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1. CA2767922 - COCOALKYLPOLYAMINE ALKOXYLATES AS AGENTS FOR HIGH STRENGTH HERBICIDE COMPOSITIONS

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[ EN ]
Cocoalkylpolyamine Alkoxylates As Agents
For High Strength Herbicide Compositions
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS 100011 Not applicable.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED
RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT 100 021 Not applicable.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Field of the Invention 10003) The present invention relates generally to agricultural compositions, in particular novel formulations utilizing cocoalkylpolyamine alcoxylates as agents for high strength herbicide compositions.
Baelsyrotutd of the Invention [00041 The usc of alkyldiarnine ethoxylates in glyphosate have been explored previously by a number of scientists. Wyrill and Burnside, Weed Science VoL 25 (1977), 275287, Conducted a study of the effects of different agents including tallowpropyldiamine ethoxlyates on the herbicidal action of glyphosate. Some classes of agents were more effective than others in enhancing the herbicidal effect of glyphosate (in particular as a solution of the isopropylamino salt). In the early 1990's, Rhone Poulenc disclosed an application of liquid herbicide formulation containing phosphonomethylglycine and diamine surfactant (DE 4019362 Al 19910103).
According to the abstract of the application, the most efficacious formulation of their invention comprised of isopropylanunonium N-phosphonomethylglycine otherwise known as isopropylamine glyphosate at 100 grams per liter and tallowpropyldiamine ethoxylate which contained 3 ethyleate oxide units. [00051 Users of aqueous concentrate herbicides and fertilizers rind advantages in being supplied with high concentration formulations. In the case of glyphosate, advantages in shipping and storage can be gained by the use of formulations containing high concentrations of the glyphosate acid compared to the conventiCaially used concentritions. Unfortunately few agents are available which are compatible in such higher strength formulations. (0006] As well, incorporation of aqueous solutions of fertilizers alone or in combination with = pesticides and water soluble herbicides in concentrated form is often problematic because of their high ionic strength and so it is desirable to make agents and other additives compatible with them.
By "compatible", it is meant that combinations of agents and agrochernicaLs are made homogeneous and do not separate into two or more distinct continuous phases. Therefore there is a need for stable, high concentration .formulations of water soluble herbicides and fertilizers.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF SOME OF THE PREFER EMBODIMENTS = [0007] The present invention provides an agricultural composition having an agrochemical .active ingredient and at least one cocoalkylpolyarnine alkoxylate. agent. = [0008] In an aspect of the present invention, .the at least One cocoalkyipolyamine alkoxylate = agent has a sUucture of formula (1)::
wherein W is a cow hydrocarbyl group, X and. Y can be alkylene oxide or alky]eine Oxide substituted allylamino group or a combination thereof Z is independently selected from the group consisting of an ethylene oxide unit, a propylene unit and a combinatiOn thereof and a is an integer = from 0 to 2. 100091 In an aspect of the present invention; the at. least one cocoallcylpolyamine alkoxylate agent has a snucture of formula (I1):
(CHCHO)pH ((CHCH0)1H
Coco "4' (CHCH0),1-1 wherein p q +. r is any value from about 1 to about 8; Coco is a coco hydrocarbyl group; and wherein RI and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a H and a C1.¨
C4 alkyl group. [0010] In an aspect of the present invention, the at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent is a derivatized form selected from the, group consisting on an amine oxide derivative, a quaternary amine derivative, a betaine derivative, a phosphate derivative, a sulfate derivative, a carboxylic acid derivative, and a combination thereof [0011] In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient comprises glyphosate or salt thereof selected from the group consisting of an ammonium, an alkylaniline, an alkanolamine, an. a]kylsulfonium, an alkali metal and a combination thereof. 100121 In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient comprises a water soluble herbicide selected from the  group consisting of. a bipyridyl herbicide, a phenoxy ester herbicide, a pyridinylphenoxy herbicide, a salt thereof; and a combination thereof. [0013] In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient comprises a water soluble fertilizer. [0014] In an aspect ol L1C present invention, me composition further includes at least one additive. The additive may be an antifoaming agent, a compatibilizing agent, a sequestering agent, a neutralizing agent, a dye, an odorant, a penetration aid, a wetting agent, a spreading agent, a thickening agent, a freeze point depressant, a humectant a conditioner, an antimicrobial agent, a
Crop oil, and a combination thereof [0015] In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient is at least 360 grams acid equivalent per liter (gae/L).
[0016] In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient is at least 450 grams acid equivalent per liter (gae/L). [0017] In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient is at least 540 grams acid equivalent per liter (gae/L). [0018] In an aspect of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient is at least 600 grams acid equivalent per liter (gae/L). [0018a] In an aspect of the present invention, the agricultural composition comprises a) an agrochemical active ingredient; and b) at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent; wherein the at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent has a structure of formula (II):
(CFICHO)pH (CHCHO)E1
Cold "µ"1"-- ""af- (C1-10-10)r1-1 wherein p + q + r is any value from 1 to 8; wherein Coco is a coco hydrocarbyl group; and wherein R1 and R2 are each independently selected from the group consisting of: a H and a
CI ¨ C4 alkyl group, and wherein at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent is a derivatized form selected from the group consisting of: an amine oxide derivative, a quaternary amine derivative, a betaine derivative, a phosphate derivative, a sulfate derivative, a carboxylic acid derivative, and a combination thereof; and wherein the agrochemical active ingredient comprises glyphosate or salt thereof selected from the group consisting of an ammonium, an alkylamine, an alkanolamine, an alkylsulfonium, an alkali metal and a combination thereof.
[0019] The present invention further provides a method of making a high strength aqueous solution comprising the steps of contacting an agrochemical active ingredient and at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent. [0020] The present invention further provides a method of treatment of vegetation comprising the step of contacting the agricultural composition to vegetation. [0021] The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter that form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the conception and the specific embodiments disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS [0022] Embodiments of the present invention include an agrochemical active ingredient and at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent. Agrochemical active ingredients may include water soluble herbicides, fertilizers and combinations thereof. Water soluble herbicides and fertilizers, and their concentrations thereof, may include without limitation, glyphosate, glufosinate, pyridinylphenoxm bipyridyl (including bipyridylquaternary ammonium salts (bipyridinium salt) such as paraquat and diquat), phenoxy esters, salts of phenoxy acids such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, meta-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), picloram, triclopyr, bromoxynil, salts thereof and. combinations thereof. [0023] As used herein, "glyphosate" means N-phosphonomethylglycine in its acid form or any agriculturally acceptable salt thereof as well as any composition or formulation containing a glyphosate herbicide. "Glyphosate herbicide" means any form of glyphosate which in aqueous solution provides glyphosate anions along with suitable cations or glyphosate acid. Examples of such suitable cations are alkali metal cations, for instance sodium and potassium, and ammonium and substituted ammonium cations that are used to form an alkali metal salt.
The latter include cations derived from primary or secondary amines such as alkylamines (i.e. isopropylamine or dimethylamine), alkanolamines, and from diamines such as ethylenediamine.
Glyphosate herbicide includes the isopropylamine salts of glyphosate and other agriculturally acceptable salts of glyphosate such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,799,758. Further, examples of agriculturally acceptable salts of glyphosate are trimethyl-sulfonium salt ("sulfosate") or aminoguanidine salts as disclosed in EP-A-0 088 180. Because glyphosate has more than one replaceable hydrogen atom, mono- and di-salts are possible, as well as mixtures of such salts.
Typical glyphosate salts are the potassium, ammonium and trimethylsulphoniurn salts as well as the mixed alkylsulfonium and trialkylarnmonium salts = [0024] As used herein, "glufosinate means N-phosphonomethylalanine in its acid form or any agriculturally acceptable salt thereof. 100251 In another embodiment of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient is a water soluble ,fertilizer. Suitable water soluble fertilizers may include, without limitation, inorganic and/or organic fertilizers, fertilizing salts, and mineral fertilizers such as urea, urea phosphate, urea-containing mixed fertilizers, anunonium nitrate, ammonium = sulfate-nitrate, ammonium sulfate, mono- and di-ammonium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate,
Chilean nitrate, potassium-ammonium phosphate, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium phosphate, potassium sulfate, sodium nitrate, nitrogenous fertilizers, potassium salts, N, P, Compound fertilizers, N, P, K-compound fertilizers containing trace elements and combinations of such fertilizers and mineral fertilizers. [0026] Suitable water-soluble fertilizers may also include chlorides, sulfates, or nitrates of Ca, Mg,
Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Co as well as MO in the form of water-soluble molybdates and boron in the form of boric acid or boric anhydride. These fertilizers may be in complexed or partially complexed form in order to ensure water solubility. These fertilizers may be complexity alkali. . metal salts of N-carboXyalkyl-amino acids. One skilled in the art will recognize other suitable water soluble fertilizers for use with this invention, [0027] In other embodiments, the agrochemical active ingredient may include, without limitation: = insecticides, fungicides, biocides, molluscicides, algicides, plant growth regulators, anthelmintics, rodenticides, nematocides, acaricides, ainoebieides, protozoacides, crop safeners and combinations = thereof Examples of such agricultural ingredients can be drawn from the
Pesticide Dictionary. (contained in the Farm Chemicals Handbook) or the British Crop Protection
Society: Pesticides
Manual. One skilled in the art, with the benefit of this = disclosure, will recognize suitable wider soluble agricultural ingredients and combinations thereof for use in this invention. = [0028] Embodiments of the present invention include at least one cocoalkylpolytunine alkoxylate. agent. By "agent" it is also referred that it may act as an adjuvant. In an embodiment, the= cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent has the structure of formula (1):
[0029] wherein W is a coco.hydrocarbyl group, X and 7/ can be alkylene oxide or alkylene oxide substituted allylamino group or a combination thereof; Z is independently selected from the group consisting of an ethylene. oxide unit, a propylene oxide unit .and a combination thereof and a is an integer. from 0 to .2. In cases . where Z is an ethylene' oxide .group, the cocoalkylpolyaznine alkoxylate would be a cocoalkylpolyamine ethoxylate. [0030] For the purposes .of this disclosure, coco hydrocarbyl groups arc generally defined as the alkyl or alcenyl groups obtained from the ehemicalmodifteation of natural and synthetic. fatty acids and their esters and particularly their naturally occurring esters with glycerol. Those skilled
In the art Will generally, recognize that coco hydrocarbyl is a mix of carbon lengths from Cs C18 with a large concentration of carbon in the range of C12 C1.4. 140AVVVer, coca hydrocarbyl grOup compositions may have outlying carbon lengths in the ranges from about Cs-C24.
COOP hydrocarbyl groups may include, without limitation, caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. 100311 In an embodiment, the cocoallcylpolyamine alkoxylate agent has the structure of formula
(CHCHO)pH (CHCHO)qH
Coco "---"="" (CHCHO)rH
[00321 wherein p + q + r is any value from about 1 to about 8, preferably 3.5 and most preferably 7.0; Coco is a coco hydrocarbyl group; and wherein 11.1 and R2 are each independently H era C1 ¨
C4,a1kyI group. [0033) In. embodiments of the present invention, the at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent may be a derivatized form such as amine oxide derivatives, quaternary amine derivatives, betaine derivatives, phosphate ester derivatives, sulfate derivatives, carboxylic acid derivatives and combinations thereof. Non-limiting examples of amine oxide (N-Oxide) derivatives are represented by the following formulas: wherein Coco is a coco hydrocarbyl group as in formula (TI); p, q, r, R1 and R2 are the same values as in formula (11); and, the a,
W, X, Y and Z are the same values as in formula (1):
(b-IHO)pH (CHCH0)4F1 X
Coco I W *
kCHC1-10)1H
[0034] Non-limiting examples of quaternary amine derivatives are represented by the following formulas: wherein Coco is a cow hydrocarbyl group; p, q, r, R1 and R2 are the same values as in formula (II); Bz is a benzyl group; and, the a, W, X, Y and are the same values as in formula (1):
Bz (CH CHO )pH W i k-oca , 1 / "" Z N 0 '
I CIg ..".(HHO)t4-1 X CI ( CH CH 0)qH Ill R2 100351 Non-limiting examples of betaine derivatives are represented by the following formulas: wherein Coco is a coco hydrocarbyl group; p, q, r, R1 and R2 arc the same values as in formula (1); and the a., W, X, Y and Z are the same values as in formula (1):
rA4g ( CHCH 0)pH real.,0
Coco., .õ",........,......t e)I `(CH CHO)rH W
Hq(OHCH2)
Fi 11 2 0 eR1 R2 I
[00361 Non-limiting examples of phosphate ester derivatives are represented by the following formulas: wherein Coco is a coco hydrocarbyl group; p, q, r, R1 and R2 are the same values as in formula (11); and thc a, W, X, Y and Z arc the same values as in formula (1):
Coco, / 0 --"N4..""%=-="/*N., 11,0H 1 (C1-1CHO)rH¨P'OH (CHCHO)qH I I X 10037J Non-limiting examples of sulfate and carboxylic acid derivatives are represented by the following formula: wherein E is a sulfate group or carboxylic acid group and wherein a, W, X, Y and Z are the same values as formula (1):
100381 One qlcillcd in the art, with the benefit of this disclosure, will recognize other suitable cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agents for use in the present invention. [0039] Embodiments of cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agents of the present invention may be prepared by typical alkoxylation reactions known to those skilled in the art. [0040] Embodiments of the present invention disclose an agricultural composition. A typical composition of the invention may be as follows: [0041] Agrochemical active ingredient >360 g/L (as acid equivalent) [0042] Cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent 60-120 g/L [0043] Water to volume [0044] In embodiment where a greater concentration of agrochemical active ingredient is desired, the water soluble agricultural ingredient may be in any concentration higher than about 360 g/L (as acid equivalent). In other embodiments, the water soluble agricultural ingredient may be hi a concentration of about 420 g/L, 450 g/L, 480 g/L, 490 g/L, 510 g/L, 517 g/L or $20 g/L. In one embodiment, the water soluble agricultural ingredient is in a concentration of about 540 g/L. In other embodiments, the concentration may be about 600 g/L. A high strength formulation may be desirable for a variety of both economic and environmental reascms such as to reduce the shipping and handling costs and to reduce the amount of packaging material that must be disposed. [0045] In embodiments of the present invention, the use of the cocoallcylpolyamine alkoxylate agent can range from about 1% to about 15.0% by weight of the cocoaLkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent in the composition, generally around 10% why (weight per weight) of the composition is desirable. [0046] In embodiments of the present invention, the agrochemical active ingredient and cocoa1kylpolyamine alkoxylate agent may be in the range of about 10:1 to about 1:1. In other embodiments, the agrochemical active ingredient and cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent may be in the range of about 6:1 to about 3:1. 10047] Embodiments of the present invention may further comprise at least one additive. The at least one additive may include antifoaming agents, compatibilizing agents, sequestering agents, neutralizing agents, dyes, odorants, penetration aids, wetting agents, spreading agents, thickening agents, freeze point depressants, humectants, antimicrobial agents, crop oils, conditioners, and combinations thereof. These additives are typically diluted in water and then applied by conventional means well known to those in the art. [0048] Embodiments of the present invention further teach a method of making a high strength aqueous solution comprising the steps of contacting an agrochemical active ingredient and at least one cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate agent The composition of the present invention may be in the form of a concentrate designed to be used far addition to an agricultural spray tank. [0049] Embodiments of the present invention also disclose a method of treatment of vegetation comprising the step of contacting the agricultural compositions of the present invention to vegetation. Herbicidal and fertilizer compositions of the present invention may be applied to plants and soils. = 10050] Embodiments of the present invention will be further illustrated by a consideration of the f011owing examples, which are intended to be exemplary of the invention.
Examples [00511 A number of examples have been prepared in the laboratory and screened in high load potassium glyphosate (540 g/L) formulations. These candidates were subjected to pot and field trials for evaluation of the bioefficacy function. [0052] Example 1.. [0053] Cocoalkyl-1,3-propanediamine, (Feixiang Chemicals FTTA-CO), (291.1 g, 1.09 mole) was charged to a 2 liter reactor. Alter three vacuum and purge cycles with nitrogen the reactor was heated to 14$ C and ethylene oxide (168.4g, 3.83 mole) was added at a steady rate over 45 minutes. The product was cooled and discharged to give cocoalkyl-1,3propanediamine 3.5 ethoxylate as the predominant species. 100541 Example2.
[0055] Example 1 (442.5 g) and 50% w/w aqueous potassium hydroxide (2000 ppm) was charged to a 2 liter reactor. After three vacuum and purge cycles with nitrogen, the reactor was heated to 145 C and ethylene oxide (116 g) was added at a steady rate over 26 minutes.
The product was
Cooled and discharged to give cocoalkyl-1,3-propancdiarnine 6.0 ethoxylate as the predominant species. [0056] Example 3. [00571 Example 2 (441.5 g) was charged to a 2 liter reactor. After three vacuum and purge cycles with nitrogen the reactor was heated to 145 C and ethylene oxide (36.7 g) was added at a steady rate over 20 minutes. The product was cooled and discharged to give cocoalkyl-
propanediamine 7.0 ethoxylate as the predominant species. [00581 Example 4. [0059] Example 3 (354.2 g) was charged to a 2 liter reactor. After three vacuum and purge cycles with nitrogen the reactor was heated to 145 C and ethylene oxide (27.2 g) was added at a steady rate over 27 minutes. The product was cooled and discharged to give cocoalky1propanediamine 8.0 ethoxylate as the predominant species. 100601 Example 5. [0061] Example 4(262.4 g) was cnargeo. to a 2 Ilia reactor. Alter three vacuum and purge cycles with nitrogen the reactor was heated to 145 C and ethylene oxide (18.7 g) was added at a steady rate over 14 minutes. The product was cooled and discharged to give cocoalky1propanediamine 9.0 ethoxylate as the predominant species. (0062J Preparation of cocoalkylpolyamine alkoxylate derivatives. [0063] Example 6: Quaternary amine derivative of cocoalkylpolyamine [0064] Example 1 (50 g, 0.11 mol) was placed in a 1 liter jacketed flask which was heated to 60 C with circulating hot water. Deionised water (16.1 g) and anhydrous potassium carbonate (0.05 g, 0.05% w/w based upon reaction contents) were added to give a clear red homogeneous solution.
Benzyl chloride (14.16 g, 0.11 mol) was then added drop wise over a period of 30 minutes with the temperature rising to 65 C. Once all of the benzyl chloride had been added, the of a 10% s weight/volume (w/v) aqueous solution was measured to give a value of 8.76 and the temperature of the recirculating water was raised to 90-95 C. The reaction was maintained at this temperature for a total of 4 hours. pH was regularly monitored and maintained by the addition
potassium hydroxide solution throughout this heating stage maintaining the pH in the region of 7.4
-8Ø The final material was seen to be a viscous waxy gel at 25 C so to this was added deionised water (26.7 g) and the product was offloaded as a clear dark red solution.
Overall yield of the product was approximately 89 gas a 60% active monobenzyl derivative in water. 10065] Example 7: N-oxide derivative of cocoalkylpolyamine [0066] Example 1 (80 g, 0.18 mol) was placed in a jacketed flask along with deionised water (165.2 g), Disscilvine 50 scqucstrant (0.09 g), and potassium hydrogen carbonate (1.43 g). The homogeneous solution was stirred whilst heating to 40 C and the pH of a 10% w/v aqueous solution was measured to be less than 9Ø Hydrogen peroxide solution (40.6 8, 0.36 mol of a 30% w/v solution) was added over a period of 30 minutes with stirring and after the addition, the reaction was held at 40 C for 5 hours. The residual peroxide was measured using peroxide test strips and the temperature was raised, first to 60 C then later to 70 C. The final pH (10% w/v aqueous solution) was found to be 8.1. The product (270 g) was eventually offloaded as a pale yellow aqueous solution at approximately 30% active matter. (0067] Example 8: 13etaine derivative of cocallcylpoyla:mine 1.00681 Example 1 (50 g, 0.11 mol) was placed in a jacketed flask along with deionised water (106.5 g) and the reaction was stirred and heated at 70 'C. An 80% aqueous solution of monochloroacetic acid (1322 g, 0.11 mol) was added followed by a 50% w/w solution of potassium hydroxide (12.55 g). The orange clear liquid was stirred for 20minutes and the pH of a 10% w/v aqueous solution was measured to give a value of 9.62. Potassium hydroxide (50%w/w aqueous solution) was added dropwise to raise the pH to 10.0¨ 10.5 before, the temperature of the reaction was raised to 80 C. The reaction was continued to be heated at 80 C whilst maintaining the pH between 10.0 ¨ 105 for a total of 9 hours after which the pH was raised to 11.0-11.5 to hydrolyse any residual potassium monochloroacetate. The final clear red liquid was adjusted to pH 9.9 -10.0 by addition of glacial acetic acid and the product was offloaded as a red solution (180 g) at approximately 31% active matter. [00691 Example 9: Phosphate ester derivative of cocoalkylpolyamine [0070] Example 1 (50 g, 0.11 mol) was placed in a dry 250m13 necked round bottom flask fitted with a condenser, stirrer, thermocouple and nitrogen inlet. The flask was heated to 60 ¨ 65 C and 117% polyphosphoric acid was added with stirring. The reaction exothermed to 75 C and the dark mobile liquid was stirred whilst being further heated to 120 C. After heating at 120 C for 2.5 hours, the dark coloured solution WaS allowed to cool and when less than 60
C, deionised water
(23.1 g) was added to dilute the material to approximately 70% active matter.
The final product (77 g) was then offloaded as a mObile liquid/gel at 40 C. [00711 Typical preparation of glyphosate salt compositions. [00721 The glyphosate last concentrate was weighed in a 1L volumetric flask to give the required loading of glyphosate acid present as the salt For example, a 450 gIL glyphosate formulation was prepared by weighing 450 grams per liter (g/L) of glyphosate acid present as the potassium salt which is effectively 450 grams acid equivalent per liter (gae/L). The surfactants prepared in
Examples 1 ¨ 9 was added to the flask. Other additives such as glycerol was added to the formulation at this stage. Water was added to volume before the mixture was shaken vigorously. [0073] Table 1: Compatibility study of Examples 1-9 in glyphosate.
Glyphosate (gae/Lr Example (g(L) =
Stable
Water
COmpo- K IPA MEA Glycerol
- (Veit = road.4 sition. ,. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7'
- Salt Salt Salt Salt
Example .
10 450 - - - - = 100- - - - - ;-
- - - qv ' Yes 11 540 - - = .- . - - 100 = - . - - -
- - - qv Yes 12 600 ' - = - - - - = . 100 . ¨ -. - = '
- - -, - qv Yes 13 - 450 - = - . - 100 -- - - - - =
- - - - qv Yes -
14 . - 540 - - - 100 - -. - - -
- - - qv = = Yes 15 - - 450 - ' -. . 100 - . - - - . .
- = .- .qv Yes 16 450. -- = - - . - 100 . - - - - -
- ' - qv Yes 17 540 .... - = - - . - 100 = - - - . -
- - qv Ycs =
= . = 18 600 - - -. . -. - 100 - - '- - - - qv .Yes 19 . - 450 . - - . - - 100 - - -. - -
- - . - qv .Ycs ' ¨540 . - , - . - . - 100 -., ¨
- - - - = ' qv = Yes . 21 : - ' - , 450 - - 100 ' - - -- = - -
- . qv Ycs 22 = 450. - - - - = - - 100 ¨ - - = - - qv Ycs
= 23 .540 - = = - - - - - - 100 - .- = . - - - qv Yes =
24 540 - . - _ - 30 - - - 70 - - .-
- - - qv Yes 25 600 = ' -. - - -; - ' - log. - ¨ - - - qv . Yes 26 ' = . - 450 ' - = -. - - - . - 100 - - - = - = - - = . qv Yes 27 ' = - 540 - - - - -. 100 - 7 - - . qv . Yes 28 . - - 450 ' - = - = = .- - . 100 - . - - - . - = qv = Ycs = 29 450 - . - = - . - . - - - 100 - - - . -. qv Yes 30 540 - , - - = - . - - - 100 . -
- - - ' - - qv ' Yes _____________________________________________________ _ . 31 600 - = - - - - - - 100 - - - - qv Yes = = 32 - 450 - . - - = -= -- - 100 - -. - L qv Yes .
= 33 - 540 - = - - - - - = 100 - - . -. -. qv Yes 34- = - ' 450 , -, - =-. = - - - 100 :- =.: . ¨ - qv Yes 35 450 -- - . - - - . - : 100 - - .
36 ' 540 - - - - - = - - 100 - - -
37 600 - - - - - 100 - - - qv.
38 - 450 - - - - - 100 - - - - qv No 39 - 540 - - - - - 100 - - - - qv No 40 - - 450 - - - - . - - 100 - - - -
360 - - - 100 - - - - - - qv Yes 42 540 - - - - - - - = - 100 - - qv Yes 43 540 - - - - - 162 - - qv Yes 44 540 - - - - - - - - - 100 - qv. Yes 45 540 - - - - - - - - - - 100 qv Yes
Potassium (K); isOpropylarnine (IPA), Monoethanolamine (OA), Ammonium (NH4) [0074] Example 46: Pot Trial Protocol. [00751 (i). Plant propagation. 100761 Oat seeds were sown to 3 centimeter (cm).depth and variegated thistle was sown to 1 cm depth in 10 cm diameter pots filled with potting mix. One week after seedling emergence, seedlings were thinned for uniform size to one seedling per pot. Oats were grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse (14 ¨ 25 C) for 8 days then outdoors for 13 days prior to spray application, to more closely simulate field conditions. Variegated thistle was grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse (14 ¨ 25 .c) for 14 days then outdoors for 23 days prior to spiny application. After the application of herbicides the pots were returned to the greenhouse until harvested for fresh weight [0077] (ii). Herbicide application. . [0078] Herbicide formulations were applied using an enclosed laboratory tracksprayer fitted with = three 1100 flat fan nozzles spaced at 50 cm intervals across theboom. The boom moved along a fixed track at 6 kilometers per hour, sprayed at a water volume of 64 Liters per hectare with a pressure of 200 kPa. For Standard 1, a current commercial herbicide was used (ROUNDUP CT broadacre herbicide (containing glyphosate) that is commercially available from the Monsanto
Company of St. Louis, Missouri). 100791 Assessment. 100801 Visual observations of % control were recorded 10 Days After Treatment (DAT) or 12
DAT. Seedlings were harvested by cutting foliage off at base immediately prior to weighing on a
Sartorius Basic electronic balance (range 0 ¨ 4100 g) 14 DAT, [0081] (iv). Statistical analysis. [00821 Data was analyzed using a factorial design with two factors,
Formulation and Rate. 5% least significant differences (LSD) were calculated for the mean of each treatramt. The greatest herbicidal effect is denoted with alpha code "a" when significantly different to other treatments, which are coded 'b", "c", "d" etc. with decreasing. [0083] (v). Results. [00841 Table 2: Factorial Analysis of Variance & significant differences ¨
Fresh weight (g) 14
DAT on Variegated thistle.
Grams Active ingredient per hectare (gai/ha)
Composition 40 80 160 Formulation mean
UTC 18.30 = ¨
Standard 1 8.72 v-A 6.65 j-q 4.62 bad 6.66 b-e
Standard 2' 8.41 u-z 6.06 g-m 4.44. abc 6.30 abc
Example 10 8.07 s-y 6.05 f-m 4.74 b-e 6.29 abc
Rate mean 8.40 c 6.25 b 4.60 a a. UTC.: Untreated control, b. Standard 1: Commercial herbicide, c. Standard 2: 450 g/L glyphosate acid present as the potassium salt (450 gae/L) and blend of coca and tallowamine ethoxylates (100 [00851 Table 3: Factorial Analysis of Variance table & significant differences 7 Fresh weight (g) 14 DAT on Oats,
Grams Active ingredient per hectare (gal/ha)
Composition 40 80 160 Formulation mean
UTC 4.28
Standard lb 3.34 1-s - 1.07 a-d 0.65 a 1.69 ab
Standard 2b 3.10 i-p 1.06 a-d 0.63 a 1.60 ab
Example 10 3.99 t-w 2.01 e-h 1.05 abc 2.35 de
Rate mean 3.48 c 1.38 b 0.78 a a, UTC: Untreated control, b. Standard 1: Commercial herbicide, c. Standard 2: 450 g/L glyphosate acid present as the potassium salt (450 gae/L) and blend of coco and tallowamine ethoxylates (100
[0086] Table 4: Summary table-ranking of formulations based on fresh weight formulation means.
Composition Variegated Variegated Oat Oat Combined thistle thistle Formulation ranking ranking
Formulation ranking mean. mean
Standard 2' 6.30 abc 2 1.60 ab 1 3
Example 10 6.29 abc 1 2.35. de 3 4
Standard 1b 6.66 b-e 3 1.69 ab 2 5
UTC 18.30 4.28 a. UTC: Untreated control, b. Standard 1: Commercial herbicide, 0. Standard 2:450 g/L glyphosate acid present as the potassium salt (450 gae/L) and blend of coco and tallowamine ethoxylates (100
10087] Example 47: Field Trial protocol. [0088] (i). Site Information and Herbicide Application. [0089] Treatments were applied to awnless barnyard grass (EchinochIca colony) and red pigvveed (Portulaca oleracea) in a no-till fallow to 2.5 x 10 metre plots using a 2 meter hand held boom equipped with 4 XR110015 flat fan nozzles calibrated to deliver 80 Litres per hectare at a ground speed of 6 kilometers per hour and a pressure at the nozzle of 160 kPa.
Standard 3 was
ROUNDUP POWERMAX agricultural herbicide formulation which is commercially available from the Monsanto Company of St Louis;Missouri. Weather details at application arc suntrnarised in Table 5. Conditions were favourable for plant growth' at the time of application though soil moisture had declined significantly over the days leading up to treatment. [0090] Table 5: Application conditions
Temperature Relative humidity Cloud Wind speed/direction 26-29 C 50 ¨ 46 % = 0 12¨ 14 kPa [0091] The weed spectrum targeted was dominated by liverseed (urochloa) grass with awnless barnyard grass and. red pigweed being less prominent (Table 6).
100921 Table 6: Weed details at application
Weed common name Botanical, name Growth stage Size
Liverseed (urochloa) grass Urochloa panicoides 4 leaf- 2 tillers 5- 12 em
Awnless barnyard grass Echinochloa colony 2 - 6 leaf 2 - 7
Red pigweed Portulaca oleracea Vegetative 3 - 8 cm diameter [0093] (ii). Assessments. [0094] Assessments of brownout were undertaken 6 and 14 DAT using a subjective rating where 0-==no effect and 10 (complete brownout. A subjective assessment of control was carried out 21 and 28 (liverseed grass only) DAT using a 0 - 100 scale where ()no control and 100=coraplete
Control. A value of 85 and above was considered as commercially acceptable.
Data was analysed using ARMOD7 software with treatment means being separated on the basis of
Duncan's New
Multiple Range Test a the 5% level of significance. Treatment means are considered statistically = Similar where they share common letters following the value shown [0095] (ill). Seasonal Conditions. [0096] Seasonal conditions were very warm to hot leading up to and following application. While adequate soil moisture was present at the time of treatment, this declined in a few days and unsprayed plants exhibited a moderate level of moisture stress at the time of final assessment. [0097] (iv). Results. [0098] Table 7: Brownout rate of composition prepared in Examples 11, 23, 24 and 43 = Liverseed
Unmoor' Liverseed Liverseed
Pest Name junglerice Red pigweed grass grass grass grass
Days After Treatment 6 I 14 21 21 21 28
Composition Rate Unit % Brownout
INC 0.00 -no 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 dard 3 189 AFJHA 60.00 o-h 76.67 ed 80.06 b = 70.01 .1i-h - 59.07 gh 81.00 b
Stan' 378 G AE/HA 66fi7 b-e 9333 ab 97.33a 90.01 ab _95.00 a
Example 11 318798.00 AE/HA 84313637_1j 9741.6677 dabef 9
O 9601..0670 fa-j 9 731.3637 aftfb 9 755.3030 band
Example 23 1890 AE/HA 4333 hit - 71.67 def 75.06 b 6333 d-i 76.67 od
378 G APHA 68.33 bed 94.6ab 96.00 a 88.33 ab 93.33 ab
189 AE/HA 40.00 ij 65.00 d-g 72.33 b 50.01 hij 74.07 de 61.67 f
Example 24 378 G AB/HA' 66.67 b-e '15.00 be 93.33a 76.67 a-g 90.88 ab
1890 AIHA 40.00 ij 71.67 clef 70.00" b 51.67 hij 68.33 clef
Example 43 189 G AHA 75.00 abc 9333 ab 99,33a 81.67 a-e 95.00 a 9833
a. Vail.= separated by different letters are statistically different at the 5% level of probability according to the Dwican's New MitT Test, b. UTC: Untreated control, c.
Standard 3: Commercial herbicide. [9099] Although the present invention and its advantages have been described in detail, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations may be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. [01001 Where the terms "comprise", "comprises", "comprised" or "comprising" are used in this specification, they are to be interpreted as specifying the presence of the stated features, integers, steps or components referred to, but not to, preclude the presence or addition of one or more other feature, integer, step, component or group th.ereoE