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1. WO2009006162 - MEMS DEVICES HAVING IMPROVED UNIFORMITY AND METHODS FOR MAKING THEM

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

MEMS DEVICES HAVING IMPROVED UNIFORMITY AND METHODS FOR
MAKING THEM

BACKGROUND
Field of the Invention
[0001] This invention relates to microelectromechanical systems. More particularly, this invention relates to methods and apparatus for improving the performance of microelectromechanical systems such as interferometric modulators.
Description of the Related Art
[0002] Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include micro mechanical elements, actuators, and electronics. Micromechanical elements may be created using deposition, etching, and/or other micromachining processes that etch away parts of substrates and/or deposited material layers or that add layers to form electrical and electromechanical devices. One type of MEMS device is called an interferometric modulator. As used herein, the term interferometric modulator or interferometric light modulator refers to a device that selectively absorbs and/or reflects light using the principles of optical interference. In certain embodiments, an interferometric modulator may comprise a pair of conductive plates, one or both of which may be transparent and/or reflective in whole or part and capable of relative motion upon application of an appropriate electrical signal. In a particular embodiment, one plate may comprise a stationary layer deposited on a substrate and the other plate may comprise a metallic membrane separated from the stationary layer by an air gap. As described herein in more detail, the position of one plate in relation to another can change the optical interference of light incident on the interferometric modulator. Such devices have a wide range of applications, and it would be beneficial in the art to utilize and/or modify the characteristics of these types of devices so that their features can be exploited in improving existing products and creating new products that have not yet been developed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0003] The systems, methods, and devices of the invention each have several aspects, no single one of which is solely responsible for its desirable attributes. Without limiting the scope of this invention, its more prominent features will now be discussed briefly. After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading the section entitled "Detailed Description of Certain Embodiments" one will understand how the features of this invention provide advantages over other display devices.
[0004] An aspect provides a method of making a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The method of this aspect includes forming a sacrificial layer over a substrate, forming two or more substantially parallel first channels in the sacrificial layer to thereby form at least one strip of the sacrificial layer, and forming support rails in the formed first channels. The method further includes forming a first elongated opening in the strip of the sacrificial layer, forming an elongated post in the first elongated opening, forming a deformable layer over the sacrificial layer, the support rails and the elongated post, forming one or more second channels in the deformable layer to thereby form at least one strip of the deformable layer, the strip of the deformable layer being substantially perpendicular to the strip of the sacrificial layer. The method further includes removing the sacrificial layer to form a cavity between the strip of the deformable layer and the substrate, the cavity being bordered on two sides by the support rails, wherein the support rails support the deformable layer on the two sides of the cavity, wherein the elongated post is aligned so that the elongate direction is substantially parallel to the support rails.
[0005] Another aspect provides a method of making a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The method of this aspect includes forming a sacrificial layer over a substrate, forming two or more substantially parallel first channels in the sacrificial layer to thereby form at least one substantially parallel strip of the sacrificial layer, forming support rails in the formed first channels, and forming a deformable layer over the sacrificial layer and over the support rails. The method further includes forming one or more second channels in the deformable layer to thereby form at least one strip of the deformable layer, the strip of the deformable layer being substantially perpendicular to the strip of the sacrificial layer, forming one or more first elongated openings in the strip of the deformable layer, wherein the elongate direction of the first elongated opening is substantially parallel to the strip of the deformable layer, and removing the sacrificial layer to form a cavity between the strip of the deformable layer and the substrate, the cavity being bordered on two sides by the support rails.
[0006] Another aspect provides a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The MEMS device of this aspect includes first means for conducting electricity, transmitting light, or both; second means for conducting electricity, reflecting light, or both, the second means being movable towards or away from the first means; third means for supporting the second means; fourth means for supporting at least the first means, the second means, and the third means; and fifth means for improving uniformity of a stress state of the second means.
[0007] These and other embodiments are described in greater detail below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0008] FIG. 1 is an isometric view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display in which a movable reflective layer of a first interferometric modulator is in a relaxed position and a movable reflective layer of a second interferometric modulator is in an actuated position.
[0009] FIG. 2 is a system block diagram illustrating one embodiment of an electronic device incorporating a 3x3 interferometric modulator display.
[0010] FIG. 3 is a diagram of movable mirror position versus applied voltage for one exemplary embodiment of an interferometric modulator of FIG. 1.
[0011] FIG. 4 is an illustration of a set of row and column voltages that may be used to drive an interferometric modulator display.
[0012] FIG. 5A illustrates one exemplary frame of display data in the 3x3 interferometric modulator display of FIG. 2.
[0013] FIG. 5B illustrates one exemplary timing diagram for row and column signals that may be used to write the frame of FIG. 5 A.

[0014] FIGS. 6A and 6B are system block diagrams illustrating an embodiment of a visual display device comprising a plurality of interferometric modulators.
[0015] FIG. 7 A is a cross section of the device of FIG. 1.
[0016] FIG. 7B is a cross section of an alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator.
[0017] FIG. 7C is a cross section of another alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator.
[0018] FIG. 7D is a cross section of yet another alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator.
[0019] FIG. 7E is a cross section of an additional alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator.
[0020] FIG. 8 is a flow diagram illustrating certain steps in an embodiment of a method of making an interferometric modulator.
[0021] FIG. 9 is a view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display that could be manufactured using the method of Figure 8.
[0022] FIG. 10 is an isometric view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display in which elongated support posts are located in the interior of a cavity between the row electrodes and the movable reflective layer.
[0023] FIG. 1 1 is an isometric view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display in which elongated release holes are formed in the movable reflective layer.
[0024] FIG. 12 is a flow diagram illustrating certain steps in another embodiment of a method of making an interferometric modulator.
[0025] FIG. 13 is a view depicting one embodiment of a pixel configuration of an interferometric modulator including support rails, elongated support posts and elongated release holes providing a more uniform stress state in the movable reflective layer.
[0026] FIGS. 14A and 14B are views depicting a misalignment between the elongated support posts and the elongated release holes of the interferometric modulator of FIG. 13.
[0027] The Figures are schematic only, not drawn to scale.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN EMBODIMENTS
[0028] The following detailed description is directed to certain specific embodiments of the invention. However, the invention can be embodied in a multitude of different ways. In this description, reference is made to the drawings wherein like parts are designated with like numerals throughout. As will be apparent from the following description, the embodiments may be implemented in any device that is configured to display an image, whether in motion (e.g., video) or stationary (e.g., still image), and whether textual or pictorial. More particularly, it is contemplated that the embodiments may be implemented in or associated with a variety of electronic devices such as, but not limited to, mobile telephones, wireless devices, personal data assistants (PDAs), hand-held or portable computers, GPS receivers/navigators, cameras, MP3 players, camcorders, game consoles, wrist watches, clocks, calculators, television monitors, flat panel displays, computer monitors, auto displays (e.g., odometer display, etc.), cockpit controls and/or displays, display of camera views (e.g., display of a rear view camera in a vehicle), electronic photographs, electronic billboards or signs, projectors, architectural structures, packaging, and aesthetic structures (e.g., display of images on a piece of jewelry). MEMS devices of similar structure to those described herein can also be used in non-display applications such as in electronic switching devices.
[0029] Embodiments described herein provide MEMS devices and particularly interferometric modulator devices and methods of making the same with improved performance. In particular, embodiments for improving the uniformity of reflected color across a pixel region are described. In one aspect, the interferometric modulator includes one or more elongated interior posts and support rails supporting a deformable reflective layer, where the elongated interior posts are entirely within an interferometric cavity and aligned parallel with the support rails. In another aspect, the interferometric modulator includes one or more elongated etch release holes formed in the deformable reflective layer and aligned parallel with channels formed in the deformable reflective layer defining parallel strips of the deformable reflective layer.
[0030] One interferometric modulator display embodiment comprising an interferometric MEMS display element is illustrated in Figure 1. In these devices, the pixels are in either a bright or dark state. In the bright ("on" or "open") state, the display element reflects a large portion of incident visible light to a user. When in the dark ("off or "closed") state, the display element reflects little incident visible light to the user. Depending on the embodiment, the light reflectance properties of the "on" and "off states may be reversed. MEMS pixels can be configured to reflect predominantly at selected colors, allowing for a color display in addition to black and white.
[0031] Figure 1 is an isometric view depicting two adjacent pixels in a series of pixels of a visual display, wherein each pixel comprises a MEMS interferometric modulator. In some embodiments, an interferometric modulator display comprises a row/column array of these interferometric modulators. Each interferometric modulator includes a pair of reflective layers positioned at a variable and controllable distance from each other to form a resonant optical gap with at least one variable dimension. In one embodiment, one of the reflective layers may be moved between two positions. In the first position, referred to herein as the relaxed position, the movable reflective layer is positioned at a relatively large distance from a fixed partially reflective layer. In the second position, referred to herein as the actuated position, the movable reflective layer is positioned more closely adjacent to the partially reflective layer. Incident light that reflects from the two layers interferes constructively or destructively depending on the position of the movable reflective layer, producing either an overall reflective or non-reflective state for each pixel.
[0032] The depicted portion of the pixel array in Figure 1 includes two adjacent interferometric modulators 12a and 12b. In the interferometric modulator 12a on the left, a movable reflective layer or membrane 14a is illustrated in a relaxed position at a predetermined distance from an optical stack 16a, which includes a partially reflective layer. In the interferometric modulator 12b on the right, the movable reflective layer or membrane 14b is illustrated in an actuated position adjacent to the optical stack 16b.
[0033] The optical stacks 16a and 16b (collectively referred to as optical stack 16), as referenced herein, typically comprise several fused layers, which can include an electrode layer, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), a partially reflective layer, such as chromium, and a transparent dielectric. The optical stack 16 is thus electrically conductive, partially transparent, and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more of the above layers onto a transparent substrate 20. The partially reflective layer can be formed from a variety of materials that are partially reflective such as various metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. The partially reflective layer can be formed of one or more layers of materials, and each of the layers can be formed of a single material or a combination of materials.
[0034] In some embodiments, the layers of the optical stack 16 are patterned into parallel strips, and may form row electrodes in a display device as described further below. The movable reflective layers 14a, 14b may be formed as a series of parallel strips of a deposited metal layer or layers (orthogonal to the row electrodes of 16a, 16b) deposited on top of posts 18 and an intervening sacrificial material deposited between the posts 18. When the sacrificial material is etched away, the movable reflective layers 14a, 14b are separated from the optical stacks 16a, 16b by a defined gap 19. A highly conductive and reflective material such as aluminum may be used for the reflective layers 14, and these strips may form column electrodes in a display device.
[0035] With no applied voltage, the gap 19 remains between the movable reflective layer 14a and optical stack 16a, with the movable reflective layer 14a in a mechanically relaxed state, as illustrated by the pixel 12a in Figure 1. However, when a potential difference is applied to a selected row and column, the capacitor formed at the intersection of the row and column electrodes at the corresponding pixel becomes charged, and electrostatic forces pull the electrodes together. If the voltage is high enough, the movable reflective layer 14 is deformed and is forced against the optical stack 16. A dielectric layer (not illustrated in this Figure) within the optical stack 16 may prevent shorting and control the separation distance between layers 14 and 16, as illustrated by pixel 12b on the right in Figure 1. The behavior is the same regardless of the polarity of the applied potential difference. In this way, row/column actuation that can control the reflective vs. non-reflective pixel states is analogous in many ways to that used in conventional LCD and other display technologies.
[0036] Figures 2 through 5B illustrate one exemplary process and system for using an array of interferometric modulators in a display application.

[0037] Figure 2 is a system block diagram illustrating one embodiment of an electronic device that may incorporate aspects of the invention. In the exemplary embodiment, the electronic device includes a processor 21 which may be any general purpose single- or multi-chip microprocessor such as an ARM, Pentium®, Pentium II®, Pentium III®, Pentium IV®, Pentium® Pro, an 8051, a MIPS®, a Power PC®, an ALPHA®, or any special purpose microprocessor such as a digital signal processor, microcontroller, or a programmable gate array. As is conventional in the art, the processor 21 may be configured to execute one or more software modules. In addition to executing an operating system, the processor may be configured to execute one or more software applications, including a web browser, a telephone application, an email program, or any other software application.
[0038] In one embodiment, the processor 21 is also configured to communicate with an array driver 22. In one embodiment, the array driver 22 includes a row driver circuit 24 and a column driver circuit 26 that provide signals to a display array or panel 30. The cross section of the array illustrated in Figure 1 is shown by the lines 1-1 in Figure 2. For MEMS interferometric modulators, the row/column actuation protocol may take advantage of a hysteresis property of these devices illustrated in Figure 3. It may require, for example, a 10 volt potential difference to cause a movable layer to deform from the relaxed state to the actuated state. However, when the voltage is reduced from that value, the movable layer maintains its state as the voltage drops back below 10 volts. In the exemplary embodiment of Figure 3, the movable layer does not relax completely until the voltage drops below 2 volts. Thus, there exists a window of applied voltage, about 3 to 7 V in the example illustrated in Figure 3, within which the device is stable in either the relaxed or actuated state. This is referred to herein as the "hysteresis window" or "stability window." For a display array having the hysteresis characteristics of Figure 3, the row/column actuation protocol can be designed such that during row strobing, pixels in the strobed row that are to be actuated are exposed to a voltage difference of about 10 volts, and pixels that are to be relaxed are exposed to a voltage difference of close to zero volts. After the strobe, the pixels are exposed to a steady state voltage difference of about 5 volts such that they remain in whatever state the row strobe put them in. After being written, each pixel sees a potential difference within the "stability window" of 3-7 volts in this example. This feature makes the pixel design illustrated in Figure 1 stable under the same applied voltage conditions in either an actuated or relaxed pre-existing state. Since each pixel of the interferometric modulator, whether in the actuated or relaxed state, is essentially a capacitor formed by the fixed and moving reflective layers, this stable state can be held at a voltage within the hysteresis window with almost no power dissipation. Essentially no current flows into the pixel if the applied potential is fixed.
[0039] In typical applications, a display frame may be created by asserting the set of column electrodes in accordance with the desired set of actuated pixels in the first row. A row pulse is then applied to the row 1 electrode, actuating the pixels corresponding to the asserted column lines. The asserted set of column electrodes is then changed to correspond to the desired set of actuated pixels in the second row. A pulse is then applied to the row 2 electrode, actuating the appropriate pixels in row 2 in accordance with the asserted column electrodes. The row 1 pixels are unaffected by the row 2 pulse, and remain in the state they were set to during the row 1 pulse. This may be repeated for the entire series of rows in a sequential fashion to produce the frame. Generally, the frames are refreshed and/or updated with new display data by continually repeating this process at some desired number of frames per second. A wide variety of protocols for driving row and column electrodes of pixel arrays to produce display frames are also well known and may be used in conjunction with the present invention.
[0040] Figures 4, 5A, and 5B illustrate one possible actuation protocol for creating a display frame on the 3x3 array of Figure 2. Figure 4 illustrates a possible set of column and row voltage levels that may be used for pixels exhibiting the hysteresis curves of Figure 3. In the Figure 4 embodiment, actuating a pixel involves setting the appropriate column to -Vbias, and the appropriate row to +ΔV, which may correspond to -5 volts and +5 volts, respectively. Relaxing the pixel is accomplished by setting the appropriate column to +Vb,as, and the appropriate row to the same +ΔV, producing a zero volt potential difference across the pixel. In those rows where the row voltage is held at zero volts, the pixels are stable in whatever state they were originally in, regardless of whether the column is at +Vb,as, or -Vbms- As is also illustrated in Figure 4, it will be appreciated that voltages of opposite polarity than those described above can be used, e.g., actuating a pixel can involve setting the appropriate column to +Vbias, and the appropriate row to -ΔV. In this embodiment, releasing the pixel is accomplished by setting the appropriate column to -Vb,as, and the appropriate row to the same -ΔV, producing a zero volt potential difference across the pixel.
[0041] Figure 5B is a timing diagram showing a series of row and column signals applied to the 3x3 array of Figure 2 which will result in the display arrangement illustrated in Figure 5A, where actuated pixels are non-reflective. Prior to writing the frame illustrated in Figure 5A, the pixels can be in any state, and in this example, all the rows are at 0 volts, and all the columns are at +5 volts. With these applied voltages, all pixels are stable in their existing actuated or relaxed states.
[0042] In the Figure 5 A frame, pixels (1,1), (1,2), (2,2), (3,2) and (3,3) are actuated. To accomplish this, during a "line time" for row 1 , columns 1 and 2 are set to -5 volts, and column 3 is set to +5 volts. This does not change the state of any pixels, because all the pixels remain in the 3-7 volt stability window. Row 1 is then strobed with a pulse that goes from 0, up to 5 volts, and back to zero. This actuates the (1,1) and (1,2) pixels and relaxes the (1,3) pixel. No other pixels in the array are affected. To set row 2 as desired, column 2 is set to -5 volts, and columns 1 and 3 are set to +5 volts. The same strobe applied to row 2 will then actuate pixel (2,2) and relax pixels (2,1) and (2,3). Again, no other pixels of the array are affected. Row 3 is similarly set by setting columns 2 and 3 to -5 volts, and column 1 to +5 volts. The row 3 strobe sets the row 3 pixels as shown in Figure 5A. After writing the frame, the row potentials are zero, and the column potentials can remain at either +5 or -5 volts, and the display is then stable in the arrangement of Figure 5A. It will be appreciated that the same procedure can be employed for arrays of dozens or hundreds of rows and columns. It will also be appreciated that the timing, sequence, and levels of voltages used to perform row and column actuation can be varied widely within the general principles outlined above, and the above example is exemplary only, and any actuation voltage method can be used with the systems and methods described herein.
[0043] Figures 6A and 6B are system block diagrams illustrating an embodiment of a display device 40. The display device 40 can be, for example, a cellular or mobile telephone. However, the same components of display device 40 or slight variations thereof are also illustrative of various types of display devices such as televisions and portable media players.
[0044] The display device 40 includes a housing 41 , a display 30, an antenna 43, a speaker 45, an input device 48, and a microphone 46. The housing 41 is generally formed from any of a variety of manufacturing processes as are well known to those of skill in the art, including injection molding and vacuum forming. In addition, the housing 41 may be made from any of a variety of materials, including, but not limited to, plastic, metal, glass, rubber, and ceramic, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, the housing 41 includes removable portions (not shown) that may be interchanged with other removable portions of different color, or containing different logos, pictures, or symbols.
[0045] The display 30 of exemplary display device 40 may be any of a variety of displays, including a bi-stable display, as described herein. In other embodiments, the display 30 includes a flat-panel display, such as plasma, EL, OLED, STN LCD, or TFT LCD as described above, or a non-flat-panel display, such as a CRT or other tube device, as is well known to those of skill in the art. However, for purposes of describing the present embodiment, the display 30 includes an interferometric modulator display, as described herein.
[0046] The components of one embodiment of exemplary display device 40 are schematically illustrated in Figure 6B. The illustrated exemplary display device 40 includes a housing 41 and can include additional components at least partially enclosed therein. For example, in one embodiment, the exemplary display device 40 includes a network interface 27 that includes an antenna 43, which is coupled to a transceiver 47. The transceiver 47 is connected to a processor 21, which is connected to conditioning hardware 52. The conditioning hardware 52 may be configured to condition a signal (e.g., filter a signal). The conditioning hardware 52 is connected to a speaker 45 and a microphone 46. The processor 21 is also connected to an input device 48 and a driver controller 29. The driver controller 29 is coupled to a frame buffer 28 and to an array driver 22, which in turn is coupled to a display array 30. A power supply 50 provides power to all components as required by the particular exemplary display device 40 design.

[0047] The network interface 27 includes the antenna 43 and the transceiver 47 so that the exemplary display device 40 can communicate with one or more devices over a network. In one embodiment, the network interface 27 may also have some processing capabilities to relieve requirements of the processor 21. The antenna 43 is any antenna known to those of skill in the art for transmitting and receiving signals. In one embodiment, the antenna transmits and receives RF signals according to the IEEE 802.1 1 standard, including IEEE 802.1 1 (a), (b), or (g). In another embodiment, the antenna transmits and receives RF signals according to the BLUETOOTH standard. In the case of a cellular telephone, the antenna is designed to receive CDMA, GSM, AMPS, or other known signals that are used to communicate within a wireless cell phone network. The transceiver 47 pre-processes the signals received from the antenna 43 so that they may be received by and further manipulated by the processor 21. The transceiver 47 also processes signals received from the processor 21 so that they may be transmitted from the exemplary display device 40 via the antenna 43.
[0048] In an alternative embodiment, the transceiver 47 can be replaced by a receiver. In yet another alternative embodiment, network interface 27 can be replaced by an image source, which can store or generate image data to be sent to the processor 21. For example, the image source can be a digital video disc (DVD) or a hard-disc drive that contains image data, or a software module that generates image data.
[0049] Processor 21 generally controls the overall operation of the exemplary display device 40. The processor 21 receives data, such as compressed image data from the network interface 27 or an image source, and processes the data into raw image data or into a format that is readily processed into raw image data. The processor 21 then sends the processed data to the driver controller 29 or to frame buffer 28 for storage. Raw data typically refers to the information that identifies the image characteristics at each location within an image. For example, such image characteristics can include color, saturation, and gray-scale level.
[0050] In one embodiment, the processor 21 includes a microcontroller, CPU, or logic unit to control operation of the exemplary display device 40. Conditioning hardware 52 generally includes amplifiers and filters for transmitting signals to the speaker 45, and for receiving signals from the microphone 46. Conditioning hardware 52 may be discrete components within the exemplary display device 40, or may be incorporated within the processor 21 or other components.
[0051] The driver controller 29 takes the raw image data generated by the processor 21 either directly from the processor 21 or from the frame buffer 28 and reformats the raw image data appropriately for high speed transmission to the array driver 22. Specifically, the driver controller 29 reformats the raw image data into a data flow having a raster-like format, such that it has a time order suitable for scanning across the display array 30. Then the driver controller 29 sends the formatted information to the array driver 22. Although a driver controller 29, such as a LCD controller, is often associated with the system processor 21 as a stand-alone Integrated Circuit (IC), such controllers may be implemented in many ways. They may be embedded in the processor 21 as hardware, embedded in the processor 21 as software, or fully integrated in hardware with the array driver 22.
[0052) Typically, the array driver 22 receives the formatted information from the driver controller 29 and reformats the video data into a parallel set of waveforms that are applied many times per second to the hundreds and sometimes thousands of leads coming from the display's x-y matrix of pixels.
[0053] In one embodiment, the driver controller 29, array driver 22, and display array 30 are appropriate for any of the types of displays described herein. For example, in one embodiment, driver controller 29 is a conventional display controller or a bi-stable display controller (e.g., an interferometric modulator controller). In another embodiment, array driver 22 is a conventional driver or a bi-stable display driver (e.g., an interferometric modulator display). In one embodiment, a driver controller 29 is integrated with the array driver 22. Such an embodiment is common in highly integrated systems such as cellular phones, watches, and other small area displays. In yet another embodiment, display array 30 is a typical display array or a bi-stable display array (e.g., a display including an array of interferometric modulators).
[0054] The input device 48 allows a user to control the operation of the exemplary display device 40. In one embodiment, input device 48 includes a keypad, such as a QWERTY keyboard or a telephone keypad, a button, a switch, a touch-sensitive screen, or a pressure- or heat-sensitive membrane. In one embodiment, the microphone 46 is an input device for the exemplary display device 40. When the microphone 46 is used to input data to the device, voice commands may be provided by a user for controlling operations of the exemplary display device 40.
[0055] Power supply 50 can include a variety of energy storage devices as are well known in the art. For example, in one embodiment, power supply 50 is a rechargeable battery, such as a nickel-cadmium battery or a lithium ion battery. In another embodiment, power supply 50 is a renewable energy source, a capacitor, or a solar cell including a plastic solar cell, and solar-cell paint. In another embodiment, power supply 50 is configured to receive power from a wall outlet.
[0056] In some embodiments, control programmability resides, as described above, in a driver controller which can be located in several places in the electronic display system. In some embodiments, control programmability resides in the array driver 22. Those of skill in the art will recognize that the above-described optimizations may be implemented in any number of hardware and/or software components and in various configurations.
[0057] The details of the structure of interferometric modulators that operate in accordance with the principles set forth above may vary widely. For example, Figures 7A-7E illustrate five different embodiments of the movable reflective layer 14 and its supporting structures. Figure 7A is a cross section of the embodiment of Figure 1, where a strip of metal material 14 is deposited on orthogonally extending supports 18. In Figure 7B, the moveable reflective layer 14 is attached to supports at the corners only, on tethers 32. In Figure 7C, the moveable reflective layer 14 is suspended from a deformable layer 34, which may comprise a flexible metal. The deformable layer 34 connects, directly or indirectly, to the substrate 20 around the perimeter of the deformable layer 34. These connections are herein referred to as support posts. The embodiment illustrated in Figure 7D has support post plugs 42 upon which the deformable layer 34 rests. The movable reflective layer 14 remains suspended over the gap, as in Figures 7A-7C, but the deformable layer 34 does not form the support posts by filling holes between the deformable layer 34 and the optical stack 16. Rather, the support posts are formed of a planarization material, which is used to form support post plugs 42. The embodiment illustrated in Figure 7E is based on the embodiment shown in Figure 7D, but may also be adapted to work with any of the embodiments illustrated in Figures 7A-7C, as well as additional embodiments not shown. In the embodiment shown in Figure 7E, an extra layer of metal or other conductive material has been used to form a bus structure 44. This allows signal routing along the back of the interferometric modulators, eliminating a number of electrodes that may otherwise have had to be formed on the substrate 20.
[0058] In embodiments such as those shown in Figure 7, the interferometric modulators function as direct-view devices, in which images are viewed from the front side of the transparent substrate 20, the side opposite to that upon which the modulator is arranged. In these embodiments, the reflective layer 14 optically shields the portions of the interferometric modulator on the side of the reflective layer opposite the substrate 20, including the deformable layer 34. This allows the shielded areas to be configured and operated upon without negatively affecting the image quality. Such shielding allows the bus structure 44 in Figure 7E, which provides the ability to separate the optical properties of the modulator from the electromechanical properties of the modulator, such as addressing and the movements that result from that addressing. This separable modulator architecture allows the structural design and materials used for the electromechanical aspects and the optical aspects of the modulator to be selected and to function independently of each other. Moreover, the embodiments shown in Figures 7C-7E have additional benefits deriving from the decoupling of the optical properties of the reflective layer 14 from its mechanical properties, which are carried out by the deformable layer 34. This allows the structural design and materials used for the reflective layer 14 to be optimized with respect to the optical properties, and the structural design and materials used for the deformable layer 34 to be optimized with respect to desired mechanical properties.
[0059] Figure 8 illustrates certain steps in an embodiment of a manufacturing process 800 for an interferometric modulator. Such steps may be present in a process for manufacturing, e.g., interferometric modulators of the general type illustrated in Figures 1 and 7, along with other steps not shown in Figure 8. With reference to Figures 1, 7 and 8, the process 800 begins at step 805 with the formation of the optical stack 16 over the substrate 20. The substrate 20 may be a transparent substrate such as glass or plastic and may have been subjected to prior preparation step(s), e.g., cleaning, to facilitate efficient formation of the optical stack 16. As discussed above, the optical stack 16 is electrically conductive, partially transparent and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more of the layers onto the transparent substrate 20. In some embodiments, the layers are patterned into parallel strips, and may form row electrodes in a display device. In some embodiments, the optical stack 16 includes an insulating or dielectric layer that is deposited over one or more metal layers (e.g., reflective and/or conductive layers).
[0060] The process 800 illustrated in Figure 8 continues at step 810 with the formation of a sacrificial layer over the optical stack 16. The sacrificial layer is later removed (e.g., at step 825) to form the cavity 19 as discussed below and thus the sacrificial layer is not shown in the resulting interferometric modulator 12 illustrated in Figure 1. The formation of the sacrificial layer over the optical stack 16 may include deposition of a XeF2-etchable material such as molybdenum or amorphous silicon, in a thickness selected to provide, after subsequent removal, a cavity 19 having the desired size. Deposition of the sacrificial material may be carried out using deposition techniques such as physical vapor deposition (PVD, e.g., sputtering), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), thermal chemical vapor deposition (thermal CVD), or spin-coating.
[0061] The process 800 illustrated in Figure 8 continues at step 815 with the formation of a support structure e.g., a post 18 as illustrated in Figures 1 and 7. The formation of the post 18 may include the steps of patterning the sacrificial layer to form a support structure aperture, then depositing a material (e.g., a polymer or a silicon oxide) into the aperture to form the post 18, using a deposition method such as PECVD, thermal CVD, or spin-coating. In some embodiments, the support structure aperture formed in the sacrificial layer extends through both the sacrificial layer and the optical stack 16 to the underlying substrate 20, so that the lower end of the post 18 contacts the substrate 20 as illustrated in Figure 7A. In other embodiments, the aperture formed in the sacrificial layer extends through the sacrificial layer, but not through the optical stack 16. For example, Figure 7D illustrates the lower end of the support post plugs 42 in contact with the optical stack 16.
[0062] The process 800 illustrated in Figure 8 continues at step 820 with the formation of a movable reflective layer or membrane such as the movable reflective layer 14 illustrated in Figures 1 and 7. The movable reflective layer 14 may be formed by employing one or more deposition steps, e.g., reflective layer (e.g., aluminum, aluminum alloy) deposition, along with one or more patterning, masking, and/or etching steps. As discussed above, the movable reflective layer 14 is typically electrically conductive, and may be referred to herein as an electrically conductive layer. Since the sacrificial layer is still present in the partially fabricated interferometric modulator formed at step 820 of the process 800, the movable reflective layer 14 is typically not movable at this stage. A partially fabricated interferometric modulator that contains a sacrificial layer may be referred to herein as an "unreleased" interferometric modulator.
[0063] The process 800 illustrated in Figure 8 continues at step 825 with the formation of a cavity, e.g., a cavity 19 as illustrated in Figures 1 and 7. The cavity 19 may be formed by exposing the sacrificial material (deposited at step 810) to an etchant. For example, an etchable sacrificial material such as molybdenum or amorphous silicon may be removed by dry chemical etching, e.g., by exposing the sacrificial layer to a gaseous or vaporous etchant, such as vapors derived from solid xenon difluoride (XeF2) for a period of time that is effective to remove the desired amount of material, typically selectively relative to the structures surrounding the cavity 19. Other etching methods, e.g. wet etching and/or plasma etching, may also be used. Since the sacrificial layer is removed during step 825 of the process 800, the movable reflective layer 14 is typically movable after this stage. After removal of the sacrificial material, the resulting fully or partially fabricated interferometric modulator may be referred to herein as a "released" interferometric modulator.
[0064] Figure 9 is a view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display 900 that may be manufactured using the method 800 of Figure 8. The portion of the display 900 includes three row electrodes 905 that may be formed at the step 805 as part of the optical stack. Support rails 910 may be formed at step 815 in openings formed in the sacrificial layer (not shown) that was formed at step 810. The support rails 910 separate the row electrodes 905. In this embodiment, four support posts 915 are formed in the interior space between the support rails 910 of each pixel region 950. Edge posts 920 may be formed in the sacrificial layer in a border region to support edge portions of strips 925 of the deformable reflective layer or membrane. The parallel strips 925 of the movable reflective layer may be formed at step 820. The parallel strips 925 may be formed over the sacrificial layer, the support rails 910, the interior support posts 915 and the edge posts 920 so as to be supported when the sacrificial layer is removed at step 825. The pixel regions 950 are located in portions of the display 900 where the strips 925 of the deformable reflective layer overlap the row electrodes 905 formed in the optical stack. Etch release holes 930 may be formed in the pixel region 950 of the deformable reflective layer strips 925 to allow etch gasses to reach the sacrificial layer beneath the movable reflective layer strips 925 and to allow the etch by-products to vent during formation of the cavity.
[0065] It has been found that in some cases interferometric modulators having the general configuration shown in Figure 9 have exhibited non-uniform color reflection in the un-actuated state. Without being limited by theory, it is believed that the non-uniform color reflection is due at least in part to non-uniform stress states in the parallel strips 925 of the movable reflective layer, which becomes visible after formation of the cavity 19. In the embodiment shown in Figure 9, the support rails 910 are characterized by long edges supporting and substantially orthogonal to the parallel strips 925 of the movable reflective layer. The interior support posts 915, on the other hand, have a generally circular cross section where they support the parallel strips 925. The edge posts 920 exhibit a small rectangular cross section (or circular cross section in some embodiments) where they support the parallel strips 925 in the areas below the channels 955 cut in the deformable reflective layer to form the parallel strips 925. The etch release holes 930 also have a small generally circular cross section. It is believed that the dissimilarly shaped posts (e.g., the long support rails 910, the small circular interior posts 915 and the narrow edge posts 920) contribute to the non-uniform stress state of the parallel strips 925 of the movable reflective layer. The non-uniform stress in the parallel strips 925 of the movable reflective layer may cause different departure angles at edges of the various support structures upon release of the sacrificial layer due in part to the different cross sections. These different departure angles may cause differing amounts of interferometric modulation of incident light, thereby reflecting different colors. In addition, it is believed that the dissimilarly shaped cuts in the parallel strips 925 (e.g., the long channels 955 between the parallel strips 925, and the small circular etch release holes 930) also contribute to the non-uniform stress state of the parallel strips 925.
[0066] It has been found that making support posts and/or etch release holes with cross sections that are shaped more similarly to the long support rails and/or channels cut in the movable reflective layer, can improve the uniformity of the stress-state of the movable reflective layer. Thus the uniformity of reflected color across a pixel is also improved. Figure 10 is an isometric view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display 1000 in which elongated support posts are located in the interior of a cavity 19 between the row electrodes 905 and the movable reflective layer 925. The display 1000 includes components similar to the display 900 of Figure 9 formed over a transparent substrate 20 . For example, the display 1000 includes row electrodes 905, support rails 910, edge posts 920, parallel strips 925 of the deformable reflective layer or membrane separated by channels 955, pixel regions 950, and the cavity 19 formed upon removal of a sacrificial layer between the deformable layer strips 925 and the row electrodes 905. Those skilled in the art will understand that row electrodes are the electrically conductive portions of the optical stack. For example, in some embodiments, reference to the row electrodes 905 will be understood as a reference to the electrically conductive metal layer(s) (e.g., ITO) of the optical stack 16 illustrated in Figures 7A-7E. In these embodiments, it will be understood that other layer(s) of the optical stack, e.g., a transparent dielectric layer, may also be present. Thus, although drawings depicting the row electrodes 905 may omit other layer(s) of the optical stack for clarity, those skilled in the art will understand that such other layer(s) may be present as desired for particular applications.
[0067] The display 1000 differs from the display 900 at least in regards to the interior support posts. The interior support posts 915 of the display 900 comprise a generally circular cross section. Instead of interior support posts with circular cross sections, the display 1000 includes elongated support posts 1005 in the interior of the pixel regions 950. The elongated support posts are formed in the interior space of the pixel region 950 between the support rails 910 and away from the channels 955 (only one channel 955 is shown in Figure 10). The elongated posts 1005 are aligned so that the elongate direction is substantially parallel to the support rails 910. It is believed that because the elongated posts 1005 are similar in cross section (as viewed from above or below through the parallel strips 925 or through the row electrodes 905) to the edge posts 920 and elongated in the same direction as the support rails 910, the stress state of the parallel strips 925 are more uniform after release of the sacrificial layer. The example display 1000 in Figure 10 has only one elongated post 1005 in each of the pixel regions 950. Other embodiments may have more elongated interior support posts 1005. Similarly, the example display 1000 has one edge post 920 between two pixel regions 950. Other embodiments may have more edge posts 920. The display 1000 may also have etch release holes (not shown) formed in the parallel strips 925.
[0068] The elongated posts 1005 are depicted as having a rectangular cross section as viewed from above or below. Other elongated cross sections may also be used such as, for example, elliptical, columns with rounded ends, and others.
[0069] Figure 1 1 is an isometric view depicting a portion of one embodiment of an interferometric modulator display in which elongated etch release holes are formed in the movable reflective layer. The display 1100 includes components similar to the display 900 of Figure 9 formed over a transparent substrate 20. For example, the display 1100 includes row electrodes 905, support rails 910, parallel movable reflective layer strips 925 separated by channels 955, pixel regions 950, and the cavity 19 formed upon removal of a sacrificial layer between the deformable layer strips 925 and the row electrodes 905. As noted above, those skilled in the art will understand that in some embodiments the row electrode 905 is part of an optical stack (such as the optical stack 16 illustrated in Figures 7A-7E), and that other portions of the optical stack may be omitted from the drawings for clarity.
[0070] The display 1100 differs from the display 900 at least in regards to the configuration of the etch release holes. The etch release holes 930 of the display 900 in Figure 9 comprise a generally circular cross section and were all located in the interior portion of the pixel region 950. The display 1 100 includes elongated interior etch release holes 1 105 within the pixel regions 950. The display 1 100 also includes elongated etch release holes 1 110 located over the support rails 910. The elongated etch release holes are substantially parallel to the parallel strips 925 of the movable reflective layer. It is believed that because the elongated etch release holes 1105 and 1 110 are elongated in substantially the same direction as the channels 955, the stress state of the parallel strips 925 are more uniform after release of the sacrificial layer. The example display 1 100 in Figure 1 1 has only one elongated interior etch release hole 1 105 in each of the pixel regions 950. Other embodiments may have more elongated interior etch release holes 1005. Similarly, the example display 1 100 has one elongated edge etch release hole 1 1 10 over each edge support rail 910 between two pixel regions 950. Other embodiments may have more elongated etch release holes 1 110 over the edge support rails 910. The display 1 100 may also have elongated etch release holes located over elongated interior posts such as the interior posts 1005 shown in Figure 10.
[0071] The elongated etch release holes 1105 and 1110 in Figure 1 1 are depicted as having generally circular or elliptical end portions with linear center portions. Other elongated cross sections may also be used such as, for example, elliptical, rectangular, and others.
[0072] Those skilled in the art will recognize that the display 1000 of Figure 10 may include the elongated etch release holes 1105 and 1 1 10 depicted in Figure 1 1. Similarly, the display 1100 of Figure 1 1 may include the elongated interior posts 1005 and the edge posts 920. In some embodiments having both the interior elongated posts 1005 and the interior elongated etch release holes 1 105, the elongated etch release holes 1 105 at least partially overlap the interior elongated posts 1005 as illustrated in Figures 13 and 14.
[0073] Figure 12 is a flow diagram illustrating certain steps in an embodiment of a method of making an interferometric modulator, for example, as illustrated in Figures 10 and 1 1. Those skilled in the art will understand that, depending on the particular materials selected, some embodiments of the method will include additional steps, for example, forming etch stops and/or hard masks. Those skilled in the art will also understand that in some embodiments, some steps are performed in different orders and/or combined. This description makes reference to certain structures illustrated in Figures 7A - 7E and Figures 9, 10 and 11.
[0074] In step 1205 a sacrificial layer is formed on a substrate 20. The substrate 20 may be a transparent substrate such as glass or plastic. In some embodiments, the substrate comprises an optical stack 16 formed on the substrate 20 as described above. In some embodiments, as discussed above, the optical stack 16 includes an electrode layer that is electrically conductive, partially transparent and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more of the layers onto the transparent substrate 20. The sacrificial layer is later removed (e.g., at step 1240) to form the cavity 19 as discussed above and thus the sacrificial layer is not shown in the resulting interferometric modulators illustrated in Figures 7, 9, 10 or 1 1.
[0075] The formation of the sacrificial layer over the substrate and/or the optical stack 16 may include deposition of a XeF2-etchable material such as molybdenum or amorphous silicon, in a thickness selected to provide, after subsequent removal, a cavity 19 having the desired size. In some embodiments, the thickness of the sacrificial layer is substantially uniform. The sacrificial layer comprises a sacrificial material. Suitable sacrificial materials are known in the art, for example, inorganic sacrificial materials and organic sacrificial materials. Examples of suitable inorganic sacrificial materials include silicon, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, tantalum, niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten. Examples of suitable organic sacrificial materials include polymeric materials known in the art, including photoreactive polymers, photoresists, and polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Deposition of the sacrificial material may be carried out using deposition techniques such as physical vapor deposition (PVD, e.g., sputtering), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), thermal chemical vapor deposition (thermal CVD), or spin-coating. In some embodiments, formation of the sacrificial layer may include one or more patterning steps followed by deposition of one or more additional sacrificial layers, thereby forming a multiple sacrificial layer. This may be done in order to form different thicknesses of sacrificial layers underlying the deformable layer in order to provide cavities of different depths (e.g., for fabricating interferometric modulators providing different colors).
[0076] In step 1210, channels are formed in the sacrificial layer to form parallel strips of the sacrificial layer using methods known in the art. The remaining parallel strips of sacrificial material occupy the space in the cavities 19 that will be formed between the row electrodes 905 and the parallel strips 925 of the deformable layer upon removal of the sacrificial layer. In some embodiments, the layers of the optical stack 16 are patterned into parallel strips in the same step 12 10 as the patterning of the sacrificial layer, and may comprise the row electrodes 905 in a display device. In some embodiments, the layers of the optical stack 16 may be patterned into parallel strips prior to forming the sacrificial layer at step 1205. In these embodiments, the channels formed in the sacrificial layer at the step 1210 may coincide with the channels formed in patterning the optical stack.
[0077] In step 1215, support rails 910 are formed in the channels of the sacrificial layer that were formed in the step 1210. In some embodiments, the support rail material comprises a self-planarizing material such as a photoresist or other types of spin on materials. In some embodiments, the support rail material comprises a black matrix polymer. The black matrix offers improved visual characteristics for viewing the display through the transparent substrate 20. In some embodiments, the support rail material comprises an inorganic material, such as a silicon oxide or a metal oxide. In some embodiments, the support rail material layer is conformal. In any of these embodiments, the support rail material is chosen such that a selective etch can remove the sacrificial materials of the sacrificial layer selectively relative to Ihe support rail material.
[0078] In step 1220, elongated post structures are formed in the parallel strips of the sacrificial layer. The elongated posts may be formed in elongated openings formed (e.g., by patterning and etching) in the sacrificial layer during the step 1210 when the channels are formed in the sacrificial layer. Alternatively, the elongated openings for forming the elongated posts may be formed as part of the step 1220. The elongated posts can include interior posts 1005 located within the cavity 19 that may be formed upon removal of the sacrificial layer between the row electrodes 905 and the parallel strips 925. The elongated posts can also include elongated edge posts 920. The elongated interior posts 1005 are formed substantially parallel to the support rails 910 as discussed above. Those skilled in the art will understand that the steps 1215, 1220 can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially, e.g., the methods used to form the elongated posts 920, 1005 at the step 1220 can also be used to form the support rails 910 at the step 1215. The elongated posts may be formed of the same or different materials as the support rails 910.
[0079] In step 1225, a deformable layer is formed over the remaining sacrificial layer, the support rails 910, the edge posts 920 and the elongated posts 1005. The support rails 910, the edge posts 920 and the elongated interior support posts 1005 support the deformable layer on a lower surface of the deformable layer facing the substrate. The deformable layer comprises a conductive material and a reflective surface for reflecting light in the visible or non-visible spectrum, for example, aluminum, titanium, chromium, silver, or gold. Methods for forming the deformable reflective layer are known in the art, for example, PVD, CVD, ALD (atomic layer deposition) and variants thereof.
[0080] In step 1230, channels 955 are formed in the deformable layer to form the parallel strips 925. As discussed above, the channels 955 and the resulting parallel strips 925 are substantially perpendicular to the support rails 910 defining the parallel strips of the sacrificial layer. The channels 955 may be patterned and etched from the deformable layer. A variety of methods can be used to perform the patterning and etching of the deformable layer at the step 1230, as well as other etches performed in the process 1200. The etches used may be either a dry etch (e.g., reactive ion etch (RIE)) and/or a wet etch, and may be isotropic or anisotropic.
[0081] In step 1235, elongated openings are formed in the deformable layer. The elongated openings may include the elongated interior etch release holes 1 105 and/or the elongated etch release holes 1 110 over the support rails 910. As discussed above, the elongated etch release holes 1105 and 1 1 10 are substantially parallel to the channels 955 formed in the deformable layer at the step 1225. Those skilled in the art will understand that the steps 1230, 1235 can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially, e.g., the methods used to form the elongated openings 1 105, 1 1 10 at the step 1235 can also be used to form the channels 955 at the step 1230.
[0082] In step 1240, the sacrificial layer is substantially completely removed and/or etched away to form the cavities 19 between the parallels strips 925 of the deformable layer and the row electrodes 905. Those skilled in the art will understand that the particular etching conditions depend on the identity of the sacrificial material. In some embodiments, the sacrificial material is selectively removed relative to other structures in the device, for example, the support rails 910, the support posts 920 and/or 1005 and the electrodes of the optical stack and the deformable layer. In some embodiments, the sacrificial material is removed by ashing, for example, where the second sacrificial material is a resist, a photoresist, or a planarization material. In other embodiments, the sacrificial material is etched away by another method known in the art, for example, by reactive ion etching and/or using a gas phase etchant (e.g., XeF2). Structures resulting from removing sacrificial materials are generally illustrated in Figures 10 and 1 1.
[0083] It should be noted that various steps of the process 1200 can be omitted and/or rearranged, depending on the embodiment.
[0084] As discussed above, the cross sections and orientations of the elongated interior posts 1005 and the elongated etch release holes 1 105 and 1 1 10 are believed to improve the uniformity of the stress state of the deformable layer and result in a more uniform color distribution across the pixel region 950. In addition to improving the stress state of the deformable layer, the larger dimensions of the posts and openings can advantageously simplify the manufacturing process. The larger dimensions allow for use of less precise equipment in patterning the portions to be etched in forming the support posts and the etch release holes. When manufacturing the interferometric modulator with support posts and etch release holes as shown in Figure 9, the circular etch release holes and circular interior posts may have diameters of 4 μm or smaller depending on the size of the pixel region. Pixel regions may have horizontal and vertical dimensions of about 30 μm to about 250 μm. Manufacturing this small diameter generally involves the use of devices and processes capable of a feature size of 4 μm or smaller. The elongated etch release holes and interior posts described herein may be designed with minimum feature sizes of about 4 μm, 5 μm, 6 μm, 7 μm, 8 μm, 9 μm, 10 μm, or even larger. The minimum feature size may depend on the precision of equipment used in the manufacturing process. Regardless of the minimum feature size, a large elongation ratio can be provided. For example the posts and etch release holes could all have a short width of about 10 μm and, depending on the elongation ratio, an elongated length of about 15 μm, 20 μm, 25 μm, 30 μm or larger. Thus, a manufacturing process providing a feature size of about 10 μm could be used to manufacture the interferometric modulator comprising these larger elongated structures.
[0085] It has also been found that by overlapping the elongated etch release holes 1 105 and/or 1 1 10 with the support rails 910 and/or the elongated interior posts 1005, less precise alignment can also be tolerated. Figure 13 is a view depicting one embodiment of a pixel configuration of an interferometric modulator including support rails, elongated support posts and elongated release holes providing a more uniform stress state in the movable reflective layer. This embodiment shows a single pixel region 950 defined by an overlap between a parallel strip 925 (bordered by the channels 955) of the deformable reflective layer and a row electrode 905 (bordered by the support rails 910). This embodiment also features elongated interior etch release holes 1 105 overlapping elongated interior posts 1005, and elongated etch release holes 1 1 10 overlapping support rails 910. This embodiment shows nine interior etch release holes 1 105 overlapping nine interior posts 1005, However, other numbers of holes and posts may be used. This embodiment also shows 3 edge posts 920 supporting the adjacent parallel strips 925 of the deformable layer.
[0086] Figure 13 shows a well-aligned interferometric modulator where the holes 1 105 and 1 1 10 are relatively precisely centered over the posts 1005 and rails 910. However, perfect alignment is difficult if not impossible to consistently achieve in practical manufacturing environments. Figure 14A is a view depicting a possible misalignment between the elongated support posts 1005 and the elongated release holes of the interferometric modulator of Figure 13. The example illustrates a misalignment of about 2 μm in both the vertical and horizontal directions (see exploded view of Figure 14B). The interior posts 1005, edge posts 920 and etch release holes 1 105 and 1 1 10 are all depicted with 30 μm by 10 μm dimensions. This 2 μm misalignment is rather severe and typically results in correspondingly severe distortion of the color across the pixel region 950 (e.g., in the configuration of interferometric modulator shown in Figure 9). However, the configuration of elongated etch holes and support posts parallel to the channels 955 in the deformable layer and the support rails 910, respectively, exhibits surprisingly little color distortion.
[0087] The larger etch release holes 1 105 and 1 1 10 and post structures 1005 and 920 take away from the reflective surface area in the pixel region 950. By overlapping the etch release holes 1 105 and 1 1 10 with the support posts 1005 and the support rails 910, less of the reflective area of the pixel region 950 is lost. This is another benefit of the overlapping holes and support structures shown in Figures 13 and 14A and 14B. The amount of reflective area lost due to the support posts 1005 and the etch release holes 1105 and 1 1 10 may be reduced further by reducing the minimum feature size of these structures, e.g., to about 4 μm as discussed above.
[0088] An embodiment of an interferometric modulator includes first means for conducting electricity, transmitting light, or both; second means for conducting electricity, reflecting light, or both, the second means being movable towards or away from the first means; third means for supporting the second means; fourth means for supporting at least the first means, the second means, and the third means; and fifth means for improving uniformity of a stress state of the second means.
[0089] With reference to Figures 9 to 1 1 , in certain aspects, the fourth means includes a substrate 20; the first means includes an optical layer, e.g., an optical stack 16, a plurality of electrically conductive row electrodes 905, or both, formed over the substrate 20; the second means includes a plurality of deformable membranes or layers 925; the third means includes a plurality of support rails 910 arranged over the substrate 20 and configured to support the deformable membranes or layers 925, wherein the substrate 20, the support rails 910, and the deformable membranes or layers 925 define a plurality of cavities 19, wherein the plurality of support rails 910 are aligned in a first direction separating the plurality of cavities 19 into one or more rows; and the fifth means comprises at least one elongated support post 1005 located between the support rails and located entirely within one of the cavities 19, and further wherein the elongated support post 1005 is aligned so that the elongate direction is substantially parallel to the support rails 910.
[0090] With reference to Figures 9 to 1 1, in other aspects, the fourth means comprises a substrate 20; the first means comprises an optical layer, e.g., an optical stack 16, a plurality of electrically conductive row electrodes 905, or both, formed over the substrate 20; the second means comprises a plurality of deformable membranes or layers 925, configured in two or more columns substantially perpendicular to the plurality of electrically conductive row electrodes 905; the third means comprises a plurality of support rails 910 arranged over the substrate 20 and configured to support the deformable membranes or layers 925, wherein the row electrodes 905, the support rails 910, and the deformable membranes or layers 925 define a plurality of cavities 19, wherein the plurality of support rails are aligned in a first direction separating the plurality of cavities into one or more rows, and the fifth means comprises a plurality of elongated openings 1 105 and 11 10 formed in the deformable membranes or layers 925, wherein the elongated openings are aligned such that the elongate direction is substantially parallel to the columns, and further wherein at least one elongated opening is at least partially located in each of the cavities 19.
[0091] An embodiment of an interferometric modulator includes means for transmitting light, means for reflecting light, the reflecting means being movable towards or away from the transmitting means, and means for supporting the reflecting means and for improving uniformity of a stress state of the reflecting means. With reference to Figure 10, aspects of this embodiment include where the transmitting means is an optical stack 16, where the reflecting means is a deformable layer 925, and where the supporting means are two rails 910 and an elongated post 1005, where the two rails 910 border opposite sides of a cavity 19 between the reflecting means and the transmitting means and the elongated post 1005 is located entirely within the cavity 19 and is aligned parallel with the rails 910 in the elongate direction.
[0092] Another embodiment of an interferometric modulator includes means for transmitting light, means for reflecting light, the reflecting means being movable towards or away from the transmitting means, means for supporting the reflecting means, and means for venting an etch gas from a cavity between the reflecting means and the transmitting means and for improving uniformity of a stress state of the reflecting means. With reference to Figure 10, aspects of this embodiment include where the transmitting means is an optical stack 16, where the reflecting means comprises a deformable layer 925, where the supporting means comprises two rails 910, where the two rails 910 border opposite sides of the cavity, and where the venting means comprises an elongated opening 1 105 in the reflecting means, the elongated opening 1105 being aligned perpendicular to the supporting means.
[0093] While the above detailed description has shown, described, and pointed out novel features of the invention as applied to various embodiments, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions, and changes in the form and details of the device or process illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. As will be recognized, the present invention may be embodied within a form that does not provide all of the features and benefits set forth herein, as some features may be used or practiced separately from others.