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1. WO2020139881 - METAL-AIR CELLS WITH MINIMAL AIR ACCESS

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A battery comprising an air cathode, an anode, an aqueous electrolyte, and a housing, wherein:

the battery is a size 13 metal-air battery;

the housing comprises one or more air access ports defining a vent area;

the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.050 mm2 to about 0.115 mm2; and

the aqueous electrolyte comprises an amphoteric fluorosurfactant.

2. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is about 0.05 mm2 to about 0.10 mm2.

3. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.060 mm2 to about 0.950 mm2.

4. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.060 mm2 to about 0.085 mm2.

5. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.07 mm2 to about 0.09 mm2.

6. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.08 mm2 to about 0.085 mm2.

7. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the anode comprises zinc.

8. The battery of Claim 1 further comprising a carbon dioxide scrubbing agent.

9. The battery of Claim 8, wherein the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent comprises lithium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, lithium peroxide, an amine, or an olivine.

10. The battery of Claim 8, further comprising an air diffusion pad and the air diffusion pad comprises the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent.

11. The battery of Claim 8, further comprising an interior surface of the housing

comprising a coating of the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent.

12. The battery of Claim 8, further comprising an air reservoir defined by the housing and an air diffusion layer within the battery, and the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent is deposited on a surface of the air reservoir as a powder or film.

13. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the amphoteric fluorosurfactant comprises a short- chain perfluoro substituent that cannot break down to perfluorooctanoic acid.

14. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the amphoteric fluorosurfactant comprises a betaine functionality.

15. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the amphoteric fluorosurfactant comprises a

compound of Formula (I):


wherein

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, and R8 are each independently a hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, or cycloalkyl group;

X1 is -C(O)-, -SO2-, -C(0)NRa-, -S02NRa-, -CO2-, or -SO2O-;

Ra is H or an alkyl group;

m and p are each independently 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; and

n and r are each independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

16. The battery of Claim 15, wherein

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each H;

R7 and R8 are each independently C1-C4 alkyl;

X1 is SO2 or -S02NRa;

Ra is H;

n is 2 or 3;

p is 2, 3, 4, or 5;

m is 3, 4, 5, or 6; and

r is 1.

17. The battery of Claim 15, wherein

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each H;

R7 and R8 are each independently C1-C4 alkyl;

X1 is SO2;

n and p are 2;

m is 4, 5, or 6; and

r is 1.

18. The battery of Claim 1, wherein the aqueous electrolyte comprises a surfactant

system.

19. The battery of Claim 18, wherein the surfactant system comprises the amphoteric fluorosurfactant.

20. The battery of Claim 19, wherein the surfactant system comprises CHEMGUARD®

S-l l l, CHEMGUARD® S-500, CAPSTONE® FS-50, CAPSTONE® FS-51, APFS-14, DYNAX DX3001, ZONYL® FSK, ZONYL® FS-500, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

21. The battery of any one of Claims 1-20, wherein the aqueous electrolyte further

comprises lithium hydroxide.

22. The battery of Claim 21, wherein the aqueous electrolyte comprises about 500 ppm to about 20,000 ppm lithium hydroxide.

23. A battery comprising an air cathode, an anode, an aqueous electrolyte, and a housing, wherein:

the battery is a size 312 metal-air battery;

the housing comprises one or more air access ports defining a vent area;

the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.03 mm2 to about 0.08 mm2; and

the aqueous electrolyte comprises an amphoteric fluorosurfactant.

24. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.04 mm2 to about 0.07 mm2.

25. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.04 mm2 to about 0.06 mm2.

26. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the total vent area defined by all of the air access ports is from about 0.04 mm2 to about 0.05 mm2.

27. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the anode comprises zinc.

28. The battery of Claim 23 further comprising a carbon dioxide scrubbing agent.

29. The battery of Claim 28, wherein the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent comprises lithium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, lithium peroxide, an amine, or an olivine.

30. The battery of Claim 28, further comprising an air diffusion pad and the air diffusion pad comprises the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent.

31. The battery of Claim 28, further comprising an interior surface of the housing

comprising a coating of the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent.

32. The battery of Claim 28, further comprising an air reservoir defined by the housing and an air diffusion layer within the battery, and the carbon dioxide scrubbing agent is deposited on a surface of the air reservoir as a powder or film.

33. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the amphoteric fluorosurfactant comprises a short- chain perfluoro substituent that cannot break down to perfluorooctanoic acid.

34. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the amphoteric fluorosurfactant comprises a betaine functionality.

35. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the amphoteric fluorosurfactant comprises a

compound of Formula (I):

wherein

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, and R8 are each independently a hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, or cycloalkyl group;

X1 is -C(O)-, -SO2-, -C(0)NRa-, -S02NRa-, -CO2-, or -SO2O-;

Ra is H or an alkyl group;

m and p are each independently 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; and

n and r are each independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

36. The battery of Claim 35, wherein

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each H;

R7 and R8 are each independently C1-C4 alkyl;

X1 is SO2 or -S02NRa;

Ra is H;

n is 2 or 3;

p is 2, 3, 4, or 5;

m is 3, 4, 5, or 6; and

r is 1.

37. The battery of Claim 35, wherein

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 are each H;

R7 and R8 are each independently C1-C4 alkyl;

X1 is SO2;

n and p are 2;

m is 4, 5, or 6; and

r is 1.

38. The battery of Claim 23, wherein the aqueous electrolyte comprises a surfactant

system.

39. The battery of Claim 38, wherein the surfactant system comprises the amphoteric fluorosurfactant.

40. The battery of Claim 38, wherein the surfactant system comprises CHEMGUARD®

S-l l l, CHEMGUARD® S-500, CAPSTONE® FS-50, CAPSTONE® FS-51, APFS-14, DYNAX DX3001, ZONYL® FSK, ZONYL® FS-500, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

41. The battery of any one of Claims 23-40, wherein the aqueous electrolyte further comprises lithium hydroxide.

42. The battery of Claim 41, wherein the aqueous electrolyte comprises about 500 ppm to about 20,000 ppm lithium hydroxide.