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1. US20130327644 - Modified base detection with nanopore sequencing

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Claims

1. A method for sequencing a nucleic acid template and identifying modified bases therein comprising:
providing a substrate having an upper solution above the substrate and a lower solution below the substrate, the substrate comprising a nanopore connecting the upper solution and lower solution, the nanopore sized to pass a single stranded nucleic acid;
providing a voltage across the nanopore to produce a measurable current flow through the nanopore;
controlling the rate of translation of a single stranded portion of the template nucleic acid through the nanopore with a processive enzyme associated with a template nucleic acid;
measuring the current through the nanopore over time as it is translated through the nanopore, wherein such measuring includes measuring the current and measuring the rate of translation;
determining the sequence of a portion of the template nucleic acid as it translates through the nanopore using the measured current over time; and
determining the presence of modified bases in the template nucleic acid by correlating changes in the rate of translation of the nucleic acid through the nanopore to changes in the kinetics of the processive enzyme from the interaction of the modified base with the processive enzyme.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the template nucleic acid is sequenced multiple times.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the processive enzyme comprises polymerase, exonuclease, or helicase activity.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the processive enzyme comprises a DNA polymerase.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein the DNA polymerase has 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity.
6. The method claim 1 wherein the processive enzyme comprises a helicase.
7. A method for sequencing a nucleic acid comprising:
providing a substrate having an upper solution above the substrate and a lower solution below the substrate, the substrate comprising a nanopore connecting the upper solution and lower solution, the nanopore sized to pass a single stranded nucleic acid;
providing a voltage across the nanopore to produce a measurable current flow through the nanopore;
controlling the rate of translation of a single stranded portion of the template nucleic acid through the nanopore with a processive enzyme associated with a template nucleic acid;
measuring the current through the nanopore over time as it is translated through the nanopore, wherein such measuring includes measuring the current and measuring the rate of translation;
determining the sequence of a portion of the template nucleic acid as it translates through the nanopore using the measured current over time; and
determining the presence of modified bases in the template nucleic acid by correlating changes in the rate of translation of the nucleic acid through the nanopore to changes in the kinetics of the processive enzyme due to the interaction of the modified base with the processive enzyme;
wherein the template nucleic acid comprises hemi-genomic DNA comprising a genomic strand and a nascent strand.
8. The method of claim 7 wherein the nascent strand is translated through the nanopore.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein the genomic strand is translated through the nanopore.
10. The method of claim 7 wherein the genomic strand and nascent strand are attached through a hairpin loop and both strands are translated through the nanopore.
11. The method of claim 7 wherein the processive enzyme comprises polymerase, exonuclease, or helicase activity.
12. The method of claim 7 wherein the processive enzyme comprises a DNA polymerase.
13. The method of claim 12 wherein the DNA polymerase has 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity.
14. The method of claim 7 wherein the processive enzyme comprises a helicase.
15. The method of claim 7 wherein the template nucleic acid is sequenced multiple times.
16. The method of claim 1 wherein the substrate comprises from 1,000 to one million nanopores.
17. The method of claim 1 wherein the template nucleic acid comprises hemi-genomic DNA comprising a genomic strand and a nascent strand.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein the nascent strand is translated through the nanopore.
19. The method of claim 17 wherein the genomic strand is translated through the nanopore.
20. The method of claim 17 wherein the genomic strand and nascent strand are attached through a hairpin loop and both strands are translated through the nanopore.