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1. WO2002084607 - ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE (EVM)

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

CLAΓMS
1. An Apparatus for conducting elections for Parliament, State Assembly, Municipal and other local bodies on the majority voting scheme as per constitution of India on secret ballot and one voter-one-vote principle comprising.
a) A control unit having an OTP Micro controller (One time programmable) to collect, record and store, count and display, a non volatile data memory being interfaced serially to the Micro - controller, the said memory stores the data during voting process, the various control signals are generated through the shift register, a power monitoring circuit to generate the reset to the Micro-controller, a seven segment drive-decoder to generate display data, a ballot unit interface along with the necessary connector, all being housed in a housing, the top portion of the control unit being divided in to four sections i.e.,
(i) A display section consisting of two lamps ON to indicate that the machine is ready for use and BUSY to indicate that the voter can record his vote, and the display panels- one of 2 digits and the other of four digits to display the no of candidates, total number of votes polled, individual votes for each candidate and the errors, if any,
(ϋ) Candidate set section divided into two parts, one having "Candidate Set

Button" to set the number of contesting candidates, the other part for carrying the power pack, two doors, one to cover the candidate set button individually and the other which covers the entire section, (ϋi) Result section divided into two parts, one having the close button to close the polling operations, the other part divided into three sub sections wherein result I and Result π buttons and clear buttons are housed, the result buttons are used to display the results and clear button is used to clear the previous voting records, two separate doors, one to lock the result button sub sections and another to cover the entire section and
(iv) Ballot section wherein "ballot button" to permit the voter to cast a vote and total buttons to show the total number of votes polled are housed, and (b) a ballot unit having a base which encloses a printed circuit board and a cover thereof, a connector box for inter connecting cables to the control unit, sixteen push button voting switches (one switch for each contesting candidates), an indicator lamp which glows when the voter is permitted to vote, a slide switch to indicate the ballot unit number.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein multilevel thread sealing provision is made to protect against any possible tampering.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the control unit and ballot unit are made by injection moulded plastic parts, fastenerless heat sealing assembly technique, which provides consistent quality for mass production at economical cost.
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said base comprises of rectangular moulded base providing locating latches, guides for inserting PCB, self tapping bosses to fix PCB, heat sealing pipes to seal door π & III, cutout for accommodating rear door and pips with depression for fixing serial number plate.

5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including cover, rectangular moulded part contains compartments for ballot, total, close, result I, result TJ, cand.set and clear buttons, a cavity to accommodate doors H, door HI & door IV, a compartment for power pack, windows for ON, Serial number, Votes and busy indication, protrusion to hold the rear door, counter bore to fix cover to base at the four locations with self-tapping screws.
6. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said door I is a moulded cover including cutouts to reach result keys form cover, latches to open from inside, lugs for thread sealing to the cover.
7. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said door II is a cover hinged to base and enclosing the close, results and clear button, Slots for latching to base, and slant surface with hole to thread seal to the base.
8. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 including door III comprising moulded panel hinged to base enclosing cand.set switch, power pack compartments, slot for latching to base, and slant surface with hole to thread seal to the base.
9. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 including door IV, comprising moulded cover hinged to the main cover and enclosing cand.set swich and lugs for thread sealing to the cover.

10. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein a panel enclosing the out going connector compartment, rotates and opens out for inter-connection, latch and thread sealing lugs on both sides.
11. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including spacers for sandwich mounting of PCB between base and cover.
12. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including the construction of recessed switch knob to ensure deliberate pressing by voter to record the votes.
13. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said base is a rectangular moulded panel with self tapping holes to fix PCB, provision for fixing stand, compartment for connector inter-connecting and sealing pipes to fix serial number plate.
14. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said base is a rectangular moulded panel with self tapping holes to fix PCB, provision for fixing stand, Compartment for connector inter-connecting and sealing pipes to fix serial number plate.
15. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 including cover, rectangular moulded panel with oblong cutouts to operate switch knob to register the vote, stepped slot to fit cover ballot sheet, slots to hold right and left flops at extreme corners and pips for fixing hinges at the bottom side.
16. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 including PCB cover, rectangular panel enclosing the PCB and provided fixing holes for inserting sixteen sets of switch and close knobs.

17. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including cover ballot sheet, transparent cover for inserting paper containing name, serial number and election symbol of contesting candidates, fixed to cover with round latch for easy rotation.
18. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including switch knob and closing knob constructed in that form to operate one at a time in the oblong opening, the construction of movement of one knob brings other knob into position.
19. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including flap right and left enclosing latch of main cover and provided with thread sealing slots to cover and base to protect against possible tampering by the voters.
20. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including door connector box, moulded cover enclosing rear compartment to protect cascading connector and cable.
21. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, including the signal integrity established between Micro-controller, Data memory and ballot unit so that these three will work in unified manner.
22. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including the construction of Battery pack in moulded case with polarised plug, which is unique and fool proof that different battery cannot be used along with Low battery indication means to facilitate replacement of battery at any stage of polling process and the process can be continued without any loss of voting data.
23, Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including the powering scheme of ballot units from the control unit, which gives a unique nature of signal integrity (Scanning process) for the machine, high current drivers used to drive the ballot unit to cater to the twenty-meter distance between the polling officer and voting compartment and the slide switch setting in ballot unit makes it unique and cannot be interchanged during poll.
24. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including the method Micro-Controller (OTP) used to store the firmware, which cannot be changed or modified once fused, the non volatile data memory (EEPROM) is tightly coupled to the micro-controller through unique protocol to store the data during the voting process, and every time the micro-controller checks the check sum of the data memory (EEPROM) to establish link to proceed with the voting process, in case of mismatch the machine displays Er message, which eliminates the tampering the microcontroller of EEPROM by replacement of external components.
25. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including the scheme of data memory written in encrypted form and has been split into two banks and the ballot counting is stored in both banks, at every instance of a change in the data memory, the data is stored in two different ways and both are verified to check the correctness of the operation and the data can be decrypted only by the firmware in the microcontroller, hence it is not possible to corrupt firmware of data by any known means.
26. Apparatus as claimed defined in claim 1, including the implementation of effective redundancy scheme with two independent non-volatile memory devices (EEPROM) to store the data, effectively four banks are used to store data and at every operation all the four banks are checked and at-least two banks should contain the correct data as per the firmware's expectations and if data are not found in at-least any of the two banks then a fatal error is declared and the whole unit is unusable at this state.
27. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, including the printing of stored data memory through a printer interface module at any number of times in the life of the machine unless deliberately erased by operating the clear button. This emulates the manual ballot paper method as per the constitutional requirements.
28. Apparatus as defined in claim 1, including the unidirectional operational sequence of Machine in which
a) Contesting candidate setting cannot be changed unless the result is seen once,
b) Votes cannot be cast on the machine unless it is in the cleared condition (Previous voting data erased),
c) Votes cannot be added to the machine once it is closed (by pressing the close button),
d) Result cannot be seen unless the machine is closed,
e) The machine cannot be cleared unless the result is seen at least once and the clearing operation requires the ballot unit inter connection, which eliminates accidental erasing.

9. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 including the regulation of voting in which the machine accepts maximum of 5 votes per minute and this feature discourages rigging and both capturing.