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1. WO1996040770 - ANTI-FUNGAL D-AMINO ACID HISTATIN-BASED PEPTIDES

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ANTI-FUNGAL D-AMINO ACID HISTATIN-BASED PEPTIDES

GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
The invention described herein was supported in whole or in part by Grant No. DE07652 from the National
Institutes of Health, which have certain rights in the invention.

RELATED APPLICATIONS
This Application is a Continuation-in-Part of and claims priority to U.S. Serial No. 08/485,273, filed
June 7, 1995, which is a Continuation-in-Part of U.S.
Serial No. 08/287,717, filed August 9, 1994, which is a File Wrapper Continuation of U.S. Serial No. 08/145,030, filed October 28, 1993 (now abandoned) , which is a File Wrapper Continuation of U.S. Serial No. 07/786,571, filed November 1, 1991 (now abandoned) , the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The family of naturally occurring human histatins is a group of twelve low molecular weight, abundant in histidine, peptides found in human submandibular and parotid salivary secretions (Oppenheim et al . (1986) ,
J. Biol. Chem. 261: 1177-1182; Oppenheim et al . (1988), J. Biol. Chem. 263: 7472-7477; Troxler et al . (1990),
J. Dent. Res. 69 : 2-6) . The primary structure of the major family members (histatins 1, 3, and 5; 70-80% of the whole family) has shown that these proteins consist of 38, 32 and 24 amino acid residues, respectively. There is a high degree of homology among these three major histatins.
Histatin 5 results from post-translational cleavage of histatin 3. Many of the smaller members of the histatin family may also, in fact, originate by post-translational proteolysis of histatins 1, 3 and 5 (Oppenheim et al.
(1989) , Human Saliva: Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Vol. 1 CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, ed. Tenovuo, J.O. ; Lai et a_l. (1992) , Arch. Oral Biol. 37: 7-13) . The genes that encode histatins 1 and 3 have been localized chromosomally (vanderSpek et al. , (1989), Am. J. Hum. Genet. 45: 381-387) and sequenced (Sabatini, L.M. et al . (1989), Biochem.
Biophys . Res . Comm . 160 :495-502) . Histatins 1 and 3 appear to be derived from separate genes.
The three major human histatins exhibit specific antimicrobial activities towards diverse oral microbiota. These histatins, at physiological concentrations, are capable of killing Candida albicans in both blastopore and mycelial forms (Pollock, J.J. et al . (1984), Infect. Immun. 44.:702-707; Xu, T. et al . (1991), Infect. Immun. 59 (8) : 2549-2554) . Histatins are also capable of killing oral bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans (MacKay, B.J. et al . (1984), Infect. Immun. -44:695-701; Xu, T. et al .
(1990) , J. Dent. Res. 69 : 239) , Porphyromonas gingivalis (Colon et al . (1993) , J. Dent. Res. 72: 322) and
Actinomyces viscosus (Kalpidis et al . (1992) J. Dent. Res. 72: 305) .
Infection with the yeast Candida albicans is a
prevalent and, in some cases, life-threatening condition affecting otherwise healthy and immuno-compromised
patients. Candidal vaginitis is estimated to affect 15 to 55% of healthy young women. Candidal infections often occur in diabetics, during pregnancy, and following
medication with antibiotics, steroid hormones, or oral contraceptives. (Tapper-Jones, L.M. et al . (1981) J. Clin. Pathol . 34:706-11; Sobel, J.D. et al . (1984) Infect. Immun. 4_4: 576-580) . Oral candidiasis is an early opportunistic infection of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, as well as a complication of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients. (Yeh, C.-K. et al . (1988) J. of
Acσuired Immune Deficiency Syndromes JL:361-366) . In addition, candidal infection of denture wearers plays a primary role in dental stomatitis, a prevalent oral problem among the elderly. (Pollock, J.J. et al . (1990) NYS
Dental J. 56:36-38). Candidal infections of skin and urethra are widespread problems. In patients in intensive care and im uno-compromised patients, systemic fungal infection often leads to death, since there are few safe and effective anti-fungal pharmaceuticals for intravenous use. (Burnie, J.P. et al . (1985) British Medical Journal 290 :746-748) . Similarly, infections with various bacterial species can cause severe disease states and even death.
Although several anti-fungal agents (e.g.,
clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, and nystatin) and anti-bacterial agents (penicillin, streptomycin,
tetracycline and chlorhexidine) are currently available, these agents are not completely effective, can lead to drug resistant organisms and can produce adverse side effects. Many are not appropriate for oral or systemic
administration. Thus, a potent, naturally occurring anti-fungal or anti-bacterial substance would provide a significant improvement in the treatment of microbial infection.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
This invention is based on substantially pure peptides which have anti-candidal or anti-bacterial activity equal to or greater than that of naturally occurring histatins but are smaller in size. These peptides have one or more D-amino acids in their amino acid sequences. These peptides represent defined portions of the amino acid sequences of naturally occurring human histidine-rich salivary proteins called histatins, which will be referred to herein as D-amino acid histatin-based peptides. The histatin-based peptides of this invention also include defined portions of the amino acid sequences of histatins with specific amino acid substitutions at specified positions of the sequences. As demonstrated herein, these D-amino acid histatin-based peptides have been shown to be superior in anti-candidal or anti-bacterial activity over the naturally occurring histatins. Thus, this invention provides compositions for treatment of fungal or bacterial infection comprising histatin-based peptides with defined amino acid sequences containing one or more D-amino acids. The D-amino acid peptides with significant anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activities have sequence portions of at least 8 amino acids and have the amino acid sequences of naturally occurring human histatins or histatin-based peptides derived from these histatins. A peptide with particularly significant anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activities is the peptide designated as peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18) . Homologs of peptide 113 with amino acid
substitutions at particular positions in the peptide also have significant anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES
Figure 1A-1C shows the amino acid sequences of human histatins and peptides 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 113,
113-F4, 113-F5, 113-F12, 113-F4.5, 113-F4.5.12, 113-K6,

113-H8, 113-K6H8, 113-F8, 113-L4.5.12, 113-Y4.5.12,
113-Q2.10, 113-Q3.9, 113-Q2.3.9.10 , 117, 118, 119, 120 and

129.
Figure 2 is a graph that shows the % killing of C. albicans blastoconidia as a function of the concentration of histatin-5, peptide 103, peptide 113, peptide 113D and peptide 129.

Figure 3 is a bar graph that shows the % killing of C. albicans blastoconidia for different concentrations of peptide 113, peptide 113D and peptide 129.
Figure 4 is a graph that shows the amount of growth inhibition of P. gingivalis as a function of time for 2 mM concentrations of peptide 103, peptide 113, peptide 113D, and peptide 129, as well as when no histatin-based peptide is present .
Figure 5 is a graph that shows the amount of growth inhibition of P. gingivalis as a function of time for different concentrations of peptide 113D, as well as when no histatin-based peptide is present.
Figure 6 is a graph that shows % killing of
P. aeruginosa as a function of concentration of peptide 113, peptide 113D and histatin 5.
Figure 7 is a graph that shows % killing of S. mutans as a function of concentration of peptide 113, peptide 113D and histatin 5.
Figure 8 is a graph that shows the % inhibition of clostripain activity as a function of the concentration of histatin 5, peptide 101, peptide 103, peptide 105, peptide 118, peptide 119, peptide 120, peptide 129, peptide 113 and peptide 113D.
Figure 9 is a graph that shows the % inhibition of clostripain activity as a function of the concentration of peptide 113D, peptide 113 and peptide 113-F4.5.12.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to peptides which have
anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity, in which the amino acid sequences represent defined portions of the amino acid sequences of naturally occurring human histidine-rich salivary proteins called histatins and where one or more of the amino acids of the amino acid sequences is of the D form. (Histatins are also referred to in the literature as histidine-rich proteins or HRPs.) Histatins are major salivary proteins which are synthesized in the parotid and submandibular-sublingual secretory glands of humans and Old World monkeys. (Azen, E.A. (1978) Biochem. Genet .
JL6.: 79-99) . Histatins are believed to be part of an
extraimmunologic defense system of the oral cavity. The anti-fungal activity of histatins, as well as their
inhibitory effect on several oral bacteria (such as the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis) , have been demonstrated in vi tro. In addition, the observation that polyhistidine peptides inactivate herpes simplex virus in vi tro and that whole saliva contains inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus suggests the possibility that histatins may have anti-viral activity. These in vi tro studies support potential clinical use of compositions containing histatins or histatin-based peptides that contain one or more D-amino acids for the treatment of local and systemic candidal infection, oral bacterial diseases, such as caries and periodontitis, systemic bacterial infection and viral infection. Vaginal, urethral, mucosal, respiratory, skin, ear, oral or ophthalmic fungal or bacterial infections are particularly susceptible to D-amino acid histatin-based peptide therapy. Microbes which are specifically amenable to D-amino histatin-based peptide therapy are:
a) Candida albicans;
b) Actinomyces actinomycetemcomi tans;
c) Actinomyces viscosus;
d) Bacteroides forsythus;
e) Bacteriodes fragilis;
f) Bacteriodes gracilis;
g) Bacteriodes ureolyticus;
h) Campy! oJbacter concisus;
i) Campy! obacter rectus;
j ) Campy 1 obacter showae;

k) Campy 1 obacter sputorum;
1) Capnocytophaga gingivalis;
m) Capnocytophaga ochracea;
n) Capnocytophaga sputigena;
o) Clostridium histolyticum;
p) Eikenella corrodens;
q) Eubacterium nodatum;
r) FusoJbacterium nuc!eatum;
s) FusoJbacterium periodonticum;
t) Peptostreptococcus micros ;
u) Porphyromonas endodontalis ;
v) Porphyromonas gingivalis;
w) Prevoteϋa intermedia;
x) Prevotella nigrescens ;
y) Propionibacterium acnes;
z) Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
aa) Selenomonas noxia;
bb) Staphy!ococcus aureus;
cc) Streptococcus constellatus ;
dd) Streptococcus gordonii ;
ee) Streptococcus inter edius ;
ff) Streptococcus mutans;
gg) Streptococcus oralis;
hh) Streptococcus pneumonia;
ii) Streptococcus sanguis ;
k ) Treponema den ti col a ;
11) Treponema pectinovorum;
mm) Treponema socranskii ;
nn) Veϋloneϋa parvuia; and
oo) Wolinella succinogenes .

The human histatin proteins have been isolated and sequenced. They have been shown to be a family of twelve related low molecular weight proteins. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the histatins suggests that histatin 2 and histatins 4-12 may have originated from specific proteolytic cleavage of histatin 1 and histatin 3, respectively. (Oppenheim, F.G. et al . (1988), J. Biol.
Chem. 263:7472-77: Troxler, R.F. et al . (1990), J. Dent . Res. .69.(1) :2-6) . Cloning and sequence analysis of histatin cDNAs further suggest that the histatins are encoded by two homologous genetic loci, whose primary products are histatins 1 and 3. (Sabatini, L.M. et al .
(1989) , Biochem. Biophvs. Res. Comm. 160:495-502;
Vanderspek, J.C. et al . (1990), Arch. Oral Biol.
3_5(2) :137-43) .
The amino acid sequences of the anti-fungal and antibacterial peptides of this invention represent all or defined portions of the amino acid sequence of peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18) . In addition, the anti-fungal and antibacterial peptides of this invention include all or defined portions of peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18) with amino acid substitutions at particular positions of the peptide.
Preferred embodiments of this invention are peptide 113 itself (SEQ ID NO: 18) ; fragments of peptide 113 containing at least an 8 amino acid sequence from this peptide; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where the glycine at position 6 is
replaced by lysine, arginine or another basic amino acid; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where the lysine at position 8 is replaced by histidine, phenylalanine or another hydrophobic amino acid; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where one or more of the histidines at
positions 4, 5 and 12 is (are) replaced by phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine or another hydrophobic amino acid; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where one or both of the lysines at positions 2 and 10 is (are) replaced by glutamine, arginine or a combination of glutamine and arginine (when both lysines are replaced) ;

and an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where one or both of the arginines at positions 3 and 9 is (are) replaced by glutamine, lysine or a
combination of glutamine and lysine (when both arginines are replaced) . Combinations of these amino acid
replacements in an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 are all preferred embodiments of the invention provided that a combination of 4 glutamines or any other group of 4 non-basic amino acids at positions 2, 3, 9 and 10 does not occur.
Specific preferred embodiments of this invention are histatin 1 (SEQ ID NO: 1), histatin 3 (SEQ ID NO: 3), histatin 5 (SEQ ID NO: 5), histatin 9 (SEQ ID
NO: 9), peptide 101 (SEQ ID NO: 13), peptide 102 (SEQ ID NO: 14), peptide 103 (SEQ ID NO: 15), peptide 104 (SEQ ID NO: 16), peptide 105 (SEQ ID NO: 17), peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18), histatin 11 (SEQ ID NO: 11), peptide 129 (SEQ ID NO: 23), peptide 117 (SEQ ID NO: 19), peptide 118 (SEQ ID NO: 20), peptide 119 (SEQ ID NO: 21), peptide 120 (SEQ ID NO: 22), peptide 113-F4 (SEQ ID NO: 24), peptide 113-F5

(SEQ ID NO: 25), peptide 113-F12 (SEQ ID NO: 26), peptide 113-F4.5 (SEQ ID NO: 27), peptide 113-F4.5.12 (SEQ ID NO: 28), peptide 113-K6 (SEQ ID NO: 29), peptide 113-H8 (SEQ ID NO: 30), peptide 113-K6H8 (SEQ ID NO: 31), peptide 113-F8 (SEQ ID NO: 32), peptide 113-L4.5.12 (SEQ ID NO: 33), peptide 113-Y4.5.12 (SEQ ID NO: 34), peptide 113-Q2.10 (SEQ ID NO: 35), and peptide 113-Q3.9 (SEQ ID NO: 36). The amino acid sequences of these preferred peptides are shown in Figure 1A-1D. Combinations of two or more of these D-amino acid peptides are also effective as anti-fungal or anti-bacterial compositions and are included as
compositions of the invention. However, the combination of these peptides where glutamine occurs at positions 2, 3, 9 and 10, i.e. peptide 113-Q2.3.9.10 (SEQ ID NO: 37) is not a specifically preferred embodiment.

The D-amino acid peptides can be chemically
synthesized. These D-amino acid peptides can be altered by minor chemical modifications, such as by adding small substituents or by modifying one or more of the covalent bonds within or between the amino acid residues, without significantly diminishing the anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activities of the peptides. Quite useful modifications are the addition of a substituent to either the amino terminus, the carboxyl terminus or to both ends of the peptide.
These substituent addition modifications appear to
stabilize the peptide in its active form and to aid in the prevention of enzymatic degradation of these peptides.
These substituent groups are added to the amine, at the amino terminus, or to the carboxyl group, at the carboxyl terminus. The substituent groups can be somewhat bulky and may include one or more natural or modified amino acids. Particularly useful modifications are acetylation or carbamylation of the amino terminus of the peptide or amidation of the carboxyl terminus of the peptide. A combination of both modifications is especially useful. Such modifications appear to further increase the
biological half-life of the peptides, beyond that afforded by incorporating D-amino acids in the sequence structure, before degradation, encapsulation, internalization or excretion occurs.
The peptides described herein were tested in assays designed to measure separately their effectiveness in killing of blastoconidia of C. albicans, in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and in inhibiting clostripain activity. These assays are indicative of anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides of the present invention. When tested in these assays, the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides of this invention were found surprisingly to have superior anti-candidal and anti-bacterial activity in comparison to -lithe natural L-amino form of the histatin-based peptides (see Figure 4) These anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities are surprising in view of the size and truncated peptide form of some of these D-amino acid peptides.
The following is a description of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides, the antifungal activities of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides as measured in assays for killing of Candida blastoconidia, and the antibacterial activities of the histatin-based peptides as measured in assays for inhibition of P. gingivalis growth and inhibition of clostripain enzyme activity.
In the ensuing description, the D-amino acid histatins or histatin-based peptides will be designated by a D following the histatin or histatin-based peptide number, e.g. 113D.

D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based Peptides
The D-version of histatin-based peptide 113 (see
Figure 1A-1D for the amino acid sequence) was prepared using standard solid-phase peptide synthesis techniques (see B. Merrifield, Science 232: 241-247 (1986)). In this instance, the carboxyl-terminal amino acid, histidine, which was attached to the solid support, was the L-enantiomer. The D-enantiomer was used for each of the remaining 11 residues, which were sequentially added to the L-histidine on the solid support to form the full length peptide. The resulting peptide was designated as 113D.
Solid supports can be obtained with D-amino acids covalently attached; thus, D-peptides can be prepared such that all residues, including the carboxyl-terminal residue, are the D-enantiomer.
This synthesis technique also allows the artisan to be selective in designating which amino acids are to be the D-enantiomer. In this manner, histatin-based peptides as well as histatins themselves can be synthesized with specific amino acids being of the D-enantiomeric form.

Anti-Fungal Activities of D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based
Peptides
C. albicans is a dimorphic yeast. It can exist in a yeast or blastoconidial form, which upon germination develops into the hyphal or germinated form. While the germinated form is considered to be more invasive, most of the C. albicans isolates harvested from the oral cavities of healthy individuals appear to be in the blastoconidial form. (Arendorf, T.M. et al . (1980), Arch. Oral Biol.
25.:1-10; Gow, N.A.R. et al . (1987), Criti . Rev. Microbiol . .15:73-78; Odds, F.C. (1988), Candida and Candidosis, 2nd ed., Bailliere Tindall, London, England). Anti-fungal activity of synthetic histatin 5, histatin-based peptide 113, synthetic peptide 113D and histatin-based peptide 129 was measured in assays designed to test the effectiveness of the peptides against the blastoconidia form of Candida . These assays, which measure killing of blastoconidia of C. albicans , are described in Xu et al . , which is herein incorporated by reference. (Xu, T. et al . (1991), Infect. Immun . 5_9(8) :2549-2554) . Peptide 113D was found to be about equipotent with histatin 5, demonstrating its anti-fungal activity despite its size in comparison with
histatin 5. Peptides 113 and 103 demonstrated fungicidal activity comparable to that of histatin 5 and D-amino acid histatin-based peptide 113D. Histatin-based peptide 129 has demonstrable fungicidal activity even though it is smaller than peptide 113. The anti-fungal potency of the histatin-based peptides appear to be a function of both the size and the amino acid sequence of the respective peptide. In particular, the anti-fungal potency of human histatins appears to reside in peptide 113 with selected subpeptides of peptide 113 maintaining at least partial anti-fungal activity. The D-amino acid version of peptide 113 retains the anti-fungal activity of peptide 113. Modifications of peptide 113 by making particular types of amino acid substitutions in this peptide result in peptides that retain anti-fungal activity. Additional modifications can be made by adding substituents to the amino terminus or to the carboxyl terminus .

Therapeutic Applications
The D-amino acid histatins and histatin-based peptides of this invention can be used in compositions and methods of treatment for fungal, and in particular, candidal infection, or for bacterial infection. These methods of treatment for fungal or bacterial infection apply to preventive treatment as well. The compositions may contain combinations of D-amino acid forms and non-D-amino acid forms of histatin-based peptides, in order to obtain maximum activity against all developmental forms of the fungus. The ionic strength, presence of various mono- and divalent ions, and pH of the compositions may be adjusted to obtain maximum anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity of the histatin-based peptides, as described in Xu et al .
(Xu, T. et al . (1991), Infect . Immun . 59(8) :2549-54) .
Carriers appropriate for administration of anti-fungal agents to the vagina, the urethra, the ear, the oral cavity, the respiratory system, the ophthalmic region, various mucosal regions and skin are known, and described, for instance, in US 4,725,576 (Fungicidal Polypeptide Compositions Containing L-His and Methods for Use Therefor by J.J. Pollock and B.J. MacKay, February 16, 1988) .
Compositions for treatment of systemic infection can be administered by various routes, such as intravenously or subdermally.
The compositions and methods for treatment of fungal or bacterial infections discussed above are not limited to use in humans, but can have veterinary applications as well .
Furthermore, the above-described compositions and methods for treatment of fungal infection can also be used for treatment of bacterial infections (e.g., of S. mutans, P. aeruginosa or P. gingivalis) and viral infections (e.g., of herpex simplex virus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1) .

Clostripain Inhibition bv D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based
Peptides
Clostripain is an endopeptidase enzyme synthesized by Clostridium histolyticum. This enzyme, with its protein degradative activity, can be inhibited by histatin 5 and by histatin-based peptides (see Figures 8 and 9) . Thus, D-amino acid histatin-based peptides can inhibit bacterial function by inhibiting bacterial enzymes which are
essential for the bacterial viability.

EXAMPLE 1 MATERIALS AND METHODS
A. Chemical Synthesis of Histatin-Based Peptides
Histatin-based peptides were synthesized by the solid phase method of Merrifield. (Merrifield, B. (1986)
Science 232 -.341-47) . Peptides were synthesized by a
MilliGen/Bioresearch Sam-Two Peptide Synthesizer using Fmoc L-amino acid kits (Millipore, Bedford, MA) and purified on a TSK ODS-i20T C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 X 250 mm) using
RP-HPLC (Pharmacia-LKB) . The purified peptides were quantified by amino acid analysis on a Beckman System 6300 amino acid analyzer.

B . C. albicans Killing
(1) C. albicans Stock
A well-described strain of C. albicans was used in the bioassay. This strain, ATCC 44505, was originally isolated from the human oral cavity. Cultures were stored at 4°C on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates (Difco Laboratories,
Detroit, MI) until use. Stationary phase growth cells were obtained following growth at 30°C for 18 h on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates . Colonies were harvested and
suspended in 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (PPB) , pH 7.4.
To initiate log phase growth, an aliquot of stock C. albicans was suspended in Sabouraud dextrose broth (Difco) and incubated at 30°C in a shaking water bath. The growth phase was determined by taking aliquots of the culture at one hour intervals to monitor the optical density (O.D.) at 560 nm. Early log phase was obtained at 4 to 6 h,
indicated by an O.D. of about 0.6. Log phase cells
wereharvested and utilized in the blastoconidia killing assay in a manner identical to that described for
stationary phase cells. A final concentration of IO5 cells/ml (either stationary or log phase fungus) was used in all assays.

(2) Suspension Buffers
The standard suspension buffer utilized in the
blastospore killing assay was 0.01 M PPB, pH 7.4. An alternate suspension buffer, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N' -2-ethanesulfonic acids (HEPES; Sigma Chemical Co., St.
Louis, MO), pH 7.4, can also be utilized.

(3) Bioassays
The following assay was used to evaluate the effects of histatins on the killing of blastoconidia of C.
alJbicans.
a. For the killing of blastoconidia assay, 50 μl
aliquots of cells (2 x IO5 cells/ml) diluted in
suspension buffer were allowed to attach to a
polystyrene 96-well micro-titer plate (COSTAR, Cambridge, MA) for 15 min at room temperature,
and then incubated with an equal volume of a
histatin or histatin peptide in suspension buffer for 1 h at 37°C. Controls were carried out in
the absence of the histatin or histatin peptide.
After incubation, wells were washed three times
by centrifugation at l,000xg for 5 min and
covered with aliquots of molten Sabouraud
dextrose broth (Difco) containing 2% agarose
(Sigma) at 45°C. The plate was then incubated at

30°C for 8 h. Under such conditions, live cells will divide and begin to form colonies, while
dead cells will remain as single cells. To
determine the percentage of blastoconidia killed, a total of 100 single cells and/or colonies were counted under a Nikon inverted microscope at 40Ox magnification and the extent of killing was
calculated using the formula: [1 - (number of
colonies in treated sample) / (number of colonies
in control)] x 100%.

(4) Statistical Analysis
Data were obtained by calculating the mean and
standard deviation from triplicate assays. From the dose response relationship, doses effecting a 50% killing
(LD50) .

C. BACTERIAL GROWTH INHIBITION AND CELL KILLING ASSAYS
(1) Bacterial Strains and Culture Conditions
(a) The bacteria used in one investigation,
Porphyromonas gingivalis strain A7A1-28, is a typical key pathogenic organism associated with destructive periodontal diseases. The bacteria were multiply
subcultured in Enriched Todd Hewitt broth (ETHB, Difco Lab., Detroit, MI) . Microorganisms were stored in the same broths containing 20% and 50% glycerol, at -20°C and -70°C, respectively. These served as stock cultures from which all preparations originated.
Working stock cultures were maintained by weekly transfer to Brain Heart Infusion Anaerobic Sheep Blood Agar plates (BHIA, Becton Dickinson and Co.,
Cockeysville, MD) , and Trypticase Soy Anaerobic Sheep Blood Agar plates (TSA, Becton Dickinson and Co., Cockeysville, MD) . Plates were incubated for 3 to 4 days under strictly anaerobic conditions. For the bacteriostatic assay, bacteria were collected from plates, inoculated into the aforementioned broth and grown at 37°C, under strictly anaerobic conditions for 24 to 48 hours.
(b) Two other bacterial species were used in a bacterial cell killing assay system. These bacterial species were Streptococcus mutans strain SJ32 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC Accession Number 27853. The assays were performed using liquid overnight cultures (nutrient broth for P. aeruginosa; Todd
Hewitt broth for S. mutans) from frozen stocks of these bacterial species. In the assay, the bacteria were diluted into assay buffer (10 mM Potassium
Phosphate, pH 6.0 with 20 mM NaCl for P. Aeruginosa; and 10 mM Potassium Phosphate, pH 5.2 with 20 mM NaCl for S. mutans) to a concentration of 2 x 10s cfu/ml (1 x IO9 cfu/OD/ml) and combined with an equal volume (250 μl) of peptide to produce 500 μl incubation mixture with a final concentration of IO5 cfu/ml .
Controls constituted buffer and bacteria but no peptide. After incubation at 37°C (30 minutes
incubation for P. aeruginosa; and 60 minutes
incubation for S. mutans) , the mixtures were plated onto agar media (nutrient agar for P. aeruginosa ; and Todd Hewitt media with 0.5% glucose for S. mutans) and incubated at 37°C until colonies developed. The mean number of colonies was determined and percent killing was determined from a minimum of 4 plates by comparing the colony number arising from control cultures versus the colony number arising from peptide-containing assay mixtures .

(2) Microdilution Bacteriostatic Assay
A modification of the typical microdilution assay (Rotilie et al .. 1975) for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of
antimicrobial agents was utilized to investigate the bacteriostatic activity of the peptides. A
standardized bacterial (P. gingivalis) inoculum was exposed to serially diluted antimicrobial peptides in an enriched broth medium that was suitable for the growth of anaerobic bacteria. The test was adapted for use in the 96-well microtiter plates. Results with the microdilution method have been shown to be comparable to the other known techniques for
antimicrobial susceptibility such as the dilution method, the agar dilution method, and the broth-disk elution method (Rosenblatt et al . , 1979) . In the typical assay, the microtiter plate was observed at multiple time points after incubation for visible growth. The modification introduced here was based on the spectrophotometric reading of the microtiter plate after incubation.
Microorganisms from cultures maintained in the aforementioned plates were inoculated into 5 ml of the above-mentioned broths and cultured overnight at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions with continuous agitation on a minishaker (IKA-Labortechnik, Staufen i. Br., Germany) . The bacteria were grown until reaching the late log phase and were then suspended in the same broths to an optical density (O.D.) of 0.1 at 560 nm. The peptides were diluted in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7. Forty μl aliquots of
peptide dilutions were added in each well of a
U-bottom microtiter plate (Costar, Cambridge, MA) to give final concentrations of 2000, 1000, 500 and 250 μM. Twenty μl of bacterial inoculum was added to all the wells. Finally, 100 μl of the suitable broth were added to each well. The optical density of the wells of the microtiter plate was determined using a
microplate reader set at 550 nm and the plate was then incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions for 24 hours. Controls were made by replacing the peptide dilutions with PBS alone. After the incubation, the mixtures in each well were mixed manually to resuspend sedimented bacteria and the plate was read again. The experiments were conducted twice every time. The
biologic activity was calculated according to the
formula :
100- [[(Fin ODexp-In ODexp) / (Fin ODctr-In ODctr)] x 100]

where :
Fin ODexp is the OD of the final experimental group;
In ODexp is the OD of the initial experimental group;
Fin ODctr is the OD of the final control group; and
In ODctr is the OD of the initial control group.
In addition, the % increase in time to reach mid- log phase growth was calculated.
The data presentation represent the means (±SEM) of at least 2 separate experiments .

D. CLOSTRIPAIN ASSAYS
Clostripain from Clostridium histolyticum (Sigma
Chemical Corp., St. Louis, MO) was dissolved in deionized water to a concentration of 1 mg/mL (300 units/mg) and activated with the addition of 10 mmol/L DTT. To measure its hydrolytic activity, clostripain (6 units) was added to 50 nmol/L Hepes buffer, pH 7.5, containing 80 μmol/L BAPNA (benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide) , together with 5.6 μmol/L of histatin peptide inhibitor. As controls, assays were performed in the absence of any histatin peptide inhibitor. The activity was monitored continuously at 405 nm using a Molecular Devices VMax microtitre plate reader. The
activities were determined from the maximum rates of substrate hydrolysis. Assays were done in duplicate, and the means normalized to the controls .

EXAMPLE 2. EFFECTS OF HISTATIN PEPTIDES. INCLUDING
D-AMINO ACID HISTATIN-BASED PEPTIDES. ON
FUNGAL OR BACTERIAL VIABILITY

Figures 2-9 summarize the results of the fungal killing, bacterial growth inhibition, bacterial cell killing and bacterial enzyme (clostripain) inhibition effects of D-amino acid histatin-based peptide 113D and several tested histatin peptides. For comparison purposes, the anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effects of peptide 113D and the non-D-amino acid histatin-based peptides were assessed with synthesized histatin 5 as a standard.
Peptide 113D and histatin-based peptides 113, 118, 119, 120 and 129 have C. albicans blastoconidia killing, P.
gingivalis growth inhibition, P. aeruginosa killing, S.
mutans killing and clostripain inhibition effects. These antimicrobial effects are similar to those observed for histatin 5 and for histatin-based peptides 101-105.
Although expected variations exist in anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effects between the tested peptides, the
antimicrobial effects of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides are comparable to those of histatin 5. These results demonstrate that D-amino acid histatin-based peptides are efficacious as anti-fungal or anti-bacterial agents. In particular, it should be noted that peptide 113D is efficacious for a longer period of time than its L-enantiomer congener (see Figure 4) . Thus, it is
anticipated that the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides will have advantageous uses in comparison to L-enantiomeric histatin-based peptides. One of the reasons for this efficacy is that the D-amino acid form is less susceptible to biological degradation.

EQUIVALENTS
Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims .

SEQUENCE LISTING

(1) GENERAL INFORMATION:
(i) APPLICANT:
(A) NAME: Periodontix, Inc.
(B) STREET: 313 Pleasant Street
(C) CITY: atertovm
(D) STATE/PROVINCE : MA
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(H) TELEPHONE: (617) 926-1980
(I) TELEFAX (617) 926-4776
(i) APPLICANT:
(A) NAME: Trustees of Boston University

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(H) TELEPHONE: (617) 638-4540
(I) TELEFAX (617) 638-4515
(i) APPLICANT/INVENTOR:
(A) NAME: Frank G. Oppenheim
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(F) POSTAL CODE/ZIP: 02167
(i) APPLICANT/INVENTOR:
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(B) STREET: 2 Bridle Path Circle
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(F) POSTAL CODE/ZIP: 02166
(i) APPLICANT/INVENTOR
(A) NAME: Peter Spacciapoli
(B) STREET: 9 High Road
(C) CITY: Newbury
(D) STATE/PROVINCE : MA
(E) COUNTRY: USA
(F) POSTAL CODE/ZIP: 01951
(i) APPLICANT/INVENTOR
(A) NAME: F. Donald Roberts
(B) STREET: 2 Bridle Path Circle
(C) CITY: Dover
(D) STATE/PROVINCE: MA
(E) COUNTRY: USA
(F) POSTAL CODE/ZIP: 02030
(i) APPLICANT/INVENTOR
(A) NAME: Phillip M. Friden
(B) STREET: 32 Washington Street
(C) CITY: Bedford
(D) STATE/PROVINCE: MA (E) COUNTRY: USA
(F) POSTAL CODE/ZIP: 01730

(ii) TITLE OF INVENTION: Anti-Fungal D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based Peptides
(iii) NUMBER OF SEQUENCES: 37
(iv) CORRESPONDENCE ADDRESS:
(A) ADDRESSEE: Hamilton, Brook, Smith & Reynolds, P.C.
(B) STREET: Two Militia Drive
(C) CITY: Lexington
(D) STATE: MA
(E) COUNTRY: US
(F) ZIP: 02173
(v) COMPUTER READABLE FORM:
(A) MEDIUM TYPE: Floppy disk
(B) COMPUTER: IBM PC compatible
(C) OPERATING SYSTEM: PC-DOS/MS-DOS
(D) SOFTWARE: Patentin Release #1.0, Version #1.30
(vi) CURRENT APPLICATION DATA:
(A) APPLICATION NUMBER:
(B) FILING DATE:
(C) CLASSIFICATION:
(vii) PRIOR APPLICATION DATA:
(A) APPLICATION NUMBER: US 08/485,273
(B) FILING DATE: 07-JUN-1995
(viii) ATTORNEY/AGENT INFORMATION:
(A) NAME: Brook, David E.
(B) REGISTRATION NUMBER: 22,592
(C) REFERENCE/DOCKET NUMBER: PER95-02A2 PCT
(ix) TELECOMMUNICATION INFORMATION:
(A) TELEPHONE: 617-861-6240
(B) TELEFAX: 617-861-9540

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Asp Xaa His Glu Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Arg Arg Lys Phe His Glu 1 5 10 15

Lys His His Ser His Arg Glu Phe Pro Phe Tyr Gly Asp Tyr Gly Ser
20 25 30
Asn Tyr Leu Tyr Asp Asn
35

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Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser His Arg Glu Phe Pro Phe Tyr 1 5 10 15

Gly Asp Tyr Gly Ser Asn Tyr Leu Tyr Asp Asn
20 25
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 3:
Asp Ser His Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu 1 5 10 15 Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr Arg Ser Asn Tyr Leu Tyr Asp Asn
20 25 30

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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 4:
Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr Arg Ser Asn 1 5 10 15

Tyr Leu Tyr Asp Asn
20
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 5:
Asp Ser His Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu 1 5 10 15

Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr
20
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 6:
Asp Ser His Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu 1 5 10 15

Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr Arg
20 25
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 7:
Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 10:
Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr Arg
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 11:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg
1 5
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 12:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys
1 5
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:13:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser 1 5 10 15

His Arg Gly Tyr Arg
20 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 14:
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:14:
Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser His Arg Gly Tyr 1 5 10 15

Arg

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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:15:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser 1 5 10 15

His Arg

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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 16:
Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His Ser His Arg 1 5 10
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 17:
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 17:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His Glu Lys His His

1 5 10 15

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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 18:
Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 19:
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(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 19:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 20:
Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe
1 5 10
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Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys
1 5 10
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:22:
Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg
1 5
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:23:
Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe
1 5 10
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 24:
Ala Lys Arg Phe His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
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(ix) FEATURE:
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:25:
Ala Lys Arg His Phe Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 26:
Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe Phe
1 5 10 (2 ) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO : 27 :
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(ix) FEATURE:
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(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:27:
Ala Lys Arg Phe Phe Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
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( i) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:28:
Ala Lys Arg Phe Phe Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe Phe
1 5 10
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Ala Lys Arg His His Lys Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
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(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
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(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:30:
Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr His Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
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(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
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(ix) FEATURE:
(A) NAME/KEY: Region
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(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 31:
Ala Lys Arg His His Lys Tyr His Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 32:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
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(A) NAME/KEY: Region
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(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 32:
Ala Lys Arg His His Gly Tyr Phe Arg Lys Phe His
1 5 10
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 33:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
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(ix) FEATURE:
(A) NAME/KEY: Region
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(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration. "

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 33:
Ala Lys Arg Leu Leu Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe Leu
1 5 10
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 34:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
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(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide

(ix) FEATURE:
(A) NAME/KEY: Region
(B) LOCATION: 1..12
(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:34:
Ala Lys Arg Tyr Tyr Gly Tyr Lys Arg Lys Phe Tyr
1 5 10 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 35:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
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(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO: 35:
Ala Gin Arg His His Gly Tyr Lys Arg Gin Phe His
1 5 10
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(B) LOCATION: 1..12
(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:36:
Ala Lys Gin His His Gly Tyr Lys Gin Lys Phe His
1 5 10
(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO: 37:
(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:
(A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids
(B) TYPE: amino acid
(C) STRANDEDNESS:
(D) TOPOLOGY: linear
(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide
(ix) FEATURE:
(A) NAME/KEY: Region
(B) LOCATION: 1..12
(D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration."
(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:37:
Ala Gin Gin His His Gly Tyr Lys Gin Gin Phe His
1 5 10