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1. US5885965 - Anti-fungal D-amino acid histatin-based peptides

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GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
The invention described herein was supported in whole or in part by Grant No. DE07652 from the National Institutes of Health, which have certain rights in the invention.
RELATED APPLICATIONS
This Application is a Continuation-in-Part of and claims priority to U.S. Ser. No. 08/485,273, filed Jun. 7, 1995, and published as U.S. Pat. No. 5,631,228, which is a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. Ser. No. 08/287,717, filed Aug. 9, 1994, and published as U.S. Pat. No. 5,486,503 which is a File Wrapper Continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 08/145,030, filed Oct. 28, 1993 (now abandoned), which is a File Wrapper Continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 07/786,571, filed Nov. 1, 1991 (now abandoned), the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The family of naturally occurring human histatins is a group of twelve low molecular weight, abundant in histidine, peptides found in human submandibular and parotid salivary secretions (Oppenheim et al. (1986), J. Biol. Chem. 261: 1177-1182; Oppenheim et al. (1988), J. Biol. Chem. 263: 7472-7477; Troxler et al. (1990), J. Dent. Res. 69: 2-6). The primary structure of the major family members (histatins 1, 3, and 5; 70-80% of the whole family) has shown that these proteins consist of 38, 32 and 24 amino acid residues, respectively. There is a high degree of homology among these three major histatins. Histatin 5 results from post-translational cleavage of histatin 3. Many of the smaller members of the histatin family may also, in fact, originate by post-translational proteolysis of histatins 1, 3 and 5 (Oppenheim et al. (1989), Human Saliva: Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology Vol. 1 CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., ed. Tenovuo, J. O.; Lal et al. (1992), Arch. Oral Biol. 37: 7-13). The genes that encode histatins 1 and 3 have been localized chromosomally (vanderSpek et al., (1989), Am. J. Hum. Genet. 45: 381-387) and sequenced (Sabatini, L. M. et al. (1989), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 160:495-502). Histatins 1 and 3 appear to be derived from separate genes.
The three major human histatins exhibit specific antimicrobial activities towards diverse oral microbiota. These histatins, at physiological concentrations, are capable of killing Candida albicans in both blastopore and mycelial forms (Pollock, J. J. et al. (1984), Infect. Immun. 44:702-707; Xu, T. et al. (1991), Infect. Immun. 59 (8): 2549-2554). Histatins are also capable of killing oral bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans (MacKay, B. J. et al. (1984), Infect. Immun. 44:695-701; Xu, T. et al. (1990), J. Dent. Res. 69: 239), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Colon et al. (1993), J. Dent. Res. 72: 322) and Actinomyces viscosus (Kalpidis et al. (1992) J. Dent. Res. 72: 305).
Infection with the yeast Candida albicans is a prevalent and, in some cases, life-threatening condition affecting otherwise healthy and immuno-compromised patients. Candidal vaginitis is estimated to affect 15 to 55% of healthy young women. Candidal infections often occur in diabetics, during pregnancy, and following medication with antibiotics, steroid hormones, or oral contraceptives. (Tapper-Jones, L. M. et al. (1981) J. Clin. Pathol. 34:706-11; Sobel, J. D. et al. (1984) Infect. Immun. 44:576-580). Oral candidiasis is an early opportunistic infection of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, as well as a complication of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients. (Yeh, C. -K. et al. (1988) J. of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1:361-366). In addition, candidal infection of denture wearers plays a primary role in dental stomatitis, a prevalent oral problem among the elderly. (Pollock, J. J. et al. (1990) NYS Dental J. 56:36-38). Candidal infections of skin and urethra are widespread problems. In patients in intensive care and immuno-compromised patients, systemic fungal infection often leads to death, since there are few safe and effective anti-fungal pharmaceuticals for intravenous use. (Burnie, J. P. et al. (1985) British Medical Journal 290:746-748). Similarly, infections with various bacterial species can cause severe disease states and even death.
Although several anti-fungal agents (e.g., clotrimazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, and nystatin) and anti-bacterial agents (penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chlorhexidine) are currently available, these agents are not completely effective, can lead to drug resistant organisms and can produce adverse side effects. Many are not appropriate for oral or systemic administration. Thus, a potent, naturally occurring anti-fungal or anti-bacterial substance would provide a significant improvement in the treatment of microbial infection.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
This invention is based on substantially pure peptides which have anti-candidal or anti-bacterial activity equal to or greater than that of naturally occurring histatins but are smaller in size. These peptides have one or more D-amino acids in their amino acid sequences. These peptides represent defined portions of the amino acid sequences of naturally occurring human histidine-rich salivary proteins called histatins, which will be referred to herein as D-amino acid histatin-based peptides. The histatin-based peptides of this invention also include defined portions of the amino acid sequences of histatins with specific amino acid substitutions at specified positions of the sequences. As demonstrated herein, these D-amino acid histatin-based peptides have been shown to be superior in anti-candidal or anti-bacterial activity over the naturally occurring histatins. Thus, this invention provides compositions for treatment of fungal or bacterial infection comprising histatin-based peptides with defined amino acid sequences containing one or more D-amino acids. The D-amino acid peptides with significant anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activities have sequence portions of at least 8 amino acids and have the amino acid sequences of naturally occurring human histatins or histatin-based peptides derived from these histatins. A peptide with particularly significant anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activities is the peptide designated as peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18). Homologs of peptide 113 with amino acid substitutions at particular positions in the peptide also have significant anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES
FIGS. 1A-1D shows the amino acid sequences of human histatins 1 through 10 and the peptides 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 113, 113-F4, 113-F5, 113-F12, 113-F4.5, 113-F4.5.12, 113-K6, 113-H8, 113-K6H8, 113-F8, 113-L4.5.12, 113-Y4.5.12, 113-Q2.10, 113-Q3.9, 113-Q2.3.9.10, 117, 118, 119, 120 and 129 .
FIG. 2 is a graph that shows the % killing of C. albicans blastoconidia as a function of the concentration of histatin-5, peptide 103, peptide 113, peptide 113D and peptide 129.
FIG. 3 is a bar graph that shows the % killing of C. albicans blastoconidia for different concentrations of peptide 113, peptide 113D and peptide 129.
FIG. 4 is a graph that shows the amount of growth inhibition of P. gingivalis as a function of time for 2 mM concentrations of peptide 103, peptide 113, peptide 113D, and peptide 129, as well as when no histatin-based peptide is present.
FIG. 5 is a graph that shows the amount of growth inhibition of P. gingivalis as a function of time for different concentrations of peptide 113D, as well as when no histatin-based peptide is present.
FIG. 6 is a graph that shows % killing of P. aeruginosa as a function of concentration of peptide 113, peptide 113D and histatin 5.
FIG. 7 is a graph that shows killing of S. mutans as a function of concentration of peptide 113, peptide 113D and histatin 5.
FIG. 8 is a graph that shows the % inhibition of clostripain activity as a function of the concentration of histatin 5, peptide 101, peptide 103, peptide 105, peptide 118, peptide 119, peptide 120, peptide 129, peptide 113 and peptide 113D.
FIG. 9 is a graph that shows the k inhibition of clostripain activity as a function of the concentration of peptide 113D, peptide 113 and peptide 113-F4.5.12.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to peptides which have anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity, in which the amino acid sequences represent defined portions of the amino acid sequences of naturally occurring human histidine-rich salivary proteins called histatins and where one or more of the amino acids of the amino acid sequences is of the D form. (Histatins are also referred to in the literature as histidine-rich proteins or HRPs.) Histatins are major salivary proteins which are synthesized in the parotid and submandibular-sublingual secretory glands of humans and Old World monkeys. (Azen, E. A. (1978) Biochem. Genet. 16:79-99). Histatins are believed to be part of an extraimmunologic defense system of the oral cavity. The anti-fungal activity of histatins, as well as their inhibitory effect on several oral bacteria (such as the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis), have been demonstrated in vitro. In addition, the observation that polyhistidine peptides inactivate herpes simplex virus in vitro and that whole saliva contains inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus suggests the possibility that histatins may have anti-viral activity. These in vitro studies support potential clinical use of compositions containing histatins or histatin-based peptides that contain one or more D-amino acids for the treatment of local and systemic candidal infection, oral bacterial diseases, such as caries and periodontitis, systemic bacterial infection and viral infection. Vaginal, urethral, mucosal, respiratory, skin, ear, oral or ophthalmic fungal or bacterial infections are particularly susceptible to D-amino acid histatin-based peptide therapy. Microbes which are specifically amenable to D-amino histatin-based peptide therapy are:
a) Candida albicans;
b) Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans;
c) Actinomyces viscosus;
d) Bacteroides forsythus;
e) Bacteriodes fragilis;
f) Bacteriodes gracilis;
g) Bacteriodes ureolyticus;
h) Campylobacter concisus;
i) Campylobacter rectus;
j) Campylobacter showae;
k) Campylobacter sputorum;
l) Capnocytophaga gingivalis;
m) Capnocytophaga ochracea;
n) Capnocytophaga sputigena;
o) Clostridium histolyticum;
p) Eikenella corrodens;
q) Eubacterium nodatum;
r) Fusobacterium nucleatum;
s) Fusobacterium periodonticum;
t) Peptostreptococcus micros;
u) Porphyromonas endodontalis;
v) Porphyromonas gingivalis;
w) Prevotella intermedia;
x) Prevotella nigrescens;
y) Propionibacterium acnes;
z) Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
aa) Selenomonas noxia;
bb) Staphylococcus aureus;
cc) Streptococcus constellatus;
dd) Streptococcus gordonii;
ee) Streptococcus intermedius;
ff) Streptococcus mutans;
gg) Streptococcus oralis;
hh) Streptococcus pneumonia;
ii) Streptococcus sanguis;
kk) Treponema denticola;
ll) Treponema pectinovorum;
mm) Treponema socranskii;
nn) Veillonella parvula; and
oo) Wolinella succinogenes.
The human histatin proteins have been isolated and sequenced. They have been shown to be a family of twelve related low molecular weight proteins. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the histatins suggests that histatin 2 and histatins 4-12 may have originated from specific proteolytic cleavage of histatin 1 and histatin 3, respectively. (Oppenheim, F. G. et al. (1988), J. Biol. Chem. 263:7472-77; Troxler, R. F. et al. (1990), J. Dent. Res. 69(1):2-6). Cloning and sequence analysis of histatin cDNAs further suggest that the histatins are encoded by two homologous genetic loci, whose primary products are histatins 1 and 3. (Sabatini, L. M. et al. (1989), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 160:495-502; Vanderspek, J. C. et al. (1990), Arch. Oral Biol. 35(2):137-43).
The amino acid sequences of the anti-fungal and anti-bacterial peptides of this invention represent all or defined portions of the amino acid sequence of peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18). In addition, the anti-fungal and anti-bacterial peptides of this invention include all or defined portions of peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18) with amino acid substitutions at particular positions of the peptide.
Preferred embodiments of this invention are peptide 113 itself (SEQ ID NO: 18); fragments of peptide 113 containing at least an 8 amino acid sequence from this peptide; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where the glycine at position 6 is replaced by lysine, arginine or another basic amino acid; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where the lysine at position 8 is replaced by histidine, phenylalanine or another hydrophobic amino acid; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where one or more of the histidines at positions 4, 5 and 12 is (are) replaced by phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine or another hydrophobic amino acid; an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where one or both of the lysines at positions 2 and 10 is (are) replaced by glutamine, arginine or a combination of glutamine and arginine (when both lysines are replaced); and an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 where one or both of the arginines at positions 3 and 9 is (are) replaced by glutamine, lysine or a combination of glutamine and lysine (when both arginines are replaced). Combinations of these amino acid replacements in an amino acid sequence of at least 8 amino acids from peptide 113 are all preferred embodiments of the invention provided that a combination of 4 glutamines or any other group of 4 non-basic amino acids at positions 2, 3, 9 and 10 does not occur.
Specific preferred embodiments of this invention are histatin 1 (SEQ ID NO: 1), histatin 3 (SEQ ID NO: 3), histatin 5 (SEQ ID NO: 5), histatin 9 (SEQ ID NO: 9), peptide 101 (SEQ ID NO: 13), peptide 102 (SEQ ID NO: 14), peptide 103 (SEQ ID NO: 15), peptide 104 (SEQ ID NO: 16), peptide 105 (SEQ ID NO: 17), peptide 113 (SEQ ID NO: 18), histatin 11 (SEQ ID NO: 11), peptide 129 (SEQ ID NO: 23), peptide 117 (SEQ ID NO: 19), peptide 118 (SEQ ID NO: 20), peptide 119 (SEQ ID NO: 21), peptide 120 (SEQ ID NO: 22), peptide 113-F4 (SEQ ID NO: 24), peptide 113-F5 (SEQ ID NO: 25), peptide 113-F12 (SEQ ID NO: 26), peptide 113-F4.5 (SEQ ID NO: 27), peptide 113-F4.5.12 (SEQ ID NO: 28), peptide 113-K6 (SEQ ID NO: 29), peptide 113-H8 (SEQ ID NO: 30), peptide 113-K6H8 (SEQ ID NO: 31), peptide 113-F8 (SEQ ID NO: 32), peptide 113-L4.5.12 (SEQ ID NO: 33), peptide 113-Y4.5.12 (SEQ ID NO: 34), peptide 113-Q2.10 (SEQ ID NO: 35), and peptide 113-Q3.9 (SEQ ID NO: 36). The amino acid sequences of these preferred peptides are shown in FIGS. 1A-1D. Combinations of two or more of these D-amino acid peptides are also effective as anti-fungal or anti-bacterial compositions and are included as compositions of the invention. However, the combination of these peptides where glutamine occurs at positions 2, 3, 9 and 10, i.e. peptide 113-Q2.3.9.10 (SEQ ID NO: 37) is not a specifically preferred embodiment.
The D-amino acid peptides can be chemically synthesized. These D-amino acid peptides can be altered by minor chemical modifications, such as by adding small substituents or by modifying one or more of the covalent bonds within or between the amino acid residues, without significantly diminishing the anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activities of the peptides. Quite useful modifications are the addition of a substituent to either the amino terminus, the carboxyl terminus or to both ends of the peptide. These substituent addition modifications appear to stabilize the peptide in its active form and to aid in the prevention of enzymatic degradation of these peptides. These substituent groups are added to the amine, at the amino terminus, or to the carboxyl group, at the carboxyl terminus. The substituent groups can be somewhat bulky and may include one or more natural or modified amino acids. Particularly useful modifications are acetylation or carbamylation of the amino terminus of the peptide or amidation of the carboxyl terminus of the peptide. A combination of both modifications is especially useful. Such modifications appear to further increase the biological half-life of the peptides, beyond that afforded by incorporating D-amino acids in the sequence structure, before degradation, encapsulation, internalization or excretion occurs.
The peptides described herein were tested in assays designed to measure separately their effectiveness in killing of blastoconidia of C. albicans, in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and in inhibiting clostripain activity. These assays are indicative of anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides of the present invention. When tested in these assays, the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides of this invention were found surprisingly to have superior anti-candidal and anti-bacterial activity in comparison to the natural L-amino form of the histatin-based peptides (see FIG. 4) These anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities are surprising in view of the size and truncated peptide form of some of these D-amino acid peptides.
The following is a description of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides, the antifungal activities of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides as measured in assays for killing of Candida blastoconidia, and the anti-bacterial activities of the histatin-based peptides as measured in assays for inhibition of P. gingivalis growth and inhibition of clostripain enzyme activity.
In the ensuing description, the D-amino acid histatins or histatin-based peptides will be designated by a D following the histatin or histatin-based peptide number, e.g. 113D.
D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based Peptides
The D-version of histatin-based peptide 113 (see FIGS. 1A-1D for the amino acid sequence) was prepared using standard solid-phase peptide synthesis techniques (see B. Merrifield, Science 232: 241-247 (1986)). In this instance, the carboxyl-terminal amino acid, histidine, which was attached to the solid support, was the L-enantiomer. The D-enantiomer was used for each of the remaining 11 residues, which were sequentially added to the L-histidine on the solid support to form the full length peptide. The resulting peptide was designated as 113D.
Solid supports can be obtained with D-amino acids covalently attached; thus, D-peptides can be prepared such that all residues, including the carboxyl-terminal residue, are the D-enantiomer.
This synthesis technique also allows the artisan to be selective in designating which amino acids are to be the D-enantiomer. In this manner, histatin-based peptides as well as histatins themselves can be synthesized with specific amino acids being of the D-enantiomeric form.
Anti-Fungal Activities of D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based Peptides
C. albicans is a dimorphic yeast. It can exist in a yeast or blastoconidial form, which upon germination develops into the hyphal or germinated form. While the germinated form is considered to be more invasive, most of the C. albicans isolates harvested from the oral cavities of healthy individuals appear to be in the blastoconidial form. (Arendorf, T. M. et al. (1980), Arch. Oral Biol. 25:1-10; Gow, N. A. R. et al. (1987), Criti. Rev. Microbiol. 15:73-78; Odds, F. C. (1988), Candida and Candidosis, 2nd ed., Bailliere Tindall, London, England). Anti-fungal activity of synthetic histatin 5, histatin-based peptide 113, synthetic peptide 113D and histatin-based peptide 129 was measured in assays designed to test the effectiveness of the peptides against the blastoconidia form of Candida. These assays, which measure killing of blastoconidia of C. albicans, are described in Xu et al., which is herein incorporated by reference. (Xu, T. et al. (1991), Infect. Immun. 59(8):2549-2554). Peptide 113D was found to be about equipotent with histatin 5, demonstrating its anti-fungal activity despite its size in comparison with histatin 5. Peptides 113 and 103 demonstrated fungicidal activity comparable to that of histatin 5 and D-amino acid histatin-based peptide 113D. Histatin-based peptide 129 has demonstrable fungicidal activity even though it is smaller than peptide 113. The anti-fungal potency of the histatin-based peptides appear to be a function of both the size and the amino acid sequence of the respective peptide. In particular, the anti-fungal potency of human histatins appears to reside in peptide 113 with selected subpeptides of peptide 113 maintaining at least partial anti-fungal activity. The D-amino acid version of peptide 113 retains the anti-fungal activity of peptide 113. Modifications of peptide 113 by making particular types of amino acid substitutions in this peptide result in peptides that retain anti-fungal activity. Additional modifications can be made by adding substituents to the amino terminus or to the carboxyl terminus.
Therapeutic Applications
The D-amino acid histatins and histatin-based peptides of this invention can be used in compositions and methods of treatment for fungal, and in particular, candidal infection, or for bacterial infection. These methods of treatment for fungal or bacterial infection apply to preventive treatment as well. The compositions may contain combinations of D-amino acid forms and non-D-amino acid forms of histatin-based peptides, in order to obtain maximum activity against all developmental forms of the fungus. The ionic strength, presence of various mono- and divalent ions, and pH of the compositions may be adjusted to obtain maximum anti-fungal or anti-bacterial activity of the histatin-based peptides, as described in Xu et al. (Xu, T. et al. (1991), Infect. Immun.59(8):2549-54). Carriers appropriate for administration of anti-fungal agents to the vagina, the urethra, the ear, the oral cavity, the respiratory system, the ophthalmic region, various mucosal regions and skin are known, and described, for instance, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,725,576 (Fungicidal Polypeptide Compositions Containing L-His and Methods for Use Therefor by J. J. Pollock and B. J. MacKay, Feb. 16, 1988). Compositions for treatment of systemic infection can be administered by various routes, such as intravenously or subdermally.
The compositions and methods for treatment of fungal or bacterial infections discussed above are not limited to use in humans, but can have veterinary applications as well.
Furthermore, the above-described compositions and methods for treatment of fungal infection can also be used for treatment of bacterial infections (e.g., of S. mutans, P. aeruginosa or P. gingivalis) and viral infections (e.g., of herpex simplex virus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1).
Clostripain Inhibition by D-Amino Acid Histatin-Based Peptides
Clostripain is an endopeptidase enzyme synthesized by Clostridium histolyticum. This enzyme, with its protein degradative activity, can be inhibited by histatin 5 and by histatin-based peptides (see FIGS. 8 and 9). Thus, D-amino acid histatin-based peptides can inhibit bacterial function by inhibiting bacterial enzymes which are essential for the bacterial viability.
EXAMPLE 1
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A. Chemical Synthesis of Histatin-Based Peptides
Histatin-based peptides were synthesized by the solid phase method of Merrifield. (Merrifield, B. (1986) Science 232:341-47). Peptides were synthesized by a MilliGen/Bioresearch Sam-Two Peptide Synthesizer using Fmoc L-amino acid kits (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.) and purified on a TSK ODS-i20T C 18 column (5 μm, 4.6×250 mm) using RP-HPLC (Pharmacia-LKB). The purified peptides were quantified by amino acid analysis on a Beckman System 6300 amino acid analyzer.
B. C. albicans Killing
(1) C. albicans Stock
A well-described strain of C. albicans was used in the bioassay. This strain, ATCC 44505, was originally isolated from the human oral cavity. Cultures were stored at 4° C. on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) until use. Stationary phase growth cells were obtained following growth at 30° C. for 18 h on Sabouraud. dextrose agar plates. Colonies were harvested and suspended in 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (PPB), pH 7.4.
To initiate log phase growth, an aliquot of stock C. albicans was suspended in Sabouraud dextrose broth (Difco) and incubated at 30° C. in a shaking water bath. The growth phase was determined by taking aliquots of the culture at one hour intervals to monitor the optical density (O.D.) at 560 nm. Early log phase was obtained at 4 to 6 h, indicated by an O.D. of about 0.6. Log phase cells wereharvested and utilized in the blastoconidia killing assay in a manner identical to that described for stationary phase cells. A final concentration of 10 5 cells/ml (either stationary or log phase fungus) was used in all assays.
(2) Suspension Buffers
The standard suspension buffer utilized in the blastospore killing assay was 0.01M PPB, pH 7.4. An alternate suspension buffer, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acids (HEPES; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.), pH 7.4, can also be utilized.
(3) Bioassays
The following assay was used to evaluate the effects of histatins on the killing of blastoconidia of C. albicans.
a. For the killing of blastoconidia assay, 50 μl aliquots of cells (2×10 5 cells/ml) diluted in suspension buffer were allowed to attach to a polystyrene 96-well micro-titer plate (COSTAR, Cambridge, Mass.) for 15 min at room temperature, and then incubated with an equal volume of a histatin or histatin peptide in suspension buffer for 1 h at 37° C. Controls were carried out in the absence of the histatin or histatin peptide. After incubation, wells were washed three times by centrifugation at 1000×g for 5 min and covered with aliquots of molten Sabouraud dextrose broth (Difco) containing 2% agarose (Sigma) at 45° C. The plate was then incubated at 30° C. for 8 h. Under such conditions, live cells will divide and begin to form colonies, while dead cells will remain as single cells. To determine the percentage of blastoconidia killed, a total of 100 single cells and/or colonies were counted under a Nikon inverted microscope at 400× magnification and the extent of killing was calculated using the formula: [1-(number of colonies in treated sample)/(number of colonies in control)]×100%.
(4) Statistical Analysis
Data were obtained by calculating the mean and standard deviation from triplicate assays. From the dose response relationship, doses effecting a 50% killing (LD 50).
C. BACTERIAL GROWTH INHIBITION AND CELL KILLING ASSAYS
(1) Bacterial Strains and Culture Conditions
(a) The bacteria used in one investigation, Porphyromonas gingivalis strain A7A1-28, is a typical key pathogenic organism associated with destructive periodontal diseases. The bacteria were multiply subcultured in Enriched Todd Hewitt broth (ETHB, Difco Lab., Detroit, Mich.). Microorganisms were stored in the same broths containing 20% and 50% glycerol, at -20° C. and -70° C., respectively. These served as stock cultures from which all preparations originated.
Working stock cultures were maintained by weekly transfer to Brain Heart Infusion Anaerobic Sheep Blood Agar plates (BHIA, Becton Dickinson and Co., Cockeysville, Md.), and Trypticase Soy Anaerobic Sheep Blood Agar plates (TSA, Becton Dickinson and Co., Cockeysville, Md.). Plates were incubated for 3 to 4 days under strictly anaerobic conditions. For the bacteriostatic assay, bacteria were collected from plates, inoculated into the aforementioned broth and grown at 37° C., under strictly anaerobic conditions for 24 to 48 hours.
(b) Two other bacterial species were used in a bacterial cell killing assay system. These bacterial species were Streptococcus mutans strain SJ32 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC Accession Number 27853. The assays were performed using liquid overnight cultures (nutrient broth for P. aeruginosa; Todd Hewitt broth for S. mutans) from frozen stocks of these bacterial species. In the assay, the bacteria were diluted into assay buffer (10 mM Potassium Phosphate, pH 6.0 with 20 mM NaCl for P. Aeruginosa; and 10 mM Potassium Phosphate, pH 5.2 with 20 mM NaCl for S.mutans) to a concentration of 2×10 5 cfu/ml (1×10 9 cfu/OD/ml) and combined with an equal volume (250 μl) of peptide to produce 500 μl incubation mixture with a final concentration of 10 5 cfu/ml. Controls constituted buffer and bacteria but no peptide. After incubation at 37° C. (30 minutes incubation for P. aeruginosa; and 60 minutes incubation for S. mutans), the mixtures were plated onto agar media (nutrient agar for P. aeruginosa; and Todd Hewitt media with 0.5% glucose for S. mutans) and incubated at 37° C. until colonies developed. The mean number of colonies was determined and percent killing was determined from a minimum of 4 plates by comparing the colony number arising from control cultures versus the colony number arising from peptide-containing assay mixtures.
(2) Microdilution Bacteriostatic Assay
A modification of the typical microdilution assay (Rotilie et al., 1975) for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobial agents was utilized to investigate the bacteriostatic activity of the peptides. A standardized bacterial (P. gingivalis) inoculum was exposed to serially diluted antimicrobial peptides in an enriched broth medium that was suitable for the growth of anaerobic bacteria. The test was adapted for use in the 96-well microtiter plates. Results with the microdilution method have been shown to be comparable to the other known techniques for antimicrobial susceptibility such as the dilution method, the agar dilution method, and the broth-disk elution method (Rosenblatt et al., 1979). In the typical assay, the microtiter plate was observed at multiple time points after incubation for visible growth. The modification introduced here was based on the spectrophotometric reading of the microtiter plate after incubation.
Microorganisms from cultures maintained in the aforementioned plates were inoculated into 5 ml of the above-mentioned broths and cultured overnight at 37° C. under strictly anaerobic conditions with continuous agitation on a minishaker (IKA-Labortechnik, Staufen i. Br., Germany). The bacteria were grown until reaching the late log phase and were then suspended in the same broths to an optical density (O.D.) of 0.1 at 560 nm. The peptides were diluted in 0.01M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7. Forty μl aliquots of peptide dilutions were added in each well of a U-bottom microtiter plate (Costar, Cambridge, Mass.) to give final concentrations of 2000, 1000, 500 and 250 μM. Twenty μl of bacterial inoculum was added to all the wells. Finally, 100 μl of the suitable broth were added to each well. The optical density of the wells of the microtiter plate was determined using a microplate reader set at 550 nm and the plate was then incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions for 24 hours. Controls were made by replacing the peptide dilutions with PBS alone. After the incubation, the is mixtures in each well were mixed manually to resuspend sedimented bacteria and the plate was read again. The experiments were conducted twice every time. The biologic activity was calculated according to the formula:
100-[[(Fin ODexp-In ODexp)/(Fin ODctr-In ODctr)]×100]
where:
Fin ODexp is the OD of the final experimental group;
In ODexp is the OD of the initial experimental group;
Fin ODctr is the OD of the final control group; and
In ODctr is the OD of the initial control group.
In addition, the % increase in time to reach mid-log phase growth was calculated.
The data presentation represent the means (±SEM) of at least 2 separate experiments.
D. CLOSTRIPAIN ASSAYS
Clostripain from Clostridium histolyticum (Sigma Chemical Corp., St. Louis, Mo.) was dissolved in deionized water to a concentration of 1 mg/mL (300 units/mg) and activated with the addition of 10 mmol/L DTT. To measure its hydrolytic activity, clostripain (6 units) was added to 50 nmol/L Hepes buffer, pH 7.5, containing 80 μmol/L BAPNA (benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide), together with 5.6 μmol/L of histatin peptide inhibitor. As controls, assays were performed in the absence of any histatin peptide inhibitor. The activity was monitored continuously at 405 nm using a Molecular Devices V Max microtitre plate reader. The activities were determined from the maximum rates of substrate hydrolysis. Assays were done in duplicate, and the means normalized to the controls.
EXAMPLE 2
EFFECTS OF HISTATIN PEPTIDES, INCLUDING D-AMINO ACID HISTATIN-BASED PEPTIDES, ON FUNGAL OR BACTERIAL VIABILITY
FIGS. 2-9 summarize the results of the fungal killing, bacterial growth inhibition, bacterial cell killing and bacterial enzyme (clostripain) inhibition effects of D-amino acid histatin-based peptide 113D and several tested histatin peptides. For comparison purposes, the anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effects of peptide 113D and the non-D-amino acid histatin-based peptides were assessed with synthesized histatin 5 as a standard. Peptide 113D and histatin-based peptides 113, 118, 119, 120 and 129 have C. albicans blastoconidia killing, P. gingivalis growth inhibition, P. aeruginosa killing, S. mutans killing and clostripain inhibition effects. These antimicrobial effects are similar to those observed for histatin 5 and for histatin-based peptides 101-105. Although expected variations exist in anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effects between the tested peptides, the antimicrobial effects of the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides are comparable to those of histatin 5. These results demonstrate that D-amino acid histatin-based peptides are efficacious as anti-fungal or anti-bacterial agents. In particular, it should be noted that peptide 113D is efficacious for a longer period of time than its L-enantiomer congener (see FIG. 4). Thus, it is anticipated that the D-amino acid histatin-based peptides will have advantageous uses in comparison to L-enantiomeric histatin-based peptides. One of the reasons for this efficacy is that the D-amino acid form is less susceptible to biological degradation.
EQUIVALENTS
Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.
__________________________________________________________________________ SEQUENCE LISTING (1) GENERAL INFORMATION: (iii) NUMBER OF SEQUENCES: 37 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:1: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 38 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Modified-site (B) LOCATION: 2 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /product="PSE" (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..38 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:1: AspXaaHisGluLysArgHisHisGlyTyrArgArgLysPheHisGlu 151015 LysHisHisSerHisArgGluPheProPheTyrGlyAspTyrGlySer 202530 AsnTyrLeuTyrAspAsn 35 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:2: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 27 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..27 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration" (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:2: ArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGluPheProPheTyr 151015 GlyAspTyrGlySerAsnTyrLeuTyrAspAsn 2025 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:3: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 32 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..32 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:3: AspSerHisAlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGlu 151015 LysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyrArgSerAsnTyrLeuTyrAspAsn 202530 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:4: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 21 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..21 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:4: ArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyrArgSerAsn 151015 TyrLeuTyrAspAsn 20 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:5: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 24 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..24 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:5: AspSerHisAlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGlu 151015 LysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyr 20 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:6: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 25 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..25 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:6: AspSerHisAlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGlu 151015 LysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyrArg 2025 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:7: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 13 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..13 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:7: ArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyr 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:8: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:8: LysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyr 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:9: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 14 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..14 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:9: ArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyrArg 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:10: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 13 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..13 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:10: LysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyrArg 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:11: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 8 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..8 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:11: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArg 15 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:12: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 7 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..7 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:12: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLys 15 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:13: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 21 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..21 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:13: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSer 151015 HisArgGlyTyrArg 20 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:14: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 17 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..17 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:14: GlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArgGlyTyr 151015 Arg (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:15: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 18 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..18 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:15: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSer 151015 HisArg (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:16: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 14 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..14 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:16: GlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHisSerHisArg 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:17: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 15 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..15 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:17: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHisGluLysHisHis 151015 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:18: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:18: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:19: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 11 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..11 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:19: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:20: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 11 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..11 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:20: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPhe 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:21: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 10 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..10 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:21: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLys 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:22: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 9 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..9 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:22: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArg 15 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:23: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 10 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..10 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:23: LysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPhe 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:24: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:24: AlaLysArgPheHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:25: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:25: AlaLysArgHisPheGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:26: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:26: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgLysPhePhe 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:27: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:27: AlaLysArgPhePheGlyTyrLysArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:28: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:28: AlaLysArgPhePheGlyTyrLysArgLysPhePhe 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:29: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:29: AlaLysArgHisHisLysTyrLysArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:30: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:30: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrHisArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:31: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:31: AlaLysArgHisHisLysTyrHisArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:32: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:32: AlaLysArgHisHisGlyTyrPheArgLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:33: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:33: AlaLysArgLeuLeuGlyTyrLysArgLysPheLeu 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:34: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:34: AlaLysArgTyrTyrGlyTyrLysArgLysPheTyr 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:35: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:35: AlaGlnArgHisHisGlyTyrLysArgGlnPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:36: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:36: AlaLysGlnHisHisGlyTyrLysGlnLysPheHis 1510 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:37: (i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: (A) LENGTH: 12 amino acids (B) TYPE: amino acid (C) STRANDEDNESS: (D) TOPOLOGY: linear (ii) MOLECULE TYPE: peptide (ix) FEATURE: (A) NAME/KEY: Region (B) LOCATION: 1..12 (D) OTHER INFORMATION: /note= "At least one amino acid must have a D configuration." (xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:37: AlaGlnGlnHisHisGlyTyrLysGlnGlnPheHis 1510 __________________________________________________________________________