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1. CA2246770 - DUAL-FILTERED ISOLATION VALVE FOR RESUSCITATION

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[ EN ]
DUAL-FILTERED ISOLATION VALVE FOR RESUSCITATION
TECHNICAL FIELD
This invention relates to a valve which isolates a patient from a provider of care when such provider of care attempts to resuscitate such patient by forcing the provider's breath into the patient's lungs.
BACKGROUND ART
A variety of United States and foreign patents have been issued for devices which provide some degree of isolation between a patient and a care provider who is attempting to resuscitate the patient.
These include the following United States patents: 3,158,15?; 3,242,921;
4,520,811; 4,811,730; 4,998,530; 5,005,568: 5,020,529; 5,146,914; 5.295,478; and 5.357,951.
Similar foreign patents are the following: German (DDR) patent no. 53 856.
German (FDR) patent no. 2 203 850. and French patent no. 2 664 167.
DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION
But none of these prior patents provides filters for all pathways that may be taken by breath exhaled by the care provider and the patient while having a path that would enable the often weak incipient breath of a patient to escape from the patient's lungs to the atmosphere even if the care provider is exhaling at the same time. Moreover, none of these prior patents 2~ provides an air-tight seal while allowing rotation between the portion of the valve to which a mouthpiece may be attached for the care provider and the portion of the valve to which a mask or a mouthpiece may be attached for the patient--a movement essential for maximizing comfort for both patient and care provider during often lengthy attempts at resuscitation.
Increased comfort for the i:are provider will usually translate into bc}th a longer period during which resuscitation may he attempted and greater alertness of the care provider during this period. Finally, none of tile prior patents provides two filter segments in the most direct pathway between the patient and the care provider to minimize the possibility of fluid passing between the care provider and the patient while also establishing a space between such filter segments which is large enough to accommodate any fluid that manages to evade one of the filter segments without significantly obstructing the flow r.~f breath from the care provider.
The primary pathway for the exhaled breath of the patient is through the exhalation filter to the atmosphere.
As its name implies, the Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation Val-a for
Resuscitation filters both the air exhaled by the provider of care and the air exhaled by the patient. Moreover, the path of exhaust air from the patient is not required to life any physical object before reaching the atmosphere; so, small, incipient breaths by a patient who had previously ceased breathing will not be retarded. Similarly, the usually stronger breath of the care provider does not act to i 5 close any aperture through which the patient's breath reaches the atmosphere, even if both the provider of care and the patient breathe simultaneously.
To achieve low production costs and to minimize any slight potential for failure, the
Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation Valve for Resuscitation has an extremely simple construction.
There is an upper housing and a lower housing which snap together to permit rotation to achieve the most comfortable and efficient orientation of the upper housing with respect to the provider of care while simultaneously creating the most comfortable and efficient orientation of the lower housing with respect to the patient. Of course, the upper housing is directed toward the care provider: and the lower housing is directed toward the patient. Preferably, the provider of care will utilize a mouthpiece that may be attached to the upper housing while a mask may be connected to the lower housing for the patient.
There are only three other basic components: (a) a flexible diaphragm which includes a check valve, preferably a duck-bill valve, for precluding the exhaled breath of the patient from proceeding through the upper housing to the care provider and which, to form an air-tight seal between the overlapping portions of the upper housing and the lower housing (which overlapping portions necessarily have some space between each other to effect the desired rotatability of the upper housing with respect to the lower housing) through which the unfiltered breath of the patient cannot pass, extends into the space between the overlapping portions of the upper housing and the lower housing; (b) a transmission filter; and (c) an exhalation filter.
The primary purpose of both the transmission filter and the exhalation filter
prevent contaminants associated with bodily fluids of either the care provider or the patient from reaching the other person, i.e., either the care provider or the patient.
Since the most direct potential route for any such cross-contamination is directly between the upper housing and the lower housing, the transmission filter intercepts this route.
Because the check valve precludes the exhaled breath of the patient from proceeding through the upper housing to the care provider. the preferred construction of the transmission filter minimizes the possibility of fluids passing from the care provider to the patient, although it also impedes the movement of fluids in any breath from the patient that may manage to pass the check valve. The transmission filter is constructed' with an upper filter segment, which is on the side of the transmission filter that is upstream with respect to air coming from the care provider, and a lower filter segment, which is on the side of the transmission filter that is downstream with respect to air coming from the care provider. Preferably, the upper filter segment is hydrophobic to repel any moisture in the breath from the care provider. To create a volume where any fluids that manage to evade the upper filter segment may accumulate without significantly obstructing the flow of the care provider's breath, a ring spacer attaches on one side to the upper filter segment and on its opposite side to the lower filter segment. (The center of the ring spacer is hollow to create the desired volume.) To absorb fluids which 2$~ do enter the volume inside the ring spacer. the lower filter segment will be hydrophilic.
Accordingly, in one aspect, the invention provides a dual-filtered rotary isolation valve for resuscitation of patients, the valve comprising an upper housing having an upper tube containing a bore formed by a surrounding upper tube wall, the first end of which upper tube may either be placed directly into a care provider's mouth or
connected to a mouthpiece to be placed into the mouth of the care provider, the second end of which upper tube expands outward to create a top of an upper chamber segment and then returns to its original direction to form a wall of the upper chamber segment having a circular cross section concentrically located with respect to the cross section of the upper tube, the cross section of the upper tube also being circular, and the wall of the upper chamber segment protruding outward at a location between the top of the upper chamber segment and the bottom of the wall of the upper chamber segment to create an annular ridge, a lower housing having a lower tube containing a bore formed by
surrounding lower tube wall, the first end of which lower tube is in a position selected from the group consisting of being placed directly into the patient's mouth, being connected to a mask to be placed around the nose and mouth of the patient, and being attached to a mouthpiece to be inserted into the mouth of the patient, the second end of which lower tube expands outward to create a bottom of a lower chamber segment and then returns to its original direction to form a wall of the lower chamber segment having a circular cross section concentrically located with respect to the cross section of the lower tube, the cross section of the lower tube also being circular, the wall of the lower chamber segment bulging outward to create an annular channel at a location between the bottom of the lower chamber segment and the top of the wall of the lower chamber segment so aligned with the annular ridge in the wall of the upper chamber segment that the lower chamber segment can be snap-fit onto the upper chamber segment, the inner diameter of the wall of the lower chamber segment being slightly greater than the outer diameter of the wall of the upper chamber segment to permit the lower chamber segment to rotate with respect to the upper chamber segment, the inner diameter of the annular channel being slightly greater than the outer diameter of the annular ridge but not so much greater that the lower chamber segment could slip from the upper chamber segment once the lower chamber segment and the upper chamber segment have been snapfit together, one or more apertures existing in the bottom of the lower chamber segment, and an annular step formed at the junction of the bottom of the lower chamber segment and the wall of the lower chamber segment, an exhalation filter placed on the bottom of the lower chamber segment, which exhalation filter contains an aperture that is approximately aligned with the bore of the lower tube, a flexible diaphragm having a check valve near the center of the flexible diaphragm, having a support which rests on the exhalation filter adjacent to the support but covering only the outer edge of the exhalation filter so that the majority of the surface of the exhalation filter that is opposite to the bottom of the lower chamber segment is adjacent to a passage which communicates with the bore of the lower tube, and having an outer edge that extends into the space between the wall of the lower chamber segment and the wall of the upper chamber segment with the bottom of the wall of the upper chamber segment resting on the diaphragm to create an air-tight seal between the upper chamber segment and the lower chamber segment, and a transmission filter, the transmission filter filling the upper chamber segment and being.adjacent to the diaphragm.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
Figure 1 illustrates the Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation Valve with the valve lips closed.
Figure ? portrays the Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation Valve with the valve lips open.
Figure 3 shows the placement of two thin bands across the second end of the upper tube in the Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation Valve.
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
The Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation Valve for Resuscitation, as illustrated in
Figure 1, has an upper housing ( 1 ) and a lower housing (2).
The upper housing ( I ) is a unitary piece having an upper tube (3 j with a bore (4) formed by the surrounding upper tube wall (5). The first end (6) of the upper tube (3) may go
IO directly into the care provider's mouth (not shown) or, preferably, is connected to a mouthpiece (not shown) io be placed into the mouth of the care provider. At the second end (7) of the upper tube (3), thL upper tube wall (S) expands outward to create the top (8) of an upper chamber segment (9) and then returns to its original direction to form the wall (10) of the upper chamber segment (9j. The cross sections of the upper tube (3) and of the upper 1 S chamber segment (9) are both circular and are concentric with one another.
The lower housing (2) is a unitary piece having an lower tube ( 11 ) with a bore ( 12) formed by the surrounding lower tube wall (13). The first end (14) of the lower tube (11 ) may go directly into the patient's mouth (not shown] or. preferably, is connected to a mask (not shown) to be placed around the nose and mouth of the patient, or a mouthpiece (not shown) to 20 be placed into the mouth of the patient. At the second end ( I 5 ) 01~ the lower tube ( 1 1 ), the lower tube wall ( 13 ) expands outward to create the bottom ( 16) of a lower chamber segment (17) and then returns to its original direction to form the wall (18) of the lower chamber segment ( I 7). The cross sections of the lower tube ( I l f and of the lower chamber segment ( I 7) are both circular and are concentric with one another 2~ The inner diameter of the wall ( 18) of the lower chamber segment ( 1 T> is slightly greater than the outer diameter oil the wall ( 10) of the upper chamber segment (9) to permit the lower chamber segment ( 17) to rotate with respect to the upper chamber segment (9).
Additionally. at a location between the bottom (16) of the lower chamber segment (17) and the top ( 19) of the wall ( 18) c>f the lower chamber segment ( I 7 ), the wall ( 18) of the lower chamber segment ( 17) bulges outward to create art annular channel (20).
Similarly, at a location between the top (8) of the upper chamber sel;ment {9) and the bottom {21 ) of the wall (10) of the upper chamber segment (9) aligned with the annular channel (20) in the wall (18) of the lower chamber segment (17), the wall ( 10) of the upper chamber segment (9), protrudes outward to create an annular ridge (22) which fits within the annular channel (20) so that the lower chamber segment {171 can be snap-fit onto the upper chamber segment (9).
Again, however, to permit rotation of the upper chamber segment ( 9) with respect to the lower chamber segment {17), the inner diameter of the annular channel (2()) is slightly greater than the outer diameter of the annular ridge (22) but not so much greater that the lower chamber segment ( 17) could slip from the upper chamber segment (9) once the lower chamber segment (17) and the upper chamber segment (9) have been snap-fit together.
An exhalation filter (23 ) is placed on the bottom ( 16) of the lower chamber segment ( 17). The exhalation filter ( 23 ) contains an aperture (24) which, preferably. aligns with the bore ( 12) of the lower tube ( 11 ). One and, preferably, more apertures (25 ) also exist in the bottom ( 16) of the lower chamber segment ( 17).
At the junction of the bottom (16) of the lower chamber segment (17) and the wall (18) of the lower chamber segment ( 17) is formed an annular step (26). A flexible diaphragm (27) having a check valve (28) near the center of the flexible diaphragm (27) has a support (29) which rests on the exhalation filter (23) adjacent to the support (29) but covers only the outer edge of the exhalation filter .'23 ) so that the majority of the surface (30) of the exhalation filter (23) that is opposite to the bottom {16) of the lower chamber segment (17) is adjacent to a passage (31 ) which communicates with the bore { 12) of the lower tube ( 11 ).
The outer edge (32) of the flexible diaphragm (27) extends into the space (33) between the wall ( 18 ) of the lower chamber segment ( 17) and the wal l ( 10) of the upper chamber segment (9). Moreover, the bottom (21 ) of the wall ( 10 ) of the upper chamber segment (9) rests on the diaphragm (27 f. Thus, the diaphragm (27) forms an air-tight seal between the upper chamber segment (9i and the lower chamber segment (I7).
Filling the upper chamber segment (9) and adjacent to the diaphragm (27) is the transmission filter (34).
The transmission filter (34) has an upper filter segment (35) and a lower filter segment (36). The upper filter segment {35) is adjacent to the top (8) of the upper chamber segment {9); the lower filter segment (36) is adjacent to the diaphragm (27). An annular spacer (37) separates the upper filter segment (35) from the lower filter segment (36) and thereby creates air space (38).
When the care provider exhales into the upper tube {3). the breath of the care provider passes through the bore (4) of the upper tube (3), through the upper filter segment (35), through the air space (38), through the lower filter segment (36), through the check valve (28), through the bore ( 12) of the lower tube ( 11 ), and into the mouth and lungs of the patient.
Since. as observed above. the path described in the immediately preceding paragraph is the most direct potential route for any contaminants associated with bodily fluids to pass between the care provider and the patient, the check valve (28) has been inserted to preclude 1 ~ the patient's exhaled breath from traveling from the Lower tube ( 11) to the upper tube (3)
Because the check valve (~ 8) necessarily permits the exhaled breath of the care provider to pass from the upper tube {3 ) to the lower tube ( 11 ) in order to accomplish the desired resuscitation of the patient. the transmission filter (34) is so constructed as to minimize the possibility of fluids passing from the upper tube (3) to the lower tube {1l), although the transmission filter (34) also impedes the travel of fluids from the lower tube ( 1 l ) to the upper tube (3) in the event that any exhaled breath from the patient should manage to pass the check valve (28). The upper filter segment (35) is, therefore, preferably hydrophobic to repel any moisture in the breath from the care provider while the lower filter segment (36) is preferably hydrophilic to absorb any fluid that evades the upper filter segment (35) and enters the air ?s space {38).
The air space (38). Furthermore. creates a volume where fluids may accumulate without significantly obstructing the flow of the care provider's breath.
WO 97/24153 PCTlEJS96/20794
As mentioned above, the check valve (28) is preferably a duck-bill valve. And, preferably, the valve lips (31>) axially extend into the bore (I2) of lower tube (11) to maximize the possibility that most of the breath exhaled by the care giver will travel into lower tube { 11 ) rather than escaping into the passage (31) and then through the apertures {25) into the atmosphere.
On the contrary, when the' patient exhales, the exhaled breath from the patient will pass through the Lower tube ( 11 ), into the passage (31 ), through the apertures (25), and into the atmosphere. If the care provider is not exhaling into the Dual-filtered Rotary
Isolation Valve at the same time as the patient exhales, the valve lips (39) will remain closed so that the only route available to the patient's breath will be that course describe in the preceding sentence.
If, however, the care provider exhales into the Dual-filtered Rotary Isolation
Valve at the same time as the patient exhales, the valve lips {39) will open. as illustrated in
Figure 2, only if the breath from the care provider is stronger than the breath from the patient. In such a case, the patient's breath will still be able to follow the route described at the beginning of this paragraph and will not pass through the check valve (28) because of the stronger fluid dynamic force of the care provider's breath. With the valve lips ( 39) constructed so that such valve Lips (39) cannot open wide enough to reach the tube wall ( 13 ) of the lower tube
improbable that breath of the care provider will be strong enough to force the patient's breath back into the patient's lung,.
Since the patient's breath is likely to reach the atmosphere. the exhalation filter (23) intercepts the patient's breath before such breath passes through the apertures (25). Preferably. the exhalation filter (23) is hydrophobic to repel any fluids within the breath of the patient.
The ability of the lower chamber segment ( 17 i to rotate with respect to the upper chamber segment (9) will, when a mouthpiece (not shown] is attached to the first end (6) of the upper tube (3) and a mask is connected to the second end {1 ~) of the lower tube (11 j. permit achieving the most comfortable and efficient orientation of the upper housing ( 1 ) with respect to the provider csf care while simultaneously creating the most comfortable and efficient orientation of the lower housing (2 ) with respect to the patient.
And. as mentioned previously, the extension of the diaphragm (27) into the space (33) between the wall (18) of the lower chamber segment ( 17) and the wall ( 10) c}f the upper chamber segment (9) permits the desired rotation while simultaneously creating an air-tight seal between the upper chamber segment (9) and the lower chamber segment (17) so that the patient's exhaled breath cannot _5 escape through the space (33 ).
Finally, as illustrated in Figure 3, to preclude damage to the transmission filter (34) while minimizing the resistance to the flow of air through the upper tube (3), two thin bands (40) are preferably placed parallel to one another across the second end (7) of the upper tube {3) and connected to the tube wall (5) of the upper tube (3 s.
INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY'
the way in which the dual-filtered rotary isolation valve for resuscitation is capable of exploitation in industry and the way in which the dual-filtered rotary isolation valve for resuscitation can be made and used are obvious from the description and the nature of the 1 S dual-filtered rotary isolation valve for resuscitation.