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1. WO1996041903 - IMPROVED SYSTEM FOR ELECTROLYSIS AND HEATING OF WATER

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[ EN ]

CLAIMS
What is claimed is:
1. A system for producing excess heat in a liquid electrolyte comprising: an electrolytic cell including a non-conductive housing and an inlet
and an outlet;
a first conductive foraminous grid positioned within said housing
adjacent to said inlet;
a second conductive foraminous grid positioned within said housing
spaced from said first conductive grid and adjacent to said outlet; a plurality of conductive microspheres of substantially uniform size and
density in electrical communication with said first conductive grid
and electrically isolated from said second grid;
said plurality of microspheres each including:
a conductive metal flash coating of uniform thickness formed by chemical combination with a cation exchange surface of a spherical cross-linked polymer microbead from a metal cation which will chemically reduce with hydrazine;
a nickel plating of uniform thickness formed atop said flash coating; a metallic hydride forming plating of uniform thickness formed atop said nickel plating, said metallic hydride plating being readily combineable with hydrogen or an isotope of hydrogen;
a metallic support plating of uniform thickness formed atop said metallic hydride forming plating, said support plating having a relatively high hydrogen diffusion rate and a relatively low hydride formation ratio;
means for pumping said liquid electrolyte into said electrolytic cell through said inlet, said electrolyte having a conductive salt in solution with water, said electrolyte exiting from said electrolytic cell through said outlet;
said pumping means maintaining said electrolytic cell substantially filled with said electrolyte;
an electric power source having terminals operably connected to said first and second grids.
2. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein:
said conductive salt is capable of forming a hydride and is chosen from a group consisting of lithium, boron, aluminum, gallium and thallium.
3. A system as set forth in Claim 1 , wherein said electrolytic cell further comprises:
a plurality of spherical non-conductive microbeads positioned within said housing adjacent said second grid;
a foraminous non-conductive mesh positioned within said housing between said conductive and said non-conductive microbeads to prevent said conductive microspheres from contacting said second grid.
4. A system as set forth in Claim 1 , wherein said electrolytic cell further comprises:
a foraminous non-conductive mesh positioned within said housing adjacent to and spaced from said second grid;
said electrolytic cell being in an upright position whereby said conductive microspheres are loosely packed within said electrolytic cell and fall by gravity atop said first grid when said pumping means is stopped;
said conductive microspheres being elevated and mixed above said first grid by said electrolyte flowing upwardly through said housing at a preselected flow rate, said non-conductive mesh preventing said conductive microspheres from contacting said second grid.

5. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein said electrolytic cell further comprises:
a conductive plate positioned within said housing defining said first grid;
said conductive microspheres adhered against and in electrical communication with said conductive plate;
a non-conductive spacer connected along two opposing edges of said conductive plate;
a plurality of conductive wire bands each connected around said spacers and defining said second grid, said wire bands in electrical isolation from said microspheres and said conductive plate;
said electrolyte in fluid communication between said conductive microspheres and said conductive bands.
6. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein:
each said conductive microsphere is sized in the range of about 1 mm or less in diameter.
A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein:
said water is a heavy water.
8. A system as set forth in Claim 7, wherein:
said heavy water is deuterium.
9. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein:
said metallic hydride is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium.
10. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein each said microsphere further include:
a metallic stabilizer plating of uniform thickness formed atop said
support plating, said stabilizing plating being a transition metal capable of a relatively high rate of hydrogen diffusion and a relatively low hydride formation ratio.
11. A system as set forth in Claim 10, wherein:
said flash coating has a thickness in the range of 1 to 10 angstroms; said nickel plating and said support plating each have a thickness in the range of about 10 angstroms to 1 micron;
said metallic hydride forming plating has a thickness in the range of about 10 angstroms to 2 microns;
said stabilizer plating has a thickness in the range of about 1 to 60 angstroms.
12. A system as set forth in Claim 10, wherein:
said flash coating is taken from the group consisting of:
copper, palladium, nickel and titanium;
said metallic hydride forming plating is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium,
vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium;
said support plating is taken from the group consisting of:
nickel, gold, silver and titanium; and
said stabilizer plating is taken from the group consisting of:
chromium, iron, cobalt and nickel.
13. A system as set forth in Claim 1 , further comprising:
a plurality of non-metallic spherical cross-linked polymer microbeads each having a fully sulfonated surface which has been ion exchanged with a lithium salt;
said plurality of non-metallic microbeads positioned between said second grid and said conductive microspheres;
said plurality of non-metallic microbeads forming a conductive salt bridge thereacross.
14. An electrolytic cell for producing excess heating of a liquid electrolyte comprising:
a non-conductive housing having an inlet and an outlet;
a first conductive foraminous grid positioned within said housing adjacent to said inlet;
a second conductive foraminous grid positioned within said housing spaced from said first conductive grid and adjacent to said outlet; a plurality of conductive microspheres of substantially uniform size and density in electrical communication with said first conductive grid and electrically isolated from said second grid;
said plurality of microspheres each including:
a conductive metal flash coating of uniform thickness formed by chemical combination with a cation exchange surface of a spherical cross-linked polymer microbead from a metal cation which will chemically reduce with hydrazine;
a nickel plating of uniform thickness formed atop said flash coating;
a metallic hydride forming plating of uniform thickness formed atop said nickel plating, said metallic hydride plating being readily combineable with hydrogen or an isotope of hydrogen;
a metallic support plating of uniform thickness formed atop said metallic hydride forming plating, said support plating having a relatively high hydrogen diffusion rate and a relatively low hydride formation ratio;
means for pumping said electrolyte into and filling said electrolytic cell through said inlet, said electrolyte exiting from said electrolytic cell through said outlet;
said electrolyte including water in solution with a conductive salt;
an electric power source having terminals operably connected to said first and second grids whereby electrical current flows between said first and second grids when said electrolyte is within said electrolytic cell, said electrolyte being heated within said housing.

15. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, wherein:
said conductive salt is capable of forming a hydride and is chosen
from a group consisting of lithium, boron, aluminum, gallium and
thallium.
16. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a plurality of spherical non-conductive microbeads positioned within
said housing adjacent said second grid;
a foraminous non-conductive mesh positioned within said housing
between said conductive and said non-conductive microbeads to
prevent said conductive microspheres from contacting said second
grid.
17. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a foraminous non-conductive mesh positioned within said housing
adjacent to and spaced from said second grid;
said electrolytic cell being in an upright position whereby said
conductive microspheres are loosely packed within said electrolytic
cell and fall by gravity atop said first grid when said pumping
means is stopped;
said conductive microspheres being elevated and mixed above said first grid by said electrolyte flowing upwardly through said housing at a preselected flow rate, said non-conductive mesh preventing said conductive microspheres from contacting said second grid. 18. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a conductive plate positioned within said housing defining said first grid;
said conductive microspheres adhered against and in electrical communication with said conductive plate;
a non-conductive spacer connected along two opposing edges of said conductive plate;
a plurality of conductive wire bands each connected around said spacers and defining said second grid, said wire bands in electrical isolation from said conductive microspheres and said conductive plate;
said electrolyte in fluid communication between said plurality of microspheres and said conductive bands.

19. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, wherein:
said electrolyte includes heavy water.
20. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 19, wherein:
said heavy water is deuterium.
21. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, wherein:
said metallic hydride is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium.
22. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, wherein each said microsphere further includes:
a metallic stabilizer plating of uniform thickness formed atop said support plating, said stabilizing plating being a transition metal capable of a relatively high rate of hydrogen diffusion and a relatively low hydride formation ratio.
23. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 22, wherein:
said flash coating has a thickness in the range of 1 to 10 angstroms; said nickel plating and said support plating each have a thickness in the range of about 10 angstroms to 1 micron;
said metallic hydride forming plating has a thickness in the range of about 10 angstroms to 2 microns;
said stabilizer plating has a thickness in the range of about 1 to 60 angstroms.
24. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 22, wherein:
said flash coating is taken from the group consisting of:
copper, palladium, nickel and titanium;
said metallic hydride forming plating is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium;
said support plating is taken from the group consisting of:
nickel, gold, silver and titanium; and
said stabilizer plating is taken from the group consisting of:
chromium, iron, cobalt and nickel.
25. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a plurality of non-metallic spherical cross-linked polymer microbeads each having a fully sulfonated surface which has been ion exchanged with a lithium salt;
said plurality of non-metallic microbeads positioned between said second grid and said conductive microspheres;
said plurality of non-metallic microbeads forming a conductive salt bridge thereacross.

AMENDED CLAIMS
[received by the International Bureau on 13 June 1996 (13.06.96); original claims 1-25 replaced by amended claims 1-24 (6 pages)]

1. A system for producing excess heat in a liquid electrolyte comprising: an electrolytic cell including a non-conductive housing and an inlet and an outlet;
a plurality of conductive beads each including:
a non-conductive core having a hydrophilic surface;
a first metallic support layer of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said non-conductive core;
a metallic hydride forming layer of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said first metallic support layer, said metallic hydride forming layer being readily combineable with hydrogen or an isotope of hydrogen;
a second metallic support layer of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said metallic hydride forming layer, said second metallic support layer having a relatively high hydrogen diffusion rate and a relatively low hydride formation ratio;
a first conductive grid means for defining one surface of, and in electrical communication with, said plurality of conductive beads which is positioned closer to said inlet;
a second conductive grid means electrically spaced from, and for defining another surface of said plurality of conductive beads which is positioned closer to said outlet;
means for pumping said liquid electrolyte into said electrolytic cell through said inlet, said electrolyte having a conductive salt in solution with water, said outlet providing an egress for said liquid electrolyte; and
an electric power source having terminals operably connected to said first and second conductive grid means.
2. A system as set forth in Claim 1, further comprising:
a conductive metal flash coating of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said non-conductive core and beneath and prior to forming said first metallic support layer.
3. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein each said conductive bead further includes:
a metallic stabilizer layer of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said second metallic support layer, said stabilizer layer being a transition metal capable of a relatively high rate of hydrogen diffusion and a relatively low hydride formation ratio.
4. A system as set forth in Claim 3, wherein:
said flash coating has a thickness in the range of 1 to 10 angstroms;
said first and second metallic support layers each have a thickness in
the range of about 10 angstroms to 1 micron;
said metallic hydride forming layer has a thickness in the range of
about 10 angstroms to 2 microns;
said stabilizer layer has a thickness in the range of about 1 to 60
angstroms.
5. A system as set forth in Claim 3, wherein:
said flash coating is taken from the group consisting of:
copper, palladium, nickel and titanium;
said metallic hydride forming layer is taken from the group consisting
of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium;
said first and second support layers are each taken from the group consisting of:
nickel, gold, silver and titanium; and
said stabilizer layer is taken from the group consisting of:
chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel and platinum.
6. A system as set forth in Claim 1 , wherein:
said conductive salt is capable of forming a hydride and is chosen from
a group consisting of lithium, boron, aluminum, gallium and thallium.
7. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein said electrolytic cell further comprises:
a plurality of non-conductive beads positioned within said housing adjacent said second conductive grid means;
a foraminous non-conductive mesh means positioned within said housing between said conductive beads and said non-conductive beads for preventing said conductive beads from contacting said second conductive grid means.
8. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein said electrolytic cell further comprises:
a foraminous non-conductive mesh means positioned within said housing adjacent to and spaced from said second conductive grid means for preventing said conductive beads from contacting said second conductive grid means, said conductive beads being loosely packed within said electrolytic cell.
9. A system as set forth in Claim 8, wherein:
said pumping means causes said liquid electrolyte to flow at a flow rate;
said conductive beads have an at-rest position when said flow rate is at or near zero;
said conductive beads are spaced apart and agitated at a rate proportional to said flow rate.
10. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein said electrolytic cell further comprises:
a conductive plate positioned within said housing defining said first conductive grid means;
said conductive beads are adhered against and in electrical communication with said conductive plate;
a non-conductive spacer connected along two opposing edges of said conductive plate;
a plurality of conductive wire bands each connected around said spacers and defining said second electrode, said wire bands in electrical isolation from said conductive beads and said conductive plate.
11. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein:
said water is a heavy water.
12. A system as set forth in Claim 1, wherein:
said metallic hydride layer is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium.
13. A system as set forth in Claim 1, further comprising:
a plurality of non-metallic beads each having ion exchange properties; said plurality of non-metallic beads positioned between said second conductive grid means and said plurality of conductive beads;
said plurality of non-metallic beads forming a conductive salt bridge thereacross.
14. An electrolytic cell for producing excess heat in a liquid electrolyte comprising:
a non-conductive housing having an inlet and an outlet;
a plurality of conductive beads each including:
a non-conductive core having a hydrophilic surface;
a first metallic support layer of substantially uniform thickness
formed atop said non-conductive core;
a metallic hydride forming layer of substantially uniform thickness
formed atop said first metallic support layer, said metallic
hydride plating being readily combineable with hydrogen or an
isotope of hydrogen;
a second metallic support layer of substantially uniform thickness
formed atop said metallic hydride forming layer, said second
metallic support layer having a relatively high hydrogen
diffusion rate and a relatively low hydride formation ratio;
a first conductive grid means for defining one surface of, and in
electrical communication with, said plurality of conductive beads
which is positioned closer to said inlet;
a second conductive grid means electrically spaced from, and for defining another surface of said plurality of conductive beads which is positioned closer to said outlet.
15. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a conductive metal flash coating of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said non-conductive core and beneath and prior to forming said first metallic support layer.
16. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 15, wherein each of said conductive beads further includes:
a metallic stabilizer layer of substantially uniform thickness formed atop said second metallic support layer, said stabilizer layer being a transition metal capable of a relatively high rate of hydrogen diffusion and a relatively low hydride formation ratio.
17. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 16, wherein:
said flash coating has a thickness in the range of 1 to 10 angstroms; said first and second metallic support layers each have a thickness in the range of about 10 angstroms to 1 micron;
said metallic hydride forming layer has a thickness in the range of about 10 angstroms to 2 microns;

said stabilizer layer has a thickness in the range of about 1 to 60 angstroms.
18. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 16, wherein:
said flash coating is taken from the group consisting of:
copper, palladium, nickel and titanium;
said metallic hydride forming layer is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium;
said first and second support layers are each taken from the group consisting of:
nickel, gold, silver and titanium; and
said stabilizer layer is taken from the group consisting of:
chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel and platinum.
19. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a plurality of non-conductive beads positioned within said housing adjacent said second conductive grid means;
a foraminous non-conductive mesh means positioned within said housing between said conductive beads and said non-conductive beads for preventing said conductive beads from contacting said second conductive grid means.
20. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a foraminous non-conductive mesh means positioned within said housing adjacent to and spaced from said second conductive grid means for preventing said conductive beads from contacting said second conductive grid means, said conductive beads being loosely packed within said electrolytic cell.
21. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 20, wherein:
said pumping means causes said liquid electrolyte to flow at a flow rate;
said conductive beads have an at-rest position when said flow rate is at or near zero;
said conductive beads are spaced apart and agitated at a rate proportional to said flow rate.
22. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a conductive plate positioned within said housing defining said first conductive grid means;
said conductive beads adhered against and in electrical communication with said conductive plate;
a non-conductive spacer connected along two opposing edges of said conductive plate;
a plurality of conductive wire bands each connected around said spacers and defining said second electrode, said wire bands in electrical isolation from said conductive beads and said conductive plate.
23. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, wherein:
said metallic hydride layer is taken from the group consisting of:
palladium, lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, tantalum, uranium, hafnium and thorium.
24. An electrolytic cell as set forth in Claim 14, further comprising:
a plurality of non-metallic beads each having ion exchange properties; said plurality of non-metallic beads positioned between said second conductive grid means and said plurality of conductive beads; said plurality of non-metallic microbeads forming a conductive salt bridge thereacross.