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1. (WO1991006787) VEHICLE DRIVELINE
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A differential comprising:
a) an input shaft;
b) an output shaft coaxial with said input
shaft ;
c) a differential case mounted for coaxial
rotation about said input shaft;
d) means rotatably supporting said differential
case;
e) a first external gear coaxial with and
connected to said input shaft;
f) means for rotatably supporting said first
external gear within said differential case; g) a first internal gear cooperating with said
first external gear and rotatable about an
axis fixed relative to said differential
case and parallel to and offset from the
axis of said input shaft;
h) a second external gear mounted coaxially
with and rotationally connected to said
first internal gear;
i) means rotatably supporting said first
internal gear and said second external gear
within said differential case;
j ) a second internal gear cooperating with said
second external gear mounted coaxially with
and rotationally connected to said output
shaft;
k) means rotatably supporting said second
internal gear within said differential case;
and
1) coupling means ,by which torque may be
transferred to or from said differential
case.

2. The differential of claim 1 wherein said coupling means comprises a gear mounted coaxially with and rotatably connected to said differential case.

3. The differential of claim 1 wherein each external gear has at least 5 and less than 7 fewer teeth than its cooperating internal gear.

4. The differential of claim 1 wherein said first inter-nal gear and said second external gear are mounted on a common hollow shaft rotatable about an axis parallel to and offset from the axis of said input shaft.

5. The differential of claim 4 wherein said output shaft is hollow and said input shaft is mounted coaxially and concentrically within said output shaft.

6. The differential of claim 5 wherein said parallel shaft is hollow and said input shaft extends through said parallel shaft.

7. The differential of claim 1 wherein said means for supporting said differential case comprises a vehicle frame.

8. A vehicle comprising a source of rotational power, two or more wheels and the differential of claim 1.

9. A driveline for a vehicle comprising two driving wheels, said driveline comprising a differential of the type described in claim 1 associated with each of said driving wheels, and wherein said coupling means of each said differential ,are connected by coupling gear means.

10. The driveline of claim 9 further comprising spin control brake means adapted for acting variably on said differential case of one of said differentials.

11. A driveline for a vehicle comprising two driving wheels, said driveline comprising a differential of the type described in claim 1 associated with each of said driving wheels, and wherein said coupling means of each said differential are connected by coupling gear means, further comprising a traction control torque generator, said traction control torque generator comprising:

a) "a bi-directional hydraulic motor having an
output shaft and a first and second motor
fluid port;
b) a four-way hydraulic valve with float center
spool, whereby hydraulic fluid pressure
difference between said first and second
motor fluid ports is controlled; and
c) hydraulic valve adjustment.

12. The driveline of claim 11 further comprising an automatic traction control unit providing external control signals to said traction control torque generator, said control unit comprising:
a) first and second pressure transducers
connected to measure pressure in said first
and second motor fluid ports of said hydrau- lie motor of said traction control torque
generator and to communicate said measurements ;
b) data measurement: means whereby vehicle
performance parameters are measured and
transmitted; and
c) data processing means, for receiving transmitted data, computing the required correc- tion in pressure difference between said
first and second motor fluid ports of said
hydraulic motor of said traction control
torque generator, and transmitting said 5 difference to each hydraulic valve adjustment means of said traction control torque
generator.

13. The driveline of claim 11 further comprising spin 1.0 control brake means adapted for acting variably on said coupling gear means.

. 14. A driveline for a vehicle having a power source, and n driving wheels where n is an integer greater than 2,

15 said driveline comprising a differential of the type described in claim 1 associated with each of said driving wheels, and n - 2 bevel gear balancing differentials whereby said coupling means of respective ones of said differentials are connected by n coupling gear

20 means and said balancing differentials are connected by n - 3 coupling gear means.

15. The driveline of claim 14 further comprising spin control brake means adapted for . acting variably on

25 said differential case of said differentials.

16. The driveline of claim 14, further comprising a traction control torque generator, said traction control torque generator comprising:
30 a) a bi-directional hydraulic motor having an output
shaft and a first and second motor fluid port; b) a four-way hydraulic valve with float center
spool, whereby hydraulic fluid pressure difference between said first and second motor fluid

35 ports is controlled; and
c) hydraulic valve adjustment.

17. The driveline of claim 16 further comprising an automatic traction control unit providing external control signals to said traction control torque generator, said control unit comprising:
a) first and second pressure transducers connected to measure pressure in said first and second motor fluid ports of said hydraulic motor of said traction control torque generator and to communicate said measurements;
b) data measurement means whereby vehicle performance parameters are measured and transmitted; and c) data processing means, for receiving transmitted data, computing the required correction in pressure difference between said first and second motor fluid ports of said hydraulic motor of said traction control torque generator, and transmitting said difference to each hydraulic valve adjustment means of said traction control torque generator.
18. An apparatus for transferring power between a power source and a first and second group of driving wheels, comprising:
a) an input shaft rotationally connected to said power source;
b) a first output shaft for driving connection to said first group of driving wheels;
c) a second output shaft;
d) a first and a second differential as described in claim 1 having a common differential input shaft and wherein said output shaft of said first differential is rotationally connected to said first output shaft;
e) first clutch means whereby said input shaft may be rotationally engaged to either said second input shaft or to said common differential input shaft;

f) second clutch means whereby said output shaft of said second differential may be rotationally engaged to said second output shaft; and g) change gear means rotationally connecting said coupling means of said first differential with said coupling means of said second differential.