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1. WO2020142610 - SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FRAMEWORK OF L1-SINR MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FRAMEWORK OF Ll-SINR MEASUREMENT

AND REPORTING

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of PCT/CN2019/070448, filed January 4,

2019, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Various embodiments generally may relate to the field of wireless

communications.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[0003] The summary provides a brief description of one or more of embodiments and/or examples found within this disclosure. Some embodiments of this disclosure include apparatuses and methods for framework of layer 1 signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (Ll-SINR) measurement and reporting based on channel measurement and interference measurement.

[0004] Some embodiments are directed to a user equipment (UE) including processor circuitry and radio front end circuitry. The radio front end circuitry is configured to receive from an access node (AN) with one or more antenna ports, a first set of reference signal (RS) resources and a second set of RS resources over one or more UE antenna ports. The first set and the second set of RS resources are received in a same beam from the AN. The processor circuitry is coupled to the radio front end circuitry and is configured to perform a channel measurement on the first set of RS resources and perform an interference measurement on the second set of RS resources, where each of the second set of RS resources is mapped to each of the first set of RS resources. The processor circuitry can determine an Ll-SINR based on the channel measurement and the interference measurement. The Ll-SINR can be determined from a first RS resource of the first set of RS resources and a second RS resource of the send set of RS resources, where the first RS resource is mapped to the second RS resource. The processor circuitry can generate a message including the Ll-SINR, which can be transmitted to the AN by the radio front end circuitry.

[0005] Some embodiments are directed to a method including receiving from an access node (AN) a first set of reference signal (RS) resources and a second set of RS resources over one or more UE antenna ports, performing a channel measurement on the first set of RS resources, performing an interference measurement on the second set of RS resources, and determining a layer 1 si gnal -to-interference plus noise ratio (Ll-SINR) based on the channel measurement and the interference measurement. The AN can include one or more antenna ports, and the first set and the second set of RS resources are received in a same beam. Each of the second set of RS resources is mapped to each of the first set of RS resources. The Ll-SINR can be determined from a first RS resource of the first set of RS resources and a second RS resource of the second set of RS resources, where the first RS resource is mapped to the second RS resource. The method further includes generating a message including the Ll-SINR and transmitting the message including the Ll-SINR to the AN.

[0006] Some embodiments are directed to non -transitory computer-readabl e medium

having instructions executable by at least one processor. The instructions cause the at least one processor to receive from an access node (AN) a first set of reference signal (RS) resources and a second set of RS resources over one or more UE antenna ports, perform a channel measurement on the first set of RS resources, perform an interference measurement on the second set of RS resources, determine a layer 1 signal -to-interference plus noise ratio (Ll-SINR) based on the channel measurement and the interference measurement, generate a message including the Ll-SINR, and transmit the message including the Ll-SINR to the AN. The AN can include one or more antenna ports, and the first set and the second set of RS resources are received in a same beam. Each of the second set of RS resources is mapped to each of the first set of RS resources. The Ll- SINR is determined from a first RS resource of the first set of RS resources and a second RS resource of the second set of RS resources, where the first RS resource is mapped to the second RS resource.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0007] Figure 1 depicts the cumulative distribution function of SINR for micro dense urban environment in accordance with some embodiments.

[0008] Figure 2 depicts a cumulative distribution function of SINR for indoor hotspot in accordance with some embodiments.

[0009] Figure 3 depicts an Ll-SINR measurement scenario in accordance with some embodiments.

[0010] Figures 4A and 4B depict RS mapping for Ll-SINR measurement in accordance with some embodiments.

[0011] Figure 5 depicts an architecture of a system of a network in accordance with some embodiments.

[0012] Figure 6A depicts an architecture of a system including a first core network in accordance with some embodiments.

[0013] Figure 6B depicts an architecture of a system including a second core network in accordance with some embodiments.

[0014] Figure 7 A depicts an example of infrastructure equipment in accordance with various embodiments.

[0015] Figure 7B depi cts example components of a computer platform in accordance with various embodiments

[0016] Figure 8 depicts example components of baseband circuitry and radio frequency circuitry in accordance with various embodiments.

[0017] Figure 9 is an illustration of various protocol functions that may be used for

various protocol stacks in accordance with various embodiments.

[0018] Figure 10 depicts a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable or computer- readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein.

[0019] Figure 11 illustrates a flowchart according to embodiments of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0020] The following detailed description refers to the accompanying drawings. The same reference numbers may be used in different drawings to identify the same or similar elements. In the following description, for purposes of expl anation and not limitation, specific details are set forth such as particular structures, architectures, interfaces, techniques, etc. in order to provide a thorough understanding of the various aspects of various embodiments. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure that the various aspects of the various embodiments may be practiced in other examples that depart from these specific details. In certain instances, descriptions of well-known devices, circuits, and methods are omitted so as not to obscure the descripti on of the various embodiments with unnecessary detail. For the purposes of the present document, the phrase“A or B” means (A), (B), or (A and B).

[0021] In Rel-15, the beam measurement and reporting is based on Layer 1 Reference

Signal Receiving Power (Ll-RSRP). HE can measure Ll-RSRP for multiple

Synchronization Signal Blocks (SSBs) or Channel State Information Reference Signal (CSI-RS) resources, which are configured by higher layer signaling. However, Ll -RSRP cannot reflect the interference status for a UE beam. In Rel-16, the Layer 1 Signal-to- Interference plus Noise (Ll-SINR) is going to be specified for beam measurement and reporting.

[0022] The Ll-SINR measurement can include two parts: channel measurement and interference measurement. The channel measurement can be based on SSB or CSI-RS, which is similar to Ll-RSRP measurement. For interference measurement (IM), one possible way is to be based on the same reference signal (RS) for channel measurement (CM), then in one example the Ll-SINR can be calculated by:


Where hk indicates the estimated channel for sub carrier k for RS for CM; rk indicates the receiving signal for sub carrier k for RS for CM; KN indicates the total number of subcarriers for RS for CM.

[0023] In another option, dedicated IM Resource (IMR) can be configured, then gNB can transmit some interference signal to corresponding IMR, so that UE can measure the Ll- SINR based on the interference, so that interference mismatch can be avoided.

[0024] Figure 1 and Figure 2 illustrates simulation results for the beam selection for the following options:

[0025] Option 1 : beam selection based on Ll-RSRP;

[0026] Option 2: beam selection based on Ll-SINR with interference mismatch; and

[0027] Option 3 : beam selection based on LI -SINR with aligned interference.

[0028] It can be observed that with aligned interference, Ll-SINR based beam selection outperforms Ll-RSRP based beam selection. Then to create aligned interference, to configure a dedicate resource for IM could be desirable. Therefore, configuring a resource for IM for Ll-SINR is also desirable.

[0029] Further as shown in Figure 3, given there are M ports 306 generating downlink reference signals and the UE uses N receiving ports 308 to receive the downlink reference signals as well as a dedicated IM resource, how to measure and report Ll-SINR for multi - port cases could be desirable. For example, the M ports 306 can be antenna ports of the AN, and the N ports 308 can be the antenna ports of the UE.

[0030] In this disclosure, some methods for Ll-SINR based beam measurement and

reporting are proposed including:

[0031] Framework for Ll-SINR based beam measurement and reporting; and

[0032] Ll-SINR measurement based on multiple antenna ports.

Framework for Ll-SINR based beam measurement and reporting

[0033] To measure interference, one possible way is to configure some zero-power (ZP) resources - CSI-IM resources. Another possible way is to configure some non-zero- power (NZP) resources.

[0034] In an embodiment, for a CSI report configuration for Ll-SINR reporting, CSI-IM and/or NZP reference signal can be configured, where the NZP reference signal could be CSI-RS or SSB, or CSI-RS only.

[0035] In one option, in a CSI report configuration, X SSB or CSI-RS resources for CM can be configured, and Y CSI-IM resources can be configured. The UE shall expect X equals to Y and the RS for CM and CSI-IM should be one-to-one mapped so that one Ll- SINR should be measured from one RS for CM and one CSI-IM.

[0036] In another option, in a CSI report configuration, X SSB or CSI-RS resources for

CM, and Z NZP RS for IM can be configured. The UE shall expect X equals to Z and the RS for CM and NZP RS for IM are one-to-one mapped. Thus one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM and one NZP RS for IM.

[0037] In another option, in a CSI report configuration, X SSB or CSI-RS resources for

CM, and Z NZP RS sets for IM can be configured, where each NZP RS set can include Z’ RS resources. The UE shall expect X equals to Z and the RS for CM and NZP RS set for IM are one-to-one mapped. Thus one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM and RS resources in a NZP resource set for IM.

[0038] In another option, in a CSI report configuration, both CSI-IM and NZP RS for IM can be configured, and one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM, one CSI-IM and RS resources in a NZP resource set for IM or NZP RS for IM. In one example, the SINR can be measured by:


[0039] Where hk x is the estimated channel in subcarrier k for RS resource x for CM; rk y is the receiving signal in subcarrier k for CSI-IM resource y; rk s z is the receiving signal in subcarrier k for NZP RS for IM resource s in resource set z; Kx indicates total number of subcarriers for RS resource x for CM; Jy refers to total number of subcarriers for CSI- IM resource y; Ls z denotes NZP IM resource s in resource set z.

[0040] Figures 4A and 4B illustrate the mapping between RS for CM, CSI-IM as well as

NZP RS for IM. For example, as shown in Figures 4A and 4B, RS for CM 404/414 can be reference signal resources for channel measurement. CSI-IM 402/412 can be dedicated channel state information resources for interference measurement. NZP RS for IM

406/416 can be non-zero-power reference signal resources for interference measurement. According to some embodiments, in option 1 of Figure 4A, each RS resource in CSI IM 402 can be mapped to each RS resource in RS for CM 404, and mapped to each NZP RS for IM 406; for example, in the same beam and/or quasi co-located. According to some embodiments, in option 2 of Figure 4B, NZP RS for IM can include multiple sets of RS resources, for example 4. Each set of NZP RS for IM can be mapped to each RS resource of RS for CM, and each RS resource of CSI-IM; for example, in the same beam and/or quasi co-located.

[0041] In another embodiment, the UE shall use the same Rx beam to receive a group of

RS for CM, CSI-IM as well as NZP RS for IM, which is used to measure a Ll-SINR. Thus those RS resources should be Quasi Co-Located (QCLed) with spatial receiving parameters (QCL-typeD). Alternatively for a UE with multiple antenna panels (antenna ports groups), the Ll-SINR should be measured from the same antenna panel(s) with the same Rx beam.

[0042] In another embodiment, the same time domain behavior, e.g. periodic, aperiodic or semi-persistent, should be configured for RS for CM, CSI-IM and NZP RS for IM in a CSI report configuration or within a group to measure one Ll-SINR. Further the periodic Ll-SINR reporting should be measured based on periodic RS for CM and IM, semi- persistent Ll-SINR reporting can be measured based on periodic RS for CM and IM or semi-persistent RS for CM and IM, and aperiodic Ll-SINR reporting can be measured from periodic or semi-persistent or aperiodic RS for CM and IM.

[0043] In another embodiment, UE shall expect at least one CSI-IM resource or NZP RS for IM is configured for a RS for CM. Alternatively, if no CSI-IM or NZP RS for IM is associated with a RS for CM, or the CSI-IM or NZP RS associated with the RS for CM are not QCLed with QCL-typeD, UE shall fallback to measure interference based on RS for CM.

Ll-SINR measurement based on multiple antenna ports

[0044] For reference signal configured with M ports and UE with N ports, the following embodiments are provided on Ll-SINR measurement.

[0045] In another embodiment, for channel measurement from M ports CSI-RS, the following options are provided to determine the Ll-SINR:

[0046] Option 1 : only 1 port CSI-RS can be configured for channel measurement;

[0047] Option 2: LI -SINR is based on the maximum Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS;

[0048] Option 3: Ll-SINR is based on the minimum Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS;

[0049] Option 4: Ll-SINR is based on averaging of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from M ports CSI-RS; and

[0050] Option 5: Ll-SINR is based on non-uniform selection of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from M ports CSI-RS ports and the weights are chosen based on the channel quality, where the proportion could be larger if the channel quality is quite good.

[0051] In another embodiment, for interference measurement from M ports NZP CSI-RS, the following options are provided to determine the Ll-SINR:

[0052] Option 1 : only 1 port CSI-RS can be configured for interference measurement;

[0053] Option 2: Ll-SINR is based on the maximum interference measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS;

[0054] Option 3: Ll-SINR is based on the minimum interference measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS;

[0055] Option 4: Ll-SINR is based on averaging of interference measured from M ports

CSI-RS; and

[0056] Option 5: Ll-SINR is based on non-uniform selection of interference measured from M ports CSI-RS ports and the weights are chosen based on the channel quality, where the proportion could be larger if the channel quality is quite good.

[0057] In an embodiment, for Ll-SINR measurement from N UE antenna ports, the

following options are provided to determine the Ll-SINR:

[0058] Option 1 : Ll-SINR is based on the maximum Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports;

[0059] Option 2: Ll-SINR is based on the minimum Ll -RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports;

[0060] Option 3: Ll-SINR is based on averaging of RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports;

[0061] Option 4: Ll-SINR is measured from 1 UE port, which can be predefined or

configured by higher layer signaling; and

[0062] Option 5: Ll-SINR is based on non-uniform selection of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports and the weights are chosen based on the channel quality, where the proportion could be larger if the channel quality is quite good.

[0063] The subset of UE ports could be the UE ports from one UE panel or a UE ports group.

[0064] Components and devices that may be used to implement the RS receiving, Ll- SINR measuring and reporting are shown in the systems and implementations Figures below.

Systems and Implementations

[0065] Figure 5 illustrates an example architecture of a system 500 of a network, in

accordance with various embodiments. The following description is provided for an example system 500 that operates in conjunction with the LTE system standards and 5G or NR system standards as provided by 3 GPP technical specifications. However, the example embodiments are not limited in this regard and the described embodiments may apply to other networks that benefit from the principles described herein, such as future 3 GPP systems (e.g., SiSh Generation (6G)) systems, IEEE 802.16 protocols (e.g., WMAN, WiMAX, etc ), or the like.

[0066] As shown by Figure 5, the system 500 includes UE 501a and UE 501b

(collectively referred to as“UEs 501” or“UE 501”). In this example, UEs 501 are illustrated as smartphones (e.g., handheld touchscreen mobile computing devices connectable to one or more cellular networks), but may also comprise any mobile or non- mobile computing device, such as consumer electronics devices, cellular phones, smartphones, feature phones, tablet computers, wearable computer devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), pagers, wireless handsets, desktop computers, laptop computers, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), in-car entertainment (ICE) devices, an

Instrument Cluster (IC), head-up display (HUD) devices, onboard diagnostic (OBD) devices, dashtop mobile equipment (DME), mobile data terminals (MDTs), Electronic Engine Management System (EEMS), electronic/engine control units (ECUs), el ectroni c/ engi ne control modules (ECMs), embedded systems, microcontrollers, control modules, engine management systems (EMS), networked or“smart” appliances, MTC devices, M2M, IoT devices, and/or the like.

[0067] In some embodiments, any of the UEs 501 may be IoT UEs, which may comprise a network access layer designed for low-power IoT applications utilizing short-lived UE connections. An IoT UE can utilize technologies such as M2M or MTC for exchanging data with an MTC server or device via a PLMN, ProSe or D2D communication, sensor networks, or IoT networks. The M2M or MTC exchange of data may be a machine- initiated exchange of data. An IoT network describes interconnecting IoT UEs, which may include uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices (within the Internet infrastructure), with short-lived connections. The IoT UEs may execute background

applications (e.g., keep-alive messages, status updates, etc.) to facilitate the connections of the loT network.

[0068] The UEs 501 may be configured to connect, for example, communicatively

couple, with an or RAN 510. In embodiments, the RAN 510 may be an NG RAN or a 5G RAN, an E-UTRAN, or a legacy RAN, such as a UTRAN or GERAN. As used herein, the term“NG RAN” or the like may refer to a RAN 510 that operates in an NR or 5G system 500, and the term“E-UTRAN” or the like may refer to a RAN 510 that operates in an LTE or 4G system 500. The UEs 501 utilize connections (or channels) 503 and 504, respectively, each of which comprises a physical communications interface or layer (discussed in further detail below).

[0069] In this example, the connections 503 and 504 are illustrated as an air interface to enable communicative coupling, and can be consistent with cellular communications protocols, such as a GSM protocol, a CDMA network protocol, a PTT protocol, a POC protocol, a UMTS protocol, a 3 GPP LTE protocol, a 5G protocol, a NR protocol, and/or any of the other communications protocols discussed herein. In embodiments, the UEs 501 may directly exchange communication data via a ProSe interface 505. The ProSe interface 505 may alternatively be referred to as a SL interface 505 and may comprise one or more logical channels, including but not limited to a PSCCH, a PS SOI, a PSDCH, and a PSBCH.

[0070] The UE 501b is shown to be configured to access an AP 506 (also referred to as “WLAN node 506,”“WLAN 506,”“WLAN Termination 506,”“WT 506” or the like) via connection 507. The connection 507 can comprise a local wireless connection, such as a connection consistent with any IEEE 802.11 protocol, wherein the AP 506 would comprise a wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi®) router. In this example, the AP 506 is shown to be connected to the Internet without connecting to the core network of the wireless system (described in further detail below). In various embodiments, the UE 501b, RAN 510, and AP 506 may be configured to utilize LWA operation and/or LWIP operation. The LWA operation may involve the UE 501b in RRC__CONNECTED being configured by a RAN node 51 la-b to utilize radio resources of LTE and WLAN. LWIP operation may involve the UE 501b using WLAN radio resources (e.g., connection 507) via IPsec protocol tunneling to authenticate and encrypt packets (e.g., IP packets) sent over the connection 507. IPsec tunneling may include encapsulating the entirety of original IP packets and adding a new packet header, thereby protecting the original header of the IP packets.

[0071] The RAN 510 can include one or more AN nodes or RAN nodes 511a and 51 lb

(collectively referred to as“RAN nodes 51 1” or“RAN node 51 1”) that enable the connections 503 and 504. As used herein, the terms“access node,”“access point,” or the like may describe equipment that provides the radio baseband functions for data and/or voice connectivity between a network and one or more users. These access nodes can be referred to as BS, gNBs, RAN nodes, eNBs, NodeBs, RSUs, TRxPs or TRPs, and so forth, and can comprise ground stations (e g., terrestrial access points) or satellite stations providing coverage within a geographic area (e.g., a cell). As used herein, the term“NG RAN node” or the like may refer to a RAN node 511 that operates in an NR or 5G system 500 (for example, a gNB), and the term“E-UTRAN node” or the like may refer to a RAN node 51 1 that operates in an LTE or 4G system 500 (e.g., an eNB). According to various embodiments, the RAN nodes 511 may be implemented as one or more of a dedicated physical device such as a macrocell base station, and/or a low power (LP) base station for providing femtocells, pi cocells or other like cells having smaller coverage areas, smaller user capacity, or higher bandwidth compared to macrocells.

[0072] In some embodiments, all or parts of the RAN nodes 511 may be i mplemented as one or more software entities running on server computers as part of a virtual network, which may be referred to as a CRAN and/or a virtual baseband unit pool (vBBUP). In these embodiments, the CRAN or vBBUP may implement a RAN function split, such as a PDCP split wherein RRC and PDCP layers are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and other L2 protocol entities are operated by individual RAN nodes 511; a MAC/PHY split wherein RRC, PDCP, RLC, and MAC layers are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and the PHY layer is operated by individual RAN nodes 511; or a“lower PHY” split wherein RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC layers and upper portions of the PHY layer are operated by the CR AN/vBBUP and lower portions of the PHY layer are operated by individual RAN nodes 511. This virtualized framework allows the freed-up processor cores of the RAN nodes 511 to perform other virtualized applications. In some implementations, an individual RAN node 511 may represent individual gNB -DU s that are connected to a gNB-CU via individual F 1 interfaces (not shown by Figure 5). In these implementations, the gNB -DU s may include one or more remote radio heads or RFEMs (see, e.g., Figure 7 A), and the gNB-CU may be operated by a server that is located in the RAN 510 (not shown) or by a server pool in a similar manner as the CRAN/vBBUP. Additionally or alternatively, one or more of the RAN nodes 511 may be ne8 generation eNBs (ng-eNBs),

which are RAN nodes that provide E-UTRA user plane and control plane protocol terminations toward the UEs 501, and are connected to a 5GC (e.g., CN 6220 of Figure 6B) via an NG interface (discussed infra).

[0073] In V2X scenarios one or more of the RAN nodes 511 may be or act as RSUs. The term“Road Side Unit” or“RSU” may refer to any transportation infrastructure entity used for V2X communications. An RSU may be implemented in or by a suitable RAN node or a stationary (or relatively stationary) UE, where an RSU implemented in or by a UE may be referred to as a“UE-type RSU,” an RSU implemented in or by an eNB may be referred to as an“eNB-type RSU,” an RSU implemented in or by a gNB may be referred to as a“gNB-type RSU,” and the like. In one example, an RSU is a computing device coupled with radio frequency circuitry located on a roadside that provides connectivity support to passing vehicle UEs 501 (vUEs 501). The RSU may also include internal data storage circuitry to store intersection map geometry, traffic statistics, media, as well as applications/software to sense and control ongoing vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The RSU may operate on the 5.9 GHz Direct Short Range Communications (DSRC) band to provide very low latency communications required for high speed events, such as crash avoidance, traffic warnings, and the like. Additionally or alternatively, the RSU may operate on the cellular V2X band to provide the

aforementioned low latency communications, as well as other cellular communications services. Additionally or alternatively, the RSU may operate as a Wi-Fi hotspot (2.4 GHz band) and/or provide connectivity to one or more cellular networks to provide uplink and downlink communications. The computing device(s) and some or all of the

radiofrequency circuitry of the RSU may be packaged in a weatherproof enclosure suitable for outdoor installation, and may include a network interface controller to provide a wired connection (e.g., Ethernet) to a traffic signal controller and/or a backhaul network.

[0074] Any of the RAN nodes 511 can terminate the air interface protocol and can be the first point of contact for the UEs 501. In some embodiments, any of the RAN nodes 511 can fulfill various logical functions for the RAN 510 including, but not limited to, radio network controller (RNC) functions such as radio bearer management, uplink and downlink dynamic radio resource management and data packet scheduling, and mobility management.

[0075] In embodiments, the UEs 501 can be configured to communicate using OFDM communication signals with each other or with any of the RAN nodes 511 over a multi carrier communication channel in accordance with various communication techniques, such as, but not limited to, an OFDMA communication technique (e.g., for downlink communications) or a SC-FDMA communication technique (e.g., for uplink and ProSe or sidelink communications), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. The OFDM signals can comprise a plurality of orthogonal subcarriers.

[0076] In some embodiments, a downlink resource grid can be used for downlink

transmissions from any of the RAN nodes 511 to the UEs 501, while uplink transmissions can utilize similar techniques. The grid can be a time-frequency grid, called a resource grid or time-frequency resource grid, which is the physical resource in the downlink in each slot. Such a time-frequency plane representation is a common practice for OFDM systems, which makes it intuitive for radio resource allocation. Each column and each row of the resource grid corresponds to one OFDM symbol and one OFDM sub carrier, respectively. The duration of the resource grid in the time domain corresponds to one slot in a radio frame. The smallest time-frequency unit in a resource grid is denoted as a resource el ement. Each resource grid comprises a number of resource blocks, which describe the mapping of certain physical channels to resource elements. Each resource block comprises a collection of resource elements; in the frequency domain, this may represent the smallest quantity of resources that currently can be allocated. There are several different physical downlink channels that are conveyed using such resource blocks.

[0077] According to various embodiments, the UEs 501, 502 and the RAN nodes 511,

512 communicate data (for example, transmit and receive) data over a licensed medium (also referred to as the“licensed spectrum” and/or the“licensed band”) and an unlicensed shared medium (also referred to as the“unlicensed spectrum” and/or the“unlicensed band”). The licensed spectrum may include channels that operate in the frequency range of approximately 400 MHz to approximately 3.8 GHz, whereas the unlicensed spectrum may include the 5 GHz band.

[0078] To operate in the unlicensed spectrum, the UEs 501, 502 and the RAN nodes 511,

512 may operate using LA A, eLAA, and/or feLAA mechanisms. In these

implementations, the UEs 501, 502 and the RAN nodes 511, 512 may perform one or

more known medium-sensing operations and/or carrier-sensing operations in order to determine whether one or more channels in the unlicensed spectrum is unavailable or otherwise occupied prior to transmitting in the unlicensed spectrum. The medium/carrier sensing operations may be performed according to a listen-before-talk (LBT) protocol.

[0079] LBT is a mechanism whereby equipment (for example, UEs 501, 502, RAN nodes 511, 512, etc.) senses a medium (for example, a channel or carrier frequency) and transmits when the medium is sensed to be idle (or when a specific channel in the medium is sensed to be unoccupied). The medium sensing operation may include CCA, which utilizes at least ED to determine the presence or absence of other signals on a channel in order to determine if a channel is occupied or clear. This LBT mechanism allows cellular/LAA networks to coexist with incumbent systems in the unlicensed spectrum and with other LAA networks. ED may include sensing RE energy across an intended transmission band for a period of time and comparing the sensed RF energy to a predefined or configured threshold.

[0080] Typically, the incumbent systems in the 5 GHz band are WLANs based on IEEE 802.11 technologies. WLAN employs a contention-based channel access mechanism, called CSMA/CA. Here, when a WLAN node (e.g., a mobile station (MS) such as UE 501 or 502, AP 506, or the like) intends to transmit, the WLAN node may first perform CCA before transmission. Additionally, a backoff mechanism is used to avoid collisions in situations where more than one WLAN node senses the channel as idle and transmits at the same time. The backoff mechanism may be a counter that is drawn randomly within the CWS, which is increased exponentially upon the occurrence of collision and reset to a minimum value when the transmission succeeds. The LBT mechanism designed for LAA is somewhat similar to the CSMA/CA of WLAN. In some implementations, the LBT procedure for DL or UL transmission bursts including PDSCH or PUSCH transmissions, respectively, may have an LAA contention window that is variable in length between X and Y ECCA slots, where X and Y are minimum and maximum values for the CWSs for LAA. In one example, the minimum CWS for an LAA transmission may be 9

microseconds (ps); however, the size of the CWS and a MCOT (for example, a transmission burst) may be based on governmental regulatory requirements.

[0081] The LAA mechanisms are built upon CA technologies of LTE- Advanced systems.

In CA, each aggregated carrier is referred to as a CC. A CC may have a bandwidth of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz and a maximum of five CCs can be aggregated, and therefore, a maximum aggregated bandwidth is 100 MHz. In FDD systems, the number of aggregated carriers can be different for DL and UL, where the number of UL CCs is equal to or lower than the number of DL component carriers. In some cases, individual CCs can have a different bandwidth than other CCs. In TDD systems, the number of CCs as well as the bandwidths of each CC is usually the same for DL and UL.

[0082] CA also comprises individual serving cells to provide individual CCs. The

coverage of the serving cells may differ, for example, because CCs on different frequency bands will experience different pathloss. A primary service cell or PCell may provide a PCX for both UL and DL, and may handle RRC and NAS related activities. The other serving cells are referred to as SCells, and each SCell may provide an individual SCC for both UL and DL. The SCCs may be added and removed as required, while changing the PCC may require the HE 501, 502 to undergo a handover. In LAA, eLAA, and feLAA, some or all of the SCells may operate in the unlicensed spectrum (referred to as“LAA SCells”), and the LAA SCells are assisted by a PCell operating in the licensed spectrum. When a LIE is configured with more than one LAA SCell, the UE may receive UL grants on the configured LAA SCells indicating different PUSCH starting positions within a same subframe.

[0083] The PD SCH carries user data and higher-layer signaling to the UEs 501. The

PDCCH carries information about the transport format and resource allocations related to the PD SCH channel, among other things. It may also inform the UEs 501 about the transport format, resource allocation, and HARQ information related to the uplink shared channel. Typically, downlink scheduling (assigning control and shared channel resource blocks to the UE 501b within a cell) may be performed at any of the RAN nodes 511 based on channel quality information fed back from any of the UEs 501. The downlink resource assignment information may be sent on the PDCCH used for (e.g., assigned to) each of the UEs 501.

[0084] The PDCCH uses CCEs to convey the control information. Before being mapped to resource elements, the PDCCH complex- valued symbols may first be organized into quadruplets, which may then be permuted using a sub-block interleaver for rate matching. Each PDCCH may be transmitted using one or more of these CCEs, where each CCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as REGs. Four Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) symbols may be mapped to each REG. The PDCCH can be transmitted using one or more CCEs, depending on the size of the DCI

and the channel condition. There can be four or more different PDCCH formats defined in LTE with different numbers of CCEs (e.g., aggregation level, L=l, 2, 4, or 8).

[0085] Some embodiments may use concepts for resource allocation for control channel information that are an eSension of the above-described concepts. For example, some embodiments may utilize an EPDCCH that uses PDSCH resources for control information transmission. The EPDCCH may be transmitted using one or more ECCEs. Similar to above, each ECCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as an EREGs. An ECCE may have other numbers of EREGs in some situations.

[0086] The RAN nodes 511 may be configured to communicate with one another via interface 512. In embodiments where the system 500 is an LTE system (e.g., when CN 520 is an EPC 6120 as in Figure 6A), the interface 512 may be an X2 interface 512. The X2 interface may be defined between two or more RAN nodes 511 (e.g., two or more eNBs and the like) that connect to EPC 520, and/or between two eNBs connecting to EPC 520. In some implementations, the X2 interface may include an X2 user plane interface (X2-U) and an X2 control plane interface (X2-C). The X2-U may provide flow control mechanisms for user data packets transferred over the X2 interface, and may be used to communicate information about the delivery of user data between eNBs. For example, the X2-U may provide specific sequence number information for user data transferred from a MeNB to an SeNB; information about successful in sequence delivery of PDCP PDUs to a UE 501 from an SeNB for user data; information of PDCP PDUs that were not delivered to a UE 501; information about a current minimum desired buffer size at the SeNB for transmitting to the UE user data; and the like. The X2-C may provide intra-LTE access mobility functionality, including conteS transfers from source to target eNBs, user plane transport control, etc.; load management functionality; as well as inter-cell interference coordination functionality.

[0087] In embodiments where the system 500 is a 5G or NR system (e.g., when CN 520 is an 5GC 6220 as in Figure 6B), the interface 512 may be an Xn interface 512. The Xn interface is defined between two or more RAN nodes 511 (e.g., two or more gNBs and the like) that connect to 5GC 520, between a RAN node 51 1 (e.g., a gNB) connecting to 5GC 520 and an eNB, and/or between two eNBs connecting to 5GC 520. In some implementations, the Xn interface may include an Xn user plane (Xn-U) interface and an Xn control plane (Xn-C) interface. The Xn-U may provide non-guaranteed delivery of

user plane PDUs and support/provide data forwarding and flow control functionality. The Xn-C may provide management and error handling functionality, functionality to manage the Xn-C interface; mobility support for UE 501 in a connected mode (e.g., CM- CONNECTED) including functionality to manage the UE mobility for connected mode between one or more RAN nodes 511. The mobility support may include conte8 transfer from an old (source) serving RAN node 511 to new (target) serving RAN node 511; and control of user plane tunnels between old (source) serving RAN node 511 to new (target) serving RAN node 511. A protocol stack of the Xn-U may include a transport network layer built on Internet Protocol (IP) transport layer, and a GTP-U layer on top of a UDP and/or IP layer(s) to carry user plane PDUs. The Xn-C protocol stack may include an application layer signaling protocol (referred to as Xn Application Protocol (Xn-AP)) and a transport network layer that is built on SCTP. The SCTP may be on top of an IP layer, and may provide the guaranteed delivery of application layer messages. In the transport IP layer, point-to-point transmission is used to deliver the signaling PDUs. In other implementations, the Xn-U protocol stack and/or the Xn-C protocol stack may be same or similar to the user plane and/or control plane protocol stack(s) shown and described herein.

[0088] The RAN 510 is shown to be com m uni cati vely coupled to a core network— in this embodiment, core network (CN) 520. The CN 520 may comprise a plurality of network elements 522, which are configured to offer various data and telecommunications services to custom ers/ sub scribers (e.g., users of UEs 501) who are connected to the CN 520 via the RAN 510. The components of the CN 520 may be implemented in one physical node or separate physical nodes including components to read and execute instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium). In some embodiments, NFV may be utilized to virtualize any or all of the above-described network node functions via executable instructions stored in one or more computer-readable storage mediums (described in further detail below). A logical instantiation of the CN 520 may be referred to as a network slice, and a logical instantiation of a portion of the CN 520 may be referred to as a network sub-slice. NFV architectures and infrastructures may be used to virtualize one or more network functions, alternatively performed by proprietary hardware, onto physical resources comprising a combination of industry-standard server hardware, storage hardware, or switches. In other words, NFV systems can be used to execute virtual or reconfigurable implementations of one or more EPC components/functions.

[0089] Generally, the application server 530 may be an element offering applications that use IP bearer resources with the core network (e.g., UMTS PS domain, LTE PS data services, etc.). The application server 530 can also be configured to support one or more communication services (e.g., VoIP sessions, PTT sessions, group communication sessions, social networking services, etc.) for the UEs 501 via the EPC 520.

[0090] In embodiments, the CN 520 may be a 5GC (referred to as“5GC 520” or the like), and the RAN 510 may be connected with the CN 520 via an NG interface 513. In embodiments, the NG interface 513 may be split into two parts, an NG user plane (NG-U) interface 514, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 511 and a UPF, and the SI control plane (NG-C) interface 515, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 511 and AMFs. Embodiments where the CN 520 is a 5GC 520 are discussed in more detail with regard to Figure 6B.

[0091] In embodiments, the CN 520 may be a 5G CN (referred to as“5GC 520” or the like), while in other embodiments, the CN 520 may be an EPC). Where CN 520 is an EPC (referred to as“EPC 520” or the like), the RAN 510 may be connected with the CN 520 via an SI interface 513. In embodiments, the SI interface 513 may be split into two parts, an SI user plane (Sl-U) interface 514, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 511 and the S-GW, and the Sl-MME interface 515, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 511 and MMEs. An example architecture wherein the CN 520 is an EPC 520 is shown by Figure 6A.

[0092] Figure 6A illustrates an example architecture of a system 6100 including a first

CN 6120, in accordance with various embodiments. In this example, system 6100 may implement the LTE standard wherein the CN 6120 is an EPC 6120 that corresponds with CN 520 of Figure 5. Additionally, the UE 6101 may be the same or similar as the UEs 501 of Figure 5, and the E-UTRAN 6110 may be a R AN that is the same or similar to the RAN 510 of Figure 5, and which may include RAN nodes 511 discussed previously. The CN 6120 may comprise MMEs 6121, an S-GW 6122, a P-GW 6123, a HSS 6124, and a SGSN 6125.

[0093] The MMEs 6121 may be similar in function to the control plane of legacy SGSN, and may implement MM functions to keep track of the current location of a UE 6101.

The MMEs 6121 may perform various MM procedures to manage mobility aspects in

access such as gateway selection and tracking area list management. MM (also referred to as“EPS MM” or“EMM” in E-UTRAN systems) may refer to all applicable procedures, methods, data storage, etc. that are used to maintain knowledge about a present location of the UE 6101, provide user identity confidentiality, and/or perform other like services to users/ sub scribers . Each UE 6101 and the MME 6121 may include an MM or EMM sublayer, and an MM conte 8 may be established in the UE 6101 and the MME 6121 when an attach procedure is successfully completed. The MM conteS may be a data structure or database object that stores MM-related information of the UE 6101. The MMEs 6121 may be coupled with the HSS 6124 via an S6a reference point, coupled with the SGSN 6125 via an S3 reference point, and coupled with the S-GW 6122 via an Sl l reference point.

[0094] The SGSN 6125 may be a node that serves the UE 6101 by tracking the location of an individual UE 6101 and performing security functions. In addition, the SGSN 6125 may perform Inter-EPC node signaling for mobility between 2G/3G and E-UTRAN 3 GPP access networks; PDN and S-GW selection as specified by the MMEs 6121;

handling of UE 6101 time zone functi ons as specified by the MMEs 6121; and MME selection for handovers to E-UTRAN 3 GPP access network. The S3 reference point between the MMEs 6121 and the SGSN 6125 may enable user and bearer information exchange for inter-3 GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active states.

[0095] The HSS 6124 may comprise a database for network users, including

sub scripti on-related information to support the network entities’ handling of

communication sessions. The EPC 6120 may comprise one or several HSSs 6124, depending on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment, on the organization of the network, etc. For example, the HSS 6124 can provide support for routing/roaming, authentication, authorization, naming/addressing resolution, location dependencies, etc. An S6a reference point between the HSS 6124 and the MMEs 6121 may enable transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the EPC 6120 between HSS 6124 and the MMEs 6121.

[0096] The S-GW 6122 may terminate the SI interface 513 (“Sl-U” in Figure 6A)

toward the RAN 6110, and routes data packets between the RAN 6110 and the EPC 6120. In addition, the S-GW 6122 may be a local mobility anchor point for inter-RAN node handovers and also may provide an anchor for inter-3 GPP mobility. Other responsibilities may include lawful intercept, charging, and some policy enforcement. The Sl l reference point between the S-GW 6122 and the MMEs 6121 may provide a control plane between the MMEs 6121 and the S-GW 6122. The S-GW 6122 may be coupled with the P-GW 6123 via an S5 reference point.

[0097] The P-GW 6123 may terminate an SGi interface toward a PDN 6130. The P-GW

6123 may route data packets between the EPC 6120 and eBernal networks such as a network including the application server 530 (alternatively referred to as an“AF”) via an IP interface 525 (see e.g., Figure 5). In embodiments, the P-GW 6123 may be

communicatively coupled to an application server (application server 530 of Figure 5 or PDN 6130 in Figure 6A) via an IP communications interface 525 (see, e.g., Figure 5).

The S5 reference point between the P-GW 6123 and the S-GW 6122 may provide user plane tunneling and tunnel management between the P-GW 6123 and the S-GW 6122. The S5 reference point may also be used for S-GW 6122 relocation due to HE 6101 mobility and if the S-GW 6122 needs to connect to a non-collocated P-GW 6123 for the required PDN connectivity. The P-GW 6123 may further include a node for policy enforcement and charging data collection (e.g., PCEF (not shown)). Additionally, the SGi reference point between the P-GW 6123 and the packet data network (PDN) 6130 may be an operator eSernal public, a private PDN, or an intra operator packet data network, for example, for provision of IMS services. The P-GW 6123 may be coupled with a PCRF 6126 via a Gx reference point.

[0098] PCRF 6126 is the policy and charging control element of the EPC 6120. In a non roaming scenario, there may be a single PCRF 6126 in the Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN) associated with a LIE 6101’s Internet Protocol Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) session. In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic, there may be two PCRFs associated with a UE 6101’s IP-CAN session, a Home PCRF (H- PCRF) within an HPLMN and a Visited PCRF (V-PCRF) within a Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). The PCRF 6126 may be communi cati vely coupled to the application server 6130 via the P-GW 6123. The application server 6130 may signal the PCRF 6126 to indicate a new service flow and select the appropriate QoS and charging parameters. The PCRF 6126 may provision this rule into a PCEF (not shown) with the appropriate TFT and QCI, which commences the QoS and charging as specified by the application server 6130. The Gx reference point between the PCRF 6126 and the P-GW 6123 may allow for the transfer of QoS policy and charging rules from the PCRF 6126 to PCEF in the P-GW 6123. An Rx reference point may reside between the PDN 6130 (or “AF 6130”) and the PCRF 6126.

[0099] Figure 6B illustrates an architecture of a system 6200 including a second CN 6220 in accordance with various embodiments. The system 6200 is shown to include a UE 6201, which may be the same or similar to the UEs 501 and UE 6101 discussed previously; a (R)AN 6210, which may be the same or similar to the RAN 510 and RAN 6110 discussed previously, and which may include RAN nodes 511 discussed previously; and a DN 6203, which may be, for example, operator services, Internet access or 3rd party services; and a 5GC 6220. The 5GC 6220 may include an AUSF 6222; an AMF 6221; a SMF 6224; a NEF 6223; a PCF 6226; a NRF 6225; a UDM 6227; an AF 6228; a UPF 6202; and a NSSF 6229.

[0100] The UPF 6202 may act as an anchor point for intra-RAT and inter-RAT mobility, an e8ernal PDU session point of interconnect to DN 6203, and a branching point to support multi-homed PDU session. The UPF 6202 may also perform packet routing and forwarding, perform packet inspection, enforce the user plane part of policy rules, lawfully intercept packets (UP collection), perform traffic usage reporting, perform QoS handling for a user plane (e.g., packet filtering, gating, UL/DL rate enforcement), perform Uplink Traffic verification (e.g., SDF to QoS flow mapping), transport level packet marking in the uplink and downlink, and perform downlink packet buffering and downlink data notification triggering. UPF 6202 may include an uplink classifier to support routing traffic flows to a data network. The DN 6203 may represent various network operator services, Internet access, or third party services. DN 6203 may include, or be similar to, application server 530 discussed previously. The UPF 6202 may interact with the SMF 6224 via an N4 reference point between the SMF 6224 and the UPF 6202.

[0101] The AUSF 6222 may store data for authentication of UE 6201 and handle

authenti cati on-rel ated functionality. The AUSF 6222 may facilitate a common

authentication framework for various access types. The AUSF 6222 may communicate with the AMF 6221 via an N12 reference point between the AMF 6221 and the AUSF 6222; and may communicate with the UDM 6227 via an N13 reference point between the UDM 6227 and the AUSF 6222. Additionally, the AUSF 6222 may exhibit an Nausf service-based interface.

[0102] The AMF 6221 may be responsible for registration management (e.g., for

registering UE 6201, etc.), connection management, reachability management, mobility

management, and lawful interception of AMF-related events, and access authentication and authorization. The AMF 6221 may be a termination point for the an N11 reference point between the AMF 6221 and the SMF 6224. The AMF 6221 may provide transport for SM messages between the LIE 6201 and the SMF 6224, and act as a transparent proxy for routing SM messages. AMF 6221 may also provide transport for SMS messages between UE 6201 and an SMSF (not shown by Figure 6B). AMF 6221 may act as SEAF, which may include interaction with the AUSF 6222 and the UE 6201, receipt of an intermediate key that was established as a result of the UE 6201 authentication process. Where USIM based authentication is used, the AMF 6221 may retrieve the security material from the AUSF 6222. AMF 6221 may also include a SCM function, which receives a key from the SEA that it uses to derive access-network specific keys.

Furthermore, AMF 6221 may be a termination point of a RAN CP interface, which may include or be an N2 reference point between the (R)AN 6210 and the AMF 6221; and the AMF 6221 may be a termination point of NAS (Nl) signalling, and perform NAS ciphering and integrity protection.

[0103] AMF 6221 may also support NAS signalling with a UE 6201 over an N3 IWF interface. The N3IWF may be used to provide access to untrusted entities. N3IWF may be a termination point for the N2 interface between the (R)AN 6210 and the AMF 6221 for the control plane, and may be a termination point for the N3 reference point between the (R)AN 6210 and the UPF 6202 for the user plane. As such, the AMF 6221 may handle N2 signalling from the SMF 6224 and the AMF 6221 for PDU sessions and QoS, encap sul ate/ de-encap sul ate packets for IPSec and N3 tunnelling, mark N3 user-plane packets in the uplink, and enforce QoS corresponding to N3 packet marking taking into account QoS requirements associated with such marking received over N2. N3IWF may also relay uplink and downlink control-plane NAS signalling between the UE 6201 and AMF 6221 via an Nl reference point between the UE 6201 and the AMF 6221, and relay uplink and downlink user-plane packets between the UE 6201 and UPF 6202. The N3IWF also provides mechanisms for IPsec tunnel establishment with the UE 6201. The AMF 6221 may exhibit an Namf service-based interface, and may be a termination point for an N14 reference point between two AMFs 6221 and an N17 reference point between the AMF 6221 and a 5G-EIR (not shown by Figure 6B).

[0104] The UE 6201 may need to register with the AMF 6221 in order to receive network services. RM is used to register or deregister the UE 6201 with the network (e.g., AMF 6221), and establish a UE conteS in the network (e.g., AMF 6221). The UE 6201 may operate in an RM-REGISTERED state or an RM -DEREGISTERED state. In the

RM-DEREGISTERED state, the EE 6201 is not registered with the network, and the UE conteS in AMF 6221 holds no valid location or routing information for the UE 6201 so the LE 6201 is not reachable by the AMF 6221. In the RM-REGI S TERED state, the UE 6201 is registered with the network, and the UE conte 8 in AMF 6221 may hold a valid location or routing information for the UE 6201 so the UE 6201 is reachable by the AMF 6221. In the RM-REGI S TERED state, the UE 6201 may perform mobility Registration Update procedures, perform periodic Registration Update procedures triggered by expiration of the periodic update timer (e.g., to notify the network that the UE 6201 is still active), and perform a Registration Update procedure to update UE capability information or to re-negotiate protocol parameters with the network, among others.

[0105] The AMF 6221 may store one or more RM conteS s for the UE 6201, where each

RM conteS is associated with a specific access to the network. The RM conteS may be a data structure, database object, etc. that indicates or stores, inter alia, a registration state per access type and the periodic update timer. The AMF 6221 may also store a 5GC MM conte8 that may be the same or similar to the (E)MM conte8 discussed previously. In various embodiments, the AMF 6221 may store a CE mode B Restriction parameter of the UE 6201 in an associated MM conteS or RM conteS. The AMF 6221 may also derive the value, when needed, from the UE’s usage setting parameter already stored in the UE conteS (and/or MM/RM conteS).

[0106] CM may be used to establish and release a signaling connection between the UE

6201 and the AMF 6221 over the N1 interface. The signaling connection is used to enable NAS signaling exchange between the UE 6201 and the CN 6220, and comprises both the signaling connection between the UE and the AN (e.g., ERC connection or UE-N3IWF connection for non-3GPP access) and the N2 connection for the UE 6201 between the AN (e.g., RAN 6210) and the AMF 6221. The UE 6201 may operate in one of two CM states, CM-IDLE mode or CM-CONNECTED mode. When the UE 6201 is operating in the CM-IDLE state/mode, the UE 6201 may have no NAS signaling connection established with the AMF 6221 over the Nl interface, and there may be (R)AN 6210 signaling connection (e.g., N2 and/or N3 connections) for the UE 6201. When the UE 6201 is operating in the CM-CONNECTED state/mode, the UE 6201 may have an established NAS signaling connection with the AMF 6221 over the Nl interface, and there may be a

(R)AN 6210 signaling connection (e.g., N2 and/or N3 connections) for the UE 6201. Establishment of an N2 connection between the (R)AN 6210 and the AMF 6221 may cause the UE 6201 to transition from CM-IDLE mode to CM-CONNECTED mode, and the UE 6201 may transition from the CM-CONNECTED mode to the CM-IDLE mode when N2 signaling between the (R)AN 6210 and the AMF 6221 is released.

[0107] The SMF 6224 may be responsible for SM (e.g., session establishment, modify and release, including tunnel maintain between UPF and AN node); UE IP address allocation and management (including optional authorization); selection and control of UP function; configuring traffic steering at UPF to route traffic to proper destination; termination of interfaces toward policy control functions; controlling part of policy enforcement and QoS; lawful intercept (for SM events and interface to LI system);

termination of SM parts of NAS messages; downlink data notification; initiating AN specific SM information, sent via AMF over N2 to AN; and determining SSC mode of a session. SM may refer to management of a PDU session, and a PDU session or“session” may refer to a PDU connectivity service that provides or enables the exchange of PDUs between a UE 6201 and a data network (DN) 6203 identified by a Data Network Name (DNN). PDU sessions may be established upon UE 6201 request, modified upon UE 6201 and 5GC 6220 request, and released upon UE 6201 and 5GC 6220 request using NAS SM signaling exchanged over the N1 reference point between the UE 6201 and the SMF 6224. Upon request from an application server, the 5GC 6220 may trigger a specific application in the UE 6201. In response to receipt of the trigger message, the UE 6201 may pass the trigger message (or relevant parts/information of the trigger message) to one or more identified applications in the UE 6201. The identified application(s) in the UE 6201 may establish a PDU session to a specific DNN. The SMF 6224 may check whether the UE 6201 requests are compliant with user subscription information associated with the UE 6201. In this regard, the SMF 6224 may retrieve and/or request to receive update notifications on SMF 6224 level subscription data from the UDM 6227.

[0108] The SMF 6224 may include the following roaming functionality: handling local enforcement to apply QoS SLAs (VPLMN); charging data collection and charging interface (VPLMN); lawful intercept (in VPLMN for SM events and interface to LI system); and support for interaction with e8ernal DN for transport of signalling for PDU session authorizati on/ authenti cati on by eBernal DN. An N16 reference point between two SMFs 6224 may be included in the system 6200, which may be between another SMF

6224 in a visited network and the SMF 6224 in the home network in roaming scenarios. Additionally, the SMF 6224 may exhibit the Nsmf service-based interface.

[0109] The NEF 6223 may provide means for securely exposing the services and

capabilities provided by 3 GPP network functions for third party, internal exposure/re exposure, Application Functions (e.g., AF 6228), edge computing or fog computing systems, etc. In such embodiments, the NEF 6223 may authenticate, authorize, and/or throttle the AFs. NEF 6223 may also translate information exchanged with the AF 6228 and information exchanged with internal network functions. For example, the NEF 6223 may translate between an AF-Service-Identifrer and an internal 5GC information. NEF 6223 may also receive information from other network functions (NFs) based on exposed capabilities of other network functions. This information may be stored at the NEF 6223 as structured data, or at a data storage NF using standardized interfaces. The stored information can then be re-exposed by the NEF 6223 to other NFs and AFs, and/or used for other purposes such as analytics. Additionally, the NEF 6223 may exhibit an Nnef service-based interface.

[0110] The NRF 6225 may support service discovery functions, receive NF discovery requests from NF instances, and provide the information of the discovered NF instances to the NF instances. NRF 6225 also maintains information of available NF instances and their supported services. As used herein, the terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like may refer to the creation of an instance, and an“instance” may refer to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code. Additionally, the NRF 6225 may exhibit the Nnrf service-based interface.

[0111] The PCF 6226 may provide policy rules to control plane function(s) to enforce them, and may also support unified policy framework to govern network behaviour. The PCF 6226 may also implement an FE to access subscription information relevant for policy decisions in a UDR of the UDM 6227. The PCF 6226 may communicate with the AMF 6221 via an N15 reference point between the PCF 6226 and the AMF 6221, which may include a PCF 6226 in a visited network and the AMF 6221 in case of roaming scenarios. The PCF 6226 may communicate with the AF 6228 via an N5 reference point between the PCF 6226 and the AF 6228; and with the SMF 6224 via an N7 reference point between the PCF 6226 and the SMF 6224. The system 6200 and/or CN 6220 may also include an N24 reference point between the PCF 6226 (in the home network) and a PCF 6226 in a visited network. Additionally, the PCF 6226 may exhibit an Npcf service- based interface.

[0112] The UDM 6227 may handle sub scripti on-rel ated information to support the

network entities’ handling of communication sessions, and may store subscription data of UE 6201. For example, subscription data may be communicated between the UDM 6227 and the AMF 6221 via an N8 reference point between the UDM 6227 and the AMF. The UDM 6227 may include two parts, an application FE and a UDR (the FE and UDR are not shown by Figure 6B). The UDR may store subscription data and policy data for the UDM 6227 and the PCF 6226, and/or structured data for exposure and application data (including PFDs for application detection, application request information for multiple UEs 6201) for the NEF 6223. The Nudr service-based interface may be exhibited by the UDR 221 to allow the UDM 6227, PCF 6226, and NEF 6223 to access a particular set of the stored data, as well as to read, update (e.g., add, modify), delete, and subscribe to notification of relevant data changes in the UDR. The UDM may include a UDM-FE, which is in charge of processing credentials, location management, subscription management and so on. Several different front ends may serve the same user in different transactions. The UDM-FE accesses subscription information stored in the UDR and performs authentication credential processing, user identification handling, access authorization, registration/mobility management, and subscription management. The UDR may interact with the SMF 6224 via an N10 reference point between the UDM 6227 and the SMF 6224. UDM 6227 may also support SMS management, wherein an SMS-FE implements the similar application logic as discussed previously. Additionally, the UDM 6227 may exhibit the Nudm service-based interface.

[0113] The AF 6228 may provide application influence on traffic routing, provide access to the NCE, and interact with the policy framework for policy control. The NCE may be a mechanism that allows the 5GC 6220 and AF 6228 to provide information to each other via NEF 6223, which may be used for edge computing implementations. In such implementations, the network operator and third party services may be hosted close to the UE 6201 access point of attachment to achieve an efficient service delivery through the reduced end-to-end latency and load on the transport network. For edge computing implementations, the 5GC may select a UPF 6202 close to the UE 6201 and execute traffic steering from the UPF 6202 to DN 6203 via the N6 interface. This may be based on the UE subscription data, UE location, and information provided by the AF 6228. In this way, the AF 6228 may influence UPF (re)selection and traffic routing. Based on operator deployment, when AF 6228 is considered to be a busted entity, the network operator may permit AF 6228 to interact directly with relevant NFs. Additionally, the AF

6228 may exhibit an Naf service-based interface.

[0114] The NSSF 6229 may select a set of network slice instances serving the UE 6201.

The NSSF 6229 may also determine allowed NSSAI and the mapping to the subscribed S-NSSAIs, if needed. The NSSF 6229 may also determine the AMF set to be used to serve the UE 6201, or a list of candidate AMF(s) 6221 based on a suitable configuration and possibly by querying the NRF 6225. The selection of a set of network slice instances for the UE 6201 may be triggered by the AMF 6221 with which the UE 6201 is registered by interacting with the NSSF 6229, which may lead to a change of AMF 6221. The NSSF

6229 may interact with the AMF 6221 via an N22 reference point between AMF 6221 and NSSF 6229; and may communicate with another NSSF 6229 in a visited network via an N31 reference point (not shown by Figure 6B). Additionally, the NSSF 6229 may exhibit an Nnssf service-based interface.

[0115] As discussed previously, the CN 6220 may include an SMSF, which may be

responsible for SMS subscription checking and verification, and relaying SM messages to/from the UE 6201 to/from other entities, such as an SMS-GMSC/IWMSC/SMS-router. The SMS may also interact with AMF 6221 and UDM 6227 for a notification procedure that the UE 6201 is available for SMS transfer (e.g., set a UE not reachable flag, and notifying UDM 6227 when UE 6201 is available for SMS).

[0116] The CN 120 may also include other elements that are not shown by Figure 6B, such as a Data Storage sy stem/ architecture, a 5G-EIR, a SEPP, and the like. The Data Storage system may include a SDSF, an UDSF, and/or the like. Any NF may store and retrieve unstructured data into/from the UDSF (e.g., UE conteSs), via N18 reference point between any NF and the UDSF (not shown by Figure 6B). Individual NFs may share a UDSF for storing their respective unstructured data or individual NFs may each have their own UDSF located at or near the individual NFs. Additionally, the UDSF may exhibit an Nudsf service-based interface (not shown by Figure 6B). The 5G-EIR may be an NF that checks the status of PEI for determining whether particular equipment/entities are blacklisted from the network; and the SEPP may be a non-transparent proxy that performs topology hiding, message filtering, and policing on inter-PLMN control plane interfaces.

[0117] Additionally, there may be many more reference points and/or service-based interfaces between the NF services in the NFs; however, these interfaces and reference points have been omitted from Figure 6B for clarity. In one example, the CN 6220 may include an Nx interface, which is an inter-CN interface between the MME (e g., MME 6121) and the AMF 6221 in order to enable interworking between CN 6220 and CN 6120. Other example interfaces/reference points may include an N5g-EIR service-based interface exhibited by a 5G-EIR, an N27 reference point between the NRF in the visited network and the NRF in the home network; and an N31 reference point between the NSSF in the visited network and the NSSF in the home network.

[0118] Figure 7 A illustrates an example of infrastructure equipment 7100 in accordance with various embodiments. The infrastructure equipment 7100 (or“system 7100”) may be implemented as a base station, radio head, RAN node such as the RAN nodes 511 and/or AP 506 shown and described previously, application server(s) 530, and/or any other element/device discussed herein. In other examples, the system 7100 could be

implemented in or by a UE.

[0119] The system 7100 includes application circuitry 7105, baseband circuitry 7110, one or more radio front end modules (RFEMs) 7115, memory circuitry 7120, power management integrated circuitry (PMIC) 7125, power tee circuitry' 7130, network controller circuitry 7135, network interface connector 7140, satellite positioning circuitry 7145, and user interface 7150. In some embodiments, the device 7100 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory/storage, display, camera, sensor, or input/output (I/O) interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may be included in more than one device. For example, said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for CRAN, vBBU, or other like implementations.

[0120] Application circuitry 7105 includes circuitry such as, but not limited to one or more processors (or processor cores), cache memory, and one or more of low drop-out voltage regulators (LDOs), interrupt controllers, serial interfaces such as SPI, I2C or universal programmable serial interface module, real time clock (RTC), timer-counters including interval and watchdog timers, general purpose input/output (I/O or IO), memory card controllers such as Secure Digital (SD) MultiMediaCard (MMC) or similar, Universal Serial Bus (USB) interfaces, Mobile Industry Processor Interface (MIPI) interfaces and Joint Test Access Group (JTAG) test access ports. The processors (or cores) of the application circuitry 7105 may be coupled with or may include

memory/ storage elements and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the system 7100. In some implementations, the memory/storage elements may be on-chip memory circuitry, which may include any suitable volatile and/or non-volatile memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, EPROM, E EPROM, Flash memory, solid-state memory, and/or any other type of memory device technology, such as those discussed herein.

[0121] The processor(s) of application circuitry 7105 may include, for example, one or more processor cores (CPUs), one or more application processors, one or more graphics processing units (GPUs), one or more reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processors, one or more Acorn RISC Machine (ARM) processors, one or more complex instruction set computing (CISC) processors, one or more digital signal processors (DSP), one or more FPGAs, one or more PLDs, one or more ASICs, one or more

microprocessors or controllers, or any suitable combination thereof. In some

embodiments, the application circuitry 7105 may comprise, or may be, a special-purpose processor/controller to operate according to the various embodiments herein. As examples, the processor(s) of application circuitry 7105 may include one or more Intel Pentium®, Core®, or Xeon® processor(s); Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Ryzen® processor(s), Accelerated Processing Units (APUs), or Epyc® processors; ARM -based processor(s) licensed from ARM Holdings, Ltd. such as the ARM Cortex-A family of processors and the ThunderX2® provided by Cavium(TM), Inc.; a MIPS-based design from MIPS Technologies, Inc. such as MIPS Warrior P-class processors; and/or the like. In some embodiments, the system 7100 may not utilize application circuitry 7105, and instead may include a special-purpose processor/ control 1 er to process IP data received from an EPC or 5GC, for example.

[0122] In some implementations, the application circuitry 7105 may include one or more hardware accelerators, which may be microprocessors, programmable processing devices, or the like. The one or more hardware accelerators may include, for example, computer vision (CV) and/or deep learning (DL) accelerators. As examples, the programmable processing devices may be one or more a field-programmable devices (FPDs) such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and the like; programmable logic devices (PLDs) such as complex PLDs (CPLDs), high-capacity PLDs (HCPLDs), and the like; ASICs such as structured ASICs and the like; programmable SoCs (PSoCs); and the like. In such implementations, the circuitry of application circuitry 7105 may comprise logic blocks or logic fabric, and other interconnected resources that may be programmed to perform various functions, such as the procedures, methods, functions, etc. of the various embodiments discussed herein. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 7105 may include memory cells (e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory

(EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory, static memory (e.g., static random access memory (SRAM), anti-fuses, etc.)) used to store logic blocks, logic fabric, data, etc. in look-up-tables (LUTs) and the like.

[0123] The baseband circuitry 7110 may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits, a single packaged integrated circuit soldered to a main circuit board or a multi-chip module containing two or more integrated circuits. The various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry 71 10 are discussed infra with regard to Figure 8.

[0124] User interface circuitry 7150 may include one or more user interfaces designed to enable user interaction with the system 7100 or peripheral component interfaces designed to enable peripheral component interaction with the system 7100. User interfaces may include, but are not limited to, one or more physical or virtual buttons (e.g., a reset button), one or more indicators (e.g., light emitting diodes (LEDs)), a physical keyboard or keypad, a mouse, a touchpad, a touchscreen, speakers or other audio emitting devi ces, microphones, a printer, a scanner, a headset, a display screen or display device, etc.

Peripheral component interfaces may include, but are not limited to, a nonvolatile memory port, a universal serial bus (USB) port, an audio jack, a power supply interface, etc.

[0125] The radio front end modules (REE Ms) 7115 may comprise a millimeter wave

(mmWave) RFEM and one or more sub-mmWave radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). In some implementations, the one or more sub-mmWave RFICs may be physically separated from the mmWave RFEM. The RFICs may include connections to one or more antennas or antenna arrays (see e.g., antenna array 8111 of Figure 8 infra), and the RFEM may be connected to multiple antennas. In alternative implementations, both mmWave and sub-mmWave radio functions may be implemented in the same physical RFEM 7115, which incorporates both mmWave antennas and sub-mmWave.

[0126] The memory circuitry 7120 may include one or more of volatile memory

including dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and/or synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), and nonvolatile memory (NYM) including high-speed

electrically erasable memory (commonly referred to as Flash memory), phase change random access memory (PRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), etc., and may incorporate the three-dimensional (3D) cross-point (XPOINT) memories from Intel® and Micron®. Memory circuitry 7120 may be implemented as one or more of solder down packaged integrated circuits, socketed memory modules and plug-in memory cards.

[0127] The PMIC 7125 may include voltage regulators, surge protectors, power alarm detection circuitry, and one or more backup power sources such as a battery or capacitor. The power alarm detection circuitry may detect one or more of brown out (under-voltage) and surge (over-voltage) conditions. The power tee circuitry 7130 may provide for electrical power drawn from a network cable to provide both power supply and data connectivity to the infrastructure equipment 7100 using a single cable.

[0128] The network controller circuitry 7135 may provide connectivity to a network

using a standard network interface protocol such as Ethernet, Ethernet over GRE Tunnels, Ethernet over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), or some other suitable protocol. Network connectivity may be provided to/from the infrastructure equipment 7100 via network interface connector 7140 using a physical connection, which may be electrical (commonly referred to as a“copper interconnect”), optical, or wireless. The network controller circuitry 7135 may include one or more dedicated processors and/or FPGAs to communicate using one or more of the aforementioned protocol s. In some

implementations, the network controller circuitry 7135 may include multiple controllers to provide connectivity to other networks using the same or different protocols.

[0129] The positioning circuitry 7145 includes circuitry to receive and decode signals transmitted/broadcasted by a positioning network of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Examples of navigation satellite constellations (or GNSS) include United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS), Russia’s Global Navigation System (GLONASS), the European Union’s Galileo system, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, a regional navigation system or GNSS augmentation system (e.g., Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC), Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), France’s Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), etc.), or the like. The positioning circuitry 7145 comprises various hardware elements (e.g., including hardware devices such as switches, filters, amplifiers, antenna elements, and the like to facilitate OTA communications) to communicate with components of a positioning

network, such as navigation satellite constellation nodes. In some embodiments, the positioning circuitry 7145 may include a Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (Micro-PNT) IC that uses a master timing clock to perform position tracking/estimation without GNSS assistance. The positioning circuitry 7145 may also be part of, or interact with, the baseband circuitry 7110 and/or RFEMs 71 15 to communicate with the nodes and components of the positioning network. The positioning circuitry 7145 may also provide position data and/or time data to the application circuitry 7105, which may use the data to synchronize operations with various infrastructure (e.g., RAN nodes 511, etc.), or the like.

[0130] The components shown by Figure 7 A may communicate with one another using interface circuitry, which may include any number of bus and/or interconnect (IX) technologies such as industry standard architecture (ISA), eSended ISA (EISA), peripheral component interconnect (PCI), peripheral component interconnect e8ended (PCIx), PCI express (PCIe), or any number of other technologies. The bus/IX may be a proprietary' bus, for example, used in a SoC based system. Other bus/IX systems may be included, such as an I2C interface, an SPI interface, point to point interfaces, and a power bus, among others.

[0131] Figure 7B illustrates an example of a platform 7200 (or“device 7200”) in

accordance with various embodiments. In embodiments, the computer platform 7200 may be suitable for use as UEs 501, 502, 6101, application servers 530, and/or any other element/device discussed herein. The platform 7200 may include any combinations of the components shown in the example. The components of platform 7200 may be

implemented as integrated circuits (ICs), portions thereof, discrete electronic devices, or other modules, logic, hardware, software, firmware, or a combination thereof adapted in the computer platform 7200, or as components otherwise incorporated within a chassis of a larger system. The block diagram of Figure 7B is intended to show a high level view of components of the computer platform 7200. However, some of the components shown may be omitted, additional components may be present, and different arrangement of the components shown may occur in other implementations.

[0132] Application circuitry 7205 includes circuitry such as, but not limited to one or more processors (or processor cores), cache memory, and one or more of LDOs, interrupt controllers, serial interfaces such as SPI, I2C or universal programmable serial interface module, RTC, timer-counters including interval and watchdog timers, general purpose

I/O, memory card controllers such as SD MMC or similar, USB interfaces, MIPI interfaces, and IT AG test access ports. The processors (or cores) of the application circuitry 7205 may be coupled with or may include memory/storage elements and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the system 7200. In some implementations, the memory/storage elements may be on-chip memory circuitry, which may include any suitable volatile and/or non-volatile memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, EPROM,

EEPROM, Flash memory, solid-state memory, and/or any other type of memory device technology, such as those discussed herein.

[0133] The processor(s) of application circuitry 7105 may include, for example, one or more processor cores, one or more application processors, one or more GPUs, one or more RISC processors, one or more ARM processors, one or more CISC processors, one or more DSP, one or more FPGAs, one or more PLDs, one or more ASICs, one or more microprocessors or controllers, a multithreaded processor, an ultra-low voltage processor, an embedded processor, some other known processing element, or any suitable combination thereof In some embodiments, the application circuitry 7105 may comprise, or may be, a special-purpose processor/controller to operate according to the various embodiments herein.

[0134] As examples, the processor(s) of application circuitry 7205 may include an Intel®

Architecture Core™ based processor, such as a Quark™, an Atom™, an i3, an i5, an i7, or an MCU-class processor, or another such processor available from Intel® Corporation, Santa Clara, CA. The processors of the application circuitry 7205 may also be one or more of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Ryzen® processor(s) or Accelerated

Processing Units (APUs); A5-A9 processor(s) from Apple® Inc., Snapdragon™ processor(s) from Qualcomm® Technologies, Inc., Texas Instruments, Inc.® Open Multimedia Applications Platform (OMAP)™ processor(s); a MIPS -based design from MIPS Technologies, Inc. such as MIPS Warrior M-class, Warrior I-class, and Warrior P- class processors; an ARM-based design licensed from ARM Holdings, Ltd., such as the ARM Cortex-A, Cortex-R, and Cortex-M family of processors; or the like. In some implementations, the application circuitry 7205 may be a part of a system on a chip (SoC) in which the application circuitry 7205 and other components are formed into a single integrated circuit, or a single package, such as the Edison™ or Galileo™ SoC boards from Intel® Corporation.

[0135] Additionally or alternatively, application circuitry 7205 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more a fi el d-program m abl e devices (FPDs) such as FPGAs and the like; programmable logic devices (PLDs) such as complex PLDs (CPLDs), high- capacity PLDs (HCPLDs), and the like; ASICs such as structured ASICs and the like; programmable SoCs (PSoCs); and the like. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 7205 may comprise logic blocks or logic fabric, and other interconnected resources that may be programmed to perform various functions, such as the procedures, methods, functions, etc. of the various embodiments discussed herein. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 7205 may include memory cells (e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory', static memory (e g., static random access memory (SRAM), anti-fuses, etc.)) used to store logic blocks, logic fabric, data, etc. in look-up tables (LUTs) and the like.

[0136] The baseband circuitry 7210 may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits, a single packaged integrated circuit soldered to a main circuit board or a multi-chip module containing two or more integrated circuits. The various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry 7210 are discussed infra with regard to Figure 8.

[0137] The RFEMs 7215 may comprise a millimeter wave (mm Wave) RFEM and one or more sub-mmWave radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). In some

implementations, the one or more sub-mmWave RFICs may be physically separated from the mm Wave RFEM. The RFICs may include connections to one or more antennas or antenna arrays (see e.g., antenna array 811 1 of Figure 8 infra), and the RFEM may be connected to multiple antennas. In alternative implementations, both mmWave and sub- mmWave radio functions may be implemented in the same physical RFEM 7215, which incorporates both mmWave antennas and sub-mmWave.

[0138] The memory circuitry 7220 may include any number and type of memory devices used to provide for a given amount of system memory. As examples, the memory circuitry 7220 may include one or more of volatile memory including random access memory (RAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM) and/or synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM), and nonvolatile memory (NVM) including high-speed electrically erasable memory (commonly referred to as Flash memory), phase change random access memory (PRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), etc. The memory circuitry' 7220 may

be developed in accordance with a Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) low power double data rate (LPDDR)-based design, such as LPDDR2, LPDDR3, LPDDR4, or the like. Memory circuitry 7220 may be implemented as one or more of solder down packaged integrated circuits, single die package (SDP), dual die package (DDP) or quad die package (Q17P), socketed memory modules, dual inline memory modules (DIMMs) including microDIMMs or MiniDIMMs, and/or soldered onto a motherboard via a ball grid array (BGA). In low power implementations, the memory circuitry 7220 may be on-die memory or registers associated with the application circuitry 7205. To provide for persistent storage of information such as data, applications, operating systems and so forth, memory circuitry 7220 may include one or more mass storage devices, which may include, inter alia, a solid state disk drive (SSDD), hard disk drive (HDD), a micro HDD, resistance change memories, phase change memories, holographic memories, or chemical memories, among others. For example, the computer platform 7200 may incorporate the three-di m en si onal (3D) cross-point (XPOINT) memories from Intel® and Micron®.

[0139] Removable memory circuitry 7223 may include devices, circuitry,

enclosures/housings, ports or receptacles, etc. used to couple portable data storage devices with the platform 7200. These portable data storage devices may be used for mass storage purposes, and may include, for example, flash memory cards (e.g., Secure Digital (SD) cards, microSD cards, xD picture cards, and the like), and USB flash drives, optical discs, eSernal HDDs, and the like.

[0140] The platform 7200 may also include interface circuitry (not shown) that is used to connect e8ernal devices with the platform 7200. The eSernal devices connected to the platform 7200 via the interface circuitry include sensor circuitry 7221 and electro mechanical components (EMCs) 7222, as well as removable memory devices coupled to removable memory circuitry 7223.

[0141] The sensor circuitry 7221 include devices, modules, or subsystems whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information (sensor data) about the detected events to some other a device, module, subsystem, etc. Examples of such sensors include, inter alia, inertia measurement units (IMIJs) comprising

accelerometers, gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers; mi croel ectromechani cal systems (MEMS) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comprising 3 -axis accelerometers,

3 -axis gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers; level sensors; flow sensors; temperature

sensors (e.g., thermistors); pressure sensors; barometric pressure sensors; gravimeters; altimeters; image capture devices (e.g., cameras or lensless apertures); light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors; proximity sensors (e.g., infrared radiation detector and the like), depth sensors, ambient light sensors, ultrasonic transceivers; microphones or other like audio capture devices; etc.

[0142] EMCs 7222 include devices, modules, or subsystems whose purpose is to enable platform 7200 to change its state, position, and/or orientation, or move or control a mechanism or (sub)system. Additionally, EMCs 7222 may be configured to generate and send messages/signalling to other components of the platform 7200 to indicate a current state of the EMCs 7222. Examples of the EMCs 7222 include one or more power switches, relays including electromechani cal relays (EMRs) and/or solid state relays (SSRs), actuators (e.g., valve actuators, etc.), an audible sound generator, a visual warning device, motors (e.g., DC motors, stepper motors, etc ), wheels, thrusters, propellers, claws, clamps, hooks, and/or other like electro-mechanical components. In embodiments, platform 7200 is configured to operate one or more EMCs 7222 based on one or more captured events and/or instructions or control signals received from a service provider and/or various clients.

[0143] In some implementations, the interface circuitry may connect the platform 7200 with positioning circuitry 7245. The positioning circuitry 7245 includes circuitry to receive and decode signals transmitted/broadcasted by a positioning network of a GNSS. Examples of navigation satellite constellations (or GNSS) include United States’ GPS, Russia’s GLONASS, the European Union’s Galileo system, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, a regional navigation system or GNSS augmentation system (e.g., NAYIC), Japan’s QZSS, France’s DORIS, etc.), or the like. The positioning circuitry 7245 comprises various hardware elements (e.g., including hardware devices such as switches, filters, amplifiers, antenna elements, and the like to facilitate OTA

communi cati on s) to communicate with components of a positioning network, such as navigation satellite constellation nodes. In some embodiments, the positioning circuitry 7245 may include a Micro-PNT IC that uses a master timing clock to perform position tracking/estimation without GNSS assistance. The positioning circuitry 7245 may also be part of, or interact with, the baseband circuitry 7110 and/or RFEMs 7215 to communicate with the nodes and components of the positioning network. The positioning circuitry 7245 may also provide position data and/or time data to the application circuitry 7205, which may use the data to synchronize operations with various infrastructure (e.g., radio base stations), for tum-by-tum navigation applications, or the like

[0144] In some implementations, the interface circuitry may connect the platform 7200 with Near-Field Communication (NFC) circuitry 7240. NFC circuitry 7240 is configured to provide contactless, short-range communications based on radio frequency

identification (RFID) standards, wherein magnetic field induction is used to enable communication between NFC circuitry 7240 and NFC-enabled devices e8ernal to the platform 7200 (e.g., an“NFC touchpoinf’). NFC circuitry 7240 comprises an NFC controller coupled with an antenna element and a processor coupled with the NFC controller. The NFC controller may be a chip/IC providing NFC functionalities to the NFC circuitry 7240 by executing NFC controller firmware and an NFC stack. The NFC stack may be executed by the processor to control the NFC controller, and the NFC controller firmware may be executed by the NFC controller to control the antenna element to emit short-range RF signals. The RF signals may power a passive NFC tag (e.g., a microchip embedded in a sticker or wristband) to transmit stored data to the NFC circuitry 7240, or initiate data transfer between the NFC circuitry 7240 and another active NFC device (e.g., a smartphone or an NFC-enabled POS terminal) that is proximate to the platform 7200.

[0145] The driver circuitry 7246 may include software and hardware elements that

operate to control particular devices that are embedded in the platform 7200, attached to the platform 7200, or otherwise communicatively coupled with the platform 7200. The driver circuitry 7246 may include individual drivers allowing other components of the platform 7200 to interact with or control various input/output (I/O) devices that may be present within, or connected to, the platform 7200. For example, driver circuitry 7246 may include a display driver to control and allow access to a display device, a

touchscreen driver to control and allow access to a touchscreen interface of the platform 7200, sensor drivers to obtain sensor readings of sensor circuitry 7221 and control and allow access to sensor circuitry 7221, EMC drivers to obtain actuator positions of the EMCs 7222 and/or control and allow access to the EMCs 7222, a camera driver to control and allow access to an embedded image capture device, audio drivers to control and allow access to one or more audio devices.

[0146] The power management integrated circuitry (PMIC) 7225 (also referred to as “power management circuitry 7225”) may manage power provided to various

components of the platform 7200. In particular, with respect to the baseband circuitry 7210, the PMIC 7225 may control power-source selection, voltage scaling, battery charging, or DC-to-DC conversion. The PMIC 7225 may often be included when the platform 7200 is capable of being powered by a battery 7230, for example, when the device is included in a UE 501, 502, 6101.

[0147] In some embodiments, the PMIC 7225 may control, or otherwise be part of,

various power saving mechanisms of the platform 7200. For example, if the platform 7200 is in an RRC_Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the platform 7200 may power down for bri ef intervals of time and thus save power. If there is no data traffic activity for an eBended period of time, then the platform 7200 may transition off to an RRC Idle state, where it disconnects from the network and does not perform operations such as channel quality feedback, handover, etc. The platform 7200 goes into a very low power state and it performs paging where again it periodically wakes up to listen to the network and then powers down again. The platform 7200 may not receive data in this state; in order to receive data, it must transition back to RRC_Connected state. An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[0148] A battery 7230 may power the platform 7200, although in some examples the platform 7200 may be mounted deployed in a fixed location, and may have a power supply coupled to an electrical grid. The battery 7230 may be a lithium ion battery, a metal-air battery, such as a zinc-air battery, an aluminum-air battery, a lithium-air battery, and the like. In some implementations, such as in V2X applications, the battery 7230 may be a typical lead-acid automotive battery.

[0149] In some implementations, the battery 7230 may be a“smart battery,” which

includes or is coupled with a Battery Management System (BMS) or battery monitoring integrated circuitry. The BMS may be included in the platform 7200 to track the state of charge (SoCh) of the battery 7230. The BMS may be used to monitor other parameters of the battery 7230 to provide failure predictions, such as the state of health (SoH) and the state of function (SoF) of the battery 7230. The BMS may communicate the information of the battery 7230 to the application circuitry 7205 or other components of the platform 7200. The BMS may also include an analog-to-digital (ADC) convertor that allows the application circuitry 7205 to directly monitor the voltage of the battery 7230 or the current flow from the battery 7230. The battery parameters may be used to determine actions that the platform 7200 may perform, such as transmission frequency, network operation, sensing frequency, and the like.

[0150] A power block, or other power supply coupled to an electrical grid may be

coupled with the BMS to charge the battery 7230. In some examples, the power block 730 may be replaced with a wireless power receiver to obtain the power wirelessly, for example, through a loop antenna in the computer platform 7200. In these examples, a wireless battery charging circuit may be included in the BMS. The specific charging circuits chosen may depend on the size of the battery 7230, and thus, the current required. The charging may be performed using the Airfuel standard promulgated by the Airfuel Alliance, the Qi wireless charging standard promulgated by the Wireless Power

Consortium, or the Rezence charging standard promulgated by the Alliance for Wireless Power, among others.

[0151] User interface circuitry 7250 includes various input/output (I/O) devices present within, or connected to, the platform 7200, and includes one or more user interfaces designed to enable user interaction with the platform 7200 and/or peripheral component interfaces designed to enable peripheral component interaction with the platform 7200. The user interface circuitry 7250 includes input device circuitry and output device circuitry. Input device circuitry includes any physical or virtual means for accepting an input including, inter alia, one or more physical or virtual buttons (e.g., a reset button), a physical keyboard, keypad, mouse, touchpad, touchscreen, microphones, scanner, headset, and/or the like. The output device circuitry includes any physical or virtual means for showing information or otherwise conveying information, such as sensor readings, actuator position(s), or other like information. Output device circuitry may include any number and/or combinations of audio or visual display, including, inter alia, one or more simple visual outputs/i ndi cator s (e.g., binary status indicators (e.g., light emitting diodes (LEDs)) and multi-character visual outputs, or more complex outputs such as display devices or touchscreens (e.g., Liquid Chrystal Displays (LCD), LED displays, quantum dot displays, projectors, etc.), with the output of characters, graphics, multimedia objects, and the like being generated or produced from the operation of the platform 7200. The output device circuitry may also include speakers or other audio emitting devices, printer(s), and/or the like. In some embodiments, the sensor circuitry 7221 may be used as the input device circuitry (e g., an image capture device, motion capture device, or the like) and one or more EMCs may be used as the output device circuitry (e.g., an actuator to provide haptic feedback or the like). In another example, NFC circuitry comprising an NFC controller coupled with an antenna element and a processing device may be included to read electronic tags and/or connect with another NFC-enabled device. Peripheral component interfaces may include, but are not limited to, a non-volatile memory port, a USB port, an audio jack, a power supply interface, etc.

[0152] Although not shown, the components of platform 7200 may communi cate with one another using a suitable bus or interconnect (IX) technology, which may include any number of technologies, including ISA, EISA, PCI, PCIx, PCIe, a Time-Trigger Protocol (TTP) system, a Fle6ay system, or any number of other technologies. The hus/IX may be a proprietary bus/IX, for example, used in a SoC based system. Other bus/IX systems may be included, such as an I2C interface, an SPI interface, point-to-point interfaces, and a power bus, among others.

[0153] Figure 8 illustrates example components of baseband circuitry 8110 and radio front end modules (RFEM) 8115 in accordance with various embodiments. The baseband circuitry 81 10 corresponds to the baseband circuitry 71 10 and 7210 of Figures 71 and 72, respectively. The RFEM 8115 corresponds to the RFEM 7115 and 7215 of Figures 71 and 72, respectively. As shown, the RFEMs 8115 may include Radio Frequency (RF) circuitry 8106, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 8108, antenna array 8111 coupled together at least as shown.

[0154] The baseband circuitry 8110 includes circuitry and/or control logic configured to carry out various radio/network protocol and radio control functions that enable communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry' 8106. The radio control functions may include, but are not limited to, signal modul ati on/ demodul ati on, encoding/decoding, radio frequency shifting, etc. In some embodiments,

modulation/demodulation circuitry of the baseband circuitry 8110 may include Fast- Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, or constellation mapping/ demapping functionality. In some embodiments, encodi ng/ decoding circuitry of the baseband circuitry 8110 may include convolution, tail-biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments. The baseband circuitry 8110 is configured to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry 8106 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 8106. The baseband circuitry 8110 is configured to interface with application circuitry 7105/7205 (see Figures 71 and 72) for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 8106. The baseband circuitry 8110 may handle various radio control functions.

[0155] The aforementioned circuitry and/or control logic of the baseband circuitry 8110 may include one or more single or multi -core processors. For example, the one or more processors may include a 3G baseband processor 8104 A, a 4G/LTE baseband processor 8104B, a 5G/NR baseband processor 8104C, or some other baseband processor(s) 8104D for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., si8h generation (6G), etc.). In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 8104A-D may be included in modules stored in the memory 8104G and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 8104E. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 8104A-D may be provided as hardware accelerators (e.g., FPGAs, ASICs, etc.) loaded with the appropriate bit streams or logic blocks stored in respective memory cells. In various embodiments, the memory 8104G may store program code of a real-time OS (RTOS), which when executed by the CPU 8104E (or other baseband processor), is to cause the CPU 8104E (or other baseband processor) to manage resources of the baseband circuitry 8110, schedule tasks, etc.

Examples of the RTOS may include Operating System Embedded (OSE)™ provided by Enea®, Nucleus RTOS™ provided by Mentor Graphics®, Versatile Real-Time Executive (VRTX) provided by Mentor Graphics®, ThreadX™ provided by Express Logic®, FreeRTOS, REX OS provided by Qualcomm®, OKL4 provided by Open Kernel (OK) Labs®, or any other suitable RTOS, such as those discussed herein. In addition, the baseband circuitry 8110 includes one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 8104F. The audio DSP(s) 8104F include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other

embodiments.

[0156] In some embodiments, each of the processors 8104A-8104E include respective memory interfaces to send/receive data to/from the memory 8104G The baseband circuitry 8110 may further include one or more interfaces to communicatively couple to other circuitries/devices, such as an interface to send/receive data to/from memory e8ernal to the baseband circuitry 81 10; an application circuitry interface to send/receive data to/from the application circuitry 7105/7205 of FIGS. 71-8); an RF circuitry interface to send/receive data to/from RF circuitry 8106 of Figure 8; a wireless hardware connectivity interface to send/receive data to/from one or more wireless hardware elements (e.g., Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth®/ Bluetooth® Low Energy components, Wi-Fi® components, and/or the like); and a power

management interface to send/receive power or control signals to/from the PMIC 7225.

[0157] In alternate embodiments (which may be combined with the above described

embodiments), baseband circuitry 8110 comprises one or more digital baseband systems, which are coupled with one another via an interconnect subsystem and to a CPU subsystem, an audio subsystem, and an interface subsystem. The digital baseband subsystems may also be coupled to a digital baseband interface and a mixed-signal baseband subsystem via another interconnect subsystem. Each of the interconnect subsystems may include a bus system, point-to-point connections, network-on-chip (NOC) structures, and/or some other suitable bus or interconnect technology, such as those discussed herein. The audio subsystem may include DSP circuitry, buffer memory, program memory, speech processing accelerator circuitry, data converter circuitry such as analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter circuitry, analog circuitry including one or more of amplifiers and filters, and/or other like components. In an aspect of the present disclosure, baseband circuitry 8110 may include protocol processor circuitry with one or more instances of control circuitry (not shown) to provide control functions for the digital baseband circuitry and/or radio frequency circuitry7 (e.g., the radio front end modules 8115).

[0158] Although not shown by Figure 8, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry

8110 includes individual processing device(s) to operate one or more wireless

communication protocols (e.g., a“multi-protocol baseband processor” or“protocol processor circuitry”) and individual processing device(s) to implement PHY layer functions. In these embodiments, the PHY layer functions include the aforementioned radio control functions. In these embodiments, the protocol processor circuitry operates or implements various protocol layers/entities of one or more wireless communication protocols. In a first example, the protocol processor circuitry may operate LIE protocol entities and/or 5G/NR protocol entities when the baseband circuitry 8110 and/or RF circuitry 8106 are part of mm Wave communication circuitry or some other suitable cellular communication circuitry. In the first example, the protocol processor circuitry would operate MAC, RLC, PDCP, SDAP, RRC, and NAS functions. In a second example, the protocol processor circuitry may operate one or more IEEE-based protocols when the baseband circuitry 8110 and/or RF circuitry 8106 are part of a Wi-Fi communication system. In the second example, the protocol processor circuitry would operate Wi-Fi MAC and logical link control (LLC) functions. The protocol processor circuitry may include one or more memory structures (e.g., 8104G) to store program code and data for operating the protocol functions, as well as one or more processing cores to execute the program code and perform various operations using the data. The baseband circuitry 8110 may also support radio communications for more than one wireless protocol.

[0159] The various hardware elements of the baseband circuitry 8110 discussed herein may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits (ICs), a single packaged IC soldered to a main circuit board or a multi - chip module containing two or more ICs. In one example, the components of the baseband circuitry 8110 may be suitably combined in a single chip or chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board. In another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 8110 and RF circuitry 8106 may be implemented together such as, for example, a system on a chip (SoC) or System-in-Package (SiP). In another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 8110 may be implemented as a separate SoC that is communicatively coupled with and RF circuitry 8106 (or multiple instances of RF circuitry 8106). In yet another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband ci rcuitry 8110 and the application circuitry 7105/7205 may be implemented together as individual SoCs mounted to a same circuit board (e.g., a“multi-chip package”).

[0160] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 8110 may provide for

communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 8110 may support communication with an E- UTRAN or other WMAN, a WLAN, a WPAN. Embodiments in which the baseband

circuitry 8110 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry

[0161] RF circuitry 8106 may enable communication with wireless networks using

modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In various

embodiments, the RF circuitry 8106 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry 8106 may include a receive signal path, which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 8108 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 8110. RF circuitry 8106 may also include a transmit signal path, which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 8110 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 8108 for transmi ssion.

[0162] In some embodiments, the receive signal path of the RF circuitry 8106 may

include mixer circuitry 8106a, amplifier circuitry 8106b and filter circuitry 8106c. In some embodiments, the transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 8106 may include filter circuitry 8106c and mixer circuitry 8106a. RF circuitry 8106 may also include synthesizer circuitry 8106d for synthesizi ng a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 8108 based on the synthesized frequency provided by synthesizer circuitry 8106d. The amplifier circuitry 8106b may be configured to amplify the down- converted signals and the filter circuitry 8106c may be a low-pass filter (EPF) or band pass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry 8110 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a requirement. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0163] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 8106a of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry 8106d to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 8108. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry 8110 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 8106c.

[0164] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 8106a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 8106a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 8106a of the transmit signal path may be arranged for direct downconversion and direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 8106a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 8106a of the transmit signal path may be configured for super heterodyne operation.

[0165] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 8106 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital -to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 8110 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 8106.

[0166] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0167] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 8106d may be a fractional-N

synthesizer or a fractional N/N+l synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry 8106d may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

[0168] The synthesizer circuitry 8106d may be configured to synthesize an output

frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 8106a of the RF circuitry 8106 based on a frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 8106d may be a fractional N/N+l synthesizer.

[0169] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a requirement. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry 8110 or the application circuitry 7105/7205 depending on the desired output frequency. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a look-up table based on a channel indicated by the application circuitry 7105/7205.

[0170] Synthesizer circuitry 8106d of the RF circuitry 8106 may include a divider, a

delay-locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DP A). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+l (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip-flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[0171] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 8106d may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 8106 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[0172] FEM circuitry 8108 may include a receive signal path, which may include

circuitry configured to operate on RF signals received from antenna array 8111, amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 8106 for further processing. FEM circuitry 8108 may also include a transmit signal path, which may include circuitry configured to amplify signal s for transmission provided by the RF circuitry 8106 for transmission by one or more of antenna elements of antenna array 8111. In various embodiments, the amplification through the transmit or receive signal paths may be done solely in the RF circuitry 8106, solely in the FEM circuitry 8108, or in both the RF circuitry 8106 and the FEM circuitry 8108.

[0173] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry 8108 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry 8108 may

include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry 8108 may include an LNA to amplify received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 8106). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry 8108 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry 8106), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmission by one or more antenna elements of the antenna array 8111.

[0174] The antenna array 8111 comprises one or more antenna elements, each of which is configured convert electrical signals into radio waves to travel through the air and to convert received radio waves into electrical signals. For example, digital baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 8110 is converted into analog RF signals (e.g., modulated waveform) that will be amplified and transmitted via the antenna elements of the antenna array 8111 including one or more antenna elements (not shown). The antenna elements may be omnidirectional, direction, or a combination thereof. The antenna elements may be formed in a multitude of arranges as are known and/or discussed herein. The antenna array 81 11 may comprise microstrip antennas or printed antennas that are fabricated on the surface of one or more printed circuit boards. The antenna array 8111 may be formed in as a patch of metal foil (e.g., a patch antenna) in a variety of shapes, and may be coupled with the RF circuitry 8106 and/or FEM circuitry 8108 using metal transmission lines or the like.

[0175] Processors of the application circuitry 7105/7205 and processors of the baseband circuitry 8110 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 8110, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, or Layer 1 functionality, while processors of the application circuitry 7105/7205 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., TCP and UDP layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a RRC layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a MAC layer, an RLC layer, and a PDCP layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a PHY layer of a IJE/RAN node, described in further detail below.

[0176] Figure 9 illustrates various protocol functions that may be implemented in a

wireless communication device according to various embodiments. In particular, Figure 9 includes an arrangement 900 showing interconnections between various protocol

layers/entities. The following description of Figure 9 is provided for various protocol layers/entities that operate in conjunction with the 5G/NR system standards and LTE system standards, but some or all of the aspects of Figure 9 may be applicable to other wireless communication network systems as well.

[0177] The protocol layers of arrangement 900 may include one or more of PFIY 910,

MAC 920, RLC 930, PDCP 940, SDAP 947, RRC 955, and NAS layer 957, in addition to other higher layer functions not illustrated. The protocol layers may include one or more service access points (e.g., items 959, 956, 950, 949, 945, 935, 925, and 915 in Figure 9) that may provide communication between two or more protocol layers.

[0178] The PHY 910 may transmit and receive physical layer signals 905 that may be received from or transmitted to one or more other communication devices. The physical layer signals 905 may comprise one or more physical channels, such as those discussed herein. The PHY 910 may further perform link adaptation or adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), power control, cell search (e.g., for initial synchronization and handover purposes), and other measurements used by higher layers, such as the RRC 955. The PHY 910 may still further perform error detection on the transport channels, forward error correction (FEC) coding/decoding of the transport channels, modul ati on/ demodul ati on of physical channels, interleaving, rate matching, mapping onto physical channels, and MIMO antenna processing. In embodiments, an instance of PHY 910 may process requests from and provide indi cati ons to an instance of MAC 920 via one or more PHY- SAP 915. According to some embodiments, requests and indications communicated via PHY- SAP 915 may comprise one or more transport channels.

[0179] Instance(s) of M AC 920 may process requests from, and provide indications to, an instance of RLC 930 via one or more MAC-SAPs 925. These requests and indications communicated via the MAC- SAP 925 may comprise one or more logical channels. The MAC 920 may perform mapping between the logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC SDUs from one or more logical channels onto TBs to be delivered to PHY 910 via the transport channels, de-multiplexing MAC SDUs to one or more logical channels from TBs delivered from the PHY 910 via transport channels, multiplexing MAC SDUs onto TBs, scheduling information reporting, error correction through HARQ, and logical channel prioritization.

[0180] Instance(s) of RLC 930 may process requests from and provide indications to an instance of PDCP 940 via one or more radio link control service access points (RLC-

SAP) 935. These requests and indications communicated via RLC-SAP 935 may comprise one or more RLC channels. The RLC 930 may operate in a plurality of modes of operation, including: Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), and Acknowledged Mode (AM). The RLC 930 may execute transfer of upper layer protocol data units (PDUs), error correction through automatic repeat request (ARQ) for AM data transfers, and concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers. The RLC 930 may also execute re- segmentation of RLC data PDUs for AM data transfers, reorder RLC data PDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect duplicate data for UM and AM data transfers, discard RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect protocol errors for AM data transfers, and perform RLC re-establishment.

[0181] Instance(s) of PDCP 940 may process requests from and provide indications to instance(s) of RRC 955 and/or instance(s) of SDAP 947 via one or more packet data convergence protocol service access points (PDCP- SAP) 945. These requests and indications communicated via PDCP- SAP 945 may comprise one or more radio bearers. The PDCP 940 may execute header compression and decompression of IP data, maintain PDCP Sequence Numbers (SNs), perform in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at re-establishment of lower layers, eliminate duplicates of lower layer SDUs at re establishment of lower layers for radio bearers mapped on RLC AM, cipher and decipher control plane data, perform integrity protection and integrity verification of control plane data, control timer-based di scard of data, and perform security operati ons (e.g., ciphering, deciphering, integrity protection, integrity verification, etc.).

[0182] Instance(s) of SDAP 947 may process requests from and provide indications to one or more higher layer protocol entities via one or more SDAP-SAP 949. These requests and indications communicated via SDAP-SAP 949 may comprise one or more QoS flows. The SDAP 947 may map QoS flows to DRBs, and vice versa, and may also mark QFIs in DL and UL packets. A single SDAP entity 947 may be configured for an individual PDU session. In the UL direction, the NG-RAN 510 may control the mapping of QoS Flows to DRB(s) in two different ways, reflective mapping or explicit mapping. For reflective mapping, the SDAP 947 of a UE 501 may monitor the QFIs of the DL packets for each DRB, and may apply the same mapping for packets flowing in the UL direction. For a DRB, the SDAP 947 of the UE 501 may map the UL packets belonging to the QoS flows(s) corresponding to the QoS flow ID(s) and PDU session observed in the DL packets for that DRB. To enable reflective mapping, the NG-RAN 6210 may

mark DL packets over the Uu interface with a QoS flow ID. The explicit mapping may involve the RRC 955 configuring the SDAP 947 with an explicit QoS flow to DRB mapping rule, which may be stored and followed by the SDAP 947. In embodiments, the SDAP 947 may only be used in NR implementations and may not be used in LTE implementations.

[0183] The RRC 955 may configure, via one or more management service access points

(M-SAP), aspects of one or more protocol layers, which may include one or more instances of PHY 910, MAC 920, RLC 930, PDCP 940 and SDAP 947. In embodiments, an instance of RRC 955 may process requests from and provide indications to one or more NAS entities 957 via one or more RRC-SAPs 956. The main services and functions of the RRC 955 may include broadcast of system informati on (e g., included in MIBs or SIBs related to the NAS), broadcast of system information related to the access stratum (AS), paging, establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE 501 and RAN 510 (e.g., RRC connection paging, RRC connection establishment,

RRC connection modification, and RRC connection release), establishment,

configuration, maintenance and release of point to point Radio Bearers, security functions including key management, inter-RAT mobility, and measurement configuration for UE measurement reporting. The MIBs and SIBs may comprise one or more IEs, which may each comprise individual data fields or data structures.

[0184] The NAS 957 may form the highest stratum of the control plane between the UE

501 and the AMF 6221. The NAS 957 may support the mobility of the UEs 501 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 501 and a P-GW in LTE systems.

[0185] According to various embodiments, one or more protocol entities of arrangement

900 may be implemented in UEs 501, RAN nodes 51 1, AMF 6221 in NR

implementations or MME 6121 in LTE implementations, UPF 6202 in NR

implementations or S-GW 6122 and P-GW 6123 in LTE implementations, or the like to be used for control plane or user plane communications protocol stack between the aforementioned devices. In such embodiments, one or more protocol entities that may be implemented in one or more of UE 501, gNB 511, AMF 6221 , etc. may communicate with a respective peer protocol entity that may be implemented in or on another device using the services of respective lower layer protocol entities to perform such

communication. In some embodiments, a gNB-CU of the gNB 511 may host the RRC

955, SDAP 947, and PDCP 940 of the gNB that controls the operation of one or more gNB-DUs, and the gNB -DU s of the gNB 511 may each host the RLC 930, MAC 920, and PHY 910 of the gNB 511.

[0186] In a first example, a control plane protocol stack may comprise, in order from highest layer to lowest layer, NAS 957, RRC 955, PDCP 940, RLC 930, MAC 920, and PHY 910. In this example, upper layers 960 may be built on top of the NAS 957, which includes an IP layer 961, an SCTP 962, and an application layer signaling protocol (AP) 963.

[0187] In NR implementations, the AP 963 may be an NG application protocol layer

(NGAP or NG-AP) 963 for the NG interface 513 defined between the NG-RAN node 511 and the AMF 6221, or the AP 963 may be an Xn application protocol layer (XnAP or Xn- AP) 963 for the Xn interface 512 that is defined between two or more RAN nodes 511.

[0188] The NG-AP 963 may support the functions of the NG interface 513 and may

comprise Elementary Procedures (EPs). An NG-AP EP may be a unit of interaction between the NG-RAN node 511 and the AMF 6221. The NG-AP 963 services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services (e.g., services related to a UE 501, 502) and non-UE-associated services (e.g., services related to the whole NG interface instance between the NG-RAN node 511 and AMF 6221). These services may include functions including, but not limited to: a paging function for the sending of paging requests to NG- RAN nodes 51 1 involved in a particular paging area; a UE conteS management function for allowing the AMF 6221 to establish, modify, and/or release a UE conteS in the AMF 6221 and the NG-RAN node 511; a mobility function for UEs 501 in ECM- CONNECTED mode for intra-system HOs to support mobility within NG-RAN and inter-system HOs to support mobility from/to EPS systems; a NAS Signaling Transport function for transporting or rerouting NAS messages between UE 501 and AMF 6221; a NAS node selection function for determining an association between the AMF 6221 and the UE 501 ; NG interface management function(s) for setting up the NG interface and monitoring for errors over the NG interface; a warning message transmission function for providing means to transfer warning messages via NG interface or cancel ongoing broadcast of warning messages; a Configuration Transfer function for requesting and transferring of RAN configuration information (e.g., SON information, performance measurement (PM ) data, etc.) between two RAN nodes 511 via CN 520; and/or other like functions.

[0189] The XnAP 963 may support the functions of the Xn interface 512 and may comprise XnAP basic mobility procedures and XnAP global procedures. The XnAP basic mobility procedures may comprise procedures used to handle UE mobility within the NG RAN 511 (or E-UTRAN 6110), such as handover preparation and cancellation procedures, SN Status Transfer procedures, UE conteS retrieval and UE conte8 release procedures, RAN paging procedures, dual connectivity related procedures, and the like. The XnAP global procedures may comprise procedures that are not related to a specific UE 501, such as Xn interface setup and reset procedures, NG-RAN update procedures, cell activation procedures, and the like.

[0190] In LTE implementations, the AP 963 may be an SI Application Protocol layer

(Sl-AP) 963 for the SI interface 513 defined between an E-UTRAN node 51 1 and an MME, or the AP 963 may be an X2 application protocol layer (X2AP or X2-AP) 963 for the X2 interface 512 that is defined between two or more E-UTRAN nodes 511.

[0191] The SI Application Protocol layer (Sl-AP) 963 may support the functions of the

SI interface, and similar to the NG-AP discussed previously, the Sl-AP may comprise Sl-AP EPs. An Sl-AP EP may be a unit of interaction between the E-UTRAN node 511 and an MME 6121 within an LTE CN 520. The Sl-AP 963 services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services and non UE-associated services. These services perform functions including, but not limited to: E-UTRAN Radio Access Bearer (E-RAB) management, LIE capability indication, mobility, NAS signaling transport, RAN

Information Management (RIM), and configuration transfer.

[0192] The X2AP 963 may support the functions of the X2 interface 512 and may

comprise X2AP basic mobility procedures and X2AP global procedures. The X2AP basic mobility procedures may comprise procedures used to handle UE mobility within the E- UTRAN 520, such as handover preparation and cancellation procedures, SN Status Transfer procedures, UE conteS retrieval and UE conteS release procedures, RAN paging procedures, dual connectivity related procedures, and the like. The X2AP global procedures may comprise procedures that are not related to a specific UE 501, such as X2 interface setup and reset procedures, load indication procedures, error indication procedures, cell activation procedures, and the like.

[0193] The SCTP layer (alternatively referred to as the SCTP/IP layer) 962 may provide guaranteed delivery of application layer messages (e.g., NGAP or XnAP messages in NR implementations, or Sl-AP or X2AP messages in LTE implementations). The SCTP 962

may ensure reliable delivery of signaling messages between the RAN node 511 and the AMF 6221/MME 6121 based, in part, on the IP protocol, supported by the IP 961 The Internet Protocol layer (IP) 961 may be used to perform packet addressing and routing functionality. In some implementations the IP layer 961 may use point-to-point transmission to deliver and convey PDUs. In this regard, the RAN node 511 may comprise L2 and LI layer communication links (e.g., wired or wireless) with the

MME/AMF to exchange information.

[0194] In a second example, a user plane protocol stack may comprise, in order from

highest layer to lowest layer, SDAP 947, PDCP 940, RLC 930, MAC 920, and PHY 910 The user plane protocol stack may be used for communication between the UE 501, the RAN node 511, and UPF 6202 in NR implementations or an S-GW 6122 and P-GW 6123 in LIE implementations. In this example, upper layers 951 may be built on top of the SDAP 947, and may include a user datagram protocol (UDP) and IP security layer (UDP/IP) 952, a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol for the user plane layer (GTP-U) 953, and a User Plane PDU layer (UP PDU) 963.

[0195] The transport network layer 954 (also referred to as a“transport layer”) may be built on IP transport, and the GTP-U 953 may be used on top of the UDP/IP layer 952 (comprising a UDP layer and IP layer) to carry user plane PDUs (UP -PDUs). The IP layer (also referred to as the“Internet layer”) may be used to perform packet addressing and routing functionality. The IP layer may assign IP addresses to user data packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example.

[0196] The GTP-U 953 may be used for carrying user data within the GPRS core network and between the radio access network and the core network. The user data transported can be packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example. The UDP/IP 952 may provide checksums for data integrity, port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination, and encryption and authentication on the selected data flows. The RAN node 511 and the S-GW 6122 may utilize an Sl-U interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising an LI layer (e.g., PHY 910), an L2 layer (e.g., MAC 920, RLC 930, PDCP 940, and/or SDAP 947), the UDP/IP layer 952, and the GTP- U 953. The S-GW 6122 and the P-GW 6123 may utilize an S5/S8a interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising an LI layer, an L2 layer, the UDP/IP layer 952, and the GTP-U 953. As discussed previously, NAS protocols may support the

mobility of the UE 501 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 501 and the P-GW 6123.

[0197] Moreover, although not shown by Figure 9, an application layer may be present above the AP 963 and/or the transport network layer 954. The application layer may be a layer in which a user of the UE 501, RAN node 511, or other network element interacts with software applications being executed, for example, by application circuitry 7105 or application circuitry 7205, respectively. The application layer may also provide one or more interfaces for software applications to interact with communications systems of the UE 501 or RAN node 511, such as the baseband circuitry 8110. In some implementations the IP layer and/or the application layer may provide the same or similar functionality as l ayers 5-7, or portions thereof, of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (e.g., OSI Layer 7 - the application layer, OSI Layer 6 -- the presentation layer, and OSI Layer 5 - the session layer).

[0198] Figure 10 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. Specifically, Figure 10 shows a diagrammatic representation of hardware resources 1000 including one or more processors (or processor cores) 1010, one or more memory/storage devices 1020, and one or more communi cation resources 1030, each of which may be communicatively coupled via a bus 1040. For embodiments where node virtualization (e.g., NFV) is utilized, a hypervisor 1002 may be executed to provide an execution environment for one or more network slices/sub-slices to utilize the hardware resources 1000.

[0199] The processors 1010 may include, for example, a processor 1012 and a processor

1014. The processor(s) 1010 may be, for example, a central processing unit (CPU), a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor, a complex instruction set computing (CISC) processor, a graphics processing unit (GPU), a DSP such as a baseband processor, an ASIC, an FPGA, a radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), another processor (including those discussed herein), or any suitable combination thereof.

[0200] The memory/storage devices 1020 may include main memory, disk storage, or any suitable combination thereof. The memory/storage devices 1020 may include, but are not limited to, any type of volatile or nonvolatile memory such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM), static random access memory (SRAM), erasable programmable read-

only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

(EEPROM), Flash memory, solid-state storage, etc

[0201] The communication resources 1030 may include interconnection or network

interface components or other suitable devices to communicate with one or more peripheral devices 1004 or one or more databases 1006 via a network 1008. For example, the communication resources 1030 may include wired communication components (e.g., for coupling via USB), cellular communication components, NFC components,

Bluetooth® (or Bluetooth® Low Energy) components, Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components.

[0202] Instructions 1050 may comprise software, a program, an application, an applet, an app, or other executable code for causing at least any of the processors 1010 to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. The instructions 1050 may reside, completely or partially, within at least one of the processors 1010 (e.g., within the processor’s cache memory), the memory/storage devices 1020, or any suitable combination thereof. Furthermore, any portion of the instructions 1050 may be transferred to the hardware resources 1000 from any combination of the peripheral devices 1004 or the databases 1006. Accordingly, the memory of processors 1010, the memory/storage devices 1020, the peripheral devices 1004, and the databases 1006 are examples of computer-readable and machine-readable media.

[0203] For one or more embodiments, at least one of the components set forth in one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to perform one or more operations, techniques, processes, and/or methods as set forth in the example section below. For example, the baseband circuitry as described above in connection with one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more of the examples set forth below. For another example, circuitry associated with a UE, base station, network element, etc. as described above in connection with one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more of the examples set forth below in the example section.

[0204] Figure 11 illustrates a flowchart 1100 that describes a UE, such as UE 501a or

501b, measuring and reporting layer 1 signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (Ll-SINR) based on at least one channel measurement and at least one interference measurement according to some embodiments of the disclosure. In some embodiments, flowchart 1100 can be performed or controlled by a processor or processor circuitry in the UE described in the various embodiments herein, including the processor shown in Figure 10, and/or the baseband circuitry 7210 shown Figure 7B.

[0205] In operation 1110, a first set of reference signal (RS) resources and a second set of

RS resources can be received from an access node (AN) in a same beam over one or more UE ports. The AN can include one or more antenna ports. For example, The AN can be configured with M ports 306 and UE can be configured with N ports 308 as shown in Figure 3. The first set of RS resources can include synchroni cation signal blocks (SSBs) or channel state information reference signal (CSI-RS) resources. The second set of RS resources can include a dedicated channel state information interference measurement (CSI-IM) signal or non-zero-power (NZP) reference signal for interference measurement (NZP RS for IM) resources. In some embodiments, the UE can use the same receiving beam to receive a group of RS for channel measurement, CSI-IM, and NZP RS for IM. In some embodiments, these RS resources can be quasi co-located with spatial receiving parameters. In some embodiments, for a UE with multiple antenna ports, Ll-SINR can be measured from the same antenna port with the same receiving beam.

[0206] In operation 1120, a channel measurement (CM) can be performed on the first set of RS resources. For example, the channel measurement can be based on SSB or SCI-RS resources, which can be similar to layer 1 reference signal receiving power (Ll-RSRP) measurement.

[0207] In operation 1130, an interference measurement (IM) can be performed on the second set of RS resources. The second set of RS resources can include a same number of RS resources as the first set of RS resources, and each of the second set of RS resources can be mapped to each of the first set of RS resources. For example, as shown in Figures 4A and 4B, RS for CM 404/414 can be reference signal resources for channel

measurement. CSI-IM 402/412 can be dedicated channel state information resources for interference measurement. NZP RS for IM 406/416 can be non-zero-power reference signal resources for interference measurement. According to some embodiments, in option 1 of Figure 4A, each RS resource in CSI IM 402 can be mapped to each RS resource in RS for CM 404, and mapped to each NZP RS for IM 406; for example, in the same beam and/or quasi co-located. According to some embodiments, in option 2 of Figure 4B, NZP RS for IM can include multiple sets of RS resources, for example 4. Each set of NZP RS for IM can be mapped to each RS resource of RS for CM, and each RS resource of CSI-IM; for example, in the same beam and/or quasi co-located.

[0208] In operation 1140, an Ll-SINR can be determined based on the channel measurement and interference measurement. The Ll-SINR can be determined from a first RS resource of the first set of RS resources and a second RS resource of the second set of RS resources, where the first RS resource is mapped to the second RS resource. In some embodiments, one Ll-SINR can be measured based on one RS for CM and one CSI-IM.

In some embodiments, one Ll-SINR can be measured based on one RS for CM and one NZP RS for IM. In some embodiments, one Ll-SINR can be measured based on one RS for CM and one set of NZP RS for IM resources. In some embodiments, one Ll-SINR can be measured based on one RS for CM, one CSI-IM, one NZP RS for IM, or one set of NZP RS for IM resources. In some embodiment, one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM and same RS for IM. In some embodiments, for channel measurement from multiple ports CSI-RS, Ll-SINR can be determined based on one port, a maximum, a minimum, an average, or a non-uniform selection of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each port of multiple ports CSI-RS. In some embodiments, for interference measurement from multiple ports NZP CSI-RS, Ll-SINR can be determined based on one port, a maximum, a minimum, an average, or a non-uniform selection of interference measured from each port of multiple ports CSI-RS. In some embodiments, for Ll-SINR measurement from multiple UE ports, Ll-SINR can be determined based on one port, a maximum, a minimum, an average, or a non-uniform selection of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all multiple UE ports. In some embodiments, the non- uniform selection of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from multiple mports CSI-RS or multiple UE ports can be selected based on the channel quality, and the proportion can be larger if the channel quality is better. In some embodiments, the one port CSI-RS can be configured for channel or interference measurement. In some embodiments, the one UE port can be predefined or configured by higher layer signaling. In some embodiments, the subset of UE ports can be the UE ports from one UE panel or a UE ports group.

[0209] In operation 1150, a message can be generated including the determined Ll- SINR. For example, the message can be generated by a processor or processor circuitry in the UE described in the various embodiments herein, including the processor shown in Figure 10, and/or the baseband circuitry 7210 shown Figure 7B.

[0210] In operation 1160, the message including the Ll-SINR can be transmitted to the

AN. For example, as shown in Figure 5, the message including the Ll-SINR can be

transmitted by radio front end module shown in Figure 7 A from UE 501a and 501b to RAN 510 via connections 503 and 504.

EXAMPLES

[0211] Example 1 may include a method of operating a User Equipment (UE), the

method including receiving control signaling for layer 1 signal-to-interference plus noise (Ll-SINR); measuring Ll-SINR from multiple antenna ports; and reporting the measured

Ll-SINR.

[0212] Example 2 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for a Channel State Information (CSI) report configuration for Ll-SINR reporting, CSI Interference Measurement (CSI-IM) and/or Non-zero-power (NZP) reference signal can be configured, where the NZP reference signal could be Channel State Information Reference Signal (CSI-RS) or Synchronization Signal Block (SSB), or CSI-RS only.

[0213] Example 3 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein in a CSI report configuration, X SSB or CSI-RS resources for Channel

Measurement (CM) can be configured, and Y CSI-IM resources can be configured.

[0214] Example 4 may include the method of example 3 or some other example herein, wherein UE shall expect X equals to Y and the RS for CM and CSI-IM should be one-to- one mapped so that one Ll-SINR should be measured from one RS for CM and one CSI- IM.

[0215] Example 5 may include the method of example 3 or some other example herein, wherein in a CSI report configuration, X SSB or CSI-RS resources for CM, and Z NZP RS for Interference Measurement (IM) can be configured.

[0216] Example 6 may include the method of example 5 or some other example herein, wherein UE shall expect X equals to Z and the RS for CM and NZP RS for IM are one- to-one mapped, and one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM and one NZP RS for IM

[0217] Example 7 may include the method of example 3 or some other example herein, wherein in a CSI report configuration, X SSB or CSI-RS resources for CM, and Z NZP RS sets for IM can be configured, where each NZP RS set can include Z’ RS resources. [0218] Example 8 may include the method of example 7 or some other example herein, wherein UE shall expect X equals to Z and the RS for CM and NZP RS set for IM are one-to-one mapped.

[0219] Example 9 may include the method of example 7 or some other example herein, wherein one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM and RS resources in a NZP resource set for IM.

[0220] Example 10 may include the method of example 3 or some other example herein, wherein in a CSI report configuration, both CSI-IM and NZP RS for IM can be configured, and one Ll-SINR can be measured from one RS for CM, one CSI-IM and RS resources in a NZP resource set for IM or NZP RS for IM.

[0221] Example 11 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, further comprising using a same Rx beam to receive a group of RS for CM, CSI-IM as well as NZP RS for IM, which is used to measure a Ll-SINR.

[0222] Example 12 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein the periodic Ll-SINR reporting should be measured based on periodic RS for CM and IM, semi-persistent Ll-SINR reporting can be measured based on periodic RS for CM and IM or semi-persistent RS for CM and IM, and aperiodic Ll-SINR reporting can be measured from periodic or semi-persistent or aperiodic RS for CM and IM.

[0223] Example 13 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein UE shall expect at least one CSI-IM resource or NZP RS for IM is configured for a RS for CM.

[0224] Example 14 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein if no CSI-IM or NZP RS for IM is associated with a RS for CM, or the CSI-IM or NZP RS associated with the RS for CM are not QCLed with QCL-typeD, UE shall fallback to measure interference based on RS for CM.

[0225] Example 15 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for channel measurement from CSI-RS, only 1 port CSI-RS can be configured for channel measurement.

[0226] Example 16 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for channel measurement from M ports CSI-RS, Ll-SINR is based on the maximum Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS.

[0227] Example 17 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for channel measurement from M ports CSI-RS, Ll-SINR is based on the minimal Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS.

[0228] Example 18 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for channel measurement from M ports CSI-RS, Ll-SINR is based on averaging of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from M ports CSI-RS.

[0229] Example 19 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for interference measurement from NZP CSI-RS, only 1 port CSI-RS can be configured for interference measurement.

[0230] Example 20 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for interference measurement from M ports NZP CSI-RS, Ll-SINR is based on the maximum interference measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS.

[0231] Example 21 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for interference measurement from M ports NZP CSI-RS, Ll-SINR is based on the minimal interference measured from each port of M ports CSI-RS.

[0232] Example 22 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for interference measurement from M ports NZP CSI-RS, Ll-SINR is based on averaging of interference measured from M ports CSI-RS.

[0233] Example 23 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for Ll-SINR measurement from N UE antenna ports, Ll-SINR is based on the maximum Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports.

[0234] Example 24 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for Ll -SINR measurement from N UE antenna ports, LI -SINR is based on the minimal Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports.

[0235] Example 25 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for Ll-SINR measurement from N UE antenna ports, Ll-SINR is based on averaging of RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from a subset of or all N UE ports.

[0236] Example 26 may include the method of example 1 or some other example herein, wherein for Ll-SINR measurement from N UE antenna ports, Ll-SINR is measured from 1 UE port, which can be predefined or configured by higher layer signaling.

[0237] Example 27 may include a method of operating a UE, the method comprising: receiving configuration information to configure zero-power resources or non-zero-power resources; performing Ll-SINR-based beam measurements based on the configuration information; and reporting the Ll-SINR-based beam measurements.

[0238] Example 28 may include the method of example 27 or some other example herein, wherein the zero-power resources are CSI-IM resources.

[0239] Example 29 may include the method of example 27 or some other example herein, wherein the configuration information is to configure non-zero-power resources that correspond to a CSI-RS or SSB.

[0240] Example 30 may include the method of example 27 or some other example herein, wherein the configuration information is to configure X SSB or CSI-RS resources for CM and Y CSI-IM resources; and performing the Ll-SINR-based beam measurements from one reference signal for CM and another reference signal for CSI-IM.

[0241] Example 31 may include the method of example 27 or some other example herein, wherein performing the Ll-SINR-based beam measurements are based on a one-2-1 mapping in a resource level or a one-to-N mapping in resource to re source- set level.

[0242] Example 32 may include a method of operating a UE, the method comprising: receiving, by N ports, an M-port CSI-RS; and performing LI-SINR measurements based on the M-port CSI-RS.

[0243] Example 33 may include the method of example 32 or some other example herein, wherein performing the Ll-SINR measurements comprises: performing the Ll-SINR measurements using only one port CSI-RS; performing the Ll-SINR measurements based on a maximum Ll -RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each of the M -ports; performing the Ll-SINR measurements based on a minimum Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from each of the M-ports; performing the Ll-SINR measurements based on an average of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from the M-ports; or performing the Ll-SINR measurements based on a non-uniform selection of Ll-RSRP or Ll-SINR measured from M ports and weights chosen based on channel quality.

[0244] Example ZOl may include an apparatus comprising means to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-33, or any other method or process described herein.

[0245] Example Z02 may include one or more n on-transitory computer-readable media comprising instructions to cause an electronic device, upon execution of the instructions by one or more processors of the electronic device, to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-33, or any other method or process described herein.

[0246] Example Z03 may include an apparatus comprising logic, modules, or circuitry to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1- 33, or any other method or process described herein.

[0247] Example Z04 may include a method, technique, or process as described in or related to any of examples 1-33, or portions or parts thereof.

[0248] Example Z05 may include an apparatus comprising: one or more processors and one or more computer-readable media comprising instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to perform the method, techniques, or process as described in or related to any of examples 1-33, or portions thereof.

[0249] Example Z06 may include a signal as described in or related to any of examples 1- 33, or portions or parts thereof.

[0250] Example Z07 may include a signal in a wireless network as shown and described herein.

[0251] Example Z08 may include a method of communicating in a wireless network as shown and described herein.

[0252] Example Z09 may include a system for providing wireless communication as shown and described herein.

[0253] Example Z10 may include a device for providing wireless communication as shown and described herein.

[0254] Any of the above-described examples may be combined with any other example

(or combination of examples), unless explicitly stated otherwise. The foregoing description of one or more implementations provides illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the scope of embodiments to the precise form disclosed. Modification s and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of various embodiments.

Abbreviations

[0255] For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations may apply to the examples and embodiments discussed herein, but are not meant to be limiting.

[0256] 3 GPP Third Generation Partnership Project

[0257] 4G Fourth Generation

[0258] 5G Fifth Generation

[0259] 5GC 5G Core network

[0260] ACK Acknowledgement

[0261] AF Application Function

[0262] AM Acknowledged Mode

[0263] AMBR Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate

[0264] AMF Access and Mobility Management Function

[0265] AN Access Network

[0266] ANR Automatic Neighbour Relation

[0267] AP Application Protocol, Antenna Port, Access Point

[0268] API Application Programming Interface

[0269] APN Access Point Name

[0270] ARP Allocation and Retention Priority

[0271] ARQ Automatic Repeat Request

[0272] AS Access Stratum

[0273] ASN. l Abstract Syntax Notation One

[0274] AUSF Authentication Server Function

[0275] AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

[0276] BCH Broadcast Channel

[0277] BER Bit Error Ratio

[0278] BFD Beam Failure Detection

[0279] BLER Block Error Rate

[0280] BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying

[0281] BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server

[0282] BSS Business Support System

[0283] BS Base Station

[0284] BSR Buffer Status Report

[0285] BW Bandwidth

[0286] BWP Bandwidth Part

[0287] C-RNTI Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0288] CA Carrier Aggregation, Certification Authority

[0289] CAPEX CAPital Expenditure

[0290] CBRA Contention Based Random Access

[0291] CC Component Carrier, Country Code, Cryptographic Checksum

[0292] CCA Clear Channel Assessment

[0293] CCE Control Channel Element

[0294] CCCH Common Control Channel

[0295] CE Coverage Enhancement

[0296] CDM Content Delivery Network

[0297] CDMA Code-Division Multiple Access

[0298] CERA Contention Free Random Access

[0299] CG Cell Group

[0300] Cl Cell Identity

[0301] CID Cell -ID (e.g., positioning method)

[0302] CIM Common Information Model

[0303] CIR Carrier to Interference Ratio

[0304] CK Cipher Key

[0305] CM: Connection Management, Conditional Mandatory

[0306] CMAS Commercial Mobile Alert Service

[0307] CMD Command

[0308] CMS Cloud Management System

[0309] CO Conditional Optional

[0310] CoMP Coordinated Multi-Point

[0311] CORESET Control Resource Set

[0312] COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf

[0313] CP Control Plane, Cyclic Prefix, Connection Point

[0314] CPD Connection Point Descriptor

[0315] CPE Customer Premise Equipment

[0316] CPICH Common Pilot Channel

[0317] CQI Channel Quality Indicator

[0318] CPU CSI processing unit, Central Processing Unit

[0319] C/R Command/Response field bit

[0320] CRAN Cloud Radio Access Network, Cloud RAN

[0321] CRB Common Resource Block

[0322] CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check

[0323] CRI Channel- State Information Resource Indicator, CSI-RS Resource

Indicator

[0324] C-RNTI Cell RNTI

[0325] cs Circuit Switched

[0326] CSAR Cloud Service Archive

[0327] CSI Channel -State Information

[0328] CSI-IM CSI Interference Measurement

[0329] CSI-RS CSI Reference Signal

[0330] CSI-RSRP CSI reference signal received power

[0331] CSI-RSRQ CSI reference signal received quality

[0332] CSI-SINR CSI signal -to-noise and interference ratio

[0333] CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access

[0334] CSMA/CA CSMA with collision avoidance

[0335] CSS Common Search Space, Cell-specific Search Space

[0336] CTS Clear-to-Send

[0337] cw Codeword

[0338] cws Contention Window Size

[0339] D2D Device-to-Device

[0340] DC Dual Connectivity, Direct Current

[0341] DCI Downlink Control Information

[0342] DF Deployment Flavour

[0343] DL Downlink

[0344] DM IT Distributed Management Task Force

[0345] DPDK Data Plane Development Kit

[0346] DM-RS, DMRS Demodulation Reference Signal

[0347] DN Data network

[0348] DRB Data Radi o B earer

[0349] DRS Discovery Reference Signal

[0350] DRX Discontinuous Reception

[0351] DSL Domain Specific Language. Digital Subscriber Line

[0352] DSLAM DSL Access Multiplexer

[0353] DwPTS Downlink Pilot Time Slot

[0354] E-LAN Ethernet Local Area Network

[0355] E2E End-to-End

[0356] ECCA e8ended dear channel assessment, eSended CCA

[0357] ECCE Enhanced Control Channel Element, Enhanced CCE

[0358] ED Energy Detection

[0359] EDGE Enhanced Datarates for GSM Evolution (GS Evolution)

[0360] EGMF Exposure Governance Management Function

[0361] EGPRS Enhanced GPRS

[0362] EIR Equipment Identity Register

[0363] eLAA enhanced Licensed Assisted Access, enhanced LAA

[0364] EM Element Manager

[0365] eMBB Enhanced Mobile Broadband

[0366] EMS Element Management System

[0367] eNB evolved NodeB, E-UTRAN Node B

[0368] EN-DC E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity

[0369] EPC Evolved Packet Core

[0370] EPDCCFI enhanced PDCCH, enhanced Physical Downlink Control Cannel

[0371] EPRE Energy per resource element

[0372] EPS Evolved Packet System

[0373] EREG enhanced REG, enhanced resource element groups

[0374] ETSI European T el ecommuni cati on s Standards Institute

[0375] ETWS Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

[0376] eUICC embedded UICC, embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card

[0377] E-UTRA Evolved UTRA

[0378] E-UTRAN Evolved UTRAN

[0379] EV2X Enhanced V2X

[0380] FLAP FI Application Protocol

[0381] F l-C FI Control plane interface

[0382] FLU FI User plane interface

[0383] FACCH Fast Associated Control CHannel

[0384] FACCHZF Fast Associated Control Channel/Full rate

[0385] FACCH/H Fast Associated Control Channel/Half rate

[0386] FACH Forward Access Channel

[0387] FAUSCH Fast Uplink Signalling Channel

[0388] FB Functional Block

[0389] FBI Feedback Information

[0390] FCC Federal Communications Commission

[0391] FCCH Frequency Correction CHannel

[0392] FDD Frequency Division Duplex

[0393] FDM Frequency Division Multiplex

[0394] FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0395] FE Front End

[0396] 1 EC Forward Error Correction

[0397] FFS For Further Study

[0398] FFT Fast Fourier Transformation

[0399] feLAA further enhanced Licensed Assisted Access, further enhanced

LAA

[0400] FN Frame Number

[0401] FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array

[0402] FR Frequency Range

[0403] G-RNTI GERAN Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0404] GERAN GSM EDGE RAN, GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

[0405] GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node

[0406] GLONASS GLObal'naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Si sterna (Engl.:

Global Navigation Satellite System)

[0407] gNB Ne8 Generation NodeB

[0408] gNB-CU gNB-centralized unit, Ne8 Generation NodeB centralized unit

[0409] gNB -DU gNB-distributed unit, Ne8 Generation NodeB distributed unit

[0410] GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System

[0411] GPRS General Packet Radio Service

[0412] GSM Global System for Mobile Communications, Groupe Special

Mobile

[0413] GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol

[0414] GTP-U GPRS Tunnelling Protocol for User Plane

[0415] GTS Go To Sleep Signal (related to WUS)

[0416] GUMMEI Globally Unique MME Identifier

[0417] GUTI Globally Unique Temporary UE Identity

[0418] HARQ Hybrid ARQ, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

[0419] HANDQ, HO Handover

[0420] HFN HyperFrame Number

[0421] HHO Hard Handover

[0422] HER Home Location Register

[0423] HN Home Network

[0424] HO Handover

[0425] HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network

[0426] HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access

[0427] HSN Hopping Sequence Number

[0428] HSPA High Speed Packet Access

[0429] HSS Home Subscriber Server

[0430] HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access

[0431] HTTP Hyper Te8 Transfer Protocol

[0432] HTTPS Hyper Te8 Transfer Protocol Secure (https is http/ 1.1 over SSL, i.e. port 443)

[0433] I-Block Information Block

[0434] ICCID Integrated Circuit Card Identification

[0435] ICIC Inter-Cell Interference Coordination

[0436] ID Identity, identifier

[0437] IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

[0438] IE Information element

[0439] IBE In-Band Emission

[0440] IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

[0441] IEI Information Element Identifier

[0442] IEIDL Information Element Identifier Data Length

[0443] IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

[0444] IF Infrastructure

[0445] IM Interference Measurement, Intermodulation, IP Multimedia

[0446] IMG IMS Credentials

[0447] IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity

[0448] IMG! International mobile group identity

[0449] IMPI IP Multimedia Private Identity

[0450] IMPU IP Multimedia PUblic identity

[0451] IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem

[0452] IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity

[0453] IoT Internet of Things

[0454] IP Internet Protocol

[0455] Ip sec IP Security, Internet Protocol Security

[0456] IP-CAN IP-Connectivity Access Network

[0457] IP-M IP Multicast

[0458] IPv4 Internet Protocol V ersion 4

[0459] IPv6 Internet Protocol Version 6

[0460] IR Infrared

[0461] IS In Sync

[0462] IRP Integration Reference Point

[0463] ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

[0464] I SIM IM Services Identity Module

[0465] ISO International Organisation for Standardisation

[0466] ISP Internet Service Provider

[0467] IWF Interworking-Function

[0468] I-WLAN Interworking WLAN

[0469] K Constraint length of the convolutional code, USIM Indi vidual key

[0470] kB Kilobyte (1000 bytes)

[0471] kbps kilo-bits per second

[0472] Kc Ciphering key

[0473] Ki Individual subscriber authentication key

[0474] KPI Key Performance Indicator

[0475] KQI Key Quality Indicator

[0476] KSI Key Set Identifier

[0477] ksps kilo- symbols per second

[0478] KVM Kernel Virtual Machine

[0479] LI Layer 1 (physical layer)

[0480] Ll-RSRP Layer 1 reference signal received power

[0481] L2 Layer 2 (data link layer)

[0482] L3 Layer 3 (network layer)

[0483] LAA Licensed Assisted Access

[0484] LAN Local Area Network

[0485] LBT Listen Before Talk

[0486] LCM LifeCycle Management

[0487] LCR Low Chip Rate

[0488] LCS Location Services

[0489] LCID Logical Channel ID

[0490] LI Layer indicator

[0491] LLC Logical Link Control, Low Layer Compatibility

[0492] LPLMN Local PLAIN

[0493] LPP LTE Positioning Protocol

[0494] LSB Least Significant Bit

[0495] LIE Long Term Evolution

[0496] LWA LTE-WLAN aggregation

[0497] LWIP LTE/WLAN Radio Level integration with IPsec Tunnel

[0498] LTE Long Term Evolution

[0499] M2M Machine-to-Machine

[0500] MAC Medium Access Control (protocol layering conte8)

[0501] MAC Message authentication code (security/encryption conteS)

[0502] MAC-A MAC used for authentication and key agreement (TSG T WG3 conteS)

[0503] MAC- 1 MAC used for data integrity of signalling messages (TSG T

WG3 conte8)

[0504] MANO Management and Orchestration

[0505] MBMS Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service

[0506] MBSFN Multimedia Broadcast multicast service Single Frequency

Network

[0507] MCC Mobile Country Code

[0508] MCG Master Cell Group

[0509] MCOT Maximum Channel Occupancy Time

[0510] MCS Modulation and coding scheme

[0511] MDAF Management Data Analytics Function

[0512] MDAS Management Data Analytics Service

[0513] MDT Minimizati on of Drive Tests

[0514] ME Mobile Equipment

[0515] MeNB master eNB

[0516] MER Message Error Ratio

[0517] MGL Measurement Gap Length

[0518] MGRP Measurement Gap Repetition Period

[0519] MIB Master Information Block, Management Information Base

[0520] MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output

[0521] MLC Mobile Location Centre

[0522] MM Mobility Management

[0523] MME Mobility Management Entity

[0524] MN Master Node

[0525] MO Measurement Object, Mobile Originated

[0526] MPBCH MTC Physical Broadcast CHannel

[0527] MPDCCH MTC Physical Downlink Control CHannel

[0528] MPDSCH MTC Physical Downlink Shared CHannel

[0529] MPRACH MTC Physical Random Access CHannel

[0530] MPUSCH MTC Physical Uplink Shared Channel

[0531] MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching

[0532] MS Mobile Station

[0533] MSB Most Significant Bit

[0534] MSC Mobile Switching Centre

[0535] MSI Minimum System Information, MCH Scheduling Information

[0536] MS ID Mobile Station Identifier

[0537] MSIN Mobile Station Identification Number

[0538] MSI SDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number

[0539] MT Mobile Terminated, Mobile Termination

[0540] MTC Machine-Type Communications

[0541] tiMTC massive MTC, massive Machine-Type Communications

[0542] MU-MIMO Multi User MIMO

[0543] MWUS MTC wake-up signal, MTC WUS

[0544] NACK Negative Acknowledgement

[0545] NAI Network Access Identifier

[0546] NAS Non-Access Stratum, Non-Access Stratum layer

[0547] NCT Network Connectivity Topology

[0548] NEC Network Capability Exposure

[0549] NE-DC NR-E-UTRA Dual Connectivity- [0550] NEF Network Exposure Function

[0551] NF Network Function

[0552] NFP Network Forwarding Path

[0553] NFPD Network Forwarding Path Descriptor

[0554] NFV Network Functions Virtualization

[0555] NFVI NFV Infrastructure

[0556] NFVO NFV Orchestrator

[0557] NG Ne8 Generation, Ne8 Gen

[0558] NGEN-DC NG-RAN E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity

[0559] NM Network Manager

[0560] NMS Network Management System

[0561] N-PoP Network Point of Presence

[0562] NMIB, N-MIB Narrowband MIB

[0563] NPBCH Narrowband Physical Broadcast CHannel

[0564] NPDCCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Control CHannel

[0565] NPDSCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Shared CHannel

[0566] NPRACH Narrowband Physical Random Access CHannel

[0567] NPUSCH Narrowband Physical Uplink Shared CHannel

[0568] NPSS Narrowband Primary Synchronization Signal

[0569] NSSS Narrowband Secondary Synchronization Signal

[0570] NR New Radio, Neighbour Relation

[0571] NRF NF Repository Function

[0572] NRS Narrowband Reference Signal

[0573] NS Network Service

[0574] NS A Non- Standalone operation mode

[0575] NSD Network Service Descriptor

[0576] NSR Network Service Record

[0577] NSSAI 'Network Slice Selection Assistance Information [0578] S-NNSAI Single-NSSAI

[0579] NSSF Network Slice Selection Function

[0580] NW Network

[0581] NWUS Narrowband wake-up signal, Narrowband WUS

[0582] NZP Non-Zero Power

[0583] O&M Operation and Maintenance

[0584] ODU2 Optical channel Data Unit - type 2

[0585] OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

[0586] OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0587] OOB Out-of-band

[0588] OOS Out of Sync

[0589] OP EX OPerating EXpense

[0590] OSI Other System Information

[0591] OSS Operations Support System

[0592] OTA over-the-air

[0593] PAPR Peak-to- Average Power Ratio

[0594] PAR Peak to Average Ratio

[0595] PBCII Physical Broadcast Channel

[0596] PC Power Control, Personal Computer

[0597] PCC Primary Component Carrier, Primary CC

[0598] PCell Primary Cell

[0599] PCI Physical Cell ID, Physical Cell Identity

[0600] PCEF Policy and Charging Enforcement Function

[0601] PCF Policy Control Function

[0602] PCRF Policy Control and Charging Rules Function

[0603] PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol, Packet Data Convergence

Protocol layer

[0604] PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel

[0605] PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol

[0606] PDN Packet Data Network, Public Data Network

[0607] PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

[0608] PDU Protocol Data Unit

[0609] PEI Permanent Equipment Identifiers

[0610] PFD Packet Flow Description

[0611] P-GW PDN Gateway

[0612] PHICH Physical hybrid-ARQ indicator channel

[0613] PHY Physical layer

[0614] PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

[0615] PIN Personal Identification Number

[0616] PM Performance Measurement

[0617] PMI Precoding Matrix Indicator

[0618] PNF Physical Network Function

[0619] PNFD Physical Network Function Descriptor

[0620] PNFR Physical Network Function Record

[0621] POC PTT over Cellular

[0622] pp pxp Point-to-Point

[0623] PPP Point-to-Point Protocol

[0624] PRACH Physical RACH

[0625] PRB Physical resource block

[0626] PRG Physical resource block group

[0627] ProSe Proximity Services, Proximity-Based Service

[0628] PRS Positioning Reference Signal

[0629] PRR Packet Reception Radio

[0630] PS Packet Services

[0631] PSBCH Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel

[0632] PSDCH Physical Sidelink Downlink Channel

[0633] PSCCH Physical Sidelink Control Channel

[0634] PSSCH Physical Sidelink Shared Channel

[0635] PSCell Primary SCell

[0636] PSS Primary Synchronization Signal

[0637] PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network

[0638] PT-RS Phase-tracking reference signal

[0639] PXX Push-to-Talk

[0640] PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

[0641] PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

[0642] QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

[0643] QCI QoS class of identifier

[0644] QCL Quasi co-location

[0645] QFI QoS Flow ID, QoS Flow Identifier

[0646] QoS Quality of Service

[0647] QPSK Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase Shift Keying

[0648] QZSS Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

[0649] RA-RNTI Random Access RNTI

[0650] RAB Radio Access Bearer, Random Access Burst

[0651] RACK Random Access Channel

[0652] RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service

[0653] RAN Radio Access Network

[0654] RAND RANDom number (used for authentication)

[0655] RAR Random Access Response

[0656] RAT Radio Access Technology

[0657] RAU Routing Area Update

[0658] RB Resource block, Radio Bearer

[0659] RBG Resource block group

[0660] REG Resource Element Group

[0661] Rel Release

[0662] REQ REQuest

[0663] RF Radio Frequency

[0664] RI Rank Indicator

[0665] RIV Resource indicator value

[0666] RL Radio Link

[0667] RLC Radio Link Control, Radio Link Control layer

[0668] RLC AM RLC Acknowledged Mode

[0669] RLC UNI RLC Unacknowledged Mode

[0670] RLF Radio Link Failure

[0671] RLM Radio Link Monitoring

[0672] RLM-RS Reference Signal for RLM

[0673] RM Registration Management

[0674] RMC Reference Measurement Channel

[0675] RMSI Remaining MSI, Remaining Minimum System Information [0676] RN Relay Node

[0677] RNC Radio Network Controller

[0678] RNL Radio Network Layer

[0679] RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identifier

[0680] ROHC RObust Header Compression

[0681] RRC Radio Resource Control, Radio Resource Control layer

[0682] RRM Radio Resource Management

[0683] RS Reference Signal

[0684] RSRP Reference Signal Received Power

[0685] RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality

[0686] RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator

[0687] RSU Road Side Unit

[0688] RSTD Reference Signal Time difference

[0689] RTP Real Time Protocol

[0690] RTS Ready-To-Send

[0691] RTT Round Trip Time

[0692] Rx Reception, Receiving, Receiver

[0693] SI AP SI Application Protocol

[0694] Sl-MME SI for the control plane

[0695] Sl-U SI for the user plane

[0696] S-GW Serving Gateway

[0697] S-RNTI SRNC Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0698] S-TMSI SAE Temporary Mobile Station Identifier

[0699] SA Standalone operation mode

[0700] SAE System Architecture Evolution

[0701] SAP Service Access Point

[0702] SAPD Service Access Point Descriptor

[0703] SAPI Service Access Point Identifier

[0704] see Secondary Component Carrier, Secondary CC

[0705] SCell Secondary Cell

[0706] SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0707] SCG Secondary Cell Group

[0708] SCM Security ConteS Management

[0709] scs Subcarrier Spacing

[0710] SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol

[0711] SDAP Service Data Adaptation Protocol, Service Data Adaptation

Protocol layer

[0712] SDL Supplementary Downlink

[0713] SDNF Structured Data Storage Network Function

[0714] SDP Service Discovery Protocol (Bluetooth related)

[0715] SDSF Structured Data Storage Function

[0716] SDU Service Data Unit

[0717] SEAF Security Anchor Function

[0718] SeNB secondary eNB

[0719] SEPP Security Edge Protection Proxy

[0720] SFI Slot format indication

[0721] SFTD Space-Frequency Time Diversity, SFN and frame timing difference

[0722] SFN System Frame Number

[0723] SgNB Secondary gNB

[0724] SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

[0725] S-GW Serving Gateway

[0726] SI System Information

[0727] SI -RNTI System Information RNTI

[0728] SIB System Information Block

[0729] SIM Subscriber Identity Module

[0730] SIP Session Initiated Protocol

[0731] SiP System in Package

[0732] SL Sidelink

[0733] SLA Service Level Agreement

[0734] SM Session Management

[0735] SMF Session Management Function

[0736] SMS Short Message Service

[0737] SMSF SMS Function

[0738] SMTC SSB-based Measurement Timing Configuration

[0739] SN Secondary Node, Sequence Number

[0740] SoC System on Chip

[0741] SON Self-Organizing Network

[0742] SpCell Special Cell

[0743] SP-CSI-RNTI Semi-Persistent CSI RNTI

[0744] SPS Semi-Persistent Scheduling

[0745] SQN Sequence number

[0746] SR Scheduling Request

[0747] SRB Signalling Radio Bearer

[0748] SRS Sounding Reference Signal

[0749] SS Synchronization Signal

[0750] SSB Synchronization Signal Block, SS/PBCH Block

[0751] SSBRI SS/PBCH Block Resource Indicator, Synchronization Signal

Block Resource Indicator

[0752] SSC Session and Sendee Continuity

[0753] SS-RSRP Synchronization Signal based Reference Signal Received Power

[0754] SS-RSRQ Synchronization Signal based Reference Signal Received Quality

[0755] SS-SINR Synchronization Signal based Signal to Noise and Interference

Ratio

[0756] SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal

[0757] SSSG Search Space Set Group

[0758] SSSIF Search Space Set Indicator

[0759] SST Slice/Service Types

[0760] SU-MIMO Single User MIMO

[0761] SUL Supplementary Uplink

[0762] TA Timing Advance, Tracking Area

[0763] TAC Tracking Area Code

[0764] TAG Timing Advance Group

[0765] TAU Tracking Area Update

[0766] TB Transport Block

[0767] TBS Transport Block Size

[0768] TBD To Be Defined

[0769] Tci Transmission Configuration Indicator

[0770] TCP Transmission Communication Protocol

[0771] TDD Time Division Duplex

[0772] TDM Time Divi sion Multiplexing

[0773] TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

[0774] TE Terminal Equipment

[0775] TEID Tunnel End Point Identifier

[0776] TFT Traffic Flow Template

[0777] TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

[0778] TNL Transport Network Layer

[0779] TPC Transmit Power Control

[0780] TPMI Transmitted Precoding Matrix Indicator

[0781] TR Technical Report

[0782] TRP, TRxP Transmission Reception Point

[0783] TRS Tracking Reference Signal

[0784] TRx Transceiver

[0785] TS Technical Specifications, Technical Standard

[0786] TTI Transmi ssion Time Interval

[0787] Tx Transmission, Transmitting, Transmitter

[0788] U-RNTI UTRAN Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0789] UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

[0790] UCI Uplink Control information

[0791] UE User Equipment

[0792] UDM Unified Data Management

[0793] UDP User Datagram Protocol

[0794] LIDSF Unstructured Data Storage Network Function

[0795] UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card

[0796] UL Uplink

[0797] UM Unacknowledged Mode

[0798] UML Unified Modelling Language

[0799] UMTS Universal Mobile T el ecommuni cati ons System

[0800] UP User Plane

[0801] UPF User Plane Function

[0802] URI Uniform Resource Identifier

[0803] URL Uniform Resource Locator

[0804] URLLC Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency

[0805] USB Universal Serial Bus

[0806] USIM Universal Subscriber Identity Module

[0807] uss UE-specific search space

[0808] UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

[0809] UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

[0810] UwPTS Uplink Pilot Time Slot

[0811] V2I V ehi cl e-to-Infrastructi on

[0812] V2P Vehi cle-to-Pedestrian

[0813] V2V V ehi cl e-to-Vehi cl e

[0814] V2X Vehicl e-to-everything

[0815] VIM Virtualized Infrastructure Manager

[0816] VL Virtual Link,

[0817] VLAN Virtual LAN, Virtual Local Area Network

[0818] VM Virtual Machine

[0819] VNF Virtualized Network Function

[0820] VNFFG VNF Forwarding Graph

[0821] VNFFGD VNF Forwarding Graph Descriptor

[0822] VNFM VNF Manager

[0823] VoIP Voice-over-IP, V oi ce-over-Intemet Protocol

[0824] VPLMN Visited Public Land Mobile Network

[0825] VPN Virtual Private Network

[0826] VRB Virtual Resource Block

[0827] WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

[0828] WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

[0829] WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network

[0830] WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network

[0831] X2-C X2-Control plane

[0832] X2-U X2-User plane

[0833] XML eSensible Markup Language

[0834] 6ES EXpected user RESponse

[0835] XOR exclusive OR

[0836] ZC Zadoff-Chu

[0837] ZP Zero Power

Terminology

[0838] For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions are applicable to the examples and embodiments discussed herein, but are not meant to be limiting.

[0839] The term“circuitry” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes hardware

components such as an electronic circuit, a logic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group) and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), a field-programmable device (FPD) (e.g., a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic device (PLD), a complex PLD (CPLD), a high- capacity PLD (HCPLD), a structured ASIC, or a programmable SoC), digital signal processors (DSPs), etc., that are configured to provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may execute one or more software or firmware programs to provide at least some of the described functionality. The term“circuitry” may also refer to a combination of one or more hardware elements (or a combination of circuits used in an electrical or electronic system) with the program code used to carry out the functionality of that program code. In these embodiments, the combination of hardware elements and program code may be referred to as a particular type of circuitry.

[0840] The term“processor circuitry” and "processing circuitry " as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes circuitry capable of sequentially and automatically carrying out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations, or recording, storing, and/or transferring digital data. The term“processor circuitry” may refer to one or more application processors, one or more baseband processors, a physical central processing unit (CPU), a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a triple-core processor, a quad-core processor, and/or any other device capable of executing or otherwise operating computer- executable instructions, such as program code, software modules, and/or functional processes. The terms“application circuitry” and/or“baseband circuitry” may be considered synonymous to, and may be referred to as,“processor circuitry.”

[0841] The term“interface circuitry” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes

circuitry that enables the exchange of information between two or more components or devices. The term“interface circuitry” may refer to one or more hardware interfaces, for example, buses, I/O interfaces, peripheral component interfaces, network interface cards, and/or the like.

[0842] The term“user equipment” or“UE” as used herein refers to a device with radio communication capabilities and may describe a remote user of network resources in a communications network. The term“user equipment” or“UE” may be considered synonymous to, and may be referred to as, client, mobile, mobile device, mobile terminal, user terminal, mobile unit, mobile station, mobile user, subscriber, user, remote station, access agent, user agent, receiver, radio equipment, reconfigurable radio equipment, reconfigurable mobile device, etc. Furthermore, the term“user equipment” or“UE” may include any type of wireless/wired device or any computing device including a wireless communications interface.

[0843] The term“network element” as used herein refers to physical or virtualized

equipment and/or infrastructure used to provide wired or wireless communication network services. The term“network element” may be considered synonymous to and/or referred to as a networked computer, networking hardware, network equipment, network node, router, switch, hub, bridge, radio network controller, RAN device, RAN node, gateway, server, virtualized VNF, NFVI, and/or the like.

[0844] The term“computer system” as used herein refers to any type interconnected electronic devices, computer devices, or components thereof Additionally, the term “computer system” and/or“system” may refer to various components of a computer that are communicatively coupled with one another. Furthermore, the term“computer system” and/or“system” may refer to multiple computer devices and/or multiple computing systems that are communicatively coupled with one another and configured to share computing and/or networking resources.

[0845] The term“appliance,”“computer appliance,” or the like, as used herein refers to a computer device or computer system with program code (e.g., software or firmware) that is specifically designed to provide a specific computing resource. A“virtual appliance” is a virtual machine image to be implemented by a hypervi sor-equipped device that virtualizes or emulates a computer appliance or otherwise is dedicated to provide a specific computing resource.

[0846] The term“resource” as used herein refers to a physical or virtual device, a

physical or virtual component within a computing environment, and/or a physical or virtual component within a particular device, such as computer devices, mechanical

devices, memory space, processor/CPU time, processor/CPU usage, processor and accelerator loads, hardware time or usage, electrical power, input/output operations, ports or network sockets, channel/link allocation, throughput, memory usage, storage, network, database and applications, workload units, and/or the like. A“hardware resource” may refer to compute, storage, and/or network resources provided by physical hardware element/ s). A“virtualized resource” may refer to compute, storage, and/or network resources provided by virtualization infrastructure to an application, device, system, etc. The term“network resource” or“communication resource” may refer to resources that are accessible by computer devices/systems via a communications network. The term “system resources” may refer to any kind of shared entities to provide services, and may include computing and/or network resources. System resources may be considered as a set of coherent functions, network data objects or services, accessible through a server where such system resources reside on a single host or multiple hosts and are clearly identifiable.

[0847] The term“channel” as used herein refers to any transmission medium, either tangible or intangible, which is used to communicate data or a data stream. The term “channel” may be synonymous with and/or equivalent to“communications channel,” “data communications channel,”“transmission channel,”“data transmission channel,” “access channel,”“data access channel,”“link,”“data link,”“carrier,”“radiofrequency carrier,” and/or any other like term denoting a pathway or medium through which data is communicated. Additionally, the term“link” as used herein refers to a connection between two devices through a RAT for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information.

[0848] The terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like as used herein refers to the creation of an instance. An“instance” also refers to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code.

[0849] The terms“coupled,”“ communi cativ el y coupled,” along with derivatives thereof are used herein. The term“coupled” may mean two or more elements are in direct physical or electrical contact with one another, may mean that two or more elements indirectly contact each other but still cooperate or interact with each other, and/or may mean that one or more other elements are coupled or connected between the elements that are said to be coupled with each other. The term“directly coupled” may mean that two or more elements are in direct contact with one another. The term“communicatively

coupled” may mean that two or more elements may be in contact with one another by a means of communication including through a wire or other interconnect connecti on, through a wireless communication channel or ink, and/or the like.

[0850] The term“information element” refers to a structural element containing one or more fields. The term“field” refers to individual contents of an information element, or a data element that contains content.

[0851] The term“SMTC” refers to an SSB-based measurement timing configuration configured by S SB -MeasurementTimingC onfigurati on .

[0852] The term“SSB” refers to an SS/PBCH block.

[0853] The term“a“Primary Cell” refers to the MCG cell, operating on the primary' frequency, in which the UE either performs the initial connection establishment procedure or initiates the connection re-establishment procedure.

[0854] The term“Primary' SCG Cell” refers to the SCG cell in which the UE performs random access when performing the Reconfiguration with Sync procedure for DC operation.

[0855] The term“Secondary' Cell” refers to a cell providing additional radio resources on top of a Special Cell for a UE configured with CA.

[0856] The term“Secondary Cell Group” refers to the subset of serving cells comprising the PSCell and zero or more secondary cells for a UE configured with DC.

[0857] The term“Serving Cell” refers to the primary cell for a UE in

RRC C ONNEC TED not configured with CA/DC there is only one serving cell comprising of the primary cell.

[0858] The term“serving cell” or“serving cells” refers to the set of cells comprising the

Special Cell(s) and all secondary cells for a UE in RRC CONNECTED configured with CA /

[0859] The term“Special Cell” refers to the PCell of the MCG or the PSCell of the SCG for DC operation; otherwise, the term“Special Cell” refers to the Pcell .