In other embodiments, the amount of the lithium ion source present in the medium (for example, a basal medium or a feed medium) is any of about 0.05 mM, 0.1 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.2 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.3 mM, 0.35 mM, 0.4 mM, 0.45 mM, 0.5 mM, 0.55 mM, 0.6 mM, 0.65 mM, 0.7 mM, 0.75 mM, 0.8 mM, 0.85 mM, 0.9 mM, 0.95 mM, 1 mM, 1.1 mM, 1.2 mM, 1.3 mM, 1.4 mM, 1.5 mM, 1.6 mM, 1.7 mM, 1.8 mM, 1.9 mM, 2 mM, 2.1 mM, 2.2 mM, 2.3 mM, 2.4 mM, 2.5 mM, 2.6 mM, 2.7 mM, 2.8 mM, 2.9 mM, 3 mM, 3.1 mM, 3.2 mM, 3.3 mM, 3.4 mM, 3.5 mM, 3.6 mM, 3.7 mM, 3.8 mM, 3.9 mM, 4 mM, 4.1 mM, 4.2 mM, 4.3 mM, 4.4 mM, 4.5 mM, 4.6 mM, 4.7 mM, 4.8 mM, 4.9 mM, 5 mM, 5.1 mM, 5.2 mM, 5.3 mM, 5.4 mM, 5.5 mM, 5.6 mM, 5.7 mM, 5.8 mM, 5.9 mM, 6 mM, 6.1 mM, 6.2 mM, 6.3 mM, 6.4 mM, 6.5 mM, 6.6 mM, 6.7 mM, 6.8 mM, 6.9 mM, 7 mM, 7.1 mM, 7.2 mM, 7.3 mM, 7.4 mM, 7.5 mM, 7.6 mM, 7.7 mM, 7.8 mM, 7.9 mM, 8 mM, 8.1 mM, 8.2 mM, 8.3 mM, 8.4 mM, 8.5 mM, 8.6 mM, 8.7 mM, 8.8 mM, 8.9 mM, 9 mM, 9.1 mM, 9.2 mM, 9.3 mM, 9.4 mM, 9.5 mM, 9.6 mM, 9.7 mM, 9.8 mM, 9.9 mM, 10 mM, 10.1 mM, 10.2 mM, 10.3 mM, 10.4 mM, 10.5 mM, 10.6 mM, 10.7 mM, 10.8 mM, 10.9 mM, 11 mM, 11.1 mM, 11.2 mM, 11.3 mM, 11.4 mM, 11.5 mM, 11.6 mM, 11.7 mM, 11.8 mM, 11.9 mM, 12 mM, 12.1 mM, 12.2 mM, 12.3 mM, 12.4 mM, 12.5 mM, 12.6 mM, 12.7 mM, 12.8 mM, 12.9 mM, 13 mM, 13.1 mM, 13.2 mM, 13.3 mM, 13.4 mM, 13.5 mM, 13.6 mM, 13.7 mM, 13.8 mM, 13.9 mM, 14 mM, 14.1 mM, 14.2 mM, 14.3 mM, 14.4 mM, 14.5 mM, 14.6 mM, 14.7 mM, 14.8 mM, 14.9 mM, 15 mM, 16 mM, 17 mM, 18 mM, 19 mM, 20 mM, 21 mM, 22 mM, 23 mM, 24 mM, 25 mM, or more, inclusive of all values falling in between these numbers.