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1. EP0909805 - Functionalized olefin copolymer additives

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[ EN ]
Claims

1. A functionalised olefin copolymer comprising the reaction product of a) an olefin copolymer which contains at least two groups which are the same or different and are each independently selected from acyl and carboxylic groups, b) at least one coupling compound which contains at least two functionalities capable of reacting with an acyl and/or carboxylic group of the olefin copolymer a) which functionalities are the same or different and are each independently selected from amine, thiol and alcohol functionalities, and c) a performance enhancing compound which contains an amine, thiol and/or alcohol functionality capable of reacting with an acyl and/or carboxylic group of the olefin copolymer a), wherein the functionalised olefin copolymer comprises at least two structural units derived from the olefin copolymer a) each unit being linked by a structural unit derived from the coupling compound b) and wherein at least one of the at least two structural units derived from the olefin copolymer a) is linked to a structural unit derived from the performance enhancing compound c).
  2. A copolymer according to claim 1, wherein the olefin copolymer a) is selected from copolymers of polymerizable C 2 to C 23 olefins, hydrogenated random and hydrogenated block copolymers of a vinyl aromatic compound and at least one conjugated diene, and hydrogenated random and hydrogenated block copolymers of conjugated dienes.
  3. A copolymer according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the olefin copolymer a) has a number average molecular weight from 700 to about 500,000.
  4. A copolymer according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the olefin copolymer a) is a copolymer of ethylene and one or more C 3-C 23 alpha-olefins.
  5. A copolymer according to claim 4, wherein the olefin copolymer a) is an ethylene-propylene copolymer.
  6. A copolymer according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the olefin copolymer a) comprises an olefin copolymer graft-modified with from 0.5 to 6 moles of an ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid, or derivative thereof, per mole of olefin copolymer a).
  7. A copolymer according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the coupling compound b) is selected from organic polyamines, polyalcohols, polyhydroxy or thiol amines, amide-amines and aminoguanidines.
  8. A copolymer according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the performance enhancing compound c) is selected from monoamines, sterically hindered polyamines, heterocyclic thiols and hydroxyamines.
  9. A copolymer according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the olefin copolymer a) is reacted with from 0.5 to 85 mol% of coupling compound b) and from 15 to 99.5 mol% of performance enhancing compound c) per mole of olefin copolymer a).
  10. An additive concentrate containing a carrier or diluent oil and from about 3 to 45 weight percent of a funtionalised olefin copolymer as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9.
  11. A concentrate according to claim 10, further comprising at least one additive selected from viscosity index improvers, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, detergents, dispersants, pour point depressants, antiwear agents, antifoamants, demulsifiers and friction modifiers.
  12. A lubricating oil composition comprising an oil of lubricating viscosity and a functionalised olefin copolymer as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9.
  13. A composition according to claim 12, further comprising at least one additive selected from viscosity index improvers, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, detergents, dispersants, pour point depressants, antiwear agents, antifoamants, demulsifiers and friction modifiers.
  14. A fuel composition comprising a fuel and a functionalised olefin copolymer as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9.
  15. A composition according to claim 14, further comprising at least one additive selected from anti-knock agents, deposit preventers or modifiers, dyes, cetane improvers, antioxidants, rust inhibitors, gum inhibitors, and metal deactivators.
  16. A process for preparing a functionalised olefin copolymer as defined in claim 1 which process comprises reacting, sequentially in any order or simultaneously,

a) an olefin copolymer as defined in claim 1,

b) a coupling compound as defined in claim 1, and

c) a performance enhancing compound as defined in claim 1,

at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to yield a functionalised olefin copolymer in which at least two structural units derived from the olefin copolymer a) are each linked by a structural unit derived from the coupling agent b) and in which at least one of the at least two structural units derived from the olefin copolymer a) is linked to a structural unit derived from the performance enhancing compound c).
  17. A process according to claim 16, wherein

(1) an oil or solvent solution of the acylated olefin copolymer a),

(2) a solution of at least one performance enhancing compound c) at a concentration of from 5 to 40 weight percent in a surfactant, and

(3) at least one coupling compound b) at a concentration of from 5 to 40 weight percent in a surfactant,

are mixed and heated, sequentially in any order or simultaneously, at a temperature of 120 to 200°C.
  18. A process according to claim 17, wherein solutions (1) and (2) are mixed and heated at a temperature of 120 to 200°C for a time sufficient to effect reaction of an amino, hydroxy or thiol group of the performance enhancing compound c) with an acyl or carboxylic group of the olefin copolymer a), and then the resulting reaction solution is mixed with (3) and heated at a temperature of 120 to 200°C for a time sufficient to effect coupling of the at least two structural units derived from the olefin copolymer a).
  19. A process according to claim 17, wherein (1), (2) and (3) are simultaneously mixed and heated at a temperature of from 120 to 200°C.
  20. A process according to any one of the claims 16 to 19, wherein the olefin copolymer a) is as defined in any one of claims 2 to 6.
  21. A process according to any one of claims 16 to 20, wherein the coupling compound b) is as defined in claim 7.
  22. A process according to any one of claims 16 to 21, wherein the performance enhancing compound c) is as defined in claim 8.
  23. A process according to claim 17, wherein the surfactant is selected from reaction products of aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy compounds with ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and mixtures thereof.
  24. A process according to claim 17, wherein the olefin copolymer a) has a number average molecular weight of from 700 to 500,000 and contains from 0.5 to 6 moles of acyl and/or carboxylic groups per mole of olefin copolymer a).