conduit positioned within the wellbore to a heat source zone within the portion, wherein the heat source zone supports an oxidation reaction between hydrocarbons and the oxidant;
reacting a portion of the oxidant with hydrocarbons to generate heat; and
fransfening generated heat substantially by conduction to a pyrolysis zone of the foπnation to pyrolyze at least a portion of the hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone.

825. The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises raising a temperature of the portion above about 400 °C.

826.The method of claim 824, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, the method further comprising flowing the oxidant through the critical flow orifices to the heat source zone.

827.The method of claim 824, further comprising removing reaction products from the heat source zone through the wellbore.

828.The method of claim 824, further comprising removing excess oxidant from the heat source zone to inhibit transport of the oxidant to the pyrolysis zone.

829.The method of claim 824, further comprising transporting the oxidant from the conduit to the heat source zone substantially by diffusion.

830.The method of claim 824, further comprising heating the conduit with reaction products being removed through the wellbore.

831.The method of claim 824, wherein the oxidant comprises hydrogen peroxide.

832. The method of claim 824, wherein the oxidant comprises air.

833. The method of claim 824, wherein the oxidant comprises a fluid substantially free of nifrogen.

834.The method of claim 824, further comprising limiting an amount of oxidant to maintain a temperature of the heat source zone less than about 1200 °C.

835. The method of clahn 824, wherein heating the portion of the fonnation comprises electrically heating the formation.

836.The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises heating the portion using exhaust gases from a surface burner.

837.The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises heating the portion with a flameless disfributed combustor.

838. The method of clahn 824, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

839. The method of claim 824, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the pyrolysis zone is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

840.The method of claim 824, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

84 l.The method of claim 824, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation.

842.The method of claim 824, wherein the wellbore is located along sfrike to reduce pressure differentials along a heated length of the wellbore.

843.The method of claim 824, wherein the wellbore is located along sfrike to increase uniformity of heating along a heated length of the wellbore.

844.The method of claim 824, wherein the wellbore is located along sfrike to increase control of heating along a heated length of the wellbore.

845.A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidant;
flowing the oxidant into a conduit, and wherein the conduit is connected such that the oxidant can flow from the conduit to the hydrocarbons;
allowing the oxidant and the hydrocarbons to react to produce heat in a heat source zone;
allowing heat to transfer from the heat source zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation to pyrolyze at least a portion of the hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and
removing reaction products such that the reaction products are inhibited from flowing from the heat source zone to the pyrolysis zone.

846.The method of claim 845, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises raising the temperature of the portion above about 400 °C.

847.The method of claim 845, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises elecfrically heating the formation.

848.The method of claim 845, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises heating the portion using exhaust gases from a surface burner.

849.The method of claim 845, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, the method further comprising flowing the oxidant through the critical flow orifices to the heat source zone.

850.The method of claim 845, wherein the conduit is located within a wellbore, wherein removing reaction products comprises removing reaction products from the heat source zone through the wellbore.

85 l.The method of claim 845, further comprising removing excess oxidant from the heat source zone to inhibit fransport of the oxidant to the pyrolysis zone.

852.The method of claim 845, further comprising ttansporting the oxidant from the conduit to the heat source zone substantially by diffusion.

853. The method of claim 845, wherein the conduit is located within a wellbore, the method further comprising heating the conduit with reaction products being removed through the wellbore to raise a temperature of the oxidant passing through the conduit.

854.The method of claim 845, wherein the oxidant comprises hydrogen peroxide.

855. The method of claim 845, wherein the oxidant comprises air.

856.The method of claim 845, wherein the oxidant comprises a fluid substantially free of nifrogen.

857. The method of claim 845, further comprising limiting an amount of oxidant to maintain a temperature of the heat source zone less than about 1200 °C.

858. The method of claim 845, further comprising limiting an amount of oxidant to maintain a temperature of the heat source zone at a temperature that inhibits production of oxides of nifrogen.

859. The method of claim 845, wherein heating a portion of the foπnation to a temperature sufficient to support oxidation of hydrocarbons within the portion further comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.

860.The method of claim 845, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

861. The method of claim 845, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the pyrolysis zone is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

862.The method of claim 845, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

863.The method of claim 845, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

864.The method of claim 845, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation.

865. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the foimation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to an opening in the formation;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a heat source zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing gas to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the heat source zone to generate heat in the heat source zone; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the heat source zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.

866. The method of claim 865, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the heat source zone by diffusion.

867.The method of claim 865, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

868.The method of claim 865, further comprising confrolling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

869.The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.

870.The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and fransfening substantial heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

87 l.The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

872. The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foimation through the conduit and confrolling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

873. The method of claim 865, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

874. The method of claim 865, wherein the heat source zone extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.15 m.

875. The method of claim 865, wherein heating the portion comprises applying electrical cunent to an electric heater disposed within the opening.

876. The method of claim 865, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the heat source zone.

877.The method of claim 865, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

878. The method of claim 865, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the pyrolysis zone is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

879.The method of claim 865, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

880.The method of claim 865, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

881. The method of claim 865, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation.

882.A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
maintaining an average temperature within the selected section above a minimum pyrolysis temperature and below a vaporization temperature of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 to inhibit production of a substantial amount of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 in the mixture.

883. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

884.The method of clahn 882, wherein maintaining the average temperature within the selected section comprises maintaining the temperature within a pyrolysis temperature range.

885.The method of clahn 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

886.The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

887.The method of claim 882, wherein the one or πiore heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

888. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

889. The method of claim 882, wherein the minimum pyrolysis temperature is greater than about 270 °C.

890.The method of claim 882, wherein the vaporization temperature is less than approximately 450 °C at atmospheric pressure.

891.The method of claim 882, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

892.The method of claim 882, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

893. The method of claim 882, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C„), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

894.The method of claim 882, wherein allowmg the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

895.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

896.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

897. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

898.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

899.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

900.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

90 l.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

902.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

903. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

904.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

905.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

906.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

907. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

908.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

909.The method of claim 882, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

910.The method of claim 882, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

91 l.The method of claim 910, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

912.The method of claim 882, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

913. The method of claim 882, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

914.The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

915. The method of claim 882, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

916.The method of claim 915, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

917.The method of claim 882, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are Ideated in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

918.The method of claim 882, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

919.A method of treating a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foimation;
confrolling a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than 25; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

920.The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

921. The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

922.The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

923.The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

924.The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

925.The method of claim 919, further comprising confrolling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

926.The method of claim 925, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

927.The method of claim 919, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

928.The method of claim 919, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the fonnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

929.The method of claim 919, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

930.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

93 l.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

932.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

933. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

934.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

935. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

936.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

937.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

938.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

939.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

940.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

94 l.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

942.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

943. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

944.The method of claim 919, further comprising controlling the pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

945. The method of claim 919, further comprising confrolling foimation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

946.The method of claim 945, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

947.The method of claim 919, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

948. The method of claim 919, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

949.The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

950.The method of claim 919, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

951. The method of claim 950, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

952.The method of claim 919, further comprising providmg heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

953. The method of claim 919, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

954.A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the fonnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

955. The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

956.The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

957.The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

958.The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

959.The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

960.The method of clahn 954, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

961. The method of claim 954, wherein confrolling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

962.The method of claim 954, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

963. The method of claim 954, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heathig rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

964.The method of claim 954, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transfening heat substantially by conduction.

965.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

966. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

967.The method of claim 954, wherehi the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

968. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

969.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

970.The method of clahn 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

97 l.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

972.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

973. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

974.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

975. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

976.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

977.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

978.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

979. The method of claim 954, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

980.The method of claim 954, further comprising confrolling foπnation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

981. The method of claim 980, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

982.The method of clahn 954, further comprising altering a pressure within the foπnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

983. The method of claim 954, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

984.The method of claim 954, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

985.The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

986.The method of claim 954, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

987.The method of claim 986, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

988.The method of claim 954, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

989.The method of claim 954, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

990. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a section of the foπnation to a pyrolysis temperature from at least a first heat source, a second heat source and a third heat source, and wherein the first heat source, the second heat source and the third heat source are located along a perimeter of the section;
confrolling heat input to the first heat source, the second heat source and the thfrd heat source to limit a heating rate of the section to a rate configured to produce a mixture from the formation with an olefin content of less than about 15% by weight of condensable fluids (on a dry basis) within the produced mixture; and
producing the mixture from the foπnation through a production well.

99 l.The method of claim 990, wherem supeφosition of heat form the first heat source, second heat source, and third heat source pyrolyzes a portion of the hydrocarbons within the foπnation to fluids.

992.The method of claim 990, wherein the pyrolysis temperature is between about 270 °C and about 400 °C.

993. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source is operated for less than about twenty four hours a day.

994.The method of clahn 990, wherein the first heat source comprises an electrical heater.

995. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source comprises a surface burner.

996.The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source comprises a flameless disfributed combustor.

997.The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source, second heat source and third heat source are positioned substantially at apexes of an equilateral triangle.

998. The method of claim 990, wherein the production well is located substantially at a geometrical center of the first heat source, second heat source, and third heat source.

999.The method of claim 990, further comprising a fourth heat source, fifth heat source, and sixth heat source located along the perimeter of the section.

1000. The method of claim 999, wherein the heat sources are located substantially at apexes of a regular hexagon.

1001. The method of claim 1000, wherein the production well is located substantially at a center of the hexagon.

1002. The method of claim 990, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1003. The method of claim 990, wherein confrolling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1004. The method of claim 990, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the section is less than about 3 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1005. The method of claim 990, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1006. The method of claim 990, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume ( ) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C„), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1007. The method of claim 990, wherein heating the section of the formation comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1008. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1009. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1010. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherehi the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

1011. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1012. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1013. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1014. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1015. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1016. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1017. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1018. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1019. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1020. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1021. The method of claim 990, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1022. The method of claim 990, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1023. The method of claim 1022, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1024. The method of claim 990, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1025. The method of claim 990, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1026. The method of clahn 990, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1027. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprismg hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1028. The method of claim 990, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

1029. The method of claim 1028, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1030. The method of claim 990, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1031. The method of claim 990, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1032. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the fonnation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1033. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foimation.

1034. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1035. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1036. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1037. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1038. The method of claim 1032, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1039. The method of clahn 1038, wherein confrolling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1040. The method of claim 1032, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1041. The method of clahn 1032, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1042. The method of claim 1032, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1043. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1044. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1045. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1046. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

1047. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1048. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1049. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1050. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1051. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1052. The method of clahn 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1053. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1054. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1055. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1056. The method of claim 1032, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1057. The method of clahn 1032, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1058. The method of claim 1057, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1059. The method of claim 1032, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foimation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1060. The method of claim 1032, wherein controlling foimation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1061. The method of claim 1032, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1062. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprismg hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1063. The method of claim 1032, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1064. The method of clahn 1063, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1065. The method of claim 1032, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1066. The method of claim 1032, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1067. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1068. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1069. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1070. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1071. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1072. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1073. The method of claim 1067, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foimation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1074. The method of claim 1073, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1075. The method of claim 1067, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1076. The method of claim 1067, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1077. The method of claim 1067, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1078. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1079. The method of claim 1067, wherehi the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1080. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1081. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

1082. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1083. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1084. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherehi less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1085. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1086. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1087. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1088. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1089. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1090. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1091. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1092. The method of claim 1067, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1093. The method of clahn 1067, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1094. The method of claim 1093, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1095. The method of claim 1067, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1096. The method of claim 1067, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1097. The method of claim 1067, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1098. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1099. The method of claim 1067, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1100. The method of claim 1099, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1101. The method of claim 1067, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1102. The method of claim 1067, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1103. A method of freating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foimation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1104. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1105. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1106. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1107. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1108. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1109. The method of clahn 1103, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1110. The method of claim 1109, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

llll. The method of claim 1103, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1112. The method of claim 1103, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foπnation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1113. The method of claim 1103, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1114. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1115. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1116. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1117. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.

1118. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1119. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1120. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1121. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1122. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1123. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1124. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1125. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1126. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1127. The method of claim 1103, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1128. The method of claim 1103, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1129. The method of claim 1128, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1130. The method of clahn 1103, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foimation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1131. The method of clahn 1103, wherein confrolling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1132. The method of claim 1103, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1133. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1134. The method of claim 1103, wherehi producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1135. The method of claim 1134, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1136. The method of claim 1103, further comprising providmg heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1137. The method of claim 1103, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1138. A method of freating a relatively low peπneability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
raising a temperature of a first section of the fonnation with one or more heat sources to a first pyrolysis temperature;
heating the first section to an upper pyrolysis temperature, wherein heat is supplied to the first section at a rate configured to inhibit olefin production;
producing a first mixture from the foimation, wherein the first mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons and H2;
creating a second mixture from the first mixture, wherein the second mixture comprises a higher concentration of H2 than the first mixture;
raising a temperature of a second section of the formation with one or more heat sources to a second pyrolysis temperature;
providing a portion of the second mixture to the second section;
heatmg the second section to an upper pyrolysis temperature, wherein heat is supplied to the second section at a rate configured to inhibit olefin production; and
producing a third mixture from the second section.

1139. The method of clahn 1138, wherein creating the second mixture comprises removing condensable hydrocarbons from the first mixture.

1140. The method of claim 1138, wherein creating the second mixture comprises removing water from the first mixture.

1141. The method of claim 1138, wherein creating the second mixture comprises removing carbon dioxide from the first mixture.

1142. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first pyrolysis temperature is greater than about 270 °C.

1143. The method of claim 1138, wherein the second pyrolysis temperature is greater than about 270 °C.

1144. The method of claim 1138, wherein the upper pyrolysis temperature is about 500 °C.

1145. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the first or second selected section of the formation.

1146. The method of clahn 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1147. The method of clahn 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1148. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1149. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1150. The method of claim 1138, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first section and the second section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1151. The method of claim 1138, further comprising controlling the heat to the first and second sections such that an average heating rate of the first and second sections is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1152. The method of claim 1138, wherein heating the first and the second sections comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heathig pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1153. The method of claim 1138, wherein heating the first and second sections comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1154. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1155. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1156. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1157. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1158. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1159. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or thfrd mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1160. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1161. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1162. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1163. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1164. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises a non-condensable component, and wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1165. The method of claim 1138, wherein the ffrst or third mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1166. The method of claim 1138, wherein the ffrst or third mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1167. The method of claim 1138, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second sections of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1168. The method of claim 1138, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1169. The method of claim 1168, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within a mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1170. The method of claim 1138, further comprising altering a pressure within the foimation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1171. The method of claim 1138, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section; and
heating a portion of the first or second section with heat from hydrogenation.

1172. The method of claim 1138, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foimation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1173. The method of claim 1138, wherein producing the first or thfrd mixture comprises producing the first or thfrd mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1174. The method of clahn 1173, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1175. The method of claim 1138, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the fonnation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1176. The method of claim 1138, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1177. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced mixture with H2 produced from the foπnation.

1178. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation.

1179. The method of claim 1177, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1180. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1181. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1182. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1183. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1184. The method of claim 1177, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1185. The method of claim 1177, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1186. The method of claim 1177, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1187. The method of claim 1177, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1188. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1189. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1190. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1191. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1192. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1193. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1194. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1195. The method of clahn 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1196. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1197. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1198. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1199. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1200. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1201. The method of claim 1177, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1202. The method of claim 1177, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1203. The method of claim 1177, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1204. The method of claim 1177, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1205. The method of claim 1177, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1206. The method of claim 1177, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1207. The method of claim 1206, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1208. The method of claim 1177, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1209. The method of claim 1177, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1210. A method of freating a relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation;
producing H2 from the first section of formation;
heating a second section of the formation; and
recirculating a portion of the H2 from the first section into the second section of the formation to provide a reducing environment within the second section of the formation.

1211. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with an electrical heater.

1212. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a surface burner.

1213. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the ffrst section or heating the second section comprises heating with a flameless disfributed combustor.

1214. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a natural distributed combustor.

1215. The method of claim 1210, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or second section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1216. The method of claim 1210, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first or second section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1217. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section further comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1218. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1219. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1220. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1221. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1222. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1223. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1224. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1225. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1226. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherehi less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1227. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1228. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1229. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1230. The method of clahn 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1231. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1232. The method of claim 1210, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second section of the foπnation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1233. The method of claim 1210, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1234. The method of claim 1233, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within a mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1235. The method of claim 1210, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1236. The method of claim 1210, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the second section with heat from hydrogenation.

1237. The method of claim 1210, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the fonnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1238. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation hi a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the fonnation for each production well.

1239. The method of claim 1238, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1240. The method of claim 1210, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1241. The method of claim 1210, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1242. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
confrolling formation conditions such that the mixture produced from the formation comprises condensable hydrocarbons including H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1243. The method of clahn 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foimation.

1244. The method of claim 1242, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1245. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1246. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1247. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1248. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1249. The method of claim 1242, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1250. The method of claim 1242, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1251. The method of claim 1242, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low penneability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1252. The method of claim 1242, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1253. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1254. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1255. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1256. The method of claim 1242, wherehi the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1257. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1258. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherehi less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1259. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1260. The method of clahn 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1261. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1262. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1263. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1264. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1265. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1266. The method of claim 1242, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1267. The method of claim 1242, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1268. The method of claim 1242, wherein confrolling foπnation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1269. The method of clahn 1242, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1270. The method of clahn 1242, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1271. The method of claim 1242, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1272. The method of claim 1271, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1273. The method of claim 1242, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1274. The method of claim 1242, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1275. The method of claim 1242, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1276. A method of freating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foπnation;
maintaining a pressure of the selected section above atmospheric pressure to increase a partial pressure of H2, as compared to the partial pressure of H2 at atmospheric pressure, in at least a majority of the selected section; and
producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1277. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1278. The method of claim 1276, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1279. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1280. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1281. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1282. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1283. The method of claim 1276, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1284. The method of claim 1276, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1285. The method of claim 1276, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foπnation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1286. The method of claim 1276, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1287. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1288. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1289. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1290. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1291. The method of clahn 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1292. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1293. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1294. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1295. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1296. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1297. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1298. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1299. The method of clahn 1276, further comprising controlling the pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1300. The method of claim 1276, further comprising increasing the pressure of the selected section, to an upper limit of about 21 bars absolute, to increase an amount of non-condensable hydrocarbons produced from the formation.

1301. The method of claim 1276, further comprising decreasing pressure of the selected section, to a lower lhnit of about atmospheric pressure, to increase an amount of condensable hydrocarbons produced from the fonnation.

1302. The method of claim 1276, wherein the partial pressure comprises a partial pressure based on properties measured at a production well.

1303. The method of claim 1276, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1304. The method of claim 1276, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1305. The method of claim 1276, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1306. The method of claim 1276, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1307. The method of claim 1276, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1308. The method of claim 1307, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1309. The method of claim 1276, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1310. The method of claim 1276, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1311. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the fonnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
providing H2 to the foπnation to produce a reducing environment in at least some of the fonnation;
producing a mixture from the formation.

1312. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1313. The method of claim 1311, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1314. The method of claim 1311, further comprising separating a portion ofhydrogen within the mixture and recirculating the portion into the foπnation.

1315. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1316. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1317. The method of clahn 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1318. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1319. The method of claim 1311, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1320. The method of claim 1311, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1321. The method of claim 1311, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (1 of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:

Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1322. The method of claim 1311, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1323. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1324. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1325. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about

0.15.

1326. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1327. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1328. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1329. The method of clahn 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1330. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1331. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1332. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1333. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1334. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1335. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1336. The method of claim 1311, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1337. The method of claim 1311, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1338. The method of claim 1311, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1339. The method of claim 1311, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1340. The method of claim 1311, wherein providing hydrogen (H2) to the formation further comprises:
hydrogenating hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1341. The method of claim 1311, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foπnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1342. The method of clahn 1311, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1343. The method of claim 1342, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1344. The method of clahn 1311, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1345. The method of claim 1311, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1346. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
providing H2 to the selected section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the selected section and to heat a portion of the section with heat from the hydrogenation; and
confrolling heating of the selected section by controlling amounts of H2 provided to the selected section.

1347. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1348. The method of claim 1346, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1349. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1350. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1351. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1352. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1353. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1354. The method of claim 1346, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1355. The method of claim 1346, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1356. The method of claim 1346, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1357. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1358. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1359. The method of clahn 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1360. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1361. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1362. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1363. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1364. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1365. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1366. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1367. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1368. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1369. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1370. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1371. The method of claim 1346, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1372. The method of claim 1371, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1373. The method of claim 1346, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foimation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1374. The method of claim 1346, further comprising confrolling foimation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from a produced mixture into the formation.

1375. The method of clahn 1346, further comprising: producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foimation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1376. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1377. The method of claim 1376, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1378. The method of claim 1346, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1379. The method of claim 1346, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to foπn a repetitive pattern of units.

1380. An in situ method for producing H2 from a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a H2 partial pressure within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1381. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1382. The method of claim 1380, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1383. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1384. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1385. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1386. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1387. The method of claim 1380, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1388. The method of claim 1380, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1389. The method of claim 1380, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1390. The method of claim 1380, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1391. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1392. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1393. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1394. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1395. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1396. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1397. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1398. The method of clahn 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1399. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1400. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1401. The method of clahn 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1402. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1403. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1404. The method of claim 1380, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1405. The method of claim 1380, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1406. The method of clahn 1380, further comprising recirculating a portion of the hydrogen within the mixture into the formation.

1407. The method of claim 1380, further comprising condensing a hydrocarbon component from the produced mixture and hydrogenating the condensed hydrocarbons with a portion of the hydrogen.

1408. The method of claim 1380, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1409. The method of clahn 1380, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1410. The method of claim 1409, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1411. The method of claim 1380, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1412. The method of claim 1380, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherehi three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1413. The method of claim 1380, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1414. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using an atomic hydrogen weight percentage of at least a portion of hydrocarbons in the selected section, and wherein at least the portion of the hydrocarbons in the selected section comprises an atomic hydrogen weight percentage, when measured on a dry, ash-free basis, of greater than about 4.0 %; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1415. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1416. The method of claim 1414, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1417. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1418. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1419. The method of clahn 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1420. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1421. The method of claim 1414, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1422. The method of claim 1414, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1423. The method of clahn 1414, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1424. The method of clahn 1414, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1425. The method of claim 1414, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a theπnal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about

0.5 W/(m °C).

1426. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1427. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1428. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1429. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1430. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1431. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1432. The method of clahn 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1433. The method of clahn 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1434. The method of clahn 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1435. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1436. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1437. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1438. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1439. The method of claim 1414, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1440. The method of claim 1414, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1441. The method of claim 1440, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1442. The method of claim 1414, further comprising altering a pressure within the foπnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1443. The method of claim 1414, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1444. The method of claim 1414, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1445. The method of claim 1414, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1446. The method of claim 1414, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1447. The method of claim 1414, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

1448. The method of claim 1414, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1449. The method of claim 1448, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1450. The method of claim 1414, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1451. The method of claim 1414, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to foπn a repetitive pattern of units.

1452. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial atomic hydrogen weight percentage of greater than about 4.0 %; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1453. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1454. The method of claim 1452, further comprismg maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1455. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1456. The method of clahn 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1457. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1458. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1459. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1460. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1461. The method of claim 1452, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises: heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C„), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the fonnation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1462. The method of claim 1452, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1463. The method of claim 1452, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 /(m °C).

1464. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1465. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1466. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1467. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1468. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1469. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1470. The method of clahn 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1471. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1472. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1473. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1474. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1475. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1476. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1477. The method of claim 1452, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1478. The method of claim 1452, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1479. The method of claim 1478, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1480. The method of claim 1452, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1481. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1482. The method of claim 1452, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1483. The method of claim 1452, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foπnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1484. The method of claim 1452, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1485. The method of claim 1452, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a peπneability of a majority of the selected section.

1486. The method of claim 1452, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1487. The method of clahn 1486, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1488. The method of claim 1452, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1489. The method of claim 1452, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1490. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using a total organic matter weight percentage of at least a portion of the selected section, and wherein at least the portion of the selected section comprises a total organic matter weight percentage, of at least about 5.0 %; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1491. The method of clahn 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1492. The method of claim 1490, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1493. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1494. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1495. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1496. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1497. The method of claim 1490, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1498. The method of claim 1490, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1499. The method of claim 1490, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low penneability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the fonnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foπnation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1500. The method of clahn 1490, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1501. The method of claim 1490, wherem providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about

0.5 W/(m °C).

1502. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1503. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1504. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about

0.15.

1505. The method of clahn 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1506. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1507. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1508. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1509. The method of clahn 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1510. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1511. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1512. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volmne of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1513. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1514. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1515. The method of claim 1490, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a maj ority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1516. The method of claim 1490, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1517. The method of claim 1516, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1518. The method of claim 1490, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1519. The method of claim 1490, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1520. The method of claim 1490, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1521. The method of claim 1490, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foπnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1522. The method of claim 1490, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

The method of claim 1490, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

1523. The method of claim 1490, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

1524. The method of claim 1523, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1525. The method of claim 1490, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1526. The method of claim 1490, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1527. A method of treating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the fonnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foimation;
wherem at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial total organic matter weight percentage of at least about 5.0%; and
producing a mixture from the foπnation.

1528. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1529. The method of claim 1527, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1530. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1531. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1532. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1533. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1534. The method of claim 1527, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1535. The method of claim 1527, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1536. The method of claim 1527, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the fonnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foπnation, ρB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1537. The method of claim 1527, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1538. The method of claim 1527, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

1539. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1540. The method of clahn 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1541. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1542. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1543. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1544. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1545. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1546. The method of claim 1527, wherehi the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1547. The method of clahn 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1548. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1549. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1550. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1551. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1552. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foimation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1553. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling foimation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1554. The method of claim 1553, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1555. The method of claim 1527, further comprising altering a pressure within the foimation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1556. The method of claim 1527, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1557. The method of claim 1527, further comprising: providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1558. The method of claim 1527, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the fonnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1559. The method of claim 1527, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

The method of claim 1527, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a penneability of a majority of the selected section.

1561. The method of claim 1527, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1562. The method of claim 1561, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1563. The method of claim 1527, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1564. The method of claim 1527, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1565. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of at least a portion of hydrocarbons in the selected section, wherein at least a portion of the hydrocarbons in the selected section comprises an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio greater than about 0.70, and wherein the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio is less than about 1.65; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1566. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foimation.

1567. The method of claim 1565, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1568. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1569. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1570. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1571. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1572. The method of claim 1565, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1573. The method of claim 1565, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1574. The method of claim 1565, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volmne of the fonnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1575. The method of claim 1565, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1576. The method of claim 1565, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

1577. The method of clahn 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1578. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1579. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1580. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1581. The method of clahn 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1582. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1583. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1584. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1585. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1586. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1587. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1588. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1589. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1590. The method of clahn 1565, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1591. The method of clahn 1565, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1592. The method of clahn 1591, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1593. The method of claim 1565, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1594. The method of clahn 1565, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1595. The method of claim 1565, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1596. The method of claim 1565, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1597. The method of claim 1565, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1598. The method of clahn 1565, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a peπneability of a maj ority of the selected section.

1599. The method of claim 1565, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1600. The method of claim 1599, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1601. The method of claim 1565, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1602. The method of claim 1565, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1603. A method of freating a relatively low penneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation to pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio greater than about 0.70;
wherein the initial atomic hydrogen to carbon ration is less than about 1.65; and
producing a mixture from the foimation.

1604. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1605. The method of claim 1603, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1606. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1607. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1608. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1609. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1610. The method of claim 1603, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1611. The method of claim 1603 , further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1612. The method of claim 1603, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1613. The method of claim 1603, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1614. The method of claim 1603, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heathig the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

1615. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1616. The method of clahn 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1617. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1618. The method of claim 1603 , wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1619. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1620. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1621. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1622. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1623. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1624. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixttire comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1625. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1626. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1627. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1628. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1629. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling fonnation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1630. The method of claim 1629, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1631. The method of claim 1603, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1632. The method of claim 1603, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1633. The method of claim 1603, further comprismg:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1634. The method of claim 1603, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1635. The method of claim 1603, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1636. The method of claim 1603, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

1637. The method of claim 1603, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1638. The method of claim 1637, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foimation for each production well.

1639. The method of claim 1603, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1640. The method of claim 1603, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1641. A method of freating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;

wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using a moisture content in the selected section, and wherein at least a portion of the selected section comprises a moisture content of less than about 15 % by weight; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1642. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the* selected section of the formation.

1643. The method of claim 1641 , further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1644. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1645. The method of claim 1641 , wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1646. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1647. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1648. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1649. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1650. The method of claim 1641 , wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the foπnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1651. The method of claim 1641 , wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1652. The method of claim 1641, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a theπnal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

1653. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1654. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1655. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about

0.15.

1656. The method of clahn 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1657. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherehi less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1658. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1659. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1660. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1661. The method of claim 1641 , wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1662. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1663. The method of claim 1641 , wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1664. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1665. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1666. The method of clahn 1641, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1667. The method of claim 1641, further comprismg controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1668. The method of claim 1667, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1669. The method of claim 1641, further comprising altering a pressure within the foimation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1670. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling foπnation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1671. The method of claim 1641 , further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1672. The method of claim 1641, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1673. The method of claim 1641 , wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1674. The method of claim 1641, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer further comprises substantially uniformly increasing a peπneability of a majority of the selected section.

1675. The method of claim 1641 , wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1676. The method of claim 1675, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1677. The method of claim 1641, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foπnation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1678. The method of claim 1641, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1679. A method of freating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
allowing the heat to ttansfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the foπnation;
wherein at least a portion of the selected section has an initial moisture content of less than about 15 % by weight; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1680. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1681. The method of claim 1679, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1682. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1683. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1684. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1685. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1686. The method of claim 1679, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1687. The method of claim 1679, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1688. The method of claim 1679, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, A is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1689. The method of claim 1679, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1690. The method of claim 1679, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about

0.5 W/(m °C).

1691. The method of clahn 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1692. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1693. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about

0.15.

1694. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1695. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1696. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1697. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1698. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1699. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1700. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1701. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1702. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1703. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1704. The method of claim 1679, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1705. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1706. The method of claim 1705, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1707. The method of claim 1679, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1708. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling foπnation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1709. The method of claim 1679, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1710. The method of claim 1679, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foπnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1711. The method of claim 1679, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1712. The method of claim 1679, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer further comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

1713. The method of claim 1679, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1714. The method of clahn 1713, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1715. The method of claim 1679, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1716. The method of claim 1679, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1717. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the foπnation;

wherein the selected section is heated in a reducing environment during at least a portion of the time that the selected section is being heated; and
producing a mixture from the formation.

1718. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foπnation.

1719. The method of claim 1717, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1720. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1721. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1722. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1723. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1724. The method of claim 1717, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature withhi at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1725. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1726. The method of claim 1717, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of foimation comprises:
heating a selected volume ( V) of the relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1727. The method of claim 1717, wherein allowing the heat to ttansfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1728. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1729. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1730. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1731. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1732. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1733. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1734. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1735. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1736. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1737. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1738. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1739. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1740. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1741. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a maj ority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1742. The method of claim 1717, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1743. The method of claim 1742, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1744. The method of claim 1717, further comprising altering a pressure within the fonnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1745. The method of claim 1717, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1746. The method of claim 1717, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1747. The method of claim 1717, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1748. The method of claim 1717, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

1749. The method of claim 1748, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1750. The method of claim 1717, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1751. The method of claim 1717, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1752. A method of freating a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation to produce a mixture from the foπnation;
heating a second section of the formation; and
recirculating a portion of the produced mixture from the first section into the second section of the foimation to provide a reducing environment within the second section of the formation.

1753. The method of claim 1752, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the first section or the second section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1754. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with an electrical heater.

1755. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with a surface burner.

1756. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.

1757. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with a natural disfributed combustor.

1758.' The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1759. The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first or the second section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1760. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from one or more heat sources, wherein the foπnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foπnation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1761. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1762. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1763. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1764. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1765. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1766. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1767. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1768. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1769. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1770. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1771. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1772. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1773. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1774. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherehi the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1775. The method of claim 1752, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1776. The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1777. The method of claim 1776, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1778. The method of claim 1752, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foπnation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1779. The method of claim 1752, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the ffrst or second section; and
heating a portion of the first or second section with heat from hydrogenation.

1780. The method of claim 1752, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1781. The method of claim 1752, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1782. The method of claim 1781, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the fonnation for each production well.

1783. The method of claim 1752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1784. The method of claim 1752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1785. A method of freating a relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation; and
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that a permeability of a majority of at least a portion of the selected section increases substantially uniformly.

1786. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foimation.

1787. The method of claim 1785, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1788. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1789. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1790. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1791. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1792. The method of claim 1785, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a fimction of pressure.

1793. The method of claim 1785, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1794. The method of claim 1785, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volmne (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherehi heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1795. The method of claim 1785, wherein allowing the heat to ttansfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1796. The method of claim 1785, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

1797. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1798. The method of claim 1785, further comprismg producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1799. The method of clahn 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1800. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1801. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1802. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1803. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1804. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1805. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1806. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1807. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1808. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1809. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1810. The method of claim 1785, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1811. The method of claim 1785, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1812. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. '

1813. The method of claim 1785, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1814. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling foimation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1815. The method of claim 1785, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1816. The method of claim 1785, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1817. The method of claim 1785, wherein allowing the heat to ttansfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1818. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

1819. The method of claim 1818, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1820. The method of claim 1785, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1821. The method of clahn 1785, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1822. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the fonnation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and confrolling the heat to yield at least about 15 % by weight of a total organic carbon content of at least some of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons into condensable hydrocarbons.

1823. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1824. The method of claim 1822, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1825. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1826. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1827. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1828. The method of clahn 1822, wherein the one pr more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1829. The method of claim 1822, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1830. The method of claim 1822, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1831. The method of claim 1822, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heatmg pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the fonnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1832. The method of claim 1822, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1833. The method of claim 1822, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m °C).

1834. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1835. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1836. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1837. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1838. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1839. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1840. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1841. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1842. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1843. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1844. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the fonnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1845. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1846. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherehi the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1847. The method of claim 1822, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1848. The method of claim 1822, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1849. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1850. The method of claim 1822, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1851. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1852. The method of claim 1822, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1853. The method of claim 1822, further comprismg:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foπnation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1854. The method of claim 1822, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.

1855. The method of clahn 1822, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.

1856. The method of claim 1822, further comprismg producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

1857. The method of claim 1856, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1858. The method of claim 1822, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1859. The method of claim 1822, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1860. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and confrolling the heat to yield greater than about 60 % by weight of hydrocarbons.

1861. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

1862. The method of claim 1860, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1863. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

1864. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1865. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1866. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1867. The method of claim 1860, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1868. The method of clahn 1860, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1869. The method of claim 1860, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (F) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherem heating energy/day provided to the volmne is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foπnation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1870. The method of claim 1860, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1871. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1872. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1873. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1874. The method of claim 1860, further comprismg producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1875. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1876. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1877. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1878. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1879. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1880. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1881. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1882. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1883. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1884. The method of claim 1860, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1885. The method of claim 1860, further comprising confrolling fonnation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1886. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1887. The method of claim 1860, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1888. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1889. The method of claim 1860, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1890. The method of claim 1860, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1891. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1892. The method of claim 1891 , wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1893. The method of claim 1860, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

1894. The method of clahn 1860, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1895. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the first section and produce a first mixture from the formation;

heating a second section of the formation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the second section and produce a second mixture from the formation; and
leaving an unpyrolyzed section between the first section and the second section to inhibit subsidence of the formation.

1896. The method of claim 1895, further comprising mahitaining a temperature within the first section or the second section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1897. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with an electrical heater.

1898. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a surface burner.

1899. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a flameless disfributed combustor.

1900. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a natural distributed combustor.

1901. The method of claim 1895, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or second section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

1902. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first or second section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1903. The method of clahn 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1904. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

1905. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1906. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1907. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1908. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

1909. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1910. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1911. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1912. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1913. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1914. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1915. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises a non-condensable component, and wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1916. The method of claim 1895, wherein the ffrst or second mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the first or second mixture is ammonia.

1917. The method of clahn 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1918. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1919. The method of claim 1895, further comprising confrolling foπnation conditions to produce the first or second mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the first or second mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1920. The method of claim 1895, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the first or second mixture is measured when the first or second mixture is at a production well.

1921. The method of claim 1895, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1922. The method of claim 1895, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the first or second mixture into the formation.

1923. The method of claim 1895, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section, respectively; and
heating a portion of the first or second section, respectively, with heat from hydrogenation.

1924. The method of claim 1895, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1925. The method of claim 1895, wherein producing the first or second mixture comprises producing the first or second mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1926. The method of claim 1925, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1927. The method of claim 1895, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1928. The method of claim 1895, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foπnation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1929. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation through one or more production wells, wherein the heating is confrolled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1930. The method of claim 1929, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1931. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the foimation.

1932. The method of claim 1929, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

1933. The method of clahn 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1934. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1935. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

1936. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

1937. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1938. The method of claim 1929, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

1939. The method of claim 1929, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherem the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foimation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is fonnation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1940. The method of claim 1929, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.

1941. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1942. The method of clahn 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1943. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about

0.15.

1944. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1945. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1946. The method of clahn 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1947. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1948. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

1949. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1950. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1951. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1952. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1953. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1954. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1955. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling foimation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1956. The method of claim 1955, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1957. The method of claim 1929, further comprising altering a pressure within the foπnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1958. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the fonnation.

1959. The method of claim 1929, further comprising: providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1960. The method of claim 1929, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1961. The method of claim 1929, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1962. The method of claim 1929, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a ttiangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1963. A method of treating a relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the one or more heat sources are disposed within one or more first wells;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation through one or more second wells, wherein one or more of the first or second wells are initially used for a first pmpose and are then used for one or more other puφoses.

1964. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first ptupose comprises removing water from the formation, and wherein the second pmpose comprises providing heat to the formation.

1965. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first pmpose comprises removing water from the formation, and wherein the second pmpose comprises producing the mixture.

1966. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first ptupose comprises heating, and wherein the second pmpose comprises removing water from the formation.

1967. The method of clahn 1963, wherein the first puφose comprises producing the mixture, and wherein the second puφose comprises removing water from the formation.

1968. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise elecfrical heaters.

1969. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

1970. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

1971. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

1972. The method of claim 1963, further comprismg controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the fonnation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

1973. The method of claim 1963, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.0 ° C per day during pyrolysis.

1974. The method of claim 1963, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of the formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

1975. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

1976. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

1977. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

1978. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

1979. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

1980. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

1981. The method of claim 1963, wherehi the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

1982. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings. «

1983. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

1984. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

1985. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

1986. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

1987. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

1988. The method of claim 1963, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the foπnation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

1989. The method of claim 1963, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

1990. The method of claim 1989, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

1991. The method of claim 1963, further comprising altering a pressure within the foimation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

1992. The method of claim 1963, further comprising controlling formation conditions, wherein confrolling foπnation conditions comprises recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

1993. The method of claim 1963 , further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

1994. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

1995. The method of claim 1963, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixttire in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1996. The method of claim 1995, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

1997. The method of claim 1963, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

1998. The method of claim 1963, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a ttiangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

1999. A method for forming heater wells in a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a first wellbore in the formation;
forming a second wellbore in the formation using magnetic tracking such that the second wellbore is ananged substantially parallel to the first wellbore; and
providing at least one heat source within the first wellbore and at least one heat source within the second wellbore such that the heat sources can provide heat to at least a portion of the formation.

2000. The method of claim 1999, wherein supeφosition of heat from the at least one heat source within the first wellbore and the at least one heat source within the second wellbore pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within a selected section of the formation.

2001. The method of claim 1999, further comprising maintaining a temperature within a selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2002. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

2003. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise surface burners.

2004. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.

2005. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise natural disfributed combustors.

2006. The method of claim 1999, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

2007. The method of clahn 1999, further comprising controlling the heat from the heat sources such that heat fransfened from the heat sources to at least the portion of the hydrocarbons is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2008. The method of claim 1999, further comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy /day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is fonnation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2009. The method of claim 1999, further comprising allowing the heat to fransfer from the heat sources to at least the portion of the formation substantially by conduction.

2010. The method of clahn 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2011. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2012. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2013. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

2014. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2015. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2016. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2017. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2018. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2019. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherehi the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2020. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2021. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2022. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2023. The method of claim 1999, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a maj ority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2024. The method of claim 2023, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2025. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2026. The method of claim 1999, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2027. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and confrolling foπnation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture mto the formation.

2028. The method of claim 1999, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the formation; and
heating a portion of the formation with heat from hydrogenation.

2029. The method of claim 1999, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foimation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2030. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2031. The method of claim 2030, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2032. The method of clahn 1999, further comprising forming a production well in the foπnation using magnetic tracking such that the production well is substantially parallel to the first wellbore and coupling a wellhead to the thfrd wellbore.

2033. The method of clahn 1999, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

2034. The method of claim 1999, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a ttiangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2035. A method for installing a heater well into a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a bore in the ground using a steerable motor and an accelerometer; and
providing a heat source within the bore such that the heat source can fransfer heat to at least a portion of the foπnation.

2036. The method of clahn 2035, further comprising installing at least two heater wells, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heater wells pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within a selected section of the formation.

2037. The method of claim 2035, further comprising maintaining a temperature within a selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2038. The method of claim 2035, wherein the heat source comprises an elecfrical heater.

2039. The method of clahn 2035, wherein the heat source comprises a surface burner.

2040. The method of claim 2035, wherein the heat source comprises a flameless distributed combustor.

2041. The method of clahn 2035, wherein the heat source comprises a natural distributed combustor.

2042. The method of clahn 2035, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

2043. The method of claim 2035, further comprising controlling the heat from the heat source such that heat fransfened from the heat source to at least the portion of the formation is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2044. The method of claim 2035, further comprising: heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat source, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherehi the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2045. The method of claim 2035, further comprising allowing the heat to fransfer from the heat source to at least the portion of the formation substantially by conduction.

2046. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2047. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2048. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2049. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.

2050. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2051. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2052. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2053. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2054. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the foimation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2055. The method of clahn 2035, furtlier comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2056. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2057. The method of clahn 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2058. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2059. The method of claim 2035, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of a selected section of the fonnation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2060. The method of claim 2035, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the foimation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2061. The method of claim 2060, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2062. The method of claim 2035, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2063. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the foπnation.

2064. The method of claim 2035, further comprising: providing hydrogen (H2) to the at least the heated portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the formation; and
heating a portion of the formation with heat from hydrogenation.

2065. The method of claim 2035, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2066. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the fonnation for each production well.

2067. The method of claim 2066, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2068. The method of claim 2035, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

2069. The method of claim 2035, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2070. A method for installing of wells in a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a wellbore in the formation by geosteered drilling; and
providing a heat source within the wellbore such that the heat source can fransfer heat to at least a portion of the formation.

2071. The method of claim 2070, further comprising maintaining a temperature within a selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2072. The method of claim 2070, wherein the heat source comprises an elecfrical heater.

2073. The method of clahn 2070, wherein the heat source comprises a surface burner.

2074. The method of claim 2070, wherein the heat source comprises a flameless disfributed combustor.

2075. The method of claim 2070, wherein the heat source comprises a natural distributed combustor.

2076. The method of claim 2070, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of a selected section of the foimation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

2077. The method of claim 2070, further comprising confrolling the heat from the heat source such that heat fransfened from the heat source to at least the portion of the foπnation is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2078. The method of claim 2070, further comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat source, wherem the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2079. The method of claim 2070, further comprising allowing the heat to fransfer from the heat source to at least the portion of the formation substantially by conduction.

2080. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2081. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2082. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2083. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

2084. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2085. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2086. The method of clahn 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2087. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2088. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2089. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2090. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2091. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2092. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2093. The method of claim 2070, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2094. The method of claim 2070, further comprising controlling foimation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2095. The method of claim 2094, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2096. The method of claim 2070, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the foimation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2097. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the foπnation.

2098. The method of claim 2070, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to at least the heated portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the foπnation; and
heating a portion of the formation with heat from hydrogenation.

2099. The method of claim 2070, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the foimation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2100. The method of claim 2070, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2101. The method of claim 2100, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2102. The method of claim 2070, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

2103. The method of claim 2070, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the foimation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2104. A method of freating a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a selected section of the formation with a heating element placed within a wellbore, wherein at least one end of the heating element is free to move axially within the wellbore to allow for thermal expansion of the heating element.

2105. The method of claim 2104, further comprising at least two heating elements within at least two wellbores, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heating elements pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within a selected section of the formation.

2106. The method of claim 2104, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2107. The method of claim 2104, wherein the heating element comprises a pipe-in-pipe heater.

2108. The method of claim 2104, wherein the heating element comprises a flameless distributed combustor.

2109. The method of claim 2104, wherein the heating element comprises a mineral insulated cable coupled to a support, and wherein the support is free to move within the wellbore.

2110. The method of claim 2104, wherein the heating element comprises a mineral insulated cable suspended from a wellhead.

2111. The method of clahn 2104, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of a heated section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.

2112. The method of claim 2104, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the heated section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2113. The method of claim 2104, wherein heating the section of the formation further comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heating element, wherein the fonnation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the foπnation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *p
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2114. The method of claim 2104, wherein heating the section of the formation comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

2115. The method of clahn 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2116. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the fonnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2117. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2118. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

2119. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2120. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2121. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2122. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2123. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherehi the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2124. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2125. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2126. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the fonnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2127. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the foπnation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2128. The method of claim 2104, further comprising confrolling a pressure within the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2129. The method of claim 2104, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2130. The method of claim 2129, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2131. The method of claim 2104, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2132. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and confrolling foimation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

2133. The method of claim 2104, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the heated section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

2134. The method of claim 2104, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2135. The method of claim 2104, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2136. The method of claim 2135, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the fonnation for each production well.

2137. The method of claim 2104, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern.

2138. The method of claim 2104, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a ttiangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2139. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation through a production well, wherein the production well is located such that a majority of the mixture produced from the formation comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons and a non-condensable component comprising hydrogen.

2140. The method of claim 2139, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

2141. The method of claim 2139, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2142. The method of claim 2139, wherein the production well is less than approximately 6 m from a heat source of the one or more heat sources.

2143. The method of claim 2139, wherein the production well is less than approximately 3 m from a heat source of the one or more heat sources.

2144. The method of claim 2139, wherein the production well is less than approxhnately 1.5 m from a heat source of the one or more heat sources.

2145. The method of claim 2139, wherein an additional heat source is positioned within a wellbore of the production well.

2146. The method of claim 2139, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.

2147. The method of claim 2139, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.

2148. The method of claim 2139, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless disfributed combustors.

2149. The method of claim 2139, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.

2150. The method of claim 2139, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

2151. The method of claim 2139, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2152. The method of claim 2139, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the foimation, pB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2153. The method of claim 2139, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

2154. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2155. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2156. The method of claim 2139, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2157. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

2158. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2159. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2160. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2161. The method of clahn 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2162. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2163. The method of clahn 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2164. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2165. The method of claim 2139, wherehi the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2166. The method of claim 2139, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2167. The method of claim 2139, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2168. The method of claim 2139, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2169. The method of claim 2168, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2170. The method of claim 2139, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2171. The method of claim 2139, further comprishig confrolling fonnation conditions by recfrculatmg a portion of the hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

2172. The method of claim 2139, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.

2173. The method of claim 2139, further comprising:
producing condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2174. The method of clahn 2139, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2175. The method of claim 2174, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the fonnation for each production well.

2176. The method of claim 2139, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

2177. The method of claim 2139, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2178. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat to at least a portion of the formation from one or more first heat sources placed within a pattern in the formation;
allowing the heat to fransfer from the one or more first heat sources to a first section of the formation;
heating a second section of the foπnation with at least one second heat source, wherein the second section is located within the first section, and wherein at least the one second heat source is configured to raise an average temperature of a portion of the second section to a higher temperature than an average temperature of the first section; and producing a mixture from the foπnation through a production well positioned within the second section, wherein a majority of the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons and a non-condensable component comprising H2 components.

2179. The method of claim 2178, wherehi the one or more ffrst heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein supeφosition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the first section of the formation.

2180. The method of claim 2178, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the first section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2181. The method of claim 2178, wherein at least the one heat source comprises a heater element positioned within the production well.

2182. The method of claim 2178, wherein at least the one second heat source comprises an electrical heater.

2183. The method of claim 2178, wherein at least the one second heat source comprises a surface burner.

2184. The method of claim 2178, wherein at least the one second heat source comprises a flameless disfributed combustor.

2185. The method of claim 2178, wherein at least the one second heat source comprises a natural distributed combustor.

2186. The method of claim 2178, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or the second section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

2187. The method of clahn 2178, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2188. The method of claim 2178, wherein providing heat to the formation further comprises:
heating a selected volume (I7) of the relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more first heat sources, wherein the foπnation has an average heat capacity (C„), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volmne is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*C *pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2189. The method of claim 2178, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

2190. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2191. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2192. The method of clahn 2178, wherem a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2193. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.
«
2194. The method of clahn 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2195. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2196. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2197. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2198. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2199. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2200. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherehi the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2201. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2202. The method of claim 2178, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2203. The method of claim 2178, further comprising confrolling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or the second section of the foπnation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2204. The method of claim 2178, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2205. The method of claim 2204, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2206. The method of claim 2178, further comprising altering a pressure within the fonnation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2207. The method of claim 2178, further comprising confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion ofhydrogen from the mixture into the foπnation.

2208. The method of claim 2178, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section, respectively; and
heating a portion of the ffrst or second section, respectively, with heat from hydrogenation.

2209. The method of claim 2178, further comprising:
producing condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2210. The method of clahn 2178, wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2211. The method of claim 2210, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the foπnation for each production well.

2212. The method of claim 2178, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the foimation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a ttiangular pattern.

2213. The method of claim 2178, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2214. A method of freating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat into the foπnation from a plurality of heat sources placed in a pattern within the formation, wherein a spacing between heat sources is greater than about 6 m;
allowing the heat to transfer from the plurality of heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation from a plurality of production wells, wherein the plurality of production wells are positioned within the pattern, and wherein a spacing between production wells is greater than about 12 m.

2215. The method of claim 2214, wherein supeφosition of heat from the plurality of heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.

2216. The method of claim 2214, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.

2217. The method of claim 2214, wherein the plurality of heat sources comprises elecfrical heaters.

2218. The method of claim 2214, wherein the plurality of heat sources comprises surface burners.

2219. The method of claim 2214, wherein the plurality of heat sources comprises flameless disfributed combustors.

2220. The method of claim 2214, wherein the plurality of heat sources comprises natural disfributed combustors.

2221. The method of claim 2214, further comprising confrolling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is confrolled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is confrolled as a function of pressure.

2222. The method of claim 2214, further comprising confrolling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 °C per day during pyrolysis.

2223. The method of claim 2214, wherein providing heat from the plurality of heat sources comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the plurality of heat sources, wherein the fonnation has an ayerage heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr = h*V*Cv*pB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, pB is foimation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 °C/day.

2224. The method of claim 2214, wherein allowing the heat to fransfer comprises fransfening heat substantially by conduction.

2225. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°.

2226. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherehi about 0.1 % by weight to about 15 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.

2227. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.

2228. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nifrogen.

2229. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixttire comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.

2230. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1 % by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.

2231. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.

2232. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.

2233. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.

2234. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5 % by weight to about 30 % by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.

2235. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10 % by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80 % by volume of the non-condensable component.

2236. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05 % by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.

2237. The method of claim 2214, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.

2238. The method of claim 2214, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the confrolled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.

2239. The method of claim 2214, further comprising confrolling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.

2240. The method of claim 2239, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.

2241. The method of clahn 2214, further comprising altering a pressure within the foimation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.

2242. The method of claim 2214, further comprismg confrolling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.

2243. The method of claim 2214, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the selected section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the selected section; and
heating a portion of the selected section with heat from hydrogenation.

2244. The method of claim 2214, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.

2245. The method of clahn 2214, wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2246. The method of claim 2245, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.

2247. The method of claim 2214, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.

2248. The method of claim 2214, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the foimation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a friangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.

2249. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a heater disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the heater is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foimation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2250. The system of claim 2249, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2251. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2252. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configured to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2253. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit is further configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2254. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product.

2255. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product transfers substantial heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2256. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2257. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are controlled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2258. The system of claim 2249, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2259. The system of claim 2249, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2260. The system of claim 2249, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product during use.

2261. The system of clahn 2249, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m. ■

2262. The system of claim 2249, further comprising a conductor disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein the conductor is configured to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an electrical cunent to the conductor.

2263. The system of clahn 2249, further comprising an insulated conductor disposed within the opening, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an elecfrical cunent to the insulated conductor.

2264. The system of claim 2249, further comprising at least one elongated member disposed within the opening, wherein the at least the one elongated member is configured to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an electrical cunent to the at least the one elongated member.

2265. The system of claim 2249, further comprising a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation, wherein the heat exchanger is configured to heat the oxidizing fluid, wherein the conduit is further configured to provide the heated oxidizing fluid into the openmg during use, and wherein the heated oxidizing fluid is configured to heat at least a portion of the formation during use.

2266. The system of claim 2249, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2267. The system of claim 2249, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2268. The system of claim 2249, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2269. The system of claim 2249, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2270. The system of claim 2249, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2271. The system of claim 2249, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2272. The system of claim 2249, wherein the system is further configured such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2273. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a heater configurable to be disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the heater is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
a conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configurable to provide an oxidizing fluid from an oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the system is configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to transfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2274. The system of claim 2273, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2275. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2276. The system of clahn 2273, wherehi the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2277. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2278. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product.

2279. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, such that the oxidation product fransfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2280. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approxhnately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2281. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2282. The system of claim 2273, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the fonnation beyond the reaction zone.

2283. The system of claim 2273, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2284. The system of claim 2273, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product during use.

2285. The system of claim 2273, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2286. The system of claim 2273, further comprising a conductor disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein the conductor is configurable to heat at least a portion of the foπnation during application of an elecfrical cunent to the conductor.

2287. The system of claim 2273, further comprising an insulated conductor disposed within the opening, wherein the insulated conductor is configurable to heat at least a portion of the fonnation during application of an electrical cunent to the insulated conductor.

2288. The system of claim 2273, further comprising at least one elongated member disposed withhi the opening, wherein the at least the one elongated member is configurable to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an elecfrical cunent to the at least the one elongated member.

2289. The system of claim 2273, further comprising a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation, wherein the heat exchanger is configurable to heat the oxidizing fluid, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide the heated oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the heated oxidizing fluid is configurable to heat at least a portion of the formation during use.

2290. The system of claim 2273, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2291. The system of claim 2273, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherehi the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2292. The system of claim 2273, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2293. The system of clahn 2273, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2294. The system of clahn 2273, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2295. The system of claim 2273, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2296. The system of claim 2273, wherein the system is further configurable such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2297. The system of claim 2273, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a heater disposed in an opening in the foimation, wherein the heater is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foimation during use;
r
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherehi the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2298. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidizing fluid;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the foπnation.

2299. The method of claim 2298, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2300. The method of claim 2298, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

2301. The method of claim 2298, further comprising confrolling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

2302. The method of claim 2298, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over time within the reaction zone.

2303. The method of claim 2298, wherein a conduit is disposed in the opening, the method further comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the conduit by oxidation.

2304. The method of claim 2298, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.

2305. The method of claim 2298, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foπnation through the conduit and fransfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2306. The method of claim 2298, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foπnation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2307. The method of claim 2298, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foπnation through the conduit and controlling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2308. The method of claim 2298, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2309. The method of claim 2298, further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2310. The method of claim 2298, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2311. The method of claim 2298, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2312. The method of claim 2298, wherein heating the portion comprises applying elecfrical cunent to a conductor disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within the opening.

2313. The method of claim 2298, wherein heating the portion comprises applying elecfrical cunent to an insulated conductor disposed within the opening.

2314. The method of claim 2298, wherein heating the portion comprises applying elecfrical cunent to at least one elongated member disposed within the opening.

2315. The method of claim 2298, wherein heating the portion comprises heatmg the oxidizing fluid in a heat exchanger disposed external to the fonnation such that providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening comprises fransfening heat from the heated oxidizing fluid to the portion.

2316. The method of claim 2298, further comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2317. The method of claim 2298, further comprising confrollmg the temperature of the formation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nitrogen during oxidation.

2318. The method of claim 2298, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2319. The method of claim 2298, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2320. The method of claim 2298, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherehi the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2321. The method of claim 2298, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2322. The method of clahn 2298, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the reaction zone.

2323. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising: a heater disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the heater is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizmg fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product from the formation during use; and wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2324. The system of claim 2323, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2325. The system of claim 2323, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2326. The system of claim 2323, wherehi the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configured to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is confrolled.

2327. The system of claim 2323, wherein the conduit is further configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2328. The system of claim 2323, wherein the conduit is further configured such that the oxidation product fransfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2329. The system of clahn 2323, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2330. The system of claim 2323, wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are controlled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2331. The system of claim 2323, wherehi the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2332. The system of claim 2323, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2333. The system of clahn 2323, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use.

2334. The system of claim 2323, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2335. The system of claim 2323, further comprising a conductor disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein the conductor is configured to heat at least a portion of the foimation during application of an elecfrical cunent to the conductor.

2336. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an insulated conductor disposed within the opening, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an elecfrical cunent to the insulated conductor.

2337. The system of claim 2323, further comprising at least one elongated member disposed within the opening, wherein the at least the one elongated member is configured to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an elecfrical cunent to the at least the one elongated member.

2338. The system of claim 2323, further comprising a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation, wherehi the heat exchanger is configured to heat the oxidizing fluid, wherein the conduit is further configured to provide the heated oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the heated oxidizing fluid is configured to heat at least a portion of the foimation during use.

2339. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2340. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2341. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2342. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2343. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherem a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2344. The system of claim 2323, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2345. The system of claim 2323, wherein the system is further configured such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2346. A system configurable to heat a relatively low penneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a heater configurable to be disposed in an opening in the fonnation, wherein the heater is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
a conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide an oxidizing fluid from an oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the foπnation during use, wherehi the system is configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone, and wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product from the formation during use; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to ttansfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone during use.

2347. The system of claim 2346, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2348. The system of claim 2346, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2349. The system of claim 2346, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is confrolled.

2350. The system of claim 2346, wherein the conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2351. The system of claim 2346, wherein the conduit is further configurable such that the oxidation product transfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2352. The system of claim 2346, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2353. The system of claim 2346, wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2354. The system of claim 2346, wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2355. The system of claim 2346, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2356. The system of claim 2346, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use.

2357. The system of claim 2346, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2358. The system of claim 2346, further comprising a conductor disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein the conductor is configurable to heat at least a portion of the foπnation during application of an electrical cunent to the conductor.

2359. The system of claim 2346, further comprising an insulated conductor disposed within the opening, wherein the insulated conductor is configurable to heat at least a portion of the formation during application of an electrical cunent to the insulated conductor.

2360. The system of claim 2346, further comprising at least one elongated member disposed within the opening, wherein the at least the one elongated member is configurable to heat at least a portion of the foπnation during application of an electrical cunent to the at least the one elongated member.

2361. The system of clahn 2346, further comprising a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation, wherein the heat exchanger is configurable to heat the oxidizing fluid, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide the heated oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the heated oxidizing fluid is configurable to heat at least a portion of the formation during use.

2362. The system of claim 2346, further comprismg an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2363. The system of claim 2346, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the openmg, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2364. The system of claim 2346, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2365. The system of claim 2346, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2366. The system of claim 2346, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2367. The system of claim 2346, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2368. The system of claim 2346, wherein the system is further configurable such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2369. The system of claim 2346, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a heater disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the heater is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the foπnation during use, wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product from the foimation during use; and wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2370. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to an opening in the formation;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing gas to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat in the reaction zone;

removing at least a portion of an oxidation product through the opening; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the foπnation.

2371. The method of claim 2370, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2372. The method of claim 2370, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

2373. The method of claim 2370, further comprising controlling a flow of the oxidizhig fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

2374. The method of claim 2370, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially maintained within the reaction zone.

2375. The method of claim 2370, wherein a conduit is disposed in the opening, the method furtlier comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2376. The method of claim 2370, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the opening comprises removing at least the portion of the oxidation product tiirough the conduit.

2377. The method of claim 2370, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the opening comprises removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the conduit, the method further comprising ttansfening substantial heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2378. The method of claim 2370, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, wherein removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the opening comprises removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the conduit, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2379. The method of claim 2370, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the opening comprises removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the conduit, the method further comprising confrolling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2380. The method of claim 2370, wherehi a conduit is disposed within the opening, and wherein removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the opening comprises removing at least the portion of the oxidation product through the conduit, the method further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2381. The method of claim 2370, further comprishig substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2382. The method of claim 2370, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizmg fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing at least a portion of the oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2383. The method of claim 2370, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the openhig a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2384. The method of claim 2370, wherein heating the portion comprises applying elecfrical cunent to a conductor disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within the opening.

2385. The method of clahn 2370, wherein heating the portion comprises applying elecfrical cunent to an insulated conductor disposed within the opening.

2386. The method of claim 2370, wherein heating the portion comprises applying electrical cunent to at least one elongated member disposed within the opening.

2387. The method of claim 2370, wherein heating the portion comprises heating the oxidizing fluid in a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation such that providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening comprises fransfening heat from the heated oxidizing fluid to the portion.

2388. The method of claim 2370, further comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2389. The method of claim 2370, further comprising controlling the temperature of the formation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nifrogen during oxidation.

2390. The method of claim 2370, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the openhig, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2391. The method of clahn 2370, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2392. The method of claim 2370, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2393. The method of claim 2370, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2394. The method of claim 2370, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the reaction.

2395. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
an electric heater disposed in an opening in the fonnation, wherein the elecfric heater is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2396. The system of claim 2395, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2397. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2398. The system of clahn 2395, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configured to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is confrolled.

2399. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit is further configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2400. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product.

2401. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, such that the oxidation product fransfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2402. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approxunately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2403. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2404. The system of claim 2395, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2405. The system of claim 2395, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2406. The system of claim 2395, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product during use.

2407. The system of claim 2395, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2408. The system of claim 2395, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2409. The system of claim 2395, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2410. The system of clahn 2395, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2411. The system of claim 2395, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2412. The system of claim 2395, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2413. The system of claim 2395, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2414. The system of claim 2395, wherein the system is further configured such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2415. A system configurable to heat a relatively low peπneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
an elecfric heater configurable to be disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the elecfric heater is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use, and wherein at least the portion is located substantially adjacent to the opening;
a conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide an oxidizing fluid from an oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone hi the formation during use, and wherein the system is configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to transfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2416. The system of claim 2415, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2417. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2418. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is confrolled.

2419. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2420. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product.

2421. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product fransfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2422. The system of clahn 2415, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2423. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2424. The system of claim 2415, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2425. The system of claim 2415, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2426. The system of claim 2415, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product during use.

2427. The system of claim 2415, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2428. The system of claim 2415, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2429. The system of claim 2415, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2430. The system of claim 2415, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed hi an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2431. The system of claim 2415, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2432. The system of claim 2415, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packhig material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2433. The system of claim 2415 , further comprishig an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2434. The system of claim 2415, wherein the system is further configurable such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2435. The system of claim 2415, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
an electric heater disposed in an opening in the foπnation, wherein the electric heater is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foimation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the foimation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2436. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a conductor disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is disposed in an opening in the formation, and wherein the conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a second conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the second conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2437. The system of claim 2436, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2438. The system of claim 2436, wherein the second conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2439. The system of claim 2436, wherein the second conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherehi the critical flow orifices are configured to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2440. The system of claim 2436, wherein the second conduit is further configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the second conduit by oxidation.

2441. The system of claim 2436, wherein the second conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product.

2442. The system of claim 2436, wherein the second conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product fransfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2443. The system of claim 2436, wherein the second conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the second conduit.

2444. The system of clahn 2436, wherein the second conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the second conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the second conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2445. The system of claim 2436, wherehi the second conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2446. The system of claim 2436, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2447. The system of claim 2436, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the second conduit, wherein the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the second conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product during use.

2448. The system of claim 2436, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2449. The system of claim 2436, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2450. The system of claim 2436, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2451. The system of claim 2436, further comprishig an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2452. The system of claim 2436, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2453. The system of claim 2436, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2454. The system of claim 2436, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2455. The system of claim 2436, wherein the system is further configured such that transfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2456. A system configurable to heat a relatively low peπneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a conductor configurable to be disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is configurable to be disposed in an opening in the formation, and wherein the conductor is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use;
a second conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to provide an oxidizing fluid from an oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the foπnation during use, and wherein the system is configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2457. The system of claim 2456, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2458. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2459. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2460. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the second conduit by oxidation.

2461. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product.

2462. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product transfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2463. The system of clahn 2456, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the second conduit.

2464. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the second conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the second conduit are controlled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2465. The system of claim 2456, wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2466. The system of claim 2456, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2467. The system of claim 2456, further comprismg a center conduit disposed within the second conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product during use.

2468. The system of claim 2456, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2469. The system of claim 2456, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2470. The system of claim 2456, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2471. The system of claim 2456, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed hi an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2472. The system of claim 2456, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2473. The system of claim 2456, furtlier comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2474. The system of claim 2456, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2475. The system of claim 2456, wherein the system is further configurable such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2476. The system of claim 2456, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a conductor disposed in a ffrst conduit, wherein the first conduit is disposed in an opening in the foimation, and wherein the conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a second conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the second conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the foimation during use.

2477. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the foπnation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the fonnation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein heating comprises applying an elecfrical cunent to a conductor disposed in a first conduit to provide heat to the portion, and wherein the first conduit is disposed within the opening;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the foπnation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.

2478. The method of claim 2477, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2479. The method of claim 2477, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a second conduit disposed in the opening.

2480. The method of claim 2477, furtlier comprishig controlling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a second conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is controlled.

2481. The method of claim 2477, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over thne within the reaction zone.

2482. The method of claim 2477, wherein a second conduit is disposed in the opening, the method further comprising cooling the second conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the second conduit by oxidation.

2483. The method of claim 2477, wherein a second conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the fonnation through the second conduit.

2484. The method of claim 2477, wherein a second conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation tiirough the second conduit and fransfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the second conduit.

2485. The method of claim 2477, wherein a second conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprishig removing an oxidation product from the foimation through the second conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizhig fluid in the second conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the second conduit.

2486. The method of claim 2477, wherein a second conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the second conduit and confrolling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the second conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2487. The method of claim 2477, wherein a second conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2488. The method of claim 2477, further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2489. The method of claim 2477, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2490. The method of claim 2477, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2491. The method of claim 2477, further comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2492. The method of claim 2477, further comprising confrolling the temperature of the formation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nitrogen during oxidation.

2493. The method of claim 2477, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation.

2494. The method of claim 2477, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2495. The method of claim 2477, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2496. The method of claim 2477, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherehi a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2497. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising: an insulated conductor disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizhig fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2498. The system of claim 2497, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2499. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2500. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configured to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2501. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit is configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2502. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product.

2503. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the conduit is further configured such that the oxidation product fransfers substantial heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2504. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2505. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the second conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are controlled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2506. The system of claim 2497, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2507. The system of claim 2497, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2508. The system of claim 2497, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherehi the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product during use.

2509. The system of claim 2497, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2510. The system of claim 2497, furtlier comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation.

2511. The system of claim 2497, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2512. The system of claim 2497, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherehi the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2513. The system of claim 2497, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2514. The system of claim 2497, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2515. The system of claim 2497, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2516. The system of clahn 2497, wherein the system is further configured such that transfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2517. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising: an insulated conductor configurable to be disposed in an opening in the foπnation, wherein the insulated conductor is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use;
a conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide an oxidizing fluid from an oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the system is configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2518. The system of claim 2517, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2519. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2520. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is confrolled.

2521. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2522. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product.

2523. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, such that the oxidation product transfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2524. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2525. The system of clahn 2517, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2526. The system of claim 2517, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2527. The system of claim 2517, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2528. The system of claim 2517, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product during use.

2529. The system of claim 2517, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2530. The system of claim 2517, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation.

2531. The system of claim 2517, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2532. The system of claim 2517, further comprismg an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2533. The system of claim 2517, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2534. The system of claim 2517, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherehi the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2535. The system of claim 2517, further comprismg an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2536. The system of claim 2517, wherein the system is further configurable such that fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2537. The system of claim 2517, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
an insulated conductor disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;

an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2538. An in situ method for heating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the foimation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the foπnation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein heating comprises applying an electrical cunent to an insulated conductor to provide heat to the portion, and wherein the insulated conductor is disposed within the opening;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the foπnation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.

2539. The method of claim 2538, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2540. The method of claim 2538, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

2541. The method of claim 2538, further comprising confrolling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

2542. The method of claim 2538, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over time within the reaction zone.

2543. The method of clahn 2538, wherein a conduit is disposed in the opening, the method further comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the conduit by oxidation.

2544. The method of claim 2538, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.

2545. The method of claim 2538, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and fransfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2546. The method of claim 2538, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2547. The method of claim 2538, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and controlling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2548. The method of claim 2538, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2549. The method of claim 2538, further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2550. The method of claim 2538, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2551. The method of claim 2538, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2552. The method of claim 2538, further comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2553. The method of claim 2538, further comprising controlling the temperature of the formation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nitrogen during oxidation.

2554. The method of clahn 2538, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2555. The method of clahn 2538, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2556. The method of claim 2538, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2557. The method of claim 2538, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2558. The method of claim 2538, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the reaction zone.

2559. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the foπnation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the foπnation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to an opening in the foπnation, wherein heating comprises applying an electrical cunent to an insulated conductor to provide heat to the portion, wherein the insulated conductor is coupled to a conduit, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the conduit is disposed within the opening;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.

2560. The method of claim 2559, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2561. The method of claim 2559, further comprising confrolling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with the critical flow orifices such that a rate of oxidation is controlled.

2562. The method of claim 2559, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over time within the reaction zone.

2563. The method of claim 2559, further comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the conduit by oxidation.

2564. The method of clahn 2559, further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.

2565. The method of claim 2559, further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and fransfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2566. The method of claim 2559, further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2567. The method of claim 2559, further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and confrolling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2568. The method of claim 2559, fuither comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2569. The method of claim 2559, further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2570. The method of clahn 2559, wherein a center conduit is disposed within the conduit, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the conduit.

2571. The method of claim 2559, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2572. The method of claim 2559, further comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2573. The method of claim 2559, further comprising confrolling the temperature of the foimation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nifrogen during oxidation.

2574. The method of claim 2559, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2575. The method of clahn 2559, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2576. The method of claim 2559, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the openhig, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2577. The method of clahn 2559, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2578. The method of claim 2559, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the reaction zone.

2579. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
at least one elongated member disposed in an opening in the foπnation, wherein at least the one elongated member is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2580. The system of claim 2579, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2581. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2582. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configured to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the foπnation is controlled.

2583. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit is further configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2584. The system of claim 2579, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product.

2585. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product transfers heat to the oxidizhig fluid.

2586. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2587. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit is fuither configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2588. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2589. The system ofclaim 2579, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2590. The system ofclaim 2579, furtlier comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product during use.

2591. The system of claim 2579, wherein the portion of the fonnation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2592. The system of clahn 2579, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation.

2593. The system ofclaim 2579, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to die opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2594. The system ofclaim 2579, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2595. The system ofclaim 2579, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2596. The system ofclaim 2579, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2597. The system ofclaim 2579, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packhig material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2598. The system of claim 2579, wherein the system is further configured such that transfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2599. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
at least one elongated member configurable to be disposed in an opening in the formation, wherein at least the one elongated member is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; a conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the formation during use, and wherein the system is configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2600. The system of claim 2599, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2601. The system ofclaim 2599, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2602. The system ofclaim 2599, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to confrol a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is confrolled.

2603. The system of claim 2599, wherein the conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2604. The system ofclaim 2599, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product.

2605. The system of claim 2599, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product fransfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2606. The system of claim 2599, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approxhnately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2607. The system of claim 2599, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2608. The system ofclaim 2599, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2609. The system of claim 2599, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2610. The system ofclaim 2599, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product during use.

2611. The system ofclaim 2599, wherein the portion of the foπnation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2612. The system ofclaim 2599, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation.

2613. The system of claim 2599, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2614. The system ofclaim 2599, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2615. The system ofclaim 2599, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2616. The system of claim 2599, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2617. The system ofclaim 2599, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the openhig, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2618. The system ofclaim 2599, wherein the system is further configurable such that transfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis zone.

2619. The system of claim 2599, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
at least one elongated member disposed in an opening in the fonnation, wherein at least the one elongated member is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use;
an oxidizing fluid source;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide an oxidizing fluid from the oxidizing fluid source to a reaction zone in the foπnation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at the reaction zone during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2620. An in situ method for heating a relatively low penneability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the foπnation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein heating comprises applying an elecfrical cunent to at least one elongated member to provide heat to the portion, and wherein at least the one elongated member is disposed within the opening;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
fransfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.

2621. The method of claim 2620, further comprising ttansporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2622. The method ofclaim 2620, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

2623. The method ofclaim 2620, further comprising controlling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

2624. The method of clahn 2620, further comprishig increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accoimnodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over time within the reaction zone.

2625. The method of claim 2620, wherein a conduit is disposed in the opening, the method further comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the conduit by oxidation.

2626. The method of claim 2620, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.

2627. The method ofclaim 2620, wherehi a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removmg an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and fransfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2628. The method of claim 2620, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foimation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2629. The method of claim 2620, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and controlling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2630. The method of claim 2620, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprishig removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the foimation beyond the reaction zone.

2631. The method of claim 2620, further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2632. The method of claim 2620, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2633. The method ofclaim 2620, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2634. The method of claim 2620, further comprising removing water from the foπnation prior to heating the portion.

2635. The method o claim 2620, further comprising confrolling the temperature of the foπnation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nifrogen during oxidation.

2636. The method of claim 2620, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2637. The method of clahn 2620, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2638. The method ofclaim 2620, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2639. The method ofclaim 2620, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2640. The method ofclaim 2620, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the reaction zone.

2641. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation, wherein the heat exchanger is configured to heat an oxidizing fluid during use;
a conduit disposed in the openhig, wherein the conduit is configured to provide the heated oxidizing fluid from the heat exchanger to at least a portion of the foimation during use, wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the heated oxidizing fluid to at least the portion of the formation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at a reaction zone in the foimation during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2642. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configured to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2643. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2644. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configured to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2645. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit is further configured to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2646. The system ofclaim 2641, wherehi the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product.

2647. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, such that the oxidation product transfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2648. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherehi a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approxhnately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2649. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizhig fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2650. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2651. The system of claim 2641 , wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2652. The system of clahn 2641, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherehi the center conduit is configured to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the conduit is further configured to remove an oxidation product during use.

2653. The system ofclaim 2641, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2654. The system of claim 2641 , further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2655. The system ofclaim 2641, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2656. The system ofclaim 2641, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2657. The system ofclaim 2641, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2658. The system ofclaim 2641, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2659. The system ofclaim 2641, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2660. A system configurable to heat a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a heat exchanger configurable to be disposed external to the formation, wherein the heat exchanger is further configurable to heat an oxidizhig fluid during use;
a conduit configurable to be disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is further configurable to provide the heated oxidizing fluid from the heat exchanger to at least a portion of the formation during use, wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to transfer from the heated oxidizing fluid to at least the portion of the formation during use, and wherein the system is further configurable to allow the oxidizing fluid to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at a reaction zone in the fonnation during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is further configurable to allow heat to ttansfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2661. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the oxidizing fluid is configurable to generate heat in the reaction zone such that the oxidizing fluid is transported through the reaction zone substantially by diffusion.

2662. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the conduit comprises orifices, and wherein the orifices are configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening.

2663. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, and wherein the critical flow orifices are configurable to control a flow of the oxidizing fluid such that a rate of oxidation in the formation is controlled.

2664. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the conduit is further configurable to be cooled with the oxidizing fluid such that the conduit is not substantially heated by oxidation.

2665. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product.

2666. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product such that the oxidation product transfers heat to the oxidizing fluid.

2667. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the conduit is fuither configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approxhnately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2668. The system of clahn 2660, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein a pressure of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit and a pressure of the oxidation product in the conduit are confrolled to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2669. The system of claim 2660, wherein the conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product, and wherein the oxidation product is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2670. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the oxidizing fluid is substantially inhibited from flowing into portions of the foπnation beyond the reaction zone.

2671. The system of claim 2660, further comprising a center conduit disposed within the conduit, wherein the center conduit is configurable to provide the oxidizing fluid into the opening during use, and wherein the second conduit is further configurable to remove an oxidation product during use.

2672. The system of claim 2660, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2673. The system ofclaim 2660, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foimation.

2674. The system ofclaim 2660, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2675. The system ofclaim 2660, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2676. The system ofclaim 2660, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2677. The system of clahn 2660, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the openmg, and wherehi the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2678. The system ofclaim 2660, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2679. The system ofclaim 2660, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a heat exchanger disposed external to the formation, wherein the heat exchanger is configured to heat an oxidizing fluid during use;
a conduit disposed in the opening, wherein the conduit is configured to provide the heated oxidizing fluid from the heat exchanger to at least a portion of the fonnation during use, wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the heated oxidizing fluid to at least the portion of the foimation during use, and wherein the oxidizing fluid is selected to oxidize at least some hydrocarbons at a reaction zone in the foπnation during use such that heat is generated at the reaction zone; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone of the formation during use.

2680. An in situ method for heating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the foimation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein heating comprises:
heating the oxidizhig fluid with a heat exchanger, wherein the heat exchanger is disposed external to the formation;
providing the heated oxidizing fluid from the heat exchanger to the portion of the formation; and
allowing heat to ttansfer from the heated oxidizing fluid to the portion of the formation;
providing the oxidizhig fluid to a reaction zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
transferring the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the fonnation.

2681. The method of claim 2680, further comprising fransporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2682. The method of clahn 2680, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

2683. The method of clahn 2680, further comprising confrolling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

2684. The method of clahn 2680, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over time within the reaction zone.

2685. The method of claim 2680, wherein a conduit is disposed in the opening, the method further comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the conduit by oxidation.

2686. The method ofclaim 2680, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.

2687. The method of claim 2680, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foimation through the conduit and fransfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2688. The method ofclaim 2680, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2689. The method ofclaim 2680, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foπnation through the conduit and controlling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2690. The method of claim 2680, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the fonnation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2691. The method of claim 2680, further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2692. The method ofclaim 2680, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2693. The method of clahn 2680, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2694. The method of claim 2680, fuither comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2695. The method of claim 2680, further comprising controlling the temperature of the formation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nitrogen during oxidation.

2696. The method ofclaim 2680, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2697. The method ofclaim 2680, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2698. The method ofclaim 2680, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2699. The method of claim 2680, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the openhig.

2700. The method of claim 2680, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the reaction zone.

2701. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the foimation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the foimation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein heating comprises:
oxidizing a fuel gas in a heater, wherein the heater is disposed external to the foimation;
providing the oxidized fuel gas from the heater to the portion of the formation; and
allowing heat to transfer from the oxidized fuel gas to the portion of the formation;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a reaction zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing fluid to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the reaction zone to generate heat at the reaction zone; and
transfening the generated heat substantially by conduction from the reaction zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.

2702. The method of claim 2701, further comprising fransporting the oxidizing fluid through the reaction zone by diffusion.

2703. The method of clahn 2701, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.

2704. The method ofclaim 2701, further comprising confrolling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is confrolled.

2705. The method ofclaim 2701, further comprising increasing a flow of the oxidizing fluid in the opening to accommodate an increase in a volume of the reaction zone such that a rate of oxidation is substantially constant over time within the reaction zone.

2706. The method of claim 2701 , wherein a conduit is disposed in the opening, the method further comprising cooling the conduit with the oxidizing fluid to reduce heating of the conduit by oxidation.

2707. The method ofclaim 2701, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foπnation through the conduit.

2708. The method of claim 2701 , wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and transfening heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.

2709. The method ofclaim 2701, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.

2710. The method of claim 2701 , wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and confroUhig a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.

2711. The method of claim 2701, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the foπnation through the conduit and substantially inhibiting the oxidation product from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2712. The method of claim 2701 , further comprising substantially inhibiting the oxidizing fluid from flowing into portions of the formation beyond the reaction zone.

2713. The method of claim 2701 , wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.

2714. The method of clahn 2701, wherein the portion of the formation extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.2 m.

2715. The method of claim 2701 , further comprising removing water from the formation prior to heating the portion.

2716. The method ofclaim 2701, further comprising controlling the temperature of the formation to substantially inhibit production of oxides of nifrogen during oxidation.

2717. The method ofclaim 2701, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2718. The method ofclaim 2701, fuither comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2719. The method ofclaim 2701, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2720. The method ofclaim 2701, further comprising coupling an overburden cashig to the openhig, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2721. The method of claim 2701 , wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adj acent to the reaction zone.

2722. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
an insulated conductor disposed within an open wellbore in the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to provide radiant heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation during use.

2723. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor is further configured to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to the insulated conductor during use.

2724. The system of clahn 2722, further comprising a support member, wherein the support member is configured to support the insulated conductor.

2725. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising a support member and a centralizer, wherein the support member is configured to support the insulated conductor, and wherein the cenfralizer is configured to maintain a location of the insulated conductor on the support member.

2726. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the open wellbore comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

2727. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

2728. The system of claim 2722, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

2729. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a copper wire.

2730. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin fransition conductor.

2731. The system of claim 2722, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin transition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2732. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath.

2733. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

2734. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approxhnately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

2735. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approximately 6 % nickel by weight.

2736. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises a thermally conductive material.

2737. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2738. The system of claim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2739. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2740. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2741. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2742. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2743. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising two additional insulated conductors, wherehi the insulated conductor and the two additional insulated conductors are configured in a 3-phase Y configuration.

2744. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configured in a series electrical configuration.

2745. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configured in a parallel electrical configuration.

2746. The system ofclaim 2722, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to generate radiant heat of approximately 500 W/m to approxhnately 1150 W/m during use.

2747. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprishig a support member configured to support the insulated conductor, wherehi the support member comprises orifices configured to provide fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2748. The system of claim 2722, further comprishig a support member configured to support the insulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises critical flow orifices configured to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2749. The system of claim 2722, further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube is configured to provide a flow of fluid into the open wellbore during use.

2750. The system of claim 2722, further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube comprises critical flow orifices configured to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2751. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foimation.

2752. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2753. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2754. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packhig material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore.

2755. The system ofclaim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the open wellbore and the overburden casing during use.

2756. The system of claim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2757. The system of claim 2722, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, the system further comprising a wellhead coupled to the overburden casing and a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the wellhead is disposed external to the overburden, wherein the wellhead comprises at least one sealing flange, and wherein at least the one sealing flange is configured to couple to the lead-in conductor.

2758. The system of claim 2722, wherein the system is further configured to transfer heat such that the fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some of the hydrocarbons in the selected section.

2759. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
an insulated conductor configurable to be disposed within an open wellbore in the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is further configurable to provide radiant heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to transfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation during use.

2760. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor is further configurable to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to the insulated conductor during use.

2761. The system of claim 2759, further comprising a support member, wherein the support member is configurable to support the insulated conductor.

2762. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising a support member and a cenfralizer, wherein the support member is configurable to support the insulated conductor, and wherein the centralizer is configurable to maintain a location of the insulated conductor on the support member.

2763. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the open wellbore comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

2764. The system of clahn 2759, further comprismg a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configurable to generate substantially no heat.

2765. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

2766. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a copper wire.

2767. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin transition conductor.

2768. The system of claim 2759, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin transition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2769. The system ofclaim 2759, wherehi the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath.

2770. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

2771. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

2772. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approximately 6 % nickel by weight.

2773. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises a thennally conductive material.

2774. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2775. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2776. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2777. The system of claim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configurable to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2778. The system ofclaim 2759, wherehi the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2779. The system ofclaim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2780. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising two additional insulated conductors, wherein the insulated conductor and the two additional insulated conductors are configurable in a 3 -phase Y configuration.

2781. The system of claim 2759, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configurable in a series elecfrical configuration.

2782. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configurable in a parallel electrical configuration.

2783. The system of claim 2759, wherein the insulated conductor is configurable to generate radiant heat of approxhnately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m during use.

2784. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising a support member configurable to support the insulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises orifices configurable to provide fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2785. The system of claim 2759, further comprising a support member configurable to support the msulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises critical flow orifices configurable to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2786. The system of claim 2759, further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube is configurable to provide a flow of fluid into the open wellbore during use.

2787. The system of claim 2759, further comprising a tube coupled to the first insulated conductor, wherein the tube comprises critical flow orifices configurable to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2788. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherehi the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2789. The system of claim 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2790. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2791. The system of claim 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore.

2792. The system of clahn 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the open wellbore and the overburden casing during use.

2793. The system of claim 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2794. The system ofclaim 2759, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, the system further comprising a wellhead coupled to the overburden casing and a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the wellhead is disposed external to the overburden, wherein the wellhead comprises at least one sealing flange, and wherein at least the one sealing flange is configurable to couple to the lead-in conductor.

2795. The system of claim 2759, wherein the system is further configured to ttansfer heat such that the transfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the selected section.

2796. The system of claim 2759, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
an insulated conductor disposed within an open wellbore in the fonnation, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to provide radiant heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation during use.

2797. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
applying an electrical current to an insulated conductor to provide radiant heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is disposed within an open wellbore in the formation; and
allowing the radiant heat to ttansfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation.

2798. The method of clahn 2797, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member.

2799. The method of claim 2797, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and maintaining a location of the insulated conductor on the support member with a cenfralizer.

2800. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor is coupled to two additional insulated conductors, wherein the insulated conductor and the two insulated conductors are disposed within the open wellbore, and wherein the three insulated conductors are elecfrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration.

2801. The method of claim 2797, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the open wellbore.

2802. The method ofclaim 2797, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the open wellbore, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are elecfrically coupled in a series configuration.

2803. The method of claim 2797, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the open wellbore, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are electrically coupled in a parallel configuration.

2804. The method ofclaim 2797, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m.

2805. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

2806. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

2807. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approximately 6 % nickel by weight.

2808. The method of clahn 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2809. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherehi the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2810. The method of clahn 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2811. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2812. The method of claim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2813. The method ofclaim 2797, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2814. The method of claim 2797, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a fluid into the open wellbore through an orifice in the support member.

2815. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the open wellbore through critical flow orifices in the support member.

2816. The method ofclaim 2797, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the open wellbore proxunate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a fluid into the open wellbore through the perforated tube.

2817. The method of claim 2797, wherein a tube is disposed in the open wellbore proximate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the open wellbore through critical flow orifices in the tube.

2818. The method of claim 2797, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the open wellbore through an orifice in the support member.

2819. The method ofclaim 2797, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the open wellbore proximate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the open wellbore through the perforated tube.

2820. The method of claim 2797, further comprising determining a temperature distribution in the insulated conductor using an electromagnetic signal provided to the insulated conductor.

2821. The method ofclaim 2797, fuither comprising monitoring a leakage cunent of the insulated conductor.

2822. The method of clahn 2797, further comprising monitoring the applied electrical cunent.

2823. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to the insulated conductor.

2824. The method of claim 2797, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the insulated conductor with at least one thermocouple.

2825. The method of claim 2797, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

2826. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor using a cold pin fransition conductor.

2827. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor using a cold pin transition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2828. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2829. The method of claim 2797, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2830. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2831. The method of claim 2797, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of the overburden casing and the open wellbore.

2832. The method of claim 2797, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the open wellbore, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the open wellbore and the overburden cashig with a packing material.

2833. The method ofclaim 2797, further comprising heating at least the portion of the foπnation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the formation.

2834. An in situ method for heating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
applying an elecfrical cunent to an insulated conductor to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein the insulated conductor is disposed within an openhig in the formation; and
allowing the heat to fransfer from the insulated conductor to a section of the fonnation.

2835. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member.

2836. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and maintaining a location of the first insulated conductor on the support member with a cenfralizer.

2837. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor is coupled to two additional insulated conductors, wherein the insulated conductor and the two insulated conductors are disposed within the opening, and wherein the three insulated conductors are electrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration.

2838. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the openhig.

2839. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the opening, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are electrically coupled in a series configuration.

2840. The method o claim 2834, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the opening, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are elecfrically coupled in a parallel configuration.

2841. The method of claim 2834, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m.

2842. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

2843. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

2844. The method of clahn 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approximately 6 % nickel by weight.

2845. The method of claim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2846. The method of clahn 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2847. The method of claim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2848. The method of claim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2849. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2850. The method ofclaim 2834, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2851. The method of claim 2834, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a fluid into the opening through an orifice in the support member.

2852. The method of claim 2834, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the opening through critical flow orifices in the support member.

2853. The method of claim 2834, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the opening proxhnate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprishig flowing a fluid into the opening through the perforated tube.

2854. The method of claim 2834, wherein a tube is disposed in the opening proximate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the opening through critical flow orifices in the tube.

2855. The method of claim 2834, fuither comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the opening through an orifice in the support member.

2856. The method of claim 2834, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the opening proxhnate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprishig flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the opening through the perforated tube.

2857. The method of clahn 2834, further comprishig deteπnining a temperature disttibution in the insulated conductor using an electromagnetic signal provided to the insulated conductor.

2858. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising monitoring a leakage cunent of the insulated conductor.

2859. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising monitoring the applied elecfrical cunent.

2860. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to the insulated conductor.

2861. The method of claim 2834, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the insulated conductor with at least one thermocouple.

2862. The method of claim 2834, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

2863. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor using a cold pin fransition conductor.

2864. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor using a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin transition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2865. The method ofclaim 2834, further comprising coupling an overburden cashig to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2866. The method of claim 2834, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2867. The method of clahn 2834, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2868. The method of claim 2834, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2869. The method of clahn 2834, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing with a packing material.

2870. The method of claim 2834, further comprising heating at least the portion of the foπnation to substantially pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the foπnation.

2871. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
an insulated conductor disposed withhi an opening in the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to ttansfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the foπnation during use.

2872. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the insulated conductor is further configured to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to the insulated conductor during use.

2873. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprismg a support member, wherein the support member is configured to support the insulated conductor.

2874. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising a support member and a cenfralizer, wherein the support member is configured to support the insulated conductor, and wherem the cenfralizer is configured to maintain a location of the insulated conductor on the support member.

2875. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

2876. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherehi the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

2877. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprismg a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

2878. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a copper wire.

2879. The system ofclaim 2871, fuither comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin transition conductor.

2880. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2881. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises a thermally conductive material.

2882. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2883. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesimn oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2884. The system of claim 2871 , wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2885. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherehi the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2886. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2887. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2888. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising two additional insulated conductors, wherein the insulated conductor and the two additional insulated conductors are configured in a 3-phase Y configuration.

2889. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configured in a series electrical configuration.

2890. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configured in a parallel electrical configuration.

2891. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to generate radiant heat of approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m during use.

2892. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising a support member configured to support the insulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises orifices configured to provide fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2893. The system of claim 2871 , further comprising a support member configured to support the insulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises critical flow orifices configured to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2894. The system of claim 2871 , further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube is configured to provide a flow of fluid into the opening during use.

2895. The system of claim 2871 , further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube comprises critical flow orifices configured to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2896. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the openhig, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2897. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2898. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2899. The system of claim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherehi a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2900. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the openmg, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2901. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden cashig and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2902. The system ofclaim 2871, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, the system further comprising a wellhead coupled to the overburden casing and a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the wellhead is disposed external to the overburden, wherein the wellhead comprises at least one sealing flange, and wherein at least the one sealing flange is configured to couple to the lead-in conductor.

2903. The system ofclaim 2871, wherein the system is further configured to fransfer heat such that the fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the selected section.

2904. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
an insulated conductor configurable to be disposed within an opening in the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the foimation during use, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight;
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to fransfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation during use.

2905. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the insulated conductor is further configurable to generate heat during application of an electrical cunent to the insulated conductor during use.

2906. The system of claim 2904, further comprising a support member, wherein the support member is configurable to support the insulated conductor.

2907. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising a support member and a cenfralizer, wherein the support member is configurable to support the insulated conductor, and wherein the centtalizer is configurable to maintain a location of the insulated conductor on the support member.

2908. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approxhnately 5 cm.

2909. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configurable to generate substantially no heat.

2910. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

2911. The system of clahn 2904, further comprishig a lead-hi conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a copper wire.

2912. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin transition conductor.

2913. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor with a cold pin transition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2914. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the electtically insulating material comprises a thermally conductive material.

2915. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2916. The system ofclaim 2904, wherem the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesimn oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2917. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the electtically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2918. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electtically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesimn oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configurable to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2919. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2920. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2921. The system of claim 2904, further comprising two additional insulated conductors, wherein the insulated conductor and the two additional insulated conductors are configurable in a 3-phase Y configuration.

2922. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherehi the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configurable in a series elecfrical configuration.

2923. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an additional insulated conductor, wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are coupled to a support member, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are configurable in a parallel elecfrical configuration.

2924. The system of claim 2904, wherein the insulated conductor is configurable to generate radiant heat of approxhnately 500 W/m to approximately 1 150 W/m during use.

2925. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising a support member configurable to support the insulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises orifices configurable to provide fluid flow through the support member into the open wellbore during use.

2926. The system of claim 2904, further comprising a support member configurable to support the insulated conductor, wherein the support member comprises critical flow orifices configurable to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2927. The system of claim 2904, further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube is configurable to provide a flow of fluid into the opening during use.

2928. The system of claim 2904, further comprising a tube coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the tube comprises critical flow orifices configurable to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2929. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

2930. The system of claim 2904, further comprising an overburden cashig coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden cashig is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2931. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2932. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2933. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

2934. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

2935. The system ofclaim 2904, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden cashig is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, the system further comprising a wellhead coupled to the overburden casing and a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the wellhead is disposed external to the overburden, wherein the wellhead comprises at least one sealing flange, and wherein at least the one sealing flange is configurable to couple to the lead-in conductor.

2936. The system ofclaim 2904, wherein the system is further configured to fransfer heat such that the fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the selected section.

2937. The system of claim 2904, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
an insulated conductor disposed within an opening in the foimation, wherein the insulated conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation during use.

2938. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
applying an elecfrical cunent to an insulated conductor to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the insulated conductor is disposed within an opening in the foimation, and wherein the insulated conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy of approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight; and
allowing the heat to ttansfer from the insulated conductor to a selected section of the formation.

2939. The method of claim 2938, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member.

2940. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and maintaining a location of the first insulated conductor on the support member with a centralizer.

2941. The method of claim 2938, wherein the insulated conductor is coupled to two additional insulated conductors, wherein the insulated conductor and the two insulated conductors are disposed within the opening, and wherein the three insulated conductors are electrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration.

2942. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the opening.

2943. The method of claim 2938, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the opening, and wherehi the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are electrically coupled in a series configuration.

2944. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein an additional insulated conductor is disposed within the opening, and wherein the insulated conductor and the additional insulated conductor are elecfrically coupled in a parallel configuration.

2945. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m.

2946. The method ofclaim 2938, wherehi the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material.

2947. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2948. The method of claim 2938, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2949. The method of claim 2938, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

2950. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2951. The method of claim 2938, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2952. The method of claim 2938, wherein the copper-nickel alloy is disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2953. The method of claim 2938, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a fluid into the opening through an orifice in the support member.

2954. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the opening through critical flow orifices in the support member.

2955. The method of clahn 2938, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the opening proximate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a fluid into the opening through the perforated tube.

2956. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein a tube is disposed in the opening proxhnate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the opening through critical flow orifices in the tube.

2957. The method of claim 2938, further comprising supporting the insulated conductor on a support member and flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the opening through an orifice in the support member.

2958. The method ofclaim 2938, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the opening proximate to the insulated conductor, the method further comprising flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the opening through the perforated tube.

2959. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising determining a temperature disfribution in the insulated conductor using an electromagnetic signal provided to the insulated conductor.

2960. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising monitoring a leakage cunent of the insulated conductor.

2961. The method of claim 2938, further comprising monitoring the applied electrical cunent.

2962. The method of clahn 2938, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to the insulated conductor.

2963. The method of claim 2938, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the insulated conductor with at least one theπnocouple.

2964. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising elecfrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

2965. The method of claim 2938, further comprising elecfrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor using a cold pin fransition conductor.

2966. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising elecfrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the insulated conductor using a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2967. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation.

2968. The method of claim 2938, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

2969. The method of claim 2938, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

2970. The method of claim 2938, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

2971. The method ofclaim 2938, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing with a packing material.

2972. The method of clahn 2938, further comprising heating at least the portion of the formation to substantially pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the formation.

2973. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprismg:
at least three insulated conductors disposed within an opening in the foπnation, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are electtically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration, and wherein at least the three insulated conductors are configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from at least the three insulated conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

2974. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are further configured to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to at least the three insulated conductors during use.

2975. The system of claim 2973, further comprising a support member, wherein the support member is configured to support at least the three insulated conductors.

2976. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising a support member and a cenfralizer, wherein the support member is configured to support at least the three insulated conductors, and wherein the cenfralizer is configured to maintain a location of at least the three insulated conductors on the support member.

2977. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

2978. The system of claim 2973, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein at least the one lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

2979. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein at least the one lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

2980. The system of claim 2973, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein at least the one lead-in conductor comprises a copper wire.

2981. The system of claim 2973, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors with a cold pin transition conductor.

2982. The system of claim 2973, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors with a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin transition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

2983. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath.

2984. The system of claim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

2985. The system of claim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

2986. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approxhnately 6 % nickel by weight.

2987. The system of claim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises a thermally conductive material.

2988. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

2989. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

2990. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesimn oxide.

2991. The system of claim 2973 , wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the electtically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

2992. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electtically insulating material, and wherein the electtically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

2993. The system of claim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electtically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

2994. The system of claim 2973, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are configured to generate radiant heat of approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m of at least the three insulated conductors during use.

2995. The system of clahn 2973, further comprising a support member configured to support at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the support member comprises orifices configured to provide fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2996. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising a support member configured to support at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the support member comprises critical flow orifices configured to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2997. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising a tube coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the tube is configured to provide a flow of fluid into the opening during use.

2998. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising a tube coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the tube comprises critical flow orifices configured to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

2999. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation.

3000. The system of claim 2973, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3001. The system of claim 2973 , further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foimation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3002. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3003. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foimation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3004. The system ofclaim 2973, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

3005. The system of claim 2973 , further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, the system further comprising a wellhead coupled to the overburden casing and a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the wellhead is disposed external to the overburden, wherein the wellhead comprises at least one sealing flange, and wherein at least the one sealing flange is configured to couple to the lead-in conductor.

3006. The system ofclaim 2973, wherein the system is further configured to fransfer heat such that the transfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the selected section.

3007. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
at least three insulated conductors configurable to be disposed within an opening in the formation, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are elecfrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration, and wherein at least the three insulated conductors are further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the fonnation during use; and
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to ttansfer from at least the three insulated conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3008. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are further configurable to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to at least the three insulated conductors during use.

3009. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising a support member, wherein the support member is configurable to support at least the three insulated conductors.

3010. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising a support member and a cenfralizer, wherein the support member is configurable to support at least the three insulated conductors, and wherein the centralizer is configurable to maintain a location of at least the three insulated conductors on the support member.

3011. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

3012. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherehi at least the one lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configurable to generate substantially no heat.

3013. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein at least the one lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

3014. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein at least the one lead-in conductor comprises a copper wire.

3015. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors with a cold pin fransition conductor.

3016. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising at least one lead-in conductor coupled to at least the three insulated conductors with a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

3017. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath.

3018. The system of clahn 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

3019. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

3020. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approximately 6 % nickel by weight.

3021. The system of claim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises a thermally conductive material.

3022. The system of claim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

3023. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electtically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

3024. The system of claim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

3025. The system of claim 3007, wherein the insulated conductor comprises a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configurable to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

3026. The system of clahn 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the electrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

3027. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

3028. The system of claim 3007, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are configurable to generate radiant heat of approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m during use.

3029. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising a support member configurable to support at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the support member comprises orifices configurable to provide fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

3030. The system of claim 3007, further comprising a support member configurable to support at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the support member comprises critical flow orifices configurable to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the opening during use.

3031. The system of claim 3007, further comprising a tube coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the tube is configurable to provide a flow of fluid into the opening during use.

3032. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising a tube coupled to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the tube comprises critical flow orifices configurable to provide a substantially constant amount of fluid flow through the support member into the openhig during use.

3033. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3034. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3035. The system of claim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3036. The system of claim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the openhig.

3037. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherehi the packing material is configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3038. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

3039. The system ofclaim 3007, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed hi an overburden of the fonnation, the system fiirther comprising a wellhead coupled to the overburden casing and a lead-in conductor coupled to the insulated conductor, wherein the wellhead is disposed external to the overburden, wherein the wellhead comprises at least one sealing flange, and wherein at least the one sealing flange is configurable to couple to the lead-in conductor.

3040. The system of claim 3007, wherein the system is further configured to fransfer heat such that the fransfened heat can pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the selected section.

3041. The system ofclaim 3007, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
at least three insulated conductors disposed within an opening in the formation, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are elecfrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration, and wherein at least the three insulated conductors are configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foimation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from at least the three insulated conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3042. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
applying an electrical cunent to at least three insulated conductors to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein at least the three insulated conductors are disposed within an opening in the foπnation; and allowing the heat to fransfer from at least the three insulated conductors to a selected section of the formation.

3043. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising supporting at least the three insulated conductors on a support member.

3044. The method of claim 3042, further comprising supporting at least the three insulated conductors on a support member and maintaining a location of at least the three insulated conductors on the support member with a centralizer.

3045. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 500 W/m to approximately 1150 W/m.

3046. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy.

3047. The method of claim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 7 % nickel by weight to approximately 12 % nickel by weight.

3048. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the conductor comprises a copper-nickel alloy, and wherein the copper-nickel alloy comprises approximately 2 % nickel by weight to approximately 6 % nickel by weight.

3049. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide.

3050. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, wherein the electtically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, and wherein the magnesium oxide comprises a thickness of at least approximately 1 mm.

3051. The method of claim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electrically insulating material, and wherein the elecfrically insulating material comprises aluminum oxide and magnesium oxide.

3052. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an elecfrically insulating material, wherein the electrically insulating material comprises magnesium oxide, wherein the magnesium oxide comprises grain particles, and wherein the grain particles are configured to occupy porous spaces within the magnesium oxide.

3053. The method ofclaim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electtically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises a conosion-resistant material.

3054. The method of claim 3042, wherein at least the three insulated conductors comprise a conductor disposed in an electtically insulating material, wherein the insulating material is disposed in a sheath, and wherein the sheath comprises stainless steel.

3055. The method of clahn 3042, further comprising supporting at least the three insulated conductors on a support member and flowing a fluid into the opening through an orifice in the support member.

3056. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising supporting at least the three insulated conductors on a support member and flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the opening through critical flow orifices in the support member.

3057. The method of clahn 3042, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the opening proximate to at least the three insulated conductors, the method further comprising flowing a fluid into the opening through the perforated tube.

3058. The method of claim 3042, wherein a tube is disposed in the opening proximate to at least the three insulated conductors, the method further comprising flowing a substantially constant amount of fluid into the opening through critical flow orifices in the tube.

3059. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising supporting at least the three insulated conductors on a support member and flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the opening through an orifice in the support member.

3060. The method of claim 3042, wherein a perforated tube is disposed in the opening proximate to at least the three insulated conductors, the method further comprising flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid into the opening through the perforated tube.

3061. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising determining a temperature disttibution in at least the three insulated conductors using an electromagnetic signal provided to the insulated conductor.

3062. The method of claim 3042, further comprising monitoring a leakage cunent of at least the three insulated conductors.

3063. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising monitoring the applied elecfrical cunent.

3064. The method of claim 3042, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to at least the three insulated conductors.

3065. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising monitoring a temperature in at least the three insulated conductors with at least one thermocouple.

3066. The method of clahn 3042, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to at least the three insulated conductors, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3067. The method of claim 3042, fuither comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to at least the three insulated conductors using a cold pin transition conductor.

3068. The method of claim 3042, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to at least the three insulated conductors using a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin fransition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance msulated conductor.

3069. The method of claim 3042, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3070. The method of claim 3042, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3071. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3072. The method of claim 3042, further comprising couplmg an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3073. The method ofclaim 3042, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing with a packing material.

3074. The method of claim 3042, further comprising heating at least the portion of the formation to substantially pyrolyze at least some of the hydrocarbons within the formation.

3075. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a first conductor disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is disposed within an opening in the foπnation, and wherein the first conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the first conductor to a section of the formation during use.

3076. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the first conductor is further configured to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to the first conductor.

3077. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the first conductor comprises a pipe.

3078. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the first conductor comprises stainless steel.

3079. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the first conduit comprises stainless steel.

3080. The system of claim 3075, further comprising a centralizer configured to maintain a location of the ffrst conductor within the ffrst conduit.

3081. The system of claim 3075, further comprising a cenfralizer configured to maintain a location of the first conductor within the first conduit, wherein the centralizer comprises ceramic material.

3082. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a centralizer configured to maintain a location of the first conductor within the first conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3083. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

3084. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3085. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3086. The system of claim 3075, further comprising a sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor.

3087. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor, wherein the sliding electrical connector is further coupled to the first conduit.

3088. The system of claim 3075, further comprising a sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor, wherein the sliding electrical connector is further coupled to the first conduit, and wherein the sliding electrical connector is configured to complete an electrical circuit with the first conductor and the first conduit.

3089. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a second conductor disposed within the first conduit and at least one sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor and the second conductor, wherein at least the one sliding elecfrical connector is configured to generate less heat than the first conductor or the second conductor during use.

3090. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the first conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3091. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a fluid disposed within the ffrst conduit, wherein the fluid is configured to maintain a pressure within the first conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the first conduit during use.

3092. The system of claim 3075, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed withhi the first conduit.

3093. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a thennally conductive fluid disposed within the first conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3094. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a fluid disposed within the first conduit, wherein the fluid is configured to substantially inhibit arcing between the first conductor and the first conduit during use.

3095. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a tube disposed within the opening external to the first conduit, wherein the tube is configured to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the formation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the first conduit and the opening to substantially inhibit deformation of the first conduit during use.

3096. The system of claim 3075, wherein the first conductor is further configured to generate radiant heat of approximately 650 W/ni to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3097. The system of clahn 3075, further comprising a second conductor disposed within a second conduit and a third conductor disposed within a thfrd conduit, wherein the ffrst conduit, the second conduit and the third conduit are disposed in different openings of the formation, wherein the first conductor is elecfrically coupled to the second conductor and the third conductor, and wherein the first, second, and third conductors are configured to operate in a 3-phase Y configuration during use.

3098. The system of claim 3075, further comprising a second conductor disposed within the first conduit, wherein the second conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor to form an elecfrical circuit.

3099. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising a second conductor disposed within the first conduit, wherein the second conductor is elecfrically coupled to the first conductor to form an electrical circuit with a connector.

3100. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden cashig is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation.

3101. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3102. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3103. The system of clahn 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3104. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is further configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3105. The system ofclaim 3075, furtlier comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electtically coupled to the first conductor.

3106. The system of claim 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electtically coupled to the first conductor, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor comprises carbon steel.

3107. The system ofclaim 3075, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing and a centtalizer configured to support the substantially low resistance conductor within the overburden casing.

3108. The system ofclaim 3075, wherein the heated section of the formation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3109. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a first conductor configurable to be disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is configurable to be disposed within an opening in the formation, and wherein the first conductor is further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to transfer from the first conductor to a section of the foπnation during use.

3110. The system ofclaim 3109, wherein the first conductor is further configurable to generate heat during application of an electrical cunent to the first conductor.

3111. The system of claim 3109, wherein the first conductor comprises a pipe.

3112. The system ofclaim 3109, wherein the first conductor comprises stainless steel.

3113. The system of claim 3109, wherein the first conduit comprises stainless steel.

3114. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a cenfralizer configurable to maintain a location of the first conductor within the ffrst conduit.

3115. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising a centtalizer configurable to maintain a location of the first conductor within the first conduit, wherein the centralizer comprises ceramic material.

3116. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising a cenfralizer configurable to maintain a location of the first conductor within the first conduit, wherein the centralizer comprises ceramic material and stateless steel.

3117. The system of claim 3109, wherehi the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

3118. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configurable to generate substantially no heat.

3119. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3120. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising a sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor.

3121. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor, wherein the sliding elecfrical connector is further coupled to the first conduit.

3122. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor, wherein the sliding elecfrical connector is further coupled to the first conduit, and wherein the sliding electrical connector is configurable to complete an elecfrical circuit with the first conductor and the first conduit.

3123. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a second conductor disposed within the first conduit and at least one sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the first conductor and the second conductor, wherein at least the one sliding elecfrical connector is configurable to generate less heat than the first conductor or the second conductor during use.

3124. The system of claim 3109, wherein the first conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the ffrst conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3125. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprismg a fluid disposed within the first conduit, wherein the fluid is configurable to maintain a pressure within the first conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the first conduit during use.

3126. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the first conduit.

3127. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a thennally conductive fluid disposed within the first conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3128. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a fluid disposed within the first conduit, wherein the fluid is configurable to substantially inhibit arcing between the first conductor and the first conduit during use.

3129. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a tube disposed within the opening external to the first conduit, wherein the tube is configurable to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the foimation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the first conduit and the opening to substantially inhibit defoπnation of the first conduit during use.

3130. The system of claim 3109, wherein the first conductor is further configurable to generate radiant heat of approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3131. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a second conductor disposed within a second conduit and a third conductor disposed within a thfrd conduit, wherein the first conduit, the second conduit and the third conduit are disposed in different openings of the formation, wherein the first conductor is elecfrically coupled to the second conductor and the third conductor, and wherein the first, second, and third conductors are configurable to operate in a 3-phase Y configuration during use.

3132. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a second conductor disposed within the first conduit, wherein the second conductor is elecfrically coupled to the first conductor to form an electrical circuit.

3133. The system of claim 3109, further comprising a second conductor disposed within the first conduit, wherein the second conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor to form an elecfrical circuit with a connector.

3134. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foimation.

3135. The system of claim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3136. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is fuither disposed in cement.

3137. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherehi a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3138.* The system of claim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the openmg, wherein the overburden casing is disposed hi an overburden of the foπnation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is further configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3139. The system of claim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor.

3140. The system of claim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor comprises carbon steel.

3141. The system ofclaim 3109, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing and a centtalizer configurable to support the substantially low resistance conductor within the overburden casing.

3142. The system of claim 3109, wherein the heated section of the formation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3143. The system ofclaim 3109, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability foimation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a first conductor disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is disposed within an opening in the formation, and wherein the first conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the first conductor to a section of the formation during use.

3144. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising: applying an electrical cunent to a first conductor to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the first conductor is disposed in a first conduit, and wherein the first conduit is disposed withhi an opening in the formation; and
allowing the heat to fransfer from the first conductor to a section of the fonnation.

3145. The method of claim 3144, wherein the first conductor comprises a pipe.

3146. The method of claim 3144, wherein the first conductor comprises stainless steel.

3147. The method ofclaim 3144, wherein the first conduit comprises stainless steel.

3148. The method of claim 3144, further comprising maintaining a location of the first conductor in the ffrst conduit with a cenfralizer.

3149. The method of claim 3144, further comprising maintaining a location of the first conductor in the first conduit with a cenfralizer, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material.

3150. The method ofclaim 3144, further comprising maintaining a location of the first conductor in the first conduit with a cenfralizer, wherein the centtalizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3151. The method of claim 3144, further comprising couplmg a sliding elecfrical connector to the first conductor.

3152. The method of claim 3144, further comprising elecfrically coupling a sliding elecfrical connector to the first conductor and the first conduit, wherein the first conduit comprises an elecfrical lead configured to complete an elecfrical circuit with the first conductor.

3153. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling a sliding elecfrical connector to the first conductor and the first conduit, wherein the first conduit comprises an electrical lead configured to complete an elecfrical circuit with the first conductor, and wherein the generated heat comprises approximately 20 percent generated by the first conduit.

3154. The method of claim 3144, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m.

3155. The method of claim 3144, further comprising deteπnining a temperature distribution in the first conduit using an electromagnetic signal provided to the conduit.

3156. The method of claim 3144, further comprising monitoring the applied electrical cunent.

3157. The method of claim 3144, fuither comprising monitoring a voltage applied to the first conductor.

3158. The method of clahn 3144, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the conduit with at least one thermocouple.

3159. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3160. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed hi an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3161. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3162. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3163. The method ofclaim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing with a packing material.

3164. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a substantially low resistance conductor is disposed within the overburden casing, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor.

3165. The method of claim 3144, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a substantially low resistance conductor is disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor comprises carbon steel.

3166. The method of claim 3144, further comprishig coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a substantially low resistance conductor is disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electtically coupled to the first conductor, and wherein the method further comprises maintaining a location of the substantially low resistance conductor in the overburden casing with a centralizer support.

3167. The method ofclaim 3144, further comprismg electtically coupling a lead-in conductor to the first conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3168. The method of claim 3144, further comprising elecfrically coupling a lead-in conductor to the first conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3169. The method of claim 3144, further comprising maintaining a sufficient pressure between the first conduit and the formation to substantially inhibit deformation of the first conduit.

3170. The method of claim 3144, fuither comprising providing a thennally conductive fluid within the first conduit.

3171. The method of claim 3144, further comprising providing a thermally conductive fluid within the first conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3172. The method ofclaim 3144, further comprising inhibiting arcing between the first conductor and the first conduit with a fluid disposed within the first conduit.

3173. The method ofclaim 3144, further comprising removing a vapor from the opening using a perforated tube disposed proximate to the first conduit in the openhig to control a pressure in the opening.

3174. The method of claim 3144, further comprising flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid through a perforated tube disposed proximate to the first conduit in the opening.

3175. The method ofclaim 3144, wherein a second conductor is disposed within the first conduit, wherein the second conductor is elecfrically coupled to the first conductor to form an elecfrical circuit.

3176. The method of claim 3144, wherein a second conductor is disposed within the first conduit, wherein the second conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor with a connector.

3177. The method ofclaim 3144, wherein a second conductor is disposed within a second conduit and a third conductor is disposed within a third conduit, wherein the second conduit and the thfrd conduit are disposed in different openings of the formation, wherein the first conductor is electrically coupled to the second conductor and the third conductor, and wherein the first, second, and third conductors are configured to operate in a 3-phase Y configuration.

3178. The method of claim 3144, wherein a second conductor is disposed within the first conduit, wherein at least one sliding elecfrical connector is coupled to the first conductor and the second conductor, and wherein heat generated by at least the one sliding electrical connector is less than heat generated by the ffrst conductor or the second conductor.

3179. The method of claim 3144, wherein the first conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherehi a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3180. The method of clahn 3144, further comprising flowing an oxidizing fluid through an orifice in the first conduit.

3181. The method of claim 3144, further comprising disposing a perforated tube proximate to the first conduit and flowing an oxidizing fluid through the perforated tube.

3182. The method of claim 3144, fuither comprismg heating at least the portion of the foπnation to substantially pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the formation.

3183. A system configured to heat a relatively low peπneability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a first conductor disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is disposed within a first opening in the formation;
a second conductor disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is disposed within a second opening in the formation;
a thfrd conductor disposed in a thfrd conduit, wherein the third conduit is disposed within a third opening in the formation, wherein the ffrst, second, and thfrd conductors are electrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration, and wherehi the first, second, and third conductors are configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the first, second, and third conductors to a selected section of the foπnation during use.

3184. The system of claim 3183, wherein the first, second, and third conductors are further configured to generate heat during application of an electrical cunent to the fh-st conductor.

3185. The system of claim 3183, wherein the first, second, and third conductors comprise a pipe.

3186. The system of claim 3183 , wherein the first, second, and third conductors comprise stainless steel.

3187. The system ofclaim 3183, wherein the first, second, and thfrd openings comprise a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

3188. The system of claim 3183, further comprishig a first sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the first conductor and a second sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the second conductor and a third sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the third conductor.

3189. The system of claim 3183, further comprising a first sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor, wherein the first sliding elecfrical connector is further coupled to the first conduit.

3190. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising a second sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the second conductor, wherein the second sliding elecfrical connector is further coupled to the second conduit.

3191. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising a third sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the third conductor, wherein the third sliding elecfrical connector is furtlier coupled to the third conduit.

3192. The system ofclaim 3183, wherein each of the first, second, and third conduits comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from each of the first, second, and third conductors to the section along the first section of each of the conduits is less than heat radiated from the first, second, and third conductors to the section along the second section of each of the conduits.

3193. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising a fluid disposed within the first, second, and third conduits, wherein the fluid is configured to maintain a pressure within the first conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the first, second, and third conduits during use.

3194. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the first, second, and third conduits.

3195. The system of claim 3183, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the first, second, and thfrd conduits, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3196. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising a fluid disposed within the first, second, and third conduits, wherein the fluid is configured to substantiaUy inhibit arcing between the first, second, and third conductors and the first, second, and third conduits during use.

3197. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising at least one tube disposed within the first, second, and third openings external to the first, second, and thfrd conduits, wherein at least the one tube is configured to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the formation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the first, second, and third conduits and the ffrst, second, and third openings to substantially inhibit deformation of the first, second, and third conduits during use.

3198. The system ofclaim 3183, wherein the first, second, and third conductors are further configured to generate radiant heat of approxhnately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3199. The system of claim 3183, furtlier comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3200. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising at least one overburden cashig coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein at least the one overburden casing comprises steel.

3201. The system of claim 3183 , further comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein at least the one overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3202. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and thfrd openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of at least the one overburden casing and the first, second, and third openings.

3203. The system ofclaim 3183, further comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and thfrd openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of at least the one overburden casing and the first, second, and thfrd openings, and wherein the packing material is further configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the first, second, and third openings and at least the one overburden casing during use.

3204. The system of claim 3183, wherein the heated section of the foπnation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3205. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a first conductor configurable to be disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is configurable to be disposed within a first opening in the formation;
a second conductor configurable to be disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is configurable to be disposed within a second opening in the formation;
a third conductor configurable to be disposed in a thfrd conduit, wherein the third conduit is configurable to be disposed within a third opening in the foπnation, wherein the first, second, and third conductors are further configurable to be elecfrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration, and wherein the first, second, and thfrd conductors are further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to fransfer from the first, second, and third conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3206. The system ofclaim 3205, wherehi the first, second, and third conductors are further configurable to generate heat during application of an electrical cunent to the first conductor.

3207. The system ofclaim 3205, wherein the first, second, and third conductors comprise a pipe.

3208. The system of claim 3205, wherein the first, second, and third conductors comprise stainless steel.

3209. The system ofclaim 3205, wherein each of the first, second, and third openings comprises a diameter of at least approxhnately 5 cm.

3210. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising a first sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the first conductor and a second sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the second conductor and a third sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the third conductor.

3211. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising a first sliding electrical connector coupled to the first conductor, wherein the first sliding elecfrical connector is further coupled to the first conduit.

3212. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising a second sliding electrical connector coupled to the second conductor, wherein the second sliding electrical connector is further coupled to the second conduit.

3213. The system of claim 3205, further comprising a third sliding elecfrical connector coupled to the third conductor, wherein the third sliding electrical connector is further coupled to the third conduit.

3214. The system of claim 3205, wherein each of the first, second, and thfrd conduits comprises a first section and a second section, wherehi a thickness of the ffrst section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from each of the first, second, and third conductors to the section along the first section of each of the conduits is less than heat radiated from the first, secondhand third conductors to the section along the second section of each of the conduits.

3215. The system of claim 3205, further comprising a fluid disposed within the first, second, and third conduits, wherein the fluid is configurable to maintain a pressure within the ffrst conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the first, second, and third conduits during use.

3216. The system of claim 3205, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the first, second, and third conduits.

3217. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the first, second, and third conduits, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3218. The system of claim 3205, further comprising a fluid disposed withhi the first, second, and third conduits, wherein the fluid is configurable to substantially inhibit arcing between the first, second, and third conductors and the first, second, and third conduits during use.

3219. The system of claim 3205, further comprishig at least one tube disposed within the first, second, and third openings external to the first, second, and third conduits, wherein at least the one tube is configurable to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the formation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the first, second, and third conduits and the fnst, second, and thfrd openings to substantially inhibit deformation of the first, second, and third conduits during use.

3220. The system ofclaim 3205, wherein the first, second, and third conductors are further configurable to generate radiant heat of approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3221. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation.

3222. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein at least the one overburden casing comprises steel.

3223. The system ofclaim 3205, furtlier comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein at least the one overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3224. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprishig at least one overburden casing coupled to the ffrst, second, and thfrd openings, wherein at least the one overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of at least the one overburden casing and the first, second, and third openings.

3225. The system ofclaim 3205, further comprising at least one overburden casing coupled to the first, second, and third openings, wherein at least the one overburden cashig is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at ajunction of at least the one overburden casing and the first, second, and third openings, and wherein the packing material is further configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the first, second, and thfrd openings and at least the one overburden casing during use.

3226. The system ofclaim 3205, wherein the heated section of the foπnation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3227. The system ofclaim 3205 wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a first conductor disposed in a first conduit, wherein the first conduit is disposed within a first opening in the foπnation;
a second conductor disposed in a second conduit, wherein the second conduit is disposed within a second opening in the formation;
a third conductor disposed in a third conduit, wherehi the third conduit is disposed within a thfrd opening in the formation, wherein the ffrst, second, and third conductors are electrically coupled in a 3-phase Y configuration, and wherein the ffrst, second, and third conductors are configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer from the first, second, and third conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3228. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprishig:
applying an elecfrical cunent to a first conductor to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the first conductor is disposed in a first conduit, and wherein the first conduit is disposed within a first opening in the foπnation;
applying an elecfrical cunent to a second conductor to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the second conductor is disposed in a second conduit, and wherehi the second conduit is disposed within a second opening in the formation;
applying an electrical cunent to a thfrd conductor to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation, wherein the third conductor is disposed in a thfrd conduit, and wherein the third conduit is disposed within a third opening in the formation; and
allowing the heat to fransfer from the first, second, and third conductors to a selected section of the formation.

3229. The method ofclaim 3228, wherein the ffrst, second, and thfrd conductors comprise a pipe.

3230. The method ofclaim 3228, wherein the ffrst, second, and third conductors comprise stainless steel.

3231. The method of claim 3228, wherein the first, second, and third conduits comprise stainless steel.

3232. The method of claim 3228, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m.

3233. The method ofclaim 3228, further comprising determining a temperature distribution in the first, second, and third conduits using an electromagnetic signal provided to the first, second, and third conduits.

3234. The method of claim 3228, further comprising monitoring the applied electrical cunent.

3235. The method of claim 3228, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to the first, second, and third conductors.

3236. The method of clahn 3228, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the first, second, and thfrd conduits with at least one thermocouple.

3237. The method of claim 3228, fuither comprising maintaining a sufficient pressure between the first, second, and third conduits and the first, second, and third openings to substantially inhibit deformation of the first, second, and third conduits.

3238. The method of clahn 3228, further comprising providing a thermally conductive fluid within the first, second, and third conduits.

3239. The method of clahn 3228, further comprising providing a thermally conductive fluid within the first, second, and third conduits, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3240. The method ofclaim 3228, further comprising inhibiting arcing between the first, second, and third conductors and the first, second, and third conduits with a fluid disposed within the first, second, and thfrd conduits.

3241. The method of claim 3228, further comprising removing a vapor from the first, second, and third openings using at least one perforated tube disposed proxhnate to the first, second, and third conduits in the first, second, and third openings to control a pressure in the first, second, and third openings.

3242. The method ofclaim 3228, wherein the first, second, and third conduits comprise a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the fh-st section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first, second, and third conductors to the section along the first section of the ffrst, second, and thfrd conduits is less than heat radiated from the first, second, and thfrd conductors to the section along the second section of the first, second, and third conduits.

3243. The method of claim 3228, further comprising flowing an oxidizing fluid through an orifice in the first, second, and thfrd conduits.

3244. The method of claim 3228, further comprising heating at least the portion of the formation to substantially pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons withhi the formation.

3245. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a first conductor disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within an opening in the formation; and
a second conductor disposed in the conduit, wherein the second conductor is electrically coupled to the first conductor with a connector, and wherein the first and second conductors are configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to transfer from the first and second conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3246. The system of claim 3245, wherein the first conductor is further configured to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to the first conductor.

3247. The system ofclaim 3245, wherein the first and second conductors comprise a pipe.

3248. The system ofclaim 3245, wherein the first and second conductors comprise stainless steel.

3249. The system of clahn 3245, wherein the conduit comprises stainless steel.

3250. The system of claim 3245, further comprising a centralizer configured to maintain a location of the ffrst and second conductors within the conduit.

3251. The system of claim 3245, further comprising a cenfralizer configured to maintain a location of the first and second conductors within the conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material.

3252. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising a cenfralizer configured to maintain a location of the first and second conductors withhi the conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3253. The system of claim 3245, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

3254. The system of claim 3245, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the ffrst and second conductors, wherehi the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3255. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first and second conductors, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3256. The system ofclaim 3245, wherein the conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3257. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configured to maintain a pressure within the conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3258. The system of claim 3245, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit.

3259. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3260. The system of claim 3245, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configured to substantially inhibit arcing between the first and second conductors and the conduit during use.

3261. The system of claim 3245, further comprising a tube disposed within the opening external to the conduit, wherein the tube is configured to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the foπnation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the conduit and the opening to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3262. The system of claim 3245, wherein the ffrst and second conductors are ftuther configured to generate radiant heat of approxhnately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3263. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3264. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3265. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3266. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the openhig, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3267. The system ofclaim 3245, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is further configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3268. The system of claim 3245, wherein the heated section of the formation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3269. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability fonnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
a first conductor configurable to be disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is configurable to be disposed within an opening in the formation; and
a second conductor configurable to be disposed in the conduit, wherein the second conductor is configurable to be elecfrically coupled to the ffrst conductor with a connector, and wherein the first and second conductors are further configurable to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use; and
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to transfer from the first and second conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3270. The system ofclaim 3269, wherein the first conductor is further configurable to generate heat during application of an electrical cunent to the first conductor.

3271. The system of clahn 3269, wherein the ffrst and second conductors comprise a pipe.

3272. The system ofclaim 3269, wherein the first and second conductors comprise stainless steel.

3273. The system ofclaim 3269, whefein the conduit comprises stainless steel.

3274. The system ofclaim 3269, further comprising a cenfralizer configurable to maintain a location of the first and second conductors within the conduit.

3275. The system o claim 3269, further comprising a cenfralizer configurable to maintain a location of the first and second conductors within the conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material.

3276. The "system ofclaim 3269, further comprising a centralizer configurable to maintain a location of the ffrst and second conductors within the conduit, wherein the centralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3277. The system ofclaim 3269, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approxhnately 5 cm.

3278. The system of clahn 3269, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first and second conductors, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configurable to generate substantially no heat.

3279. The system ofclaim 3269, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to the first and second conductors, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3280. The system ofclaim 3269, wherein the conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3281. The system of claim 3269, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configurable to maintain a pressure within the conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3282. The system of claim 3269, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit.

3283. The system of clahn 3269, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3284. The system of claim 3269, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configurable to substantially inhibit arcing between the first and second conductors and the conduit during use.

3285. The system ofclaim 3269, further comprising a tube disposed within the opening external to the conduit, wherein the tube is configurable to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the formation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the conduit and the opening to substantially inhibit defonnation of the conduit during use.

3286. The system ofclaim 3269, wherein the first and second conductors are further configurable to generate radiant heat of approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3287. The system of claim 3269, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation.

3288. The system ofclaim 3269, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3289. The system of clahn 3269, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3290. The system ofclaim 3269, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3291. The system of claim 3269, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the openhig, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packhig material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is further configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3292. The system of claim 3269, wherein the heated section of the foπnation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3293. The system ofclaim 3269, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
a first conductor disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within an opening in the fonnation; a second conductor disposed in the conduit, wherein the second conductor is elecfrically coupled to the first conductor with a connector, and wherein the first and second conductors are configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the foπnation during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from the first and second conductors to a selected section of the formation during use.

3294. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
applying an electrical cunent to at least two conductors to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein at least the two conductors are disposed within a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within an opening in the formation, and wherein at least the two conductors are elecfrically coupled with a connector; and allowing heat to transfer from at least the two conductors to a selected section of the formation.

3295. The method of claim 3294, wherein at least the two conductors comprise a pipe.

3296. The method of claim 3294, wherein at least the two conductors comprise stainless steel.

3297. The method ofclaim 3294, wherein the conduit comprises stainless steel.

3298. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprishig maintaining a location of at least the two conductors in the conduit with a cenfralizer.

3299. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising maintaining a location of at least the two conductors in the conduit with a cenfralizer, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material.

3300. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising maintaining a location of at least the two conductors in the conduit with a cenfralizer, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3301. The method of claim 3294, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m.

3302. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising determining a temperature distribution in the conduit using an electromagnetic signal provided to the conduit.

3303. The method of claim 3294, further comprising monitoring the applied electrical cunent.

3304. The method of clahn 3294, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to at least the two conductors.

3305. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the conduit with at least one thermocouple.

3306. The method of clahn 3294, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3307. The method of clahn 3294, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foimation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3308. The method of claim 3294, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden cashig is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherehi the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3309. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3310. The method of claim 3294, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing with a packing material.

3 11. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprismg maintaining a sufficient pressure between the conduit and the formation to substantially inhibit defonnation of the conduit.

3312. The method of claim 3294, further comprismg providing a thermally conductive fluid within the conduit.

3313. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising providing a thermally conductive fluid within the conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3314. The method of claim 3294, further comprising inhibiting arcing between at least the two conductors and the conduit with a fluid disposed within the conduit.

3315. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising removing a vapor from the opening using a perforated tube disposed proximate to the conduit in the opening to confrol a pressure in the opening.

3316. The method ofclaim 3294, further comprising flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid through a perforated tube disposed proximate to the conduit in the opening.

3317. The method of clahn 3294, wherein the conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3318. The method of claim 3294, further comprising flowing an oxidizing fluid through an orifice in the conduit.

3319. The method of claim 3294, further comprising disposing a perforated tube proximate to the conduit and flowing an oxidizing fluid through the perforated tube.

3320. The method of claim 3294, further comprising heating at least the portion of the formation to substantially pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the formation.

3321. A system configured to heat a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
at least one conductor disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within an opening in the formation, and wherein at least the one conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a first portion of the formation during use;
at least one sliding connector, wherein at least the one sliding connector is coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein at least the one sliding connector is configured to provide heat during use, and wherein heat provided by at least the one sliding connector is substantiaUy less than the heat provided by at least the one conductor during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from at least the one conductor to a section of the formation during use.

3322. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein at least the one conductor is further configured to generate heat during application of an elecfrical cunent to at least the one conductor.

3323. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein at least the one conductor comprises a pipe.

3324. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein at least the one conductor comprises stainless steel.

3325. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein the conduit comprises stainless steel.

3326. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a cenfralizer configured to maintain a location of at least the one conductor within the conduit.

3327. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a centralizer configured to maintain a location of at least the one conductor within the conduit, wherein the centtalizer comprises ceramic material.

3328. The system of claim 3321 , further comprising a cenfralizer configured to maintain a location of at least the one conductor within the conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3329. The system of claim 3321, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approxhnately 5 cm.

3330. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3331. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3332. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein the conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the ffrst conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3333. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configured to maintain a pressure within the conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3334. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a thennally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit.

3335. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3336. The system of clahn 3321, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configured to substantially inhibit arcing between at least the one conductor and the conduit during use.

3337. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising a tube disposed within the opening external to the conduit, wherein the tube is configured to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the foimation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the conduit and the opening to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3338. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein at least the one conductor is further configured to generate radiant heat of approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3339. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3340. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3341. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherehi the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3342. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3343. The system of claim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is further configured to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3344. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electrically coupled to at least the one conductor.

3345. The system o claim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is elecfrically coupled to at least the one conductor, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor comprises carbon steel.

3346. The system ofclaim 3321, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing and a cenfralizer configured to support the substantially low resistance conductor within the overburden casing.

3347. The system ofclaim 3321, wherein the heated section of the formation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3348. A system configurable to heat a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
at least one conductor configurable to be disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is configurable to be disposed within an opening in the formation, and wherein at least the one conductor is further configurable to provide heat to at least a first portion of the formation during use;
at least one sliding connector, wherein at least the one sliding connector is configurable to be coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein at least the one sliding connector is further configurable to provide heat during use, and wherein heat provided by at least the one sliding connector is substantially less than the heat provided by at least the one conductor during use; and
wherein the system is configurable to allow heat to transfer from at least the one conductor to a section of the formation during use.

3349. The system of claim 3348, wherein at least the one conductor is further configurable to generate heat durmg application of an electrical cunent to at least the one conductor.

3350. The system ofclaim 3348, wherein at least the one conductor comprises a pipe.

3351. The system of clahn 3348, wherein at least the one conductor comprises stainless steel.

3352. The system ofclaim 3348, wherehi the conduit comprises stainless steel.

3353. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising a cenfralizer configurable to maintain a location of at least the one conductor within the conduit.

3354. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising a centralizer configurable to maintain a location of at least the one conductor within the conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material.

3355. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising a cenfralizer configurable to maintain a location of at least the one conductor within the conduit, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3356. The system ofclaim 3348, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approximately 5 cm.

3357. The system of claim 3348, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configurable to generate substantially no heat.

3358. The system of clahn 3348, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3359. The system ofclaim 3348, wherein the conduit comprises a first section and a second section, wherein a thickness of the first section is greater than a thickness of the second section such that heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the first section of the conduit is less than heat radiated from the first conductor to the section along the second section of the conduit.

3360. The system of claim 3348, further comprising a fluid disposed within the conduit, wherein the fluid is configurable to maintain a pressure within the conduit to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3361. The system of clahn 3348, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed within the conduit.

3362. The system of claim 3348, further comprising a thermally conductive fluid disposed withhi the conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3363. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising a fluid disposed withhi the conduit, wherein the fluid is configurable to substantially inhibit arcing between at least the one conductor and the conduit during use.

3364. The system of claim 3348, further comprising a tube disposed within the opening external to the conduit, wherein the tube is configurable to remove vapor produced from at least the heated portion of the foimation such that a pressure balance is maintained between the conduit and the opening to substantially inhibit deformation of the conduit during use.

3365. The system of clahn 3348, wherein at least the one conductor is further configurable to generate radiant heat of approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3366. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3367. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3368. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3369. The system of claim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherehi the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the openhig.

3370. The system of claim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material is further configurable to substantially inhibit a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing during use.

3371. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electrically coupled to at least the one conductor.

3372. The system ofclaim 3348, further comprismg an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is elecfrically coupled to at least the one conductor, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor comprises carbon steel.

3373. The system o claim 3348, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening and a substantially low resistance conductor disposed within the overburden casing and a cenfralizer configurable to • support the substantially low resistance conductor within the overburden casing.

3374. The system ofclaim 3348, wherein the heated section of the formation is substantially pyrolyzed.

3375. The system of claim 3348, wherein the system is configured to heat a relatively low permeability foπnation containing heavy hydrocarbons, and wherein the system comprises:
at least one conductor disposed in a conduit, wherein the conduit is disposed within an opening in the formation, and wherein at least the one conductor is configured to provide heat to at least a first portion of the formation during use;
at least one sliding connector, wherein at least the one sliding connector is coupled to at least the one conductor, wherein at least the one sliding connector is configured to provide heat during use, and wherein heat provided by at least the one sliding connector is substantially less than the heat provided by at least the one conductor during use; and
wherein the system is configured to allow heat to fransfer from at least the one conductor to a section of the formation during use.

3376. An in situ method for heating a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
applying an elecfrical cunent to at least one conductor and at least one sliding connector to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation, wherein at least the one conductor and at least the one sliding connector are disposed within a conduit, and wherein heat provided by at least the one conductor is substantially greater than heat provided by at least the one sliding connector; and
allowing the heat to transfer from at least the one conductor and at least the one sliding connector to a section of the foπnation.

3377. The method ofclaim 3376, wherein at least the one conductor comprises a pipe.

3378. The method ofclaim 3376, wherein at least the one conductor comprises stainless steel.

3379. The method of claim 3376, wherein the conduit comprises stainless steel.

3380. The method of claim 3376, further comprising maintaining a location of at least the one conductor in the conduit with a centtalizer.

3381. The method of claim 3376, further comprising maintaining a location of at least the one conductor in the conduit with a centtalizer, wherein the cenfralizer comprises ceramic material.

3382. The method of claim 3376, further comprising maintaining a location of at least the one conductor in the conduit with a centralizer, wherein the centralizer comprises ceramic material and stainless steel.

3383. The method ofclaim 3376, wherein the provided heat comprises approximately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m.

3384. The method of clahn 3376, further comprishig determining a temperature disfribution in the conduit using an electromagnetic signal provided to the conduit.

3385. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising monitoring the applied elecfrical cunent.

3386. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising monitoring a voltage applied to at least the one conductor.

3387. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising monitoring a temperature in the conduit with at least one thermocouple.

3388. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation.

3389. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the fonnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3390. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3391. The method of claim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherehi a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3392. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the method further comprises inhibiting a flow of fluid between the opening and the overburden casing with a packing material.

3393. The method of claim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a substantially low resistance conductor is disposed within the overburden casing, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electtically coupled to at least the one conductor.

3394. The method of clahn 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a substantially low resistance conductor is disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electtically coupled to at least the one conductor, and wherein the substantially low resistance conductor comprises carbon steel.

3395. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising coupling an overburden casing to the opening, wherein a substantially low resistance conductor is disposed within the overburden casing, wherein the substantially low resistance conductor is electtically coupled to at least the one conductor, and wherein the method further comprises maintaining a location of the substantially low resistance conductor in the overburden casing with a centtalizer support.

3396. The method of clahn 3376, further comprising electrically coupling a lead-in conductor to at least the one conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3397. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising electtically coupling a lead-in conductor to at least the one conductor, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper.

3398. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising maintaining a sufficient pressure between the conduit and the foimation to substantially inhibit defonnation of the conduit.

3399. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising providing a thermally conductive fluid within the conduit.

3400. The method of claim 3376, further comprising providing a thermally conductive fluid within the conduit, wherein the thermally conductive fluid comprises helium.

3401. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising inhibiting arcing between the conductor and the conduit with a fluid disposed within the conduit.

3402. The method of claim 3376, further comprising removing a vapor from the opening using a perforated tube disposed proximate to the conduit in the opening to control a pressure in the openhig.

3403. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising flowing a conosion inhibiting fluid through a perforated tube disposed proxhnate to the conduit in the opening.

3404. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising flowing an oxidizing fluid through an orifice in the conduit.

3405. The method ofclaim 3376, further comprising disposing a perforated tube proximate to the conduit and flowing an oxidizing fluid through the perforated tube.

3406. The method of clahn 3376, further comprising heating at least the portion of the formation to substantially pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons withhi the foπnation.

3407. A system configured to heat a relatively low peπneability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
at least one elongated member disposed within an opening in the formation, wherein at least the one elongated member is configured to provide heat to at least a portion of the formation during use; and wherein the system is configured to allow heat to ttansfer from at least the one elongated member to a section of the formation during use.

3408. The system of claim 3407, wherein at least the one elongated member comprises stainless steel.

3409. The system of claim 3407, wherein at least the one elongated member is further configured to generate heat during application of an electrical cunent to at least the one elongated member.

3410. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a support member coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the support member is configured to support at least the one elongated member.

3411. The system of claim 3407, furtlier comprising a support member coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the support member is configured to support at least the one elongated member, and wherein the support member comprises openings.

3412. The system of claim 3407, further comprising a support member coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the support member is configured to support at least the one elongated member, wherein the support member comprises openings, wherein the openings are configured to flow a fluid along a length of at least the one elongated member during use, and wherein the fluid is configured to substantially inhibit carbon deposition on or proxhnate to at least the one elongated member during use.

3413. The system of clahn 3407, further comprismg a tube disposed in the opening, wherein the tube comprises openings, wherein the openings are configured to flow a fluid along a length of at least the one elongated member during use, and wherein the fluid is configured to substantially inhibit carbon deposition on or proximate to at least the one elongated member during use.

3414. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a centtalizer coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the centralizer is configured to electrically isolate at least die one elongated member.

3415. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a cenfralizer coupled to at least the one elongated member and a support member coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the cenfralizer is configured to maintain a location of at least the one elongated member on the support member.

3416. The system ofclaim 3407, wherein the opening comprises a diameter of at least approxhnately 5 cm.

3417. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a low resistance conductor configured to generate substantially no heat.

3418. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises a rubber insulated conductor.

3419. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one elongated member, wherein the lead-in conductor comprises copper wire.

3420. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one elongated member with a cold phi fransition conductor.

3421. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising a lead-in conductor coupled to at least the one elongated member with a cold pin fransition conductor, wherein the cold pin transition conductor comprises a substantially low resistance insulated conductor.

3422. The system ofclaim 3407, wherein at least the one elongated member is ananged in a series electrical configuration.

3423. The system ofclaim 3407, wherein at least the one elongated member is ananged in a parallel elecfrical configuration.

3424. The system of claim 3407, wherein at least the one elongated member is configured to generate radiant heat of approxhnately 650 W/m to approximately 1650 W/m during use.

3425. The system of claim 3407, further comprising a perforated tube disposed in the opening external to at least the one elongated member, wherein the perforated tube is configured to remove vapor from the opening to control a pressure in the opening during use.

3426. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation.

3427. The system of claim 3407, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the foπnation, and wherein the overburden casing comprises steel.

3428. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein the overburden casing is further disposed in cement.

3429. The system of claim 3407, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, and wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening.

3430. The system ofclaim 3407, further comprising an overburden casing coupled to the opening, wherein the overburden casing is disposed in an overburden of the formation, wherein a packing material is disposed at a junction of the overburden casing and the opening, and wherein the packing material comprises cement.

3431. The sy