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1. WO1996041903 - IMPROVED SYSTEM FOR ELECTROLYSIS AND HEATING OF WATER

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

IMPROVED SYSTEM FOR ELECTROLYSIS AND HEATING OF WATER

This invention generally relates to electrolytic cells, and more particularly to an improved electrolytic cell for electrolysis of water and the production of heat.

The present invention utilizes and improves upon microspheres formed of non-metallic beads which are plated with a uniformly thick coating of palladium. These palladium coated microspheres are taught in my previous U.S. patents 4,943,355 and 5,036,031. In these above-recited previous patents, cross linked polymer microspheres having a plating of palladium are taught to exhibit improvements in the absorption of hydrogen and isotopes of hydrogen. Utilizing these catalytic microspheres led to my later U.S. Patents 5,318,675 ('675) and 5,372,688 ('688) (incorporated herein by reference) which teach an electrolytic cell and system for, inter alia, producing heat
The use of a palladium sheet to form one electrode within an electrolytic cell to produce excess heat, the electrolytic cell being a Pons-Fleischmann-type is taught by Edmund Storms. The description of the Storms electrolytic cell and his experimental performance results are described in an article entitled Measurements of Excess Heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-Type Electrolytic Cell Using Palladium Sheet appearing in Fusion Technology, Volume 3, Mar. 1993. In a previous article, Storms reviewed experimental observations about electrolytic cells for producing heat in an article entitled "Review of Experimental Observations About the Cold Fusion Effect" FUSION TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 20, Dec. 1991.
None of the previously reported experimental results or other prior art devices known to applicant other than my U.S. '675 and '688 patents have utilized or disclosed non-conductive copolymeric beads of palladium coated (or any substitute metal which will form "metallic hydrides" in the presence of hydrogen) conductive microspheres within an electrolytic cell for the production of heat and the electrolysis of water into its hydrogen and oxygen components. The present invention discloses various improved embodiments of preferably palladium/nickel coated microspheres within an electrolytic cell in conjunction with an electrolytic media containing either water or heavy water, particularly deuterium. These improved microspheres are the subject of my co-pending U.S. application entitled "Improved Uniformly Plated Microsphere Catalyst, S/N 08/462,005, filed June 5, 1995 ("co-pending U.S. application").
This invention is directed to an electrolytic cell for electrolysizing water containing a conductive salt in solution and for producing heat. The electrolytic cell includes a non-conductive housing having an inlet and an outlet and spaced apart first and second conductive foraminous grids positioned within the housing. A plurality of non-conductive polymeric beads each having a conductive uniform preferably palladium plating over a nickel plating and an outer preferably nickel plating thereon are positioned within the housing in electrical contact with the first grid adjacent the inlet. An electric power source is operably connected across the first and second grids whereby electrical current flows between the grids within the water solution.
It is therefore an object of this invention to utilize preferably palladium coated microspheres as previously disclosed in my '675 and '688 patents in combination with the multi-layer arrangement of my referenced co-pending U.S. application for the production of either hydrogen and oxygen and/or heat.
It is another object of this invention to provide a variety of cathode constructions utilizing improved palladium/nickel coated microspheres within an electrolytic cell.
It is yet another object of this invention to provide an improved electrolytic cell for the increased production of heat in the form of heated water or heavy water-based electrolyte exiting the cell.
It is yet another object of this invention to utilize metal coated conductive microspheres in an electrolytic cell, the metal chosen from those which exhibit strong hydrogen absorption properties to form "metallic hydrides" and structurally supported by one or more adjacent uniform support plates.
It is another object of this invention to provide an electrolytic cell for electrolysizing water and/or producing heat which is fault tolerant and having a long mean operating time to failure, if at all.
In accordance with these and other objects which will become apparent hereinafter, the instant invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Figure 1 is a schematic view of an experimental system embodying the present invention.
Figure 2 is a section view of the electrolytic cell shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a section view of another embodiment of the electrolytic cell during flow of an electrolyte therethrough.
Figure 4 is a partial section view of Figure 3 with the electrolytic cell at rest. Figure 5 is yet another embodiment of the combined anode and cathode of an electrolytic cell of the present invention.

Figure 6 is an end view of Figure 5.
Figure 7 is an enlarged section view in the direction of arrows 7-7 in Figure 5.
My prior U.S. Patents No. 5,318,675 (U.S. '675) and 5,372,688 (U.S. '688) and the teachings contained therein are hereby incorporated by reference.

Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to Figures 1 and 2, a system embodying concepts of the invention utilized during testing procedures is shown generally at numeral 10. This system 10 includes an electrolytic cell shown generally at numeral 12 interconnected at each end with a closed loop electrolyte circulation system. The circulation system includes a pump 18 which draws a liquid electrolyte 59 from a reservoir 32 and forces the electrolyte 59 in the direction of the arrow into inlet 54 of electrolytic cell 12. This pump 18 is a constant volume pump. After the electrolytic cell 12 is completely filled with the electrolyte 59, the fluid then exits an outlet 56, then flowing into a gas trap 26 which is provided to separate hydrogen and oxygen gas from the electrolyte

59 when required. A throttle valve 28 downstream of the gas trap 26 regulate the electrolyte flow so as to also regulate the fluid pressure within the electrolytic cell 12 as monitored by pressure gauge 20.
A slide valve 22 provides for the intermittent introduction of ingredients into the liquid electrolyte 59 via syringe 24. A second slide valve 30 provides for the periodic removal of electrolyte 59 into test reservoir 34 for analysis to determine correct electrolyte make-up.
In Figure 2, the details of the electrolytic cell 12 utilized during testing procedures is there shown. A cylindrical glass non-conductive housing 14, open at each end, includes a moveable non-conductive end member 46 and 48 at each end thereof. These end members 46 and 48 are sealed within the housing 14 by O-rings 62 and 64. The relative spacing between these end members 46 and 48 is controlled by the movement of end plates 50 and 52 thereagainst.
Each of the end members 46 and 48 includes an inlet stopper 54 and an outlet stopper 56, respectively. Each of these stoppers 54 and 56 define an inlet and an outlet passage, respectively into and out of the interior volume, respectively, of the electrolytic cell 12. These end members 46 and 48 also include a fluid chamber 58 and 60, respectively within which are mounted electrodes 15 and 16, respectively, which extend from these chambers 58 and

60 to the exterior of the electrolytic cell 12 for interconnection to a d.c. power supply (not shown) having its negative and positive terminals connected as shown. This d.c. power supply is a constant current type.
Also positioned within the chambers 58 and 60 are thermocouples 70 and 72 for monitoring the electrolyte temperature at these points of inlet and outlet of the electrolytic cell 12.
A plurality of conductive microspheres 36 are positioned within housing 14 immediately adjacent and against a conductive foraminous grid 38 formed of platinum and positioned transversely across the housing 14 as shown. These conductive microspheres 36 are formed of non-conductive inner polymer beads and include a uniform palladium plating layer. The preferred size of these conductive microspheres are in the range of 1.0 mm or less in diameter and the details of the manufacture of these conductive microspheres 36 are generally taught in my previous U.S. Patents 4,943,355 and 5,036,031. My co-pending U.S. application Serial No. 08/462,005, filed on June 5, 1995, entitled "Uniformly Plated Microsphere Catalyst", incorporated herein by reference, discloses the broad details of this improved conductive microsphere. These improved conductive microspheres 36 preferably include an inner nickel plate atop a metallic flash coat, a preferably palladium plate atop the inner nickel plate, and a support plate atop the palladium, preferably nickel.
In the previously reported testing in U.S. '675 and '688, an intermediate layer of nickel was alternately added over a copper flash coat beneath the palladium plate. The nickel intermediate layer, producing a mean microsphere density of 1.51 g/cm3, was positioned immediately beneath the palladium plated layer to increase the density of the conductive microspheres 36. In this testing, a black residue developed within the liquid electrolyte which was subsequently analyzed and determined to be palladium. Further investigation showed that the outer palladium coat of these previous original microspheres, being subjected to both a heat and electrical current duty cycle, either flaked, spalled and/or incurred minor cracking of the palladium plate. This in-service deterioration both shortened the useful life of the previously described cell and its efficiency in producing heat.
Still referring to Figure 2, a non-conducive foraminous nylon mesh 40 is positioned against the other end of these conductive microspheres 36 so as to retain them in the position shown. Adjacent the opposite surface of this non- conductive mesh 40 is a plurality of non-conductive spherical microbeads 42 formed of cross-linked polystyrene and having a uniform diameter of about 1.0 mm. Against the other surface of this layer of non-conductive microspheres 42 is a conductive foraminous grid 44 positioned transversely across the housing 14 as shown.
Should the system 10 boil off or otherwise inadvertently lose all liquid electrolyte within the cell 12, a means of preventing system shut-down is preferred which replaces the non-conductive microspheres 42 with non-metallic spherical cation ion exchange polymer conductive microbeads preferably made of cross-linked styrene divinyl benzene which have fully sulfonated surfaces which have been ion exchanged with a lithium salt. This preferred non-metallic conductive microbead structure will thus form a salt bridge between the anode 44 and the conductive microspheres 36, the non-conductive mesh 40 having apertures sufficiently large to permit contact between the conductive microspheres 36 and the conductive non-metallic microbeads. The mesh size of mesh 40 is 200-500 micrometers. This preferred embodiment also prevents melting of the replaced non-conductive microbeads 42 while reducing cell resistance during high loading and normal operation.
The end of the electrode 15 is in electrical contact at 66 with conductive grid 38, while electrode 16 is in electrical contact at 68 with conductive grid 44 as shown. By this arrangement, when there is no electrolyte within the electrolytic cell 12, no current will flow between the electrodes 15 and 16.

When the electrolytic cell 12 is filled with a liquid electrolyte 59, current will flow between the electrodes 15 and 16. The preferred formulation for this electrolyte 59 is generally that of a conductive salt in solution with water. The preferred embodiment of water is that of either light water (H21O) or heavy water and more specifically that of deuterium (H22O). The purity of all of the electrolyte components is of utmost importance. The water (H21O) and the deuterium (H22O) must have a minimum resistance of one megohm with a turbidity of less than 0.2 n.t.u. This turbidity is controlled by ultra membrane filtration. The preferred salt solution is lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) in a 2-molar mixture with water and is of chemically pure quality. In general, although a lithium sulfate is preferred, other conductive salts chosen from the group containing boron, aluminum, gallium, and thallium, as well as lithium, may be utilized. The preferred pH or acidity of the electrolyte is 9.0.
Palladium coated microspheres were originally preferred as disclosed in U.S. Patents '675 and '688. However, palladium may be substituted by other transition metals, rare earths and also uranium. In general, any of these metals which are capable of combining with high volumes of hydrogen to form "metallic hydrides" are acceptable. These metals known to applicant which will serve as a substitute for palladium are lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium. Authority for the inclusion of these elements within this group is found in a book entitled "Inorganic Hydrides, bv B.L Shaw, published by Pergammon Press, 1967. However, palladium is the best known and most widely studied metallic hydride and was utilized in my previously referenced patents to form conductive hydrogen-absorbing microspheres. In an even more general sense, the broad requirement here is to provide a "metallic hydride" surface, the makeup of the core of the microspheres being a secondary consideration.
Referring now to Figures 3 and 4, an alternate embodiment of the electrolytic cell 80 is there shown. In this embodiment 80, a non-conductive glass cylindrical housing 82 is again utilized with non-metallic delrin end members 84 and 86 sealably engaged by O-rings 92 and 94 within the ends of housing 82. Inlet and outlet chambers 88 and 90, respectively are formed into the end members 84 and 86, respectively, end member 84 defining an inlet end, while end member 86 defines an outlet end of the electrolytic cell 80.
A plurality of conductive microspheres 91 formed of a palladium coating over non-metallic beads having a first conductive copper layer and an intermediate nickel layer as previously described are disposed against a concave foraminous conductive grid 96 formed of platinum which is, in turn, disposed against the inner end of end member 84 as shown. An electrode 16 is in electrical contact with the conductive grid 96 within inlet chamber 88 as shown. A thermocouple 70 monitors the temperature of the electrolyte 89 flowing into inlet chamber 88. These conductive microspheres 91 are loosely packed whereby, when the electrolyte 89 flows in the direction of the arrows through the electrolytic cell 80 as shown in Figure 3, they raise above the upright housing 82 so as to be spaced upwardly toward a non-conductive foraminous nylon mesh 98 positioned adjacent the inner end of end member 86. Thus, by controlling the flow rate of the electrolyte 89, the spread or spacing between the conductive microspheres 91 and the degree of movement or agitation is regulated. Although the loose microspheres 91 roll and mix about, electrical contact is maintained therebetween.
A second conductive foraminous platinum grid 100 is positioned between the non-conductive mesh 98 and end member 86 in electrical contact with another electrode 15 at 68. A thermocouple 72 monitors the temperature of the electrolyte 89 as it flows out of the electrolytic cell 80.
As previously described, the end members 84 and 86 are movable toward one another within housing 82 by pressure exerted against plates 50 and 52. This end member movement serves to regulate the volume of the electrolyte 89 within the electrolytic cell 80.
The conductive beads 91 shown in Figure 4 are shown in their at-rest position during which very little, if any, electrolyte flow is occurring through the electrolytic cell 82.
Referring now to Figures 5, 6 and 7, another embodiment of the conductive grids is there shown. A conductive plate 102 formed of silver plated metal having the conductive microspheres 104 and 106 epoxy (non-conductive) bonded at 114 and 116 to the conductive plate 102 is utilized to define the cathode of the electrolytic cell. Thus, the only exposed conductive surface in the cathode is that of the conductive microspheres 104. Non-conductive split polyethylene tubes 108 and 110 extend along the opposing edges of conductive plate 102, around which are wound a plurality of conductive wire bands 112 formed of platinum plated silver wire 0.1 cm in diameter. By this arrangement, the electrolyte may flow along the length of the conductive plate 102 and conductive microspheres 104 to form the necessary electrolytic current flow path between the conductive plate 102 (cathode) and the conductive wire bands 112 (anode), all of the conductive bands 112 being in electrical contact with the positive (+) side of the d.c. power supply (not shown), while the conductive plate 102 being in electrical communication with the negative (-) terminal of that power supply.
Experimental test procedures and results and graphic display of those results from my previous U.S. patents '675 and '688 are repeated by reference thereto. Similar tests with respect to the new multi-layer conductive microspheres were conducted which showed substantially above 100% heat outputs (yields), also referred to as "excess heat". Excess heat is more generally defined herein as the ratio (greater than 1.0) of heat energy output to electrical power input.
Independent verification of my previous experimental procedures and reliability, repeatability and heat output performance of a prototype of one embodiment of my improved system and cell were conducted and reported by Dr. Dennis Cravens, who is currently a professor at Vernon Regional Junior College in physics, chemistry, math and microbiology and Department Chairperson of Math and Science and a consultant to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This testing verification occurred in two separate experimental procedures. The first was conducted at my lab on February 25-26, 1995 on a system and cell which I had previously set up. The second procedure was independently conducted at Dr. Craven's lab where he had complete charge of equipment set-up and operation. The embodiment verified was that of a cell having conductive microspheres of nickel/palladium/nickel composition.
The results of this independent verification were reported during a presentation, accompanied by presentation material entitled "Flow Colorimetry and the Patterson Power Cell Design" dated April 10, 1995 at the 5th Annual International Conference on Cold Fusion in Monte-Carlo, Monaco. These presentation materials are attached hereto as .Exhibit A.
The text describing those experimental verification results was separately reported by Dr. Cravens in a published report entitled "Flowing Electrolyte Colorimetry" dated May 1, 1995 attached hereto as Exhibit B. In {Exhibit B, Dr. Cravens reports that, during the I.C.C.F.-5 conference which I attended, this same improved prototype embodiment of my invention (nickel-palladium-nickel plated microspheres) was in continuous operational display producing excess heat. Several conference attenders were witness to this display who actually took data which clearly depicted continuous production of excess heat by the prototype. Table A of Exhibit A summarizes those witnessed results.
Bruce Klein, a recognized authority in this field working for Bechtel Corp., was present and participated in the first verification procedure at my lab with Dr. Cravens. Mr. Klein separately prepared his very favorable written verification report dated March 4, 1995 (not included).
In preparing the electrolytic cells for testing, the cell resistance utilizing a Whetstone Bridge was utilized prior to the introduction of the electrolyte into the electrolytic cell. This cell resistance, when dry, should be infinitely high. Otherwise, a short between the anode screen and the cathode beads exists and the unit would have to be repacked. Prior to testing, with electrolyte present, the cell resistance was set at 16 ohms by appropriate compression of the end members.
While the instant invention has been shown and described herein in what are conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiments, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the invention, which is therefore not to be limited to the details disclosed herein, but is to be afforded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent apparatus and articles.

Exhibit A

Dr. Dennis Cravens
ENECO - Science Advisory Board Member

ICCF-5
April 10, 1995
14:00

"Flow Calorimetry and the Patterson Power Cell™ Design"

Presentation Materials

For additional technical information and video, please see the Clean Energy
Technologies, Inc. representative.

MEASUREMENTS / SYMBOLS

V = VOLTS INPUT TO CELL

I = AMP INPUT

T1 = INLET TEMPERATURE

T2 = OUTLET TEMPERATURE

F = ELECTROLYTE FLOW RATE

fg = GAS FLOW RATE
Pin = V * I ELECTRICAL INPUT

Ph = d(mc ΔT)/dt HEAT DETECTED IN FLOW

P1 = (1 - eff) Ph CALCULATED HEAT LOSS FROM
CALIBRATION

Pg = 1.48 * I GAS PRODUCTION
(Assumption of no recombination
confirmed by fg)


Exhibit B

FLOWING ELECTROLYTE CALORIMETRY

DENNIS CRAVENS ENECO, Vernon Region Junior College, Vernon, Texas 76384
May 1, 1995

ABSTRACT
When the specific heat and flow rate of the electrolyte are known, the thermal output of cells using circulating electrolytes can be determined. An independent evaluation of the "Patterson Power Cell™" was conducted using the circulating electrolyte as a heat transfer medium. This allows for real time measurements and alteration of the electrolyte. The cell was found to give measurements consistent with claims of excess power.
Suggestions for the improvement of ihe calorimetry are given. A simplified version of (he system was demonstrated during the first 3 days of the International Conference on Cold Fusion - 5 (ICCF-5) and made available to those requesting its examination.
INTRODUCTION
The "Patterson Power Cell™" [1,2] has been claimed as both a light and heavy water system producing "excess heat". Before conclusions can be drawn, however, its unique calorimetry must be investigated. The system uses its electrolyte in a How calorimetry approach. This allows greater and more rapid adjustment of internal cell conditions, while also permitting real time measurements of reaction products. It is one of few cold fusion systems which has been granted a U.S. Patent. This author was requested to evaluate the system.
The evaluation consisted of three parts- 1) observation of the cell being operated at its original site by its inventor, 2) personally operating the device at its original site [3], and 3) independently reproducing the device at a local site and testing it. All of these gave compatible results. This indicates that the device docs give (he observable measurements as claimed. However, ruling out systematic or equipment errors required redesign of certain components.
The initial cell design presented to the author used a thick plaster of paris insulation around the cell. The calibration resistor was embedded in the plaster and external to the cell. The overall efficiency, as measured by heat gained by the electrolyte from the resistor, varied from 20 to 70%. Such variability complicated any detailed analysis. The calibration resistor was replaced
insided the cell. The cell was wrapped with glass wool, housed inside side two dewer flasks set mouth to mouth, and sealed from humidity changes with para film. This raised the thermal efficiency of Ihe calorimeter to 86 to 93%- depending on the cell packing and sealing. This lowered the thermal mass and shortened the response time of the cell. Additional sensors were added so that all measurements could be checked by secondary instruments. An quantitative investigation of the cell took place by this author after these modifications were made.

DESIGN
The modified cell is shown in figure 1. The use of plated beads as the cathode is the most unique feature of this design. These beads were supplied by Clean linergy Technologies, Inc. (4) and are produced and used in accordance to existing Patents [5]. The microspheres were originally designed lor work as density gradient markers for protein analysis. They were then used in amino acid analysis and ion exchange systems. The spherical construction of the beads allows for uniform expansion and contraction without the development of large stresses and cracks. Current work (6-8) has indicated that, for at least nickel, normal water systems, the cold fusion effects are a surface or near surface effect. Thus, the use of many small spheres provides a large surface area that maintains structural integrity.
The base of the bead is a stable cross-linked copolymer made of styrene divinyl benzene. The beads are first sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid to provide a conductive surface. A copper chloride solution is then fixed to the surface. This allows the beads to withstand higher temperatures while avoiding hot spots that would otherwise blow the metal coatings off. Uniform metal plates are then layered accordingly. First with nickel, then with palladium, and than an outer coating of nickel. These multiple layers of nickel/palladium/nickel on beads thus far have out performed single coatings. Others [9] have investigated such multilayer thin films on plates which eventually detached from the surface. The plated beads have performed continually in cells for over one hundred hours without observable changes. It is estimated that 40 mg of metal (a total of about 2 micron thickness of all layers) and about 1200 beads are used within the cell. It is important to note that Ihe small amount of metal used should be beneficial for searches of isotopic shifts.
The electrolyte outlet temperature, T2, is measured at ihe lop of the cell as it reaches the height of the lower dewer containment lid. The inlet temperature, T1 , is measured 5 cm from the lid as the electrolyte flows into the cell. The initial designs used thermocouples (K-type) coated with epoxy. Alter extended runs, it was determined that the lithium ions from the electrolyte were causing "de-calibration errors" in the thermocouples. Furthermore, the thermocouples were not completely electrically isolated from the electrolyte. Thus, the electrolyte current could interfere with the temperature measurements.
The thermocouples were moved to stainless steel wells and insulated with teflon tape and heat sink compound. The two stainless steel wells were connected to a common ground. This increased the thermal response time but prevented additional electrical interference. The upper portion of the thermocouple wells were lightly insulated by tygon tubing. It has been pointed out that the length of the thermocouple well outside the electrolyte may cause the inlet thermocouple to see a weighted average of the temperature between the electrolyte and the environment. Such "wicking effects" have been known to produce errors of 10 to 20%. It is recommended that future designs avoid wells which extend beyond ihe tubing and employ thick insulation at the sile of the measurements. In most experimental runs, the inlet sensor region was also located within the upper dewer and within the glass wool insulation. The physical location of the well was in a region of large flow gradients (i.e. cross sectional areas changed from 1mm2 to 10mm2 back to 1 mm2 ). This provides some mixing. It is recommended that any redesigns use a commercial in-line mixer just up-stream from the temperature sensor.

The overall system is shown in figure 2. The electrolyte flows in a closed loop 1) from the reservoir 2) to the pump 3) through the flow sensor 4) through the cell 5) to a gas spinier and 6) returns to (he reservoir. The input power is calculated from total voltage and current supplied to the cell. The voltage was not corrected for the gas production. The output power was obtained by the heat absorbed by electrolyte flow. The electrolyte is prepared from a one molar lithium sulfate solution of normal water. The electrolyte also serves as ihe heat transfer fluid. It has an apparent specific heat of approximately 0.95 within ihe overall system. The output heat can be arrived at via calibration curves of the cells or from first principles using the specific heat of Ihe electrolyte. In practice, both were used and found to agree within 15%.
CALIBRATION
The system was first calibrated using distilled water for the working solution and the internal calibration resistor for its heat source. This produced overall efficiencies lor the calorimeter within the range of 86 to 92%. The exact value is dependent on the scaling method (paralllm or silicon rubber) and the packing of the glass wool. The data sets given later (figure 4) are based on the 88% configuration using parafilm to seal the gaps against air flow. A series of calibration runs were conducted by varying both the flow rate and input power independently. Figure 3 shows the relationship between input power and temperature differential for a fixed flow rate and current setting. The efficiency was found to be stable (88% +/- 2%) over all practical flow rales or resistor inputs.
Next, the 1 M lithium sulfate electrolyte was used as the working solution. Its apparent specific heat within (he unit was approximately 0.95 based on the above water calibration. it should be noticed lower specific heats of (he working fluid could lead to overestimates ol the heat generation. Howerer, saturated lithium sulfate solutions are about 3 molar. A 100 ml volume of a saturated solution at the working temperature contains only 88 g of water. Thus, the specific heat of Ihe electrolyte should never be lower than about 0.88. A second calibration series was conducted using the lithium sulfate solution and the calibration resistor.
At Ihe beginning and end of each experimental run, a calibration pulse of 15 minutes was used to check the system's perfoπnance. During some runs, a calibration pulse was delivered as the system was generating anomalous heat. In those cases, it was noticed (hat power delivered to the calibration resistor gave additional heat output greater than can be expected by simple additive processes This is seen as either a) the heat producing mechanism has a positive temperature coefficient or b) Ihe instrumentation and sensors over estimates the heat generation. All physical mechanisms proposed (gas bubbles at sensors, heat gain and loss via sensor sheaths, etc.) in support of (he second alternative appear to be an order of magnitude smaller than the observed effects. To test the first premise, an auxiliary heater was added to the electrolyte's reservoir. I're-heaiing of the electrolyte to 40 to 60 degrees C before entry into Ihe cell apparently enhances the power generation. Due to limited time, only a few runs at elevated temperatures were conducted. Further investigation has clearly indicated and should throw light on the heat mechanism and response of the instruments. Such effects are the subject of current experimentation.
There is an initial loading period required of the beads. This is about 12 hours for fresh beads and only 1 hour for pre-loaded beads. This is conducted by using a constant current power supply set al 0.2 to 0.5 amps. The cell's resistance gradually changes from 135 to 150 ohms. This is thought to be due to hydride production on Ihe surface of the beads. The temperature between the inlet and outlet gradually increases toward Ihe end of the loading period.
TYPICAL DATA POINT
There are 6 primary measurements for each data set: the electrolyte flow, F; the voltage, V; the current, I; the temperatures of the inlet, T1 ; and the outlet, T2; and the gas productions flow, f. The gas flow is monitored only to verify that no appreciable recombination occurs This was found to be true to the limits of measurements, +/- 0.5 ml/min. All measurements were taken by two separate sensor systems and found to be internally consistent. All meters, except the temperature, were calibrated and traceable to national standards. A simplified demonstration system was present at ICCF-5. The following data set is one that was taken immediately prior to this authors presentation: V=3.80 V, 1= 0.12 A, F=10.30 ml/mm., T1=24 3 C, T2=26 9 C, f=1.2 ml/mm. (average). This and similar data sets were witnessed by some ICCF-5 participants 1 his specific data point represents an input power of. P=V1 = 0.46 W. It represents a thermal output of d[mc(T2-T1 )]/dt = 1 .77 W. The gas production represents an additional power production of 0.18 W. T he heat loss f rom the cell is estimated at an additional 14 % of the heat production or 0.25 W. Such a point would appear as power ratio of 1.77/.46 = 384% Notice that the thermal power production exceeds Ihe electrical input power even without addition of the gas production or heat loss terms.

A series of data sets were taken and the results represented in figure 4. The points in this figure were taken with the complete laboratory device and under environmentally controlled conditions. The power ratio of power out / power in, is in the range of 1 to 5 when neither gas production or heal loss are added to the output figures. The ratios are slightly higher when those terms are added It is interesting that the cell gave values of between 1 and 2 for those ratios at high currents ( >1 amps ) This is consistent with other studies [ 10] of nickel based systems showing a higher power ratios at low currents At low current (< 0.2 amps) there is more scatter in the data. This is because any errors or uncertainties of measurements are exaggerated by the ratio at low power levels. However, the ratios are consistently above 2 to 1 even with the most pessimistic data sets The high current regions of the chart are on firmer experimental grounds. However, it is Ihe low current regions that are the most intriguing for future engineering projects.
During the conference, a simplified version was demonstrated This used hand meters instead of bench meters, minimum insulation for visibility and other low weight alterations. The demonstration device was displayed and run for 3 days (minus about 3 hours due to transport to nightly storage) . Power ratios of between 2 to 6 to 1 were demonstrated for most of that lime as represented by ihe typical data set given above Conference participants were invited to take data, their data is s ummarized in table A. The demonstration was run in the low current ranges ( < 0.5 amps). The device was lor demonstration purposes only and was designed lo illustrate the reproducibility and reliability of the basic design. The goal was to introduce the unique features of this relatively unknown system to conference participants.

CONCLUSION
The system does appear to be worth further study. Nothing discovered during ihe evaluation of the cell is inconsistent with the production of excess heat within the cell assembly provided that there is a positive temperature rate coefficient. This evaluation has concentrated on increasing the thermal efficiency of the calorimeter, consistency between measurements, better placement of the calibration resistor, measurement of the gas production in real time, use of calibrated and traceable electrical meters and alternative measurements of key values. It is advised that further study is required to limit uncertainties due to temperature measurement of liquid flow.
Additional independent experimentation with "inert beads" as controls and the use of in-line mixers should be considered. The high power ratios at the low current levels need to be revisited using measurements with tighter error bounds. However, regardless of the cause, the system does give repeatable results at substantial levels. If, as expected, the power levels persist with tighter experimental bounds in the low current levels, then the system should have important practical and commercial applications.

REFERENCES
[1] Patterson, James, "Method for Electrolysis to Form Metal Hydride", U.S. Patent 5,318,675
[2] Patterson, James, "System for Electrolysis of Liquid Electrolyte", U.S. Patent 5,372,688
[3] Klein, Druce, "Cold Fusion Testing at Clean Energy Technologies Inc.", Cold Fusion, 9(1995), p21.
[4] Clean Energy Technologies, Inc., bead batch ll 1 16, 14332 Montfort, Suite 6302, Dallas, Texas 75240

[5] Patterson, James, "Metal Plated Microsphere Catalyst", U.S. Patent 5,036,031
Patterson, James, "Process For Producing Umlorinly Plated Microspheres", U.S. Patent 4,943,355
[6] Bush, P.T. and R.D. Eaglcton, Calorimetrtc Studies lor Several Light Water Electrolytic Cells With Nickel

Fibrex Cathodes and Electrolytes with Alkali Salts of Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium", Proc. ICCF-4, 1993, EPRI TR-104188- V2 (1994), p13
[7] Noloya, R. and M. Enyo, "Excess Heat Production during electrolysis of 1120 on Ni, Au, Ag and Sn
Electrodes in Alkaline Media", Proc. ICCF-3 ( 1992).
[8] Mills, R. and S.P. Kneizys. "Excess Heat Production by the Electrolysis of an Aqueous Potassium
Carbonate Electrolyte and Ihe Implications for Cold Fusion", Fusion Technology, 20 (1991) p65.
[9] Miley, G.H., H. Hora, E.G. Batyrbekov, and R.L. Zich, "Electrolytic Cell with Multilayer Thin-film
Electrodes", Fusion Technology, 26 (1994) p313.
[10] Ramamurthy, H., M. Seinivasan, U.K. Mukherjee, and P. Adibabu, "Further Studies on Excess Heat
Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells", Proc. ICCF-4, (1993) vol.2, p15-1