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1. EP3664439 - AN OPTOELECTRONIC, A READING-OUT METHOD, AND A USES OF THE OPTOELECTRONIC APPARATUS

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[ EN ]
Claims

1. An optoelectronic apparatus, comprising:

- at least one optoelectronic device comprising:

- a transport structure (T) comprising at least one 2-dimensional layer;

- a photosensitizing structure (P) configured and arranged to absorb incident light and induce changes in the electrical conductivity of the transport structure (T) by generating pairs of electric carriers, trapping a single type of electric carriers of said pairs therein, during a predetermined trapping time τtr, to induce a change in the conductance of the transport structure (T); and

- drain (D) and source (S) electrodes electrically connected to respective separate locations of said transport structure (T);

- a read-out unit operatively connected to said drain (D) and source (S) electrodes to read an electrical signal generated at a transport channel created in said transport structure (T) between the drain (D) and source (S) electrodes by the light impinging on said photosensitizing structure (P);

characterized in that said read-out unit is made and arranged to perform said reading of said electrical signal after an integration time interval t int has passed, and during a time interval t access that is at least 10 times shorter than t int, wherein t int is longer than τtr and corresponds to the time interval during which integration of photo-generated electric charges occurs in the photosensitizing structure (P).
  2. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said time interval t access is between 100 times and 200000 times shorter than t int.
  3. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, comprising an array of said at least one optoelectronic device forming at least one row, wherein said read-out unit is operatively connected to the drain (D) and source (S) electrodes of all the optoelectronic devices of said array, to simultaneously read electrical signals generated at the transport channels of the optoelectronic devices of the at least one row, wherein the read-out unit is made and arranged to perform the reading of all of said electrical signals after said integration time interval t int has passed, and during said time interval t access.
  4. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 3, wherein said array comprises optoelectronic devices forming at least a first and a second row, wherein the read-out unit is operatively connected to the drain (D) and source (S) electrodes of the optoelectronic devices of the array to simultaneously read the electrical signals generated at the transport channels of the optoelectronic devices of the first row during time interval t access, and then simultaneously read the electrical signals generated at the transport channels of the optoelectronic devices of the second row during time interval t access, wherein the read-out unit is made and arranged to perform the reading of all of said electrical signals after said integration time t int has passed, and during a time t frame = t access * nr rows, wherein nr rows indicates the number of rows of optoelectronic devices.
  5. The optoelectronic apparatus according to any of the previous claims, wherein the read-out unit is configured and arranged to shut off during the presence of each of a plurality of integration time intervals t int starting after corresponding light level changes of the light impinging on the photosensitizing structure (P), for power consumption saving.
  6. The optoelectronic apparatus according to any of the previous claims, wherein the read-out unit is configured and arranged to perform one reading per optoelectronic device every integration time interval t int.
  7. The optoelectronic apparatus according to any of claims 1 to 5, wherein the read-out unit comprises a control mechanism configured and arranged to control and synchronize the timing of the integration of the photo-generated electric charges through a plurality of successive integration time intervals t int and remove excess electric charges from previous integration time intervals t int, for the at least one optoelectronic device or each of the optoelectronic devices simultaneously.
  8. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 7, wherein said control mechanism is configured and arranged to generate and apply a reset electric pulse to an electrode of the at least one optoelectronic device or of each of the optoelectronic devices simultaneously, to remove the electric charges trapped in the photosensitizing structure (P) or in each of the photosensitizing structures (P), in a controlled manner, so that an integration time interval t int starts after said reset electric pulse has been applied.
  9. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 8, wherein said control mechanism is configured and arranged to apply said reset electric pulse immediately after the reading of the or of all of the electrical signals generated at the transport channel(s) has been carried out.
  10. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 8 or 9, wherein the at least one optoelectronic device or each of the optoelectronic devices comprises said electrode, which is at least one of a top gate electrode (Gt), a bottom gate electrode (Gb), and a top electrode (Et).
  11. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 7, wherein said control mechanism comprises a controllable light source (L), and is configured and arranged to control said controllable light source (L):

- to switch on said controllable light source (L) to generate and emit a light pulse to illuminate an object (O) during a time interval t_pls including each integration time interval tint and the time interval, taccess or tframe, during which the electrical signal or electrical signals has/have been read, and

- to switch off said controllable light source (L) during a switch off time interval t_off of equal duration as tint and that is immediately consecutive to t_pls;

wherein the at least one optoelectronic device or each of the optoelectronic devices is arranged so that said light impinging on the photosensitizing structure(s) (P) is a portion of the light included in said light pulse once reflected by or transmitted through said object (O).
  12. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 11, wherein said control mechanism is configured and arranged to control said controllable light source (L) to periodically repeat said switching on and switching off of the controllable light source (L), to generate and emit further light pulses during corresponding further time intervals t _pls, each immediately after a respective further switch off interval t _off.
  13. The optoelectronic apparatus according to claim 11 or 12, further comprising a bandpass filter (F), with centre wavelength around the wavelength of the light pulse and a predetermined bandwidth, placed over the photosensitizing structure(s) (P).
  14. A reading-out method, comprising performing the operations of the read-out unit of the optoelectronic apparatus according to any of the previous claims.
  15. Use of an optoelectronic apparatus according to any of claims 1 to 13, as a light detector or as an image sensor.