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SENT BY:ARN~LD~WHIT~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:4~ ; 1137893524' 1613232~44Q;~ 3 the Beeson invontlan i~ ~ continuation-in-pad o~ ¢o ndlng U.S. patont application ~or~ "~ea~-Gono~a~ing
Method and Apparatus", B~rlal No. 323,5~3, ~llod March 13, 198g~ Neutron-3~am Method and ~pparatus", Serlal No. 326,693, led March 21, 1~8~; ~'H~a~ controllng Method and
Apparatus, Serial No. 335,~33, fil4d Aprll lO, 1989; "H~t
Generating Method and Apparatus', 5~rlAl No. 33B,~7~ d
April 14, 1989; ~Powe~ Generating Mothod and Ap~aratu~", 8er~al No. 339,646, filed April 18, 19a~ Power Generating
Method and Apparatus", Solal No. 346,079, film May 2, 19~9; nd "Power Generating method and Apparatus, Serial No. 352,47~, filed May 16, 1989, which are incorporated h~in by reference.
ThQ prq~nt ln~ntlon malate to motors and ~pp~r~tu~a~ for generating heat, neutrons, tri~Um or eleotrical power, nd ln one illustration, ko an app~ra~u~ whi¢h utilizes heat ~o producod by comprising low ~to~lc wo1~ht nuclei tn a metal little under conditions which protucq excess heat, possibly involving nuclear fusion.
An ldoal energy Turco, ana ono w~lch h4~ Doon tho ~ub~ct of lnt~w lvi scientist lnve~tlga~lon and search over at left the pass thlrty y-are, would h~v- th- following propartl--:
to the ~ur~ would utlize aQut~r~um, whlch 18 available ln a virtually in-xhau4tibl- amount ~ro~ the oceAw ;
(b) The source would produo- rolatlv~ly ~en~n and short-llved reaction ~rodUCtsS
SWNT ~Y:ARN~LDI~HITE&DURKE~ ; 3-12-90 ; 9:40 ; 713~93524' 1~13232e440;~ 4
(c) The source would produce substantially boro energy,
Q.g. ln the form o~ heat, ~hAn the enor~y input into tha system; and
(d) The source c4uld by constructed on a relatively small, von portable scala.
heretofore, no one energy source hAR ooo clog to achieving theo~ ~ deals . The pos~lbll~y o~ converting deuterium to energy v$a nuclear ~u~14n ~ac~lon~ ln a dsn~s plasma, using either gnomic ~o~alnman~ or insrtlal confinement to achieve the necessary plama density, temp~ra~ur~, and confinement time needed 20r controlled plasma ~u~lon, hAR bin the ~ub~ct.or a~ in~n~ly- worldwide sclentlf~¢ effort. De~p~te thia, the possibilty of achieving controlled nucloar fu~lon ln a high-temperature plasma appear to ~ yo~r~ away. see, for example-~
Technology element Report)~
In an alternative- fwd ~n approach, known a~ ~uonoat41yzed ~u~lon~ muons are u40d to "shi-ld" th- electric ah~rg~ o~ nucloi muons d t1ghtly ~o the hydrogen nucleus arid neutraliz- its positve charge). The nuclei ar- drawn close together beoaus~ of to- h~vy m~ o~ ~e ~uon, ~o f~lon by tunneling can occur at a r~lat~voly 14w temperature. Thus Any o~ tha problem o~ high temperature plaama containment which haY limit-d th- ~ucc~o o~ the hlgh-t-mp-r~tur- plasma approach are avoided. How-var, due to th low num-rs o~ ~u~on events during the time or any ~ muon, lt 1~ unclear at thin da~3 whether method can or by develop to upport a ~ u~talnlng raaot~on.
1 A lls~ing of r~far~ncea for the referance numerals ~n thl~ ~at~on are ~oun~ at the one o~ action I.
SWNT aY:ARNOLD, WHIT~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~; 9:41 ; 7131893524~ 1613232~44~;# 5
The present invention in~vc~l~res an apparatus and method for owners.ting ~nQrgy~ neutrons, tritium and/o~ heat as A spp lc f orm o~ energy ~ The apparatus com2rlos~s~ 4 material such as a metal h~vlng A lattice structure capabla o~ 21ccu~ula~1n~ ieotopic hydro0en atoms and means for ac¢umulating i~o~oplo hydrogan atoms ln thQ ~n~tal to a chemo cal potential cuf iciont 1:o ~nd~ the g~r,Qratlon o~ one or more couple o~ the p~vlou~ly not one the suf~lci4nt ch~mlc~l potential ia, ~o~ example, nou~h to induca g~n~ra~iOJI o~ an a~ourlt of hot grtlat:or than a ~oul~-heat quiYal~nt u~d in accumulating the isotopic hydrogen atoms in the lattice structure ~o the o,lra ch~m4 c~1 potential .
A preferred metal ~ onB o~ group VAX o~ group StA, palladium ~4ing ~o~ preferred. other preinserted ~tal~ include iron, cobalt, nlck~l, ruthenium, rhod, 08ml11m, iridium, t~tAnlu~, ziraonlum, ha~nlum or alloys thorough.
Durlng the ope~ltlon o~ the app~atuF~ o~ the inventor, the chargad elastica e~ occa-ional our-tls o~ n-utrono, and/o~ undergoes ~ho~ uratlon parlor or 0x~p~ion~l hoht output. the 0~18~rVatiOnql ~ugg~qt the.t heat-generating fu~lon ç~vl3n~s occurring withln thQ lattice may include nuclear Ghain ~actlorl~ whlch may b- simulated by highsnerç~y p~ ale~ o~ rays withln or applied ~o tho lattice ~u~ aro g~n~x~t~ y Rulon or oth-r nucl-,ar r-action oc¢ll~r~FIg within the late h~ org, o~ act of the ~r~nt invention involve ~t~mulatlns~ Dr -nh~ncln~ nuclear r~ac~lon~ ln the lattice by ex ::itin61 o~ at)~axd~ng cha~g~d la~tlco with h~g31 6nargy rays or partlcl-~ uch a~
SENT dY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURK~E ; 3-12-90 : 9:42 , 713~a93524' 16132328440;# 6 rays, ~ or ~ particles, high enegy or th~rm~liz~d neutrons, or hlgh energy proton.
In an ~ mportant ern~odi~en~, tho apparatus includes a
Slul~ co~r~ oing an isotopic hydrog4n atom source, and Deane for producing isotopic hydrogen atoms ~o~ said source to accumulate ~n the metal lattice, A pro~rr~d SIGSOPEC hydrogen aouro~ i~ deuterated water, The id may by an
C~u~ouo solution comprising at lRast one water-mi~alble lC 140toplc hydrogen solvent component, who tall i~ at let partially 6ub~erg~d. ln the o~l~ aoltltlon, srld the ~an~ for accumulating lnc:ludox ~ charge-gan~rati~g source box electrolytically d~ composing the solvent component in~c~ adsorbed laotopic hydrogen ~to~, with ~c~u~ulatlon or ~ch~ a~orb~ isotopic hydrostatic atoms ln thyl metal lattlce ~
T2~Q apparatus oS the preent inv~ntlon JaAy ~ d for ger.~r~t~r~g ~loctrlclty by u~o o~ heat p~odu~d a~ w~ norm to those skilled ~ n electrical g~nsrntlon. Maan~ ~o~ a o t~an~orm~ ng heat produced in sald lattice structure- tcc ~l~Gtri cal energy lnc:lud~ ctr~c~l monorail such a4 ~ea~ turbine miconductox thermoelectric devic-- one onlc
Aitters .
A thormal neutron beam mAy A140 by g~n~r~t-~ by ~uc~ an apparatus. Thls would involve a r~a~::to ¢o~npr~ g a tall haviAg a c:crystal lattice ~txuc~ur~ capable o~ accumulating !,' l~oto~$c hydrogon A~;orn and wh~ctl hnt~ l~otoplo hydrogen atoms ~oou~ul~t~d ~ n 1~5 lz~ttlc~ ~tFUCtUr:~ tc a choDllc~l potent ~u~f~lont to in~uca n~utrDn-g~n~ratinS~ ovens, a~ ~ld~no~d by the ~roductlon Or thonnal neutrons, said ah~lcal potential b~lng at le2~t ≦about ~.S aV when ~om~r~d ~o a che2~ Al po'c3ntlal o~ lu2t~p~0 l~y~rc)gen atom ~n tea ~t~l y lattice ~qu~ ratod wlth the isotopic: hy~ro~-n at J,~nd~rd 35 pr~ure; and means such a~ a dev-rg-nt n-utran collimator,
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURK~ , 3-12-90 ; 9:43 ; ~137~93524' 1613232~440;# 7
~o~ example, for collimating a~ t ~ portion of the thormal neutrons produced in the ~oaoto~ into a t~rm~l neutron beam. Thermal nautron holography o~ a t~rg-t mAt~r1~1 may also be performed, using cording means positionQd to receive ne~tronB which ~G~ through target material in the thermal neutron b~m. recording m~ano includeo a convertor to captUrH neutrons and < captu~ed~pen~4nt r~di~tlon, and a ~ n-lt~v4 to said radiation,
Neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy o~ a target ~at~riAl, may also ~e us2d by including ~An~ for ~on~ur~ng ga~mA-ray ~p~ctr~ produced upon neutron capture by the m~tor~al. neutron BCattering analysis o~ a tA~g~ ~atQri~l, whlch includes a neutron d-t-cor for m~a~urlnq attribution o~ ~catt~rad neutrons at nnn dl~e~en~ ~o~ ~ha~ o2 the balm ~lr~4t~d ~ to the target ~at4rlAl ~8 A160 ~ p~Gt 01 the present inv~n~lon.
The apparatus o~ the present inv~n~lon may ~ in ~n arrangement where aaid tall i~ form as a ~r~e~ Or stacked
ZO membrane ln ~n electrolytic cell, wh~r~ palr- o~ m~mbr~ne~ partition th- oil into a ~er4es o~ alo~sd electrolytic co~p~r~ment~
Wh~r~ the chArg--transrating ~ou~c~ ctrolytic, the tall ~ a cathode and the electrolytic ~co~po~lng i~ carr~o~ out operably ~ a current o~ 2-2000 mA cm a Or
CAt~o~o ~ur~e areA ~ although high-r turret l~v~l~ up to about ~0,000 PA c~~~ and av~n higher can ~- u~ in c~rt~in applloa~lo~.
In certaln e~bodi~ont4 the ~luld wll the lootoplc Adogen atom ~o~c~ may ~o~p~i~Q ~ clytin poison ~r~tiv~ ~o block catalytic evolution o~ ga~e~ consisting o~ hydrogen i~oto~o~ The fluld ray also ~o~p~ae lithium SENT BY:ARNCLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:43 ; 7137893524~ 16132328440;# 8 deuteroxide and/or lithium sulfate. The lithium su~fatl~ may be, about O . 1 M to about 1. O M 11 t21iU~ Ul~Bt~ .
The 1~30toplc hydrogen atom Turco mzly also by one or more ~u~ed metal isotopic hydrides . MeanE~ ~o~ p~odu~lng aocumul;~tlon then including ~or~ing an intimate ~lxtu~ of the mat~rlal or metal in particulate ~o~m and the ~u~od metal hydrlde, and heating the mixture to promote migration o~ isotopic hydrogen atoms from the source ir~to the particles o~ met~1, and ooollng o~l~ mlxturs when ~ chQ~nic~l poter~A~, o~ isotopic hydrogen ~to~næ ln tho motel lattie o~ at Mallat about 0. 5 eV i~ reached. In thl~ o~ nt ~ pr~S~rr~d co~blnatlon 18 with & total o~ palladium, nick n~ cobalt or alloys thexeo~ and souraa o~ isotopic hydrogen atoms i8 ~u~ed lithium d~ut~rld~, sodlum deuteride, ~ota~lu~ ~ut~rl~e or mixture thereor . Pr~rr~ tho~ of h~atlng the pArtlculat~l m~Sr~l syn m includes heating th- mixture wltn a high energy hsat source uni r ~::on~ltlon- which produoe the ah~mlal potential of ~ aol about 0 . 5 oV in lo~tl thrln
~h- pr~f Qrr~CI apparatus o~ the ~re~ent inv~ntlon, ln one operable ~or~, lnc~uda~ an i~oSopla hydrogen atc eour~e 6uch deuterated water, o~di3~elry water, o~ ~rltl~t~d wsl:or.
In c4rtc4in embodiments preferred ~ inc:ludo p;~llladlu~, rhodlum, ruthenium, irl~lum, CobAlt, titanum, ~lr~onlu~ or alloys coning fermionic $~110tOp-8 01 than metalo. Ths metal of the front apparstus may ~l~o by ~ 30 co~po~lt~ ubot~at~ ~ol~ct~ from who gro-up con-Kitlng o2 p~lladl~lm, rhodium, ruthenium, lridlu~, o~JIlu~, h~cl~el, cobalt, iron, zirconium, tltAnlu~, pl~lnu~, he~nlu~, and al~oy~ t~r~o~, anc!l ~ ~hln mol lm upon 01 tr~t~ o$ palladium, ~hodlu~, rush-nlum, irt~lium, zirconium, or alloya 5 thereof. Alternate.~tivoly, ~ tall may ~ a t~ln ~ yor~d
SWNT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~URK~ ; 3-12-90 ; 9:44 ; 7137893524~ 1613232~44~;~ 9 olt a composite o~ a subtrate unablQ to accumulate isotopic hydrogen atoms ~o an extent inducing ~u~lon r~Gtion~. Such a thin metal film has a pre rroa thlcXnq~l~ of about 50-500
Al, although thicker films might be E~U'i table.
Means ror transforming hot to electricl lnolud~ a st:eam-powurQ~ turning or an cll~c~rlc~ nQrs.tor, and a hezlt tranfer 6y6tem for trAns~rrlng heat from the hoat ~ollrcc~ to a turbine or ~lectr~c~l operator. Thl~ ~an~ for tr~n~rox~ing may al o be a ~ conductor th~rmosl~ctrlc device or utilize a thermionic es~itt~r do~rlc~.
The present invention 211 ~o include method.~ or generating h~.t and neutrons, a~ well a~ producing electricity or performing worX . Thr40 ~hods capric the ~t~s of: (a) connecting ~ material (prBf~r~ly a group VII or Int A metal) having a lattice ~t~u¢~u~e cap a or aCCUmUlAt:~nl~ i801;0piC hy~ro~n ~tom~, with a fluid comprising an i80topiC hydrogen atom source; and ~) inducing ac4u~ulat~0n o~ l~otoPic 21ydrogen ~tome ln the lattlce structure to achl~w~ a concentration wherein au~ic~ ant Eco c~usa h~At or n-utran generation. trhe 2~h~v~ c~nc~ntratlon o~ lDotoplc: hydrogen atoms may by charac:t~rl2~td by hAving a ¢h~a~ical potent s ~1 of at 1~ aSout o . 5 CsY, rrhe i~top~: hydrogPn ~toTA poured i~ at least one or w~t~r, d~ute;red water and t~t~At~d w~t~r~ In ono pr~rreld ~ dl~nt ~t~p ~b~ involve troel~emlelll deomposition o~ the isotopic hyd n alloy source and pyrolytic co~rla~alon c~ isotopic hydrogen ~tom~ lnto the lnttio- ~truo~ur~.
P~e~c~ion byproducts, which cem include trltluD~ and/or txitiatad saa~, trlti~t~ wet-r and b~liu~, czm ~ recovered by tcnown p~o4e~ 02: c:omm~are~a3~ uo~, AO wRll a~ neutron eDli30ions whlo~ may by u~-d for ei ~El~ty oS purpose SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:45 ; 7137~93524~ 1613232~440,#1~
A~ a method o~ producing QlaGt~ic:icy, the method further co~pri~o~ utiliz ~ ng generator heat to demonstrate ~lact2~cl~y by varous wQll~ own ~anl~. A~ A ma~oCl o~ performing work,
Chl methcd rur~her com~rl~e~ utlizing generator heat to pe:rtorm work, such a~ by use o~ a Stlxllnsl ~ng~Y~e, ~o~ ex,ample .
Step 3S thio ~otho~ involve ~ rgy lnput condltlon~ ~o induce ~aotoplc hyd~aqs~n atom ~c~s~ula~ion.
Th-l onorgy-lnput oond~t~on~ mood ~roS~r~bly involve electrolyte 8 with the m~ter~hl acting a~ a cathod ha material i~ preferably A m4tal and the oly~ carried out at 8. current of b~tw~,n about 2 one about 2000 mA cm ~ cathode surface area, or even at his c~rr~nt density ~evsls, a~ indicated pre ou~ly. In aL preferred ~m~odimorl~, the mnt~rl~l ~n the ~pp~ratue or ms rod. o~ the prsent invention i~ ~ metal which hzl~ been treated to rexLova ~ur~ac~ and ~e~ u~ac~ impuritlel3 w~l~h ~ y in~ibl~ can ty o~ th- metsl to accumulate l~otoplo hy~lrog~n ~tomo T~ tal may also by d~gaa~4d to remove at ).Pat a portion o~ ariy previous ly absorbed hydrogsn atoms ~ The rating includQs surt`soo ~ac~lnlng oS the ~Ao~al agent to re~ov~ sup~rrlclal portlon thereof and the ~ur~ac4 machining ray by followed by a~ b~ion ~t~p to remove ~ach~n~ng residue.
The losing pro~ora}:fly in~rolvqs OnQ or both o~ h~atlng and ur- to ~ art a partial va~uu~.
A~ a method for producing a neutrcn bf~am thQ above moth include ~chæ additional step o~: ~c) ~or~lnç5 g~n~r~t~ nou1:ron~1 into a neutron b~amO A~ a method o~ n-utran ~ n an~ly~1~ o~ a target material thin matal comprise ho std o~ td) collimate rlg at leaat a portlon oS neutrons pro~u~ad by the o~ ~o form a neutral enm) ~9) dir~¢t~ng the neutron ~eaDi at the target ~at~$31; one (r~ ~A~ing SENT aY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:~6 ; 7137~3524' 16~3232a440;#11 phy6ical ~vQnt~ which are produced by diseçtlng the bsm onto
Flgure I~ how a cublc ~a~e-centered cry~tzl structure ln tho ~a~-ice o~ 1I metal, auah a~ palladiu3, used ln the preset ln~Qn~on;
Figure I-ln shows ~;h~ expanded be~A ~o~ ot the lattice, and extrusion o~ ar isotopic hydrogen ato~A into th- l~AttlCo;
F1gure ~-2 schematically ~how~ one embodiment o~ ~n
electrolytic C9l1 for co~p~e3~1ng isotonic hydrogen n uol~1 into the latter o~ a total 2~0d;
Figure I-3 schematically shows an embodiment o~ an elect:~oly~i¢ cel l having a bipolar ç~ll ota~X ln ~ c~ ~ro~e~ oonr1~uratlon, ior eompro~$nçl isotopic hy~rogan nuclear, ~u~h as deuterons, into the twice o~ a metal;
Figure I-4 s~:he~aa~icAlly illustration an <-rnai mothod for ao~levin~ electrolytic co~pre~$on o~ ~80to~c hydsogen atoms in 8 m-tall lattice;
Figure I~5 ~ch~tic:Ally lllu~trA~os a than-~ll~ . p~ ctro~ constructed for use ln the one ntion;
Fi~ur~ ~-6 ~oh~mn'clcally ~llu~tra~ a palladium ooat-~d ~l-otrod- constructed for u~ ln the lnvention;
Figura ~-7 ~how~ the spectra, ln counts pl~r mlnut4, o~
Q-ray dl~lntegsatlQn~ ~o~ a h~a~ry wa~4~ ~mpl~ taken from an appartus llc th- one shown in ~lgu~a ~-a;
SENT BY:ARNOLD.WHITE~URKE~ ; 3-12-90 ; ~:47 ; 713~3524' 1613232~440;#12 figure ~-8 t g a sohematic view o~ Zl ~t~a~ d:riven generator, whleh lo an exemplary embodiment o~ but on~3 way to ut:lllze the energy that i~ de~iYed ~ro~ the print invention.
figure ~-9 schematically. ~ str~lt2~ y~tsm for rocovar ~ ng trlt ~
PA gur~ 5 i~ a crossection chs~t~ c law of A neutxcJn-Dean ~enerA~o~ oon~ru~:had act:ord.lrg to onR
Q~bodl~Pen~ or th4 invention;
Figura 6 is ~ schematic vlow o~ a neutron-~e2sn apparatus de~1~n~d fos neutron radiography, arc:ordlng to on~3 embodiment o~ the invention;
Figure II-~1 is a schema1:~c view o~ ~ nitron-by apparatus de~lgn~d ror neutron ccatt~rln~ or ~ r~ctlorl analyze, according ~o another em3~ 1m~nt o~ thyl inv~ntlon; and
Figure II-8 i~ a schematic v~ ~w o:~ a neutro-bed npparntus designed for neutron ~:~pSur~ ray ~poa~:rcalc:opy, acc:ordlnS~ to another ~m~odim~n~ of the lnY~ntlon;
Ftgu~e ~ how a I-lngl~ CO~pAr~ent vacuum Da~a~
F~qur~ 2A show- a ç~hom~tic of ~l~odback circuit for protection ~g~ln~t g~ nostril o~ t~on~.
figure ~ 23 ~w~ a ~ her c o~ o~r~lt ~o~ hlgh ~t~b~llzation oil ~ r~S~ulat~d powor supply u~ a~ h output curent galvanostat.
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKE~ ; 3-12-90 : 9:47 ; ~137~93S24' 1613232~44~;~13
Figura III-PA show$ 01 mp~r~tu~ azo-~ both v~. time upper) and cell potential ~ . to ~e data ( lower) for a O . 4 x 10 cm Pd rod ln O.~ OD solution. The ~ppll~d current waEs 80~ mA, the bath temperature w~ 29.a7~C, hnd the e~t~mat,e~ of w~ O . lsa W. the tlm~ or t~l~ measurement tta~c~n at the end Or the calibration pull) waa approxl~2~ y 0 . 45 x lOSs a~t~r thc beginning of the rlmerlt.
Figure III-33 i~ the ~mQ a~ Figure XII-3A oxc~pt time o~ measurement approximately 0 . 89 x 10~ otim~t~d of -
Figu,red 3C 1~ the same Z~8 Flg~ro 1~-3A x~l~pt tlm~ of m~a~ur~nt a~p~oxlma~ly a.32 x ~. ET med Qf ~ 0.372
Figure II3-4A ahow~ the t0DIp~ratur~ ahovo l:ttl Vol. to Q (uppor) and cell octenyl ~4. ~lJao dni ~ lower) for ~ 8 . 2 x 10 cca Pd rod ln 0.1 15 Biol) soluton. Th- applied current way 800 PA, echo bath t-l~p~rat~e WAN 29.90C, and the e~tim~t~d
Q~ way 0.~36 W. The t1mo of the D~s~ur~nt ~ta~c~n At the nd o~ the c:alibration pul~a) wao approximate O ~ 28 x ~.OCB nft~r the beginning of the rlDl~n~.
Fee III-4B ln thQ ~aDu~ lgux~ 4A ~xc~t t~m~ o~ ~a~u~em~3nt approximate-ly 0. ~4 x low sti~at~d of
Figure 4C ie the same as Fl~ifurOE III-4A xcept t~D~e o~ m~la~ur~m~n~ ap~?roxi~t~ly l.3a x 1o6~. E~tl~lt~l Q~,
SENT BY:ARNOLD,~HITE~DURKE~ : 3-12-90 ; 9:48 ; 713~v93524~ 16132~28440;~14 figure rII-5A shows cell temFerature va. time Iupper) nd ~ ?ot~tial ~8. ~e ~low~ar) plot for ~ 0.4 x 1.25 ora
Pd rod ctroda ~ n O .1~ LOD solution . Current entity 64
AA om 2, bar mp~ra~UrQ 2~.87~.
F~ o III-5B shows Cell t~p~raturo v~. tlm4 (Upper) arld cell potential V8. tlc-l (low) ploto for a 0.4 x l.a5 cm
Pd rod electrode ln o. ln LlOD oolution. Current density 64 mA cm 2, both temperature 29.Q7-1 . 'rhi4 i~ a di~Qr4nt cell than that 6ho~,m ln figure II~5A.
Figure 6~ shows the ~ste o~ exc~o~ enthalpy generate on a~ a ~lmotlon o~ tlm~ ~o~ to- coll in Flgure III-
Figura III-6B ~how~ th- rat- of xc1 enthalpy g~noratlon as a ~unot~on G~ the for the c~ n Flguro III2 0 Fig -7A ~how~ total ~p~ lc xc~O energy output unction of. t~m~ ~o:c the oel ~n F~ e III-5A.
Flgure T~ B illustrated total ~Foci~lc ~xc~s~ energy output a~ unctlon of tlc $or the Cell in Figure III-50.
Fisuro III-8 ~how~ the c~ ~p~ratur~ tip- plot for n 0.4 x ODI ~d electrode ln 0.1a~ liOD for A period ~urlng ~h~ch tha cell wert to boilin51.
Fi~r~ g iff a log-log slot ~oxaou~ enthalpy v~. ourrRnt d~n~l~y) o~ the d~t~ ln Table 3 and IXI-A~
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 , 9:49 ; 7137893524' 1613Z328440;~15
According to one asp4ct o~ tho invention, lt has bin ~iaaov~r~d thzlt isotopic hydrogen atoms, such A3~ and pre r~bly deuterium atoms, when accumulated in the lattice o~ mQt~l~ which are capable o~ dis~lol~ng hyd~c~s~n, can
AG~ioVe a comp~e~so~on and mobility in the l~lcl~ who ch ~r~ sufficient to product h~3at-generating ~v~nt~ within the metal late ca which ara believed ~o bo fusion--related, a~ e~.rldon~d bOth by the ilmount and duration o~ hPa'c ~31ea~0d. from the lattice, and by tha ~n~r~tion o~ nualear ~u410n product.
Thq~ heat-gen~A~ing ~v~nt~ Day by a~soclAtod wlth nitron and tritium yroduc:tlon, and perhaps other nuclaar section product.
Section I desG~lb4s m~t~rial0 and c:one ion- ~uit~bl~a for a~hi~ving thR r~qulr~ cGnd~t~ons rOr heat-g-n-rating or neutron-producing event within a ~t~l lattlcs. 8ectlon I~ cribe~ the g~n~r~tlon one u~- o~ neutrons according to the pr~o~nt invention.
S-~tlon ~I de~c~ib~ a d~t~ 1Q~ analyze o~ conditions n~ ~v~ntg rating to h-at and neutron production ~cco~d~ng ~o ~h- prawns mention.
tst and metal alloys w~ h ax~ u~t~bl~ Sor u~ in the p~e~nt invention ~r~ tho~ whio~ are ~a~a~le o~ dl~olvlng hydrogen in tho tall l~ttlca, such ah by tl)
SENT ~Y:ARNOLD,~HIT~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 9:50 ; 7137~93524l 1613232~44~
electrolytic decomposition o~ hydrogan into atoml& hydrogen, ~i.l) adsorption o~ the atomic hyd~ogsn on tne lattice eurcate, and (11~) dl~fu~ion o~ tho atoms into the lattice.
The met also preferably cApabls of maintaining its st.ructural integrity when lso~oplc hydrogen ato~a are compressed into the metal lattice a~ high concentrations ~ e~., near hydride saturation. ~h~t i~, the ~at~ t~lce should ~e capable o~ ~welllng wlthout Cocking a~ ~n increasing conoentratlon o~ isotopic hydrogen atoms are accumulated and co~pre~ed ln~o ~b~ la~tlc~.
the ability to ~a~ up hydrogon ~to~ by d~u~lon h~ been examined in a l~rg~ Cumber Or metals ~wh~c~ ~r4 d~lned h~rcln to include associate metal alloys and metal ~op~ wlth reacted i~puri~ie~). S~ or ~xa~ple, Molly at ). Ron ~ ~l.(3~, Veziroglu ndapani 9~ , and aa~a~adla~). o~ ~he~, the group V~ metal2, and particularly palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, lridlu~, w num, nickel, Cobol iron, and alloys thermal, such a~ pall~dium/~ilver and palla~iu~/c~rlu~ alloys, are favored, ~6 are the group IVA metals titanium conic and ha~nlum,
The group VIII metal2 have cubic face-c~nt~ lattice 2S picture as illu~tr to ln F~u~o ~-a~. Wlt~ dl~f~-ion of l~ot~p~ hydrogen ato~8 lnto the ~nttlca, the lat~iç~ 18 ~bl~ to adopt ~n ~xp~nd~d beta form wh~oh ao~om~o~t~e ~ high concentration of diffused ~tn~ lnto the latter, and f~oct~ly prevent 1OCH11Z~d ~r~ln ana craaXing.
One pot ch~ni~ for who nuclear-fu~lon Evonik whlch arQ ~-llov~ to oe:cur wlthin A mstal lattice Gharged with atopic hologon involve correlation ~twQ~n the nci electrons in the mol lattica and p~ o~ lootoplc SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURK~E ; 3-12-90 ; 9:51 ; ~137~93524' 181323~8440:#17 hydrogen which allows the hydrogen-~to~ p~ir~ to b-coma Hora lock zed and th~rQrore more likely tcc ~u~e. P'us10al ooaurrinq according to thl3 ~echAnl~m may 1~ Yoro~ by r~ r~ion~c metals, ` , metal2 characterized by ntl/2) pin
E~tat~. Exemplary anionic metal would lnclude titanium isotopes ~2Ti~7, and 22T~ 49 (together ma)cing up about 13S of the naturally occurring ~1 nuclld~4~, 6po.l05 (mA~clng up about 2a percent o~ the nature;fly o<~ u2~rin~ Pd nuclear, 7cos9 (maklng up 100% o~ naturally oocsurring Co nuclides),
Rugg and ~Ru1ol, (t~g~th~r malclng U~ about 30% o~ the naturally occurring nuclide), Rb193 (maklng u~ naturally ocnurrlng Rh nuclei), 77Ir~3 (ma~ing Ul? about 53~ o~ the naturally occurring Ir nuclear), and ~?t~9S ~mAXlns~ up about 33.8% o~ the naturally occurring Pt Duolite ~ ~
Naturally occurring p~ 8iu~ may ~6 particularly ravo~ble, Elince the 45Pdlo5 tupel has a r~la~ivoly large neutron cro~6 Tectilon co~pAr~d Wlth oto-r nor isotopes pro~r,t in naturally occurring Pd. Naturally occuring rhodlum i~ also ~scpoc~d to provide ~ highly favorable lattice .
9 W~ pE~rociat~d l~low, tho ~t~l lattice should a~.30 have tor by tr-<-d to have c~ prop-rth W~l~Ct~ are favorable ~o c:harging with l~otoplo hydrog-ln atoms.
Whor~a the ~t~ charge y ~ t~ocls~laa~ daco~pos~tSon o~ topl~ by~rogQn water, a~ d6~cr~bed low, tho surface should r~or the a~oc~rolyt~c roration o~ atoms otop~c hologon at t~s l~ttlO~ ~u~os, and ~Vo~ ic~o~t absorption o~ Cha atomic isotopic hydrogan lnto the la~ico. the l~tte~ re~uir~nt wlll b- dot-and ln G~rt~ln m~Sal~, 8UC:~ as plat~nua4, whose ~ur~co ~io~-ntly cat~lya~
SENT BY:ARN~LDIWHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 9;51 ; 7137~93524~ 1613~32a440;~19 conversion o~ atomic isotope ¢ hydrogen to molecular g~ao, at thia expense o~ ab60rption into the latter.
For thlE~ reason, and ~8 wlll be readily appreciate by those o~ ~klll ln the art, metal ouch ~ platinum, whlch ot~e~wlsQ m~ ghi provide n ~avorAbl~ total lattice environment for i~otoplo hydrogen Rulon, may ~e un~u~table. As lllll ba dlscu~s~l~ below, the problem of molecular hydrox gas form tion at thQ lattie ~ur~ac~ can by ~inimi~qld by ~:h4 u~ of C:Analytic poiBOn8 ~ thul~ ~akir~ usAbl~ othc~wl~e potenSlqlly unu3ablo metal2.
impurities, 8u~:h ~8 platinum, ln ~ bulX-ph2-~e ~e~Al, Sch aE~ pallaaium, may also inhibit i-otopis: hydrogen atom charging o~ the latti<:e, by promoting molecular qAs formation at the ~xpon~e o~ hydrogen atom ~ks~orp~ n. ~n thi- ragged, lt 1~ Xnown that mAny m~t~ put t~n~ to ~igr~tQ to the ~ur~ac~ o~ a metal when h4a-~ to melt ~e~p¢~atu~ for ~a~t~ng or ~nn~allng. For this ~e~on, mils ~uc~ as pallAdlum which hAve been form-~ by casting or ann~ ng may h~v~ ~lgnlrlcan~ plenum i~purltl~ At th~lr surrac~ Deglon, and may th~re~o~ show r~ lily pvc;~ ch~rg~ng latency. Co~v~r~ely, a aold la~tlc~ rorm~d by acting or ann~ g, followed by machining or the to r-movo outer 25 ~ur~co ~glon~ would h~v~ relatively low ~ur~a~ lmpu~lt~s,
The m~chlned la~tlc~ by ba ~u~th~r tr~at~ uah a~ with abrasive, to remove po~bl~ ~ur~ w o contaminant- r~Om the ~aohlnlng proof. Suoh ~t~odD for ro~uo~ng ~ur~$es in a metal lattice are Xnown. will by 80~ Sro balow, a ~AtU~o whlch i~ vad to ~ o~tan~ ln the in~n~lon 1~ oh~r~ng ~ metal lattice to a high accumulation of i~o~opi~ hydrogen ~tom~, pArtloularly d~ut~rl~. In ~tal~ such a~ ~llad~u~ which 3S a~- known to undo~go ~gnl~ioant hy~ri~ng twlth ordinary
SWNT BY:ARNOLD,~HITE&DURKEE , 3-12-90 ; 9:52 ; 7137~93524~ 1613232~440;#19 hydrcgen) ovex~ ~im~ , Veziroglu Ron 50 ~,.~3), fuller at al . ( ), lt i~ theory table to remove nt least a portion o~ the oxdinAry hydrogen present ln the latticQ prlor to charging, since this pr-~xl~tlng hyOxog4n may limit the availablo hydride deltas ln the lattlce. ~So~t preferably, all o~ the hydrogon should ~o romo~d. MQthodl3 for re~ovlng or d~or~ing hydrogen from a m~t~ tta:, s~lch by beltline and cooling, o~ vacuum ~4ga~ginS~ are tcnown.
Plguro ~-123 illustrate A P0.-D (Ludlum-dout~xlum~ lattice, showing doutarlu~ nuolel moving freely into and 9Ul:
Or A C*L . Although ths core t d.~s¢rlp'cion o~ to ~all~dlu~ otoplc hydrogen Atom oyo~om 1~ ~111 uno-rt~ln, Experimenta per~or~ed in support o~ the p~e~nt invQntlon, in conjunction wlth oub3~ nt experiments r~orta~ by other, lndlo~to the 40110wing ~ ure4:
1. The ototoxic hydrogen ~to~ are hiq~ly Dolle, with a dl~fuolon ooe~icier~t for Sartorius, D,~, o~ abut 10-~ cm ~o at about 100~ ~. Thl~ tu~o hAR born deduced ~n part from tho m~ u~d electrolyti c se~r~tlon fao~or S for hydrogen 3nd deuterium, which chow that 8 ~ arises with potently and approaches a tilting Evalua o~ 9.5, ind~ca1;ing that the atomlc ~6cle~ in the 1A~t~ C~ a2~- ~o loo--ly bound to bell~v~ a~ thr-~-Cllmanslon~l clk csat ~,vibrator.
2. T2a isotopic hydrogen atoms xli ~Q nucl8i, ~., d~ute~or~ ~D~) in the lntb a, ~ evidenced by Trilon o~ nualei in An electric ~ ld. Tho ~19c:tron com each lootopic hydrog,n n~cl~ pro4~0d to by localize-d in the band ~'cructur~ o~ the ~t~ ttc.
3 . It ~ ~ po~ibl-~ to accumulate enough lootoplc ~y~lrog-n ~to~ in to law 4 to r~ tho ch~lcal pe~ton~iAl SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:53 ; ~13~893524l 1~132328440;#20 of the late e tc above O . 5 eV, arl~l perhaps a~ high a~ ~ eV or mor- above the c:hemlock pot~r~tlE~l of the metal equilibrated with the isotopic hyd~o~n atoms 21t standa3:d p;re~sur~ (~., wlthout irlput. o~ en~rS~y) .
4. Although t,gel r~puls~ve potential of who lootoplc hydrogen nuclei-~ is shield to EsOm~a ex~n~ by ~l~o~rorl:3 in the mlatal lattice, it 1~ unlikely that ~ol~aulA~ isotopic hydrogen ~ , Dsp orm~d, due to thq~ w~aX S-charactor of the eleat~o~l4 wav~runctions~ Furth-r, formula o~ hydxog~n-i~o~opo gas in the lattlc- hPa not been ob~nre~,
The metal should be a aolid. form, $,Q. ~ ~n t.ho form o$ a hold rod, ~h~e~t, or the like, when tho lattice ie ~o 1:18 lS ohargo~ by electrolysis, A~ d~c~ d ln 8~t:tlon ~ below
Alternatively, t~l~ metal may ~ in thin-~$1m form, ~ described in ~ec~on DE low, or ir~ l?owto~-d or ~m~ll pa:cticl~ form, such a~ when ~h-, lattice 1~ to be charge by heating in th- prQsencs o~ metal hyirid-~ a~ ~la~cribed in ao S~o'clon ~D. the as~od~ should by uni~orD~ly ~pAc~d fror~ tha cathode ln any o~ those cone t~on~ 1 n order to achieve unlf org c:harging .
~l~ure I-2 show6 an ~ trolytic ¢ell or by-to 10 for electrolytically charging ~ metal l~ttiae wlth isotopic hydrox-n atom. A~ do~ln~ h~r~in, "c:harg1ng" ~ancono~ntr~t~ng ~801;0plc: hydrogan atotn~ into A total latter:o.
Tho charging process i8 also d~-lcri~ as ~co~Dpre~lng~l l~c\top~ c! hydogen a'comt~ ln~o thQ ln o~ ~oo~l~t~ s~d ~toDs thQ~aln. A~ wlll by 0~n, who oh~rglng o~ c:one:~n~ra~n~ ~o~ u~t 1:~ capable o~ concent.mating isotoplG hydrostatic atom into th- lat'clc~ to a c:onc~ntr~tlon SWNT B~:ARNOLD WHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-90; 9:54 ; 7137993524~ 1613232844~;~21 si5jnif icantly al:ove the concent:ratios of the hydrogen atomEI in ~ metal hydride qu~libr~t4a a~ standard pre url ar
In the electrolytic charging proo~L~o ~ tr~tc~ ln
E`lguro I-2, an ~u~ou~ solution o~ opc hydrogen water i~ actrolytically d~compo~ad 1:o ~o~ ~o~opla hydrogen atoDIs~ including (do~gnAt~d AlH, or ~I), d~ut~rlum atoms (d~igr~tod
H or ~D or D), and tritium 8tom8 (designated 3~,~1 or 3T or
T), and preferably d~ut~ri~a e,lono o~ ln co~?inall:lor wlth or~inelry hydrogen and/or ~ri~ium. the invQntlor also contemplates loadlnq oil lLthium atoms lnto tho l~ttlco~ author along or prefrably ~n com notion with i~oto~ln hydrogen atoms, ~o achieve nuc:lehr ~u- ~ ~n Softlon in~rol~lring lithium nuclel, bus;:h a~ neutron interactions with llth~u~ nual~l w~ thlr~ the lattl ::~ to p~o~uo~ ~rlt.lug. Sult~bl~ ~ouro~o o~ hlum for c~harg~r~g are glv~n l~lo~r.
who component whlch 18 decomposed to produce the
Zo iso~b~lc hyar~g~n Atqms 1~ o r~rr~d to h~r~ln a~ th6 isotopic Adogen atoD~ Esourc:e. one preferred ~c~urce i~ an ol-electrolyte solution of deuterated water, or ~n electrolyte Bollon DE d~uter~ed water containing ordinary wator ~n~or tritiated w~t~r, contains an electrolyte such 80 T lOD G~ ~a804, for ~xa~1~. A ~ari~ty of Utopia hydrogen aqueous source, ouah ae dout~r~t~d and or tritici acldx, D~S0~ for ~xa~ , And deuterated or tritiated bar ch a~ Naor or
E31 cap o~ trolleys deço~po~i~ion to form the
Go~r~ lng ~oto~ c hydrogen atoms are ~u~tabl~.
Tho electrolyte ~aourca prefrably ln~lud~s h~ ordln ry water to he~ry water at ~ r~tlo Or b~tw~n abou 0!5~6 ordinary Wl~t~r to g~.50 d~ut-rluD andlor to d water.
SENT 3Y:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~; 9:55 ; 71~7393524 ' 161~2328440;#22
Alternatively, the four:e o~ i80topic hydrogen may be orl~lnelry with:r, deute~A~d wA~ex, trltiAte~ w~lt~r, or Any combination o~ the thr~s in molar ration such thst 'che ration o~ ordinary hydrogen nuclsi (proton in the lattice ~o ~h4 total de~l~erlum nuclei ~d.4ut~ron~) ~n~jor ~rltiu~ nuolol (trlton~) 19 prc~r~bly b~tw~on ~Ibou~ s:t to 1:5.
A variety o~ non-aqueous ~olv~nt~ may also pxovide 0 ~ultAbl~ oouro~o ~ the ~otoplc hystogram ~o~. the 801~ent8 may include lsotol?l hydrogen atolR source uch a~ deuterated an~/or txl~iat~ alcohols, acetonitrile, othsr slltr~ leg, oxamide, other amides, rur~n~, ~7y~olo~, pyrldln~ metal ion, 2mionh, single ring ~ro~nntia~, allcenes, alkane, polynuclear aromatic, heteroc:yole~ ,N,0 run~tlon) and other oo~ound~ which ¢an ~md~xgo reduo~l:ivy d~compoo~10n ~o yleld 140~:0pio hydrogen a~o~ ouch A~ hy~og-n ~ulrlc~ and ot~r ~ul~lde~. ~h- 901vont:8 may bl~ diluted or suspended in an aqueous medium aontaininq either non-i-otoplc or iootop1c wst-r and o~ r solute components a~ mentioned abou ~.
The ~ourc~a fluld by ~ o inaludG a solute component whl¢h function4 to poison the catalytic ~ur~ao~ of thas cnthoCI~, to pr~v~nt reaction o~ aural:~ bous d lootoplc hydrogel A~om~ w~ttl isotopic war, ~o ~or~ ~ol~aular ll~o~oplc hydro-n ga-. A vari-ty o~ ~aompour~ which a~ e~octivo to inhlblt tho catalytic ~on~At~on o~ molecular hydrogen on a matal surfac- Art woll known. ~hes~ clud~ a 3 o riu~o2~ o~ ~ul~u;c-containing compounds, such a~ thlous~ea or hydrogen sulrtde, A~ well ~ cyanide ~a~Ss and thQ llX~ one are added to the fluid in ~nounta ~f~ ive to prorerontially lnhl~ locular ga-l formation on the lattlc- aur~ac~ during
Gtroly~i~. Concentration oil e~t~lytlG poi~on~ which are 3~ tlv~ otrolyt~ ~ol~tlon~ ~r~ down. Consonants to
SENT ~Y:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKE~ ; 3-12-9~ ; 9:56 ; 7137~93524~ 1613232~440;023 enhance electrolytic activity ~U~h ~ hium ~ulf~te may allo be add,
The 4yst~ may further include a non-~ubm4rgod hating or 4~taly~1c ~lam~nt (not shown) whlch *An by hoatQ~ to promote catalytic recombination o~ molecular isotopio hv~r~q~n, suoh ~8 D, (form at the cAthDd~) and 01 [1~rme~3 at the anode) to regenerate lootoplc water. at i~ additionally possible to have ~ subrow catalytic anode to ~orvo thl~ gms purpose, particularly when the ~y~t~m 18 in~u4~d wlth Fusarium gas ~D~).
A~ shown ln Figura ~-2, tha aqueous You~C~ o~ isotopic hyarog~n ~ in a content 14, which 1~ pra~e~ly seal, to recapture ~atsr{al, such a~ ~ol~cular iootoplc hydrogen, wh1ch may be gen4rR~od ~urlng ol~troly~i~. The cathod or negative electrode ln the ~y~t~ i8 ~or~d by a ~4tAl ~o~ ln who lattice 1~ to be charged with i80top~c hydrogen atoms.
A~ indlGated abovOE, the oAtho~o may ~o a block in thQ ~o~ of a plate, rod, tube, rolled or planar ~h~t, o~ th- liX~, or n ~l-etro~- havlng ~ ~h~n-r~ tall l?ttic-, a~ dialled in sectlon ID. A~ wlll by appreciated belt, the hip- Ana volum4 o~ the cathodo wlll d~t~ ne th- amount of h~k whloh can by generated ln the m-Val, at a Givan electric pot-nti~l.
The ~noa- or po~itiY~ el~c~od~ 18 ln the ~yo~ typloally include ~ wide o~ ~hs~t within the contain, such a~ h~ ~1 w~ ra 1~ whl¢h enol r¢l~s the tall rod 16 a- shown . Cha ~nod~ conriguration shown ln the rigure aB expected to produce a ~olatlvoly unl~orm embryo don~ity ln the rod during the ~leQ~rot~ytia ~4rglng Coporation. The 4noCl- may b- any eu~abl~ oonductor, such ~ platinum, nlc~el, o~ carbon,
SENT BY:ARNOL3,WHITE~DUR~EE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:57 ; ~137a93524' 1613232~44~;#24 wh1ch its does not react with tho liquid component in the container to producs undesired rea~tlen~,
A ch~g~-generator 60urc~ 20 in the ~y~t~m i~ co~nsctod conventionally to el~ct~odQs for produolng tha desired electrolytic deco~po9itlon. The 80UrC~ ray by A lady direct curr-nt (D.C~) power source hown, or alternatively, an intermittent or pul~d D.C. cha~q~ or current source.
The source ~yplo~lly i8 at to product a currQnt d~n~ity o~ at least about ~ mA/~2 methods sur~ca area. ~hi~ mlnl~um current level nAy by r~ulr-~ to achieve to ~o~ired null che~icAl potently o~ lootoplc hydrogen-n atom ln the tall lattice. Pre~er~d ~urr~nt~ or- between about 2 and aooo ~A/c~, although 0~en higher cut-nth may ~ used and ray actually be pr~r~bl~ rOr la~ge~ Athol or wlth more cond~c~v~ el~c~roly~lc fluids. for ~xa~ , current l~v~ls of up to ~ hlgh a~ 10,000 mA/c~ or h~gh~r light ba used i~ certan application the current 1~ ~e~ too hlgh, ~owev-r, to diffusion rate ot ~-o~oplc hydrogen atom into the tall lattice mhy be~o~ ~at~ llmltlng, biasing the ey~te~ toward ~ormatlon or ~ol~ula~ toxic hydrog4n, wh~oh lowers the e~lo~ncy of h-at qon~rat~on in the sy~te~. 5 A stepwise ~ct~olyt- ch~rglng o~ the cathodo, ~ illustrated in ~ub~quont Section, mny ~ usa~ul ln avoiding
- rata limiting effect particularly at lncraa~d current 3 o ~n ~ chart ~ ng operation to accumulate lJotoplo hydrogen atoms, two source fluid 1~ Staad ln~o tho container 14 to æ level which ~ub~rg~ the 0l~0~rod~ the ch~r~oq-n~r~tlng ~oura~ i~ initla~4~ by ~lng out to a ~-lrate cu~nt l~v~ he total ~qulrad run ~l~o ~o~ a SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE . 3-12-90 ; 9:58 ; 7137893524i 16132328440;~25 latticQ o~ known dimensions CAT by yen4rally determined from the above dlr~uslon coefficient o~ out lo 7 C~ ~ for hyldro~Qn and iRotop La hydrogon in ~hQ mol ypically, for a metal rod whose diaper io in tho mm rango, run tip o o~ from ~ev~ral hours to 4ev~r~ y~ mny bo rod r~ to reach the deslred chemical potential. For rod whose diameter are in the cm range, run ti~e~ o~ up ts2 several months o~ longer may by r~qulr~d. An example for charging i8 to ohara a cathode at a relatively low current l~v~l o~ about 64 mA/oJa2 ~02~ about 5 diffusional r~l~xatlon times and than to ncrQ~ the c:urr~nt to a laval Or 128, 256, 512 ~A/c~a or htghor ln or~r to Mcllwain thq hbat gon~rat~ng ~ent~ as 1~ ~ugg~t~d by Table A6-l in Saction III ~ has bean found that tho charge ng time (~hi~n varies at did end cathode temperature) general.y follows LquAtion:
tlm~ (rA~alu~ diffusion ~oe~ ient 0 ~b~ or a 0.2 cm r~dlus Ludlum rod, tho tlm~ n~ad~d for buf f lci~nt ch~lrg1ng neo 1n1t1~1t~ hot go~o~ on i~ s q!ha c:h~r~in5~ of the metal , ~., elec:t:rolyt~cs compr--aiorl o~ atopic hydrogen ln l;h~ al lattioe, carrlad out ta ~ ~ln~l ~ho~ia~l potential o~ isotopic ~y~rog-n in tha metal, due to accu~u~ation/aon~pr~ on o~ l~otopl her rogon nuclGi in tho lattla~l, which i~ ~u~clon'c to producs a d~sirad level o~ he~At-ge~n~r~lng eventfJ Withln 3S th- metal lat~i¢~, ~8 ~vid~n~d both by ~ mount and duration o~ heat g-n~lr~t~d within th- ~tti~ and, w~ the
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 9:58 ; 7137~9352~ 1613232~440;X26 isotopic hydrogen i8 deuterium, by who generation o~ nuclear ~u~lon products, ~u~h a~ neutro"~ one tritium.
Preferably the mstal i3 cha~god to A Gh~miC~l p44Qnti o~ at least about 0,5 eV above the chemical potsntlal o~ motel hydride equilibrated at standard pr~s~ure ~1 bzr at 273 x) ~. without anergy input. specifically, tho conical potential of the charged cathod al ln d~termlne~ agalnst a reference wire of thQ ~a~ tall , 8~., palladium, whlch has b~e~ charged el40t~01y~10~1y with the isotopic hydrogen A~O~O~ than allows t4 ~qullib~a~4 at standard p~e~our~ ar). It 1~ a~tlm~t~d that the refererence wlr contain about 0.6 atom of isotopio hydrogAn 4~ metal 8~0m at equilibrium The Ch~lCAl pot~n~al ~ -t~rmin~d ~ro~ the voltage p4t~ntlal moa~urod ~etw~on the cha~gQd metal ca~od~ and the Aqulia d ~e~orenc~ wlr.
I~ Will b8 Rocognized but those pillow ln to art that the c~-mlcat potential expressed ~ otron vol ~aV~ ~Q generally equlvAl~nt to the mo~ur~d voltage potently 8
A m~ur~ 0.5V generally ~an~l~t~s to a 0.5 ~Y ahe~a~l potential, It wlll ~1BO by recognized that the ch-mlcat potential ~ d ~o promos hot-generating even Ay d-panel on the metal b~lng charge. ~ha~e~o~ om~ all, g., zlr~:oniu:~, 2~y product uch o~r~nt~ at Cloeren, p~rha~ lower, ch~lcal potential
T~ ~laot~ol~ic reaction ~t~p- wh~C~ are ~a~pon~ble for ch~ing a m~tnl lattloe ~n the system d2-cribed abou wlll by con~idær~ wlth respect to an alkaline- soluton of h~ rate a~ s d-ut~rlu~ 80urca. Below or-~ shown the four reaction Depo w~loh ~u0t by ~anoidarod ~h~n D~0 1- r~uc~d
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~; 9:59 ; 713789~524~ 1613232344~;#27 whl~r~ D.d,, indicates ~d~orb~d deutero um 2to, and D~ot~eo indicates deuterium dlf~u~d into th- latt1cQ.
At pot~n~l3 more negative thz~n +50 ~V ~xe~r4ncQd ~o A rs~r~r~ible hydrogen electrode) with the ttc 1~ ln the beta (B~ phase, deuterium i8 ln the form o~ $~otoplc proton And i21 highly mobile.
Th- ov2rall reaction path ~ ~2 Qvolutlon ~or~ to dominantly o~ ~top~ nd (li) ~o that to- ch~m$c~1 potential of dl~so~v~d DE ~ normnlly defined by thrltla~v~ rate of the two ateps. the abli~ nt or nogativo potentials on who outgoing lnt-r~ao~ o~ 80m~1 metal electrode ~o~ hydogen discharg- at the ongoing interact td~e~ln~d by the bal~no~ o~ ~11 the ~t~p~ (1) to ao (lv) ) d~on~tratoe thst the choice.l potently can by r~ 3ad to hl5~h ~rAlu~ ch~mlcal ~ot~ln~l~lo ~ high a~ 0.8 o~ can by ~hl~v~d uolng palla~li~ dlr~u~ion tubo~ ~a.o ~V or hlgher may by ~chiov~
25 Plgurs ~-3 i~ ahematic ViQW oil an electrolytic ~y~tom or cæll 24 h~vlr~ ipolar c~ tank lsb a ~ e~-p~es~ed configuration. ~ c:ell o~ntAir~r 21S 1~ pro d with a series oil N ~les::trol r~ran~s, ~iuch all ~e~br~nQ~ 28, 30, 32, arr~g~ ln to- conic a~ ~ho~ hue ~embrarle~ Sorm the 3 0 Val whole- latter to ~a charged by electrolytic: cosuppression witl~ lootoplc: hyClrogan Atom, in accordance wlth tha inv iorl. T~ mbran6~ are p~ orAbly ~104~-~ao~ d to oS pillar o~ the like. ~ac~ m~ and lnalud~a~ heat SWNT ~Y:ARNOLD,WHIT~DURKE~ ; 3-12-90 ; 10:~ ; 7137~93524l 16132328440;#2~
f:Ln1, ~uc~ a~ ~ln~ 28a, 28b a3soc~at~a ~l~h membrane ~ or d:Lsslpatlng heat generated in the membrane
The membranes are ~oln~d by ~allng to the wall o~ the s container along thelr top, bottom, and side edge, and thus p;lrtltion the lntsr~or o~ the contained Into ~+1 ~lo~ed aoTnpa~t~nti~, auoh ~8 to ~orAp~lr'c~n~ 34 bo~roen the l~rt si~a o~ the container in the riqu~ and ~e~ra~ 28, the compartment 36 b~tw~on membranes 28, 30, one the compartment 38 be~we~n tho m~mhrane 32 and thq ~lg~ 8i~ c~ the aon~alnor in the Figura.
A valve-controlled consult 40 communicate with compartment 34 for Kitlng the ch~ber with source uld, and ~0~ ~e~ovlng 2 rowed ~n the ~ha~b~r du~n~ 4p~r~l0n.
A condult ~nl~old 42 com~unlc~t4~ wlth who compartment other than co~art~nt 3~ through valves tnot 8~0Wn~ one for Sch compartment) for filling each ~ha~b~r ~h ~OU~GQ llquld, and for re~ovlng DE ~or~ed ~n each ch~bor during op~r~tlon.
Cha Qlectrolytic drlvlng arc- ln the aell 1~ provided by an anode 48 and a cathode 49 located a~ to- opposite and wallo o~ ths contains, a~ 4hown, and ~ charge-q~n~r~tor ~ouro~ 44 ~onn~ct~n~ theso two electrode al-~tro~ mAy be any fiUi~a~l- 410ctro~ ma~erlal. P~f~r~bly, the nodOE ~ platinum or carbon, and tho c~t~odQ i~ palladium.
The oharqe-gsno~ator ~o~rc~ ign to probucol ~ current b~tw~on tho electrode o~ ~re~ ly ~tw~n about 2 and 2000 m~/~ma Ctotal aroa o~ the membranes), a~ ~ovc.
A ~oe~ o~ l~mlt~r circuit, such as circuit 46, one for each pad o~ m~r~n~ uGh a~ m~br~ns~ 28, 30, unction during oper tion o~ the well to equally th-
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90; 1~'~1 ; 7137~93524 ~ 1613232~440;X29 currents in aqent compartments, for h pUrpO~Q tl:~ ~e described. guch limits circuits a~ lcnown in blpolar cell stacX electrolytio cell circuit.
n operation, each compartment d with tle source
Sluid, Nuc:h a~ lithium superoxide (LOD) and ordinary water ln ~;~o, and the current ln the call 1~ ad~u~th~ ~o a tiltable levo landlord ln the Figure, the voltage potently across ths~ ~nod~ and cathode 1~ distributed, in A ~r$~ configuration, across each Dl~mbran~ o that tho left side Or ch membrAne 1~ negate v~ly chnr~-~ with respect to the immediately constantly ano~ or membrane ~ur~aae, nd the rlgh~ side o~ each membrano ls po~itivoly ch~rg~d wlth respoct to the immediately conSrontlng m6mbr~n~ ur~c~ or cathode. ThU~ ach oo~r~oJIt Nunclon ~ an ~l~c~roly~ic c~11 in which the ao~v~nt source o~ i80topic hy~lrog~ electrolytically dOC03pO8~d At one and to bona isotopic hydrogerl atan which can ten el~fus~ into that
The electrolyte r~¢tlon oto which ars x o~pon~ lo for charging a laotal lattice in tha ct~cX~d-cell oyoto~ qrill by cQn~ldered, a~ ~ n the FigurQ I-2 ~l~ct~olytl~ cell, with r~poo~ to an alkaline solution of heavy water ae a delirium a5 wurc~, and the ~ou~ Reac'clona whlGh can contrl o D com~e~lon ln the m~r~n~:
to on ~1) ocour~ at the right (more negative) m4~b~an~ in Sch comp~rtDl~nt, KEYing rloo to r~setlon~
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKE~ , 3-12-90 ; 1~:02 ; 7137B93524~ 1613232~440;~30 to ( ~v) in the membrane, and to OD- spe~le5 in the compartment. Because Dl~tl~, atomS eXit predominantly ~ fr~oly noble nuclol, these nuclei told to ~e drawn lnto and thlrough the membrane ~oWa~ the cathode ln thC ~ , to the rlght ln ~u figure). Whan to Dl,t~lG~ a~cm~ reAo~ tho ri.ghi ~lde Of the membrane, reaction pili) in tho ~ev~ Trilon produced D,,d, which can then Reac:~ with the OD formed in the migrated-to co~n~Artm~nt. ~ltorn~tl~ly, thOE
D,~, atoms can raact in the compartment, Via reaction ~V) ~o form D2 g~ l n the compartment. The chn:cging procesa ~.e continued until all 01 the plate4 are fully load.
A~ lndlcated above, the Latter ~l~cuit~ RCA to qual~ the curent in each co~artm~nt. at can by appr-cl~tQd that by maintaining the cuxr-nt ln Sch co~p~tm~t substantially equal, the amount o~ D,d, rormO~ ln one compartmant and drawn throuqh to me~r~n~ into the riqh~-a~3~en~ oo~rt~nt wlll by substantially equal to ths amount o~ 03 ~o~d in thl~ right-adjacent co~pa~t~ent. ~hi~ minimize- the ~o~matlon o~
DE formed ln thyl cc compartments , L.~ ., maxlmlz-~ the ~hr~at~n
Or ~0 by reason o~ D~d~ and OD- at the m-m~r~n~.
One advantage o~ the ~tacX~ pl~ta arrangement must describe than the amount or a and DE Armad in the ~y~t~m i8 minimized ~i~o~ a ~o~a~lon i8 substantlally li~te~ to co~p~rt~-nt 34 and D2 formation 1~ l$X~wl~~l~lmls~ by combining wll 03~ ~n aaa co~par~nt. That 1~, the total ~h~mie~l potential in the ~y~te~, which 1~ the num o~ the individual ch-ileal po~nti~lD o~ aeh ~ membrane, per amount of molecular g~ formed by ~ trolleys lnereas~d. The ieleney o~ the 3y~t~m 14 ~ner~a~Qd aecordingly, and problem o~ r~ey~llng ~ol~eulAr gas are ~due~d.
SENT BY:ARNOLD,W~ITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 . 10:03 . 7137893524~ 16132323440;#31
The stacXed plate configuration also allows for a rather d6~n~e p~c~ing o~ charged pl~to~, without the very long di:~ru~ion time whlch would be required ~0 fully charge a ~ol~ d block. q'he denote packing o~ charged ~lat~, in turn, w; il result in 2~ much hi~h~r n{neutron ~e~m ~elux, aP ~-asurod, for example, at the right side o~ the cell, ~lnc~ ~ largp~lrcontag~ of neutron ejected ~ro~ each int~rn~l plate will pass through tha entire 3erl~0 of plan in ~ch~ cell.
C. Charles wlth Metal Hydride
Figure I-4 illustrated schematic:ally an All~rnatl~ ~y~te~, indicated generally at 50, for ~o~pr~ssing isotope c Microgon atom in3 a ~t~l lAttiC~, in accordance wlth the inY~ntlon.
Ile metal to be charged i~ thin ~yoto~ ~ ln the form o~ an intlet mixture o~ the mstal and ~ m~ o'eopla hydrlde, such as a ~u~d total 140~0plc hydride salt, or a mixture o~ a fur otal ~al~ and a metal hydrido, whlch provided the 50UrC- of isotopic hydrogen ~tom~. Exemplary ~u~d metal hydrido lnolu~ /X~D deuterium nd r~lat~d hydride ~uGh a~ Li/N~lD. Exemplary mixtures 4 fund ~alt~ includ- ~ut~ctlo ~xtu~ o~ I.l/N~/X/Cl and
Z5 and r-lata mlxturo-, ~uc~h ~ ~l/X/Cl and LlD or Natl or CaT, ill or N~.
~e lntl~Q ~xturQ, whlch 1~ ~ho~n ln p~ t ~or~ at ~a ln Figura 4 lo ~4ed by mlxirlq tall ye.~ti~lo~, such a 3 o ~artlcl~ S4, wlth t2~ g~l~s~ salt, ~n ~o~ul~tln~ two mixture lnto ~ cohort-i ~orDl~ according to )cnown polling ~tl~od~. The rate o of ~otAl to ~yd~ld~ aAlts i~ calculatod to p~ovlde a severalfold OXCT1- o~ isotopio hydrogen to metal ~tom~ ~n tho mlxtlare.
SENT BY:ARNOLD WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12~9~; lC:~4 ; 7137~93524~ 16132328440;~32
The mixture i8 sintered at a suitable ~int~rin~ tetmp~r~ture below the mQlting point o~ p~11a~ium, according tcc known sintering methoda. A h~atir~g elleDI~nt 56 in Figure 4 glve~ controlled heating o~ ths ~ intimate mixture . A~t~r
S ~lnterln~, the chemical potential Or ~ch~ ~t~r$al ~ mela~ure~ above. Ir necessary, the sintered material may be further chArgsd, ~5Zo, elec:troly~c~lly, to brng who chemical potential in the materlAl to ~ d9~r~d level.
Alternatively, thR mixture can by h~t~d by hls~h-notify laaers not shown) undtar c:ond~tlon- whlch promote dlf~u~on
Or hydrogen i80t:0pe atom- produc ~ro~ the 60urc~ into the l~tt~oe~ Or the tall particles more a~ecl~ lly, t~Q TAt source ~s do3ignad to provide ~n energetic shock w~vo ~ufrlcl~n~ to drlve ~h- hyarog~n atoms into the m4~al, to InAl chomlc:al pot~n~1~1 o~ at ln about 0.5 QY, wlth~n p~lod o~ abou a Soc or l~o.
Diced Sor focusing high energy by onto p~ d ~a~rlalo ray follow, for example, b-am technology developed ln conneotion wlth ln~ti~l ~o~ine~ont of hlgh-t~mpe~tu~e at wlll ~e appr~cl~t~d that the metal lattice formed by th- ~ln~ring method aan ~o prepare ~o contaln ~ top ~018 ratio o~ ototoxic hydrog-na atoms, such ~ ot-d l-v~l~ o~ d~ut~r~ and trl~ium atoms.
~lguro~ ~-5 and ~-6 ~llu~rat~ two ~yp~ o~ thing metal lattice composite el~qt~od~x d-~lgn~d ~o support more controllable ~u~lon sectiona, in accordance with another Spect Or the lnvention. The otrode 41 illustrated in SWNT 9Y:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKE~ ; 3-12-3~ ; 10:04 ; ~137B935~4' 1613232844~;~33
Flgu2~e I~5 1~ produced by forming a matt la~t~cla tlc ilm 43 on an oloctrod4 a~b~trAt~ 45, guch a~ carbon.
In one embodiment, the au~atraty~ 45 may by an ~ ctive~J material whlch lt~el~ cannot ~Q chsrgo~ with l~oto~ hydrogen atoms to ~ lov~l which supportg nuclear f~ion events .
Alternatively, the ~ub~trat~ 4 5 may bo a material capable or supporting fU810tl roactiono whon chsrg~d with isotopic hydrogen atoms, a~ above. oraa adYantage o~ thin cone ton ~ 8 that t,he ~ur~aco property of the ~uD~rat~ ~at~al can be largely may in Nuc:~ a compound structure. for example, the ~ubs'crzlt~ 45 may be a platlrlum metal lattice who ch 1~ coated with a thln palladium rilm 43 . ~e the pallet ffoc a both to promote sub e adsorption and dli~u~lon o~ isotopic hydrogen ato~4 into thG ~l~c~rod- f ~l~ 43, and to prevent calcic formation oi! hydroqen g~ at the
In the ailment ln whlch ~Oth the substrate and the fly are lattice which can ~o charge with isotopic hydrog-n, to product heat generating re~ctlon~, to su~8tr~te mate21al 18 ~reS~ably onyl which, ~th~r b~c~ Or its l~vol o~ im~ur~tl~ or i'e~ surface- catalytic pro-rtl-~, cannot by lth be re~d~ ly charged al~ctrc~lytl~ally with hydrogen lootoplc: atoms. PrQ~err~d substrate metal include pallAalum, r~lo~i~, r~t~en~ ridlum, o~ um, nickel, ~o3~elt, lron~ rconium, titanium, platinum ha~nlu~, and alloys tho~of. I.~ Wld- the th1n-r~lm m-tal ~lmll~r~y 1~ one whiGh away support energy or n-utran-products roaotlon~, a~ a s-l~ct~ chemical potently, and WhO-~O surface p~o~t~ low the A), to by l:hA~g~ d~ay~ P~dr~d ~hln-nlm ~eta~ lnalud- t~c~ pr~v~ou~ly ~d~ntlfl-~, including p~llhdlu~ rl~o~lium, ruth-nlu~, lrldl~a, o~$uJ~,
SENT BY:ARN~LDI~HIT~DURKE~ ; 3~12-90 ; 1~:05 ; 7137~93524~ 1613232B44~;~34 ni.ckt, cobalt on, zirconium, tlt~niu~n, hafnium, and
I.loy- thar~of, most pre~er~ly palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, indium, and zirconium.
S The thlr~-rilm may be formed by a variety oX known thin lm deposition methods, including sputtering, evaporation, and cho~lcal vapor deposition. Typically, the deposition cond~tlon~ are 9el~c~ed to probucol a ~1DI o~ between about 50-500 A in thlc~nsl~, al~h~ugh ~ oX~r ~ilm~ may n one thln-~l~ method, the deposition lo ~arrl~d out in ~ closed chA~r by DC magnetron or OF -plasma hputtQring, at ~ ct~d pxs~aaure o~ isotopic hydrogen gaEI. The o pr~su~e i~ th4 chaaDb-r 1R ~ clad isotopic-;: hy~lxog4n ~toDI~ ln tho t~in~ ttlce. For ~xa2~lpl~, the ~put~c~rirg by by o~rrl~d out in a deuterium/tri~ atmosphere, to ~a~dn the la~tlce wlth ~ de~lr~ concentration o~ io~toplc hydrogen .
Tho composite electrode ray by smployad ln an electrolytic c~ uch a~ d~w~i~ed above, ln place o~ a ~oli~ metal lattice:e cAthod-. HBr- Cha t~ln~ htt:iC~I 18 ch~rg~d electrochemically to a che~ic~1 ~ot4ntl~1 ufflci~nt to promote a Rulon r~ctlon, ~o ~ OVA, preferably with content supply Or lipolytic current.
01 a~vnn~ o~ ~e ~bln-nlm ~l-ctroca-, wh-r- tI ~ub~tra'~ ln~ctl~ thyl greater contrc>l over heat p~oductlon whlch 1~ possible, zinc- the than film which support fusion r-action ¢~n ~ cha~god relAti~ ly qulo)cly t:o A d~lr~ v~ nd the r~a~ctioTl will by ndd r~ likely qui¢~cly art-~ charging. ~190, hot (lis~ip~t~ on
ODI the thln fllm ~n by IQA ac~u2-poly controlled by fluid SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHIT~DURKEE ; 3-1 2-90; 1 0 : 06 ; 71 37893524~ 1 61 3232~440 ;#35 low in contact with the film, for ~xa~pl~, through the ~u~trat~.
Flg~re I-~ Showa a tubular electrode 47 produced by ~oi~mlng a thin metal-lattice nlm 4g e~ ~ suitable tubular subtrate 51. the substrate may be an ln~ctiv~ ~U~otrate, euoh as a carbon rod, or alternatively may it~Ql~ ored of a matsrial havlng ~ lattice capable o~ supporting fusion reactions when ch~x~d w1th isotopic byd~oqon A~0~5, AX above
Xn stlll anoth4r embodiment, the substrate 51 may by a material, euch ao tungston, whloh i~ objective ~o ~b~or~ ga~m~ rays or Ashar radiation ~roduo-d in th- thln-Oil3, with the production o~ heat. ~n this a~bodi~nt, the ~n~gy producod by reaction in the than-~ lm ~g can ~ $pat~d both by intarnal and external uid low.
In still another e~o~ nt, tho aub~tr~t~ may be a ao s~eot~d ~at4r1al wholl4 ~tom~ can bo transmitted by bombardment wlth high energy gamma rays, neutrons, ~ or part leg produced by tho rQaction e~r~nt~ the than ~llm~
Such a ~ub~trat~ may bo u~d, for oxampl-, to produce ct~d metal isotope or to ~o~ a su~tr~t-, such semiconductor nitrate, with elated Val i~o~o~ dopant.
n ~c :sordanc~ wlll another pct Or the propyl ln~nt~on, th- spp;l~atu~ ln~ud.~o can- ~o~ exciting tl~o aha~g~ tal latter wlth hlq~ energy rays o~ particles. the ~xc~ ~$~S~ m~n~ may ins:lud~: to corporation o~ radioisotopic Ata or atoms which b~om~ r~dlo~otop~ Upon ~p~u~ng neutrons lnto the ta1 lable-;
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE&DURKEE . 3-12-90; 1~:07 ; 7137~93524 ~ 1613232~440;~36
(by incorporation o~ radloi30toplc atom in ths flUld source o~ lsotopll:: hydrogen; ~c) formation of ~ thin metal twice on a radlolo4topi :: sub~t~at~; (d) incorporation o~ a radioisotopic thln f llm on metal lattice ~ub3trat~; ) pl~c~mc~r~t oS A ool~d pha~o hls~h-energy ray o~ partlc:ln otter clog to the lhttiae ~ 4uch a~ wlthln 'che core Or ~ ttc; (~) g~n~rzltion o~ n~u~cron~ ln the l~ttlc~ incorporation o~ beryllium or ~h- likQ into the l~tl~lc~, ~nd~or the add ao~nt subtle ~ (g) ~ene~ion of -partlcl~E~ in the lat~lc~ by incorporation oil boron or the ll~c~ into the lattice andior ~ dopant substrat-; or (h) bombardment Or the ~h~r~ag l~ttlco by a high-energy Calcl- 314Ur~:4 or accol~Eato~, such aA a neutron or pvait~on 60urc~, or a proton o~ d0uto~0n accelerator. n one e~bodlm~nt, the lattlc4 contains radionotivs atom, suc2~ a~ 60Co, 95r, l06Ru, ll~C~ 7p~, 17~ Opo 9Pu, ~4~C~, or 2~ hich ~m~t gamma ly) rays and/or alpha 1~) an~/or beta ~,~) partial. AltR~na~lv-ly, or lr 2S addion, the l~t~lCQ ray contaln a~o~ which form r~di~i40topic ~to~ upon bo~r~l~d with hlsJh-~an~rgy ~artlcl~ or upon capucins n-utrons, or Sch ~ hlgh energy petiole en bo~ard~nt with high-er.ergy partl~l~s or upon cap~u~n~ neu~orl~. The lAttiCQ, for example y contain -beryllium, which probucol neutrons when ~o$~rdad with alpha particle ar boron, ~hlch proCluoe~ alpha partially whon
I:bombarded with thormlll n~ rons, or CaS whls:b own fit neutron when bombard with hla rgy neutrons. ~n ano1:h~ er~bodl~n~nt, thyl charged elastica 1~ com ~g~n~t a SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKE~ ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:03 ; ~137893524' 16132328440;~37 radioisotopic source or sub~x~d in ~ fluid suspension or solution of radios atopic atoms. In Ill another embodiment, the lattlce i5 bombarded with hlgh-energy nl~utron6~ protons, deuterons or the likO fro;n an extQrnal partlclR ~ouroq, suoh ~ a partially accols~tor or an electrical dl~cha~ge.
chlo ballon ~onr~id~r~ Zeolon-rolAt~l hot g~n~rAting events whlch are believed to occur $n a lattice altru~tura charge wlth isotopic hydrogen. S~vo~al Colo h-at g~noratlon experimental ~or~orr~e~ ln support or the pre t invention were ba~c~d on the ca~chodio reduction o~ DiO ~o~ ll~uld phase at near room toJAp-r~tur- using current densitie6 ~tw~n about 0.8 and ~p to 70 mA/c~na. Th4 dull;~r~um a~o2~ web compromised Into ~he~t and rod sample of ~ ium molal rrOm 0 . lM ~10D in 99 . 5% D;~O ~ O . 5%H20 soluton. El ~ rode pot~ntl~l~ ware m~ ur6d 4th respect to a PA-D reference loctrodo at phase equilibrium, as ~o~cr~bod ~ov~. rho
Sci wlng typo~ o~ observation wero model 1) C!alorl~strl m~ur~hent3 o~ heo.l: bAl~nc~ at low currant d~n~tie~ tcl.6mA ~ ) work ~d~ uslng a ~ x Ωcm x 2S 8~ Pd ~hoet cathod- ~o~ta~n~d fro~a Johnson-~a~h~y, PLC) surrounded by a large platinum ~hQat count4r electrode.
S~A~Irwl~nts work carried out ln Dewar ce}.ln ~lnta~n~a in a l~rg~ contant to pe~atu2~ water b~lth t300-X), the temperature in~id~ the C411 and o~ tho water bath ring ~onlto~ed Wth Bec)nann th~n~om~tsr~. T~ avy wax ~u$v~1en~ XWE) o~ the c~l~l and content and the rate o~ Nason'~ r o~ c:oolirg low work d~t~r~ln~d by addtion o~ hot DiO art by following the ooollng our SENT BY:ARNOLDIWHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ 09 ; 7137~93524l 16132328440;~38
(2) calorimetric measurement a~ high current dQ~si~l~s wcr carried out using 1, ~, and ~ mm diameter x 10 cm long rods (obtained from Jo~n80n-Matthey, P~C~ surrounded by a pl~tlnu~ wire ano~4 Wbund on ~ cage o~ glass rods. The Dowar coils were ~ltt~d with reci~tanc~ heatars for detarmin~t10n o~ Newton lAW 01 cooling 108~88; temperature w~ra measured
UBM n~ calibrated thermistor. Otirring ln the perim~nts (and in those listed under 1) way achieved by gas sparging using electrolytically generated D3. In long t~r~ ~xporlm~nt~, lt has b~on conrlrm~d that the ~st~ of soultion o~ D20 to the cells required to maintain con~t~nt volume 1 that re~u~red i~ reaction ~1), (11), and (1Y) (S-ctlon above) ~r~ nearly b~l~noad by tho reaction:
Furthermore,, subtraction of ths ohmic pot~J~tlAl lo-8 1n soluton for the call containing the larg- plntlnu~-anode shown 'ch~t the ctroly~lo o~ the D10 io th- dominant ao proe-ss, i~., at lo ask d two.t to ~oul~ h-~tlng 1~ to that required i~ t~s o~e~all ballon 1~ controlled by proc~ 1), and (lvi. With thl~ ao~u~ptlon, it has been four.d that the calorimetric experiments using the la~qe ~h~t ~d-cathodo, to N~wtor. ' ~ low o~ cooling all t exactly bAl~nc~ the ~t~ o~ joule Kitlng (all;er prolonged electrolyte to saturate the met ttie~ when the 1~ c:harmed at ~ c~xr-nt t-n-lty o~ about o . 8 JaA/~AS .
At hlgh~r eur~l-nt d~n~iti~o o~ A c~~~ and 1.6m~ xce~4 ont~Al~y general:lon o~ ~% one ~2S~ o~ tn- rate of ~oul~ mating way ob~orv~ how v81u4~ ~X~ an allowance o~ about 4% for the t that DE one 01 4vo1u~10n ta~c~ placR ~o~ o.~ bioD ra~h~r than D~0 along his oXco~ enthalpy SENT 3Y'AR~LD,WHITE~DURK~ ; 3-12-90 ; 1~:10 ; 7137893524' lB132328440;~39
production was f~un~ to be r3producible ln throw sets of long
~abl~ A below ~how3 the lattice h~atlng sff~t4 which wex~ en wlth a variety o~ cathode son~Qtrlea, ~1Z~Y and c:urrQnt d~n~ltl ~, The excess specific.c l~eatlrlg rate way c:simulated AS the amount o~ heat produced Te88 the ~oulQhY~t lnput used ~n charging who sl~ t~od~. ThG joule-heat input J, ~140 r~f~rr~d to h~ro~n ~g the joule-heat oqul~r~lent, was determined by the tlon:
I (V-~.54 volta)
whero I i8 the well current, or, the voltage across tha el~otrodos, and 1.54 volts i~ the Yoltago at whld r~ct~on~ ( i), ~ il), and ( i~) balanced by r~ctlon ~v) area thermoneutral, ~a-, the voltage ~ho~o tho celL n-lth~r
AbE~O~b~ nor glv~ out h-at. The axaa~ ~p~ci~io bqat ~falue~ ~r~ expressed aB excess sp~ci~io hook rAt~ ln watt~/~m3.
SENT BY:ARNOLD1WHITE~DURK~E ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:1~ ; 7137893524~ 1613232a44~;#40
Electrochem Electrode Current Exc~Typ~ Dimensions A/cm ) Sp~ci~ic rod . lxlOcm, . 8 . O9 5 rod ~ lXlOCm 64 1. Ol rod . lxlOcm 512 8 . 33 rod . 2xlOcnl B . llS rod . 2xl~om 64 1. 57 5 rod . 2xlOc~ !51 rod . 4xlOcnl 8 .122 rod . 4XlOC:m 512 21. ~he~t . 2x8x8cm . 8 3 shat . 2xsx8cm 1. 2 . 0021 cube 1 cm2 12S ov~rho~t~2~g parameters which a~ect enthalpic hoP.t ~roductlon 1 thR comprised lattice, and nature and ~a~nltud~ o~ t~hR ~r~t~ can be ~pprsci~t~d from the rOllQw~ng ob~e~vatlon~ on the ~abl~ ata s
(-1) 4X~OA onthalpy hot g4n~r~t~0r Vth4 total hot produced in the tlc the ~oul~ heat ~ulv~lont required. ~o charge the latter and maintain the lattice in a ch~xge~ ¢orldit~on) i~ k~dly London on the A~ d o~rr~nt denote ~,.,~., magnitude o~ the shl~t ln the c2~Qmiaal potently) and ~ proportional to tha volume o~ tbd ~l~ctro~e~ , ~., tha heatng ~en~ o o¢curring ln the bulk of the Pd2 rod .
SENT BY:ARN~LDIWHITE~URKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 1~:11 ; ~137893524l 1613232B44~;~41
(b) enthalpy qonaration aan ~axclaed 10 Watt8/cm3 01 to palladium electrode, ~h1~ i~ m~intaln~ or ~xporlm~nt tlm~s
Ln ~XC~8!3 o~ 120 hours during which totally heat in exc of 4 MJ/cm3 o~ electrode volume way llb~r~ed.
(c) excess heat substantially Trl oxc:eds o~ br~ak~ven ean by nchlevod, In faot, lt can by ~o~n that r~son~ pro~ec~ionæ ~4 10009 CEln by Canada.
(d) the ~f~oct~ have bin dst ned u~llnq DaO wlth amAll amounts (0.5-5%) ordinary way-r. Projection to the UB~a o~ appropriate D~O/D~0/T~0 mixtures has i~ c:orally done fusion I~e~aarch) mlght th~efor~ be ~ cted to yleld thermal axce~se~ ln ~hc~ ran~o 103 - lOa Y-n ln the ab~n~o o~ Gln pol3rlzation) with snthalpy ~ as~a~ in axcc~ o~ ao kw/~3.
It i4 ~por~d here alt ~nde~ the co~nd~ tion o~ tho law e~ rl~nt s-~port40, ln tho tAhlo, u~lng DaO Along s~ tantial motion o~ the cathod- ~u~3d (~a~ltislg point 1554~, ln~lca~ing that very high r~actlon t-~speratu~e~ can 2 o ~e achieve . one po~lblG explanation ror th- g~lnar~tion o~ excess nthalpic haa~ ~e~n ln the charged little:o would involve reacti org between com s~d mlcl~l wlthln tho latter. As not-d above, ~otopl~ hydrogon ~ucl~l dl~301v~d in a ~ot~l lattice in ~ocorâa~ win who invention ~r~ highly oo~pr~ d ~d ~obll-. In ~pit~ o~ ~hi~ hlgh co~7re~lon, molar:ular ~otc~c hydrogen, i,~., DE ~ no'c ~or~-d, due to
A~ low S-oJ.electron c:has:ac~r o~ tho electronic wavo~unotlon~. 3 o ~!he low-8 ch~raa~, how r, co~bln~d with t]~ lgh compression and mobility of the dissolve-~ ~paci~, 4ugg~st~ t2e pot lity ~s3r a ~lgn~lo~nt number o~ c:lo-~ collision between the olv~d fulel. It ~ before pl~lu~iblo to cone r ~h~c r30Tn~ o~ there coll-lons prod.ucl ctiont~
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 10:12 ; 713~893524l 1613232~44~.#42 bstwoon nuclel. Thr4~ po&~ ation, among ~thar~, ich ray occur in 'che case o~ thorium isotopic hydrogen
?D I ~D ~ 3~1.01MeV) ~ ~1(3.02M~V~ (~i)
D + ~D -- 3H~(o.82xev) at- n~2.4$M~V)
~r~e~e re~otion~ would by rshdily dotted by Mbo products oil of tritlum ET), and ~o~ a~iQn o~ hlgh energy neutrons (n) and gaLmma rAy~.
The rate o~ p~:o~u¢tlon/a~u~ulati~n o~ tritlum t7~) W~~ me~urod. u~lng cells (at tubes ~al~A wlth param 5 ~ontalnlng lpm diameter x lOcm palm.adlum rod el~et2~0dosl~ one n~ E~a31lpl~ o~ the electrolyte ~re~R withdrawn at 2 Clay intervalA, neutral-~l wth FotaD~ n hydrogen phthalate nd the T-content way aote~in~d u~lng ~e~dy-G-l llquid ntlllat~on 004kts~ l and ~ B~a~nn 5000TD counter ~y~t~. The counting ~frl¢~ncy way ~.determin-d to by approximately 45% using otan~lard ~am~laa o~ containing soluton.
In those experiments, ~t~n~ra addition o~ ln2 o` tha electrolyte- wr0 made following ~mpllng. I~ o~ D;~O due to ~le~t~oly~i~ in theta and h~ o~h~r ~pe~rt~ tlc:ored hero wars ~adf~ up u~lng DiO along A record o~ the volume o~ DiO ~ lltlone way ~a~4 for all the ~xpe~i~ont~. In all o~ the axps~ nth, all conn-Altland w4~r~ ~qal~.
The trltiu~ mea~ur~mont~ show that Dq!o accumulate ln the charge pad dium ~oll~ to the xtent o~ AbOU~ 100 dpm/ml o ~ rolyt~. F$gu~ 8, which ~how~ ~che p-d~:ay MMR-12-'9~ 3~ ID:ARNOLD WHITE DURI<EE TEL NO:7i3-78g-2679 ~321 P02 distillation 6p~CSrU~ of a typlc~ mple, demonstrates that the specles is lnda~d tritium.
Flqure I-9 i8 a schematic view o~ elQc~r~CAl generator apparatus 32 co~truct~d According to ons embodiment o~ ~-he invention. The apparatus generally includeG ~ rector 34 which generates heat in accordance with the principles o~ the invention, and a generator 36 whlch transform heat produoed n the reactor to electrlclty. Tha embodiment illustrated employ eleotrolytic compression o~ isotopic hydrogen ato~e ~ro~n an aq-~eouEs medium to ohArge a metal c:cathode.
Reactor 34 in¢luda~ a reactor chamber 37 enclosed ln n shield 3~ whl¢h provides neutrons ~hleld~ng. Whorl, as here, tha source of atopic hy~ro~n atoms iB ~n acru~ou~ medium, the chamber 1~ preferably design Por hlgh pre~su~e operation ~o allow fluid temperatures in the raactor substantially ~bov~ 100C.
The reactor chamber houses one o~ ~or~ cathode mQtal rod, such 8.~ rod 40, which ~rv~ ~ the metal la~ic~ to ~a charqed wlth isotopic hydrogQn atom, ln accordance with the as principlea o~ the inventor, and which therefore hare the properties di fused above whlch allow compression or accumulation o~ i50t4plc hydrogen atoms th- tall lattlce.
Although ~ single metal rod would be sultone for a relatlvQly all-scale reactor, w~or~ the rod ars ~e~er~l cm or l~rg~r ln dla~t~r, a plurality Or ~od~ i~ prearranged, due to the long perlod~ which would be required tor diffuo$on nto a large-diameter rod. Alternatively, the cathode may be sheet in a pl~ato~ or sp~r~l form. An Anode 41 i8 formed on the outer ~a~b~r surface, a~ ~hOwn~
SENT BY:ARNOLD.WHITE~DURKEE : 3-12-~0 : 10:1~ : 7137a9352~ 132328~0.~d
The reacts;or cnaml~er is filled witn the source o~ i.~otoplc hydrogen atom6, such a~ I.iOD 1~ deu~r~t~d wzlter, a~ 8,hown in the figure at 42. Electrolytic d~:omposition o~ tle ~o~rc~, and consequent difluo Or isotopic hydrogen atoms into the metal ca~21ode~ ds:ive.n by a ¢harge-~nar~tor source 44, a~ tailed above. The cathode, anode-, and charts-generator sourCQ ara also referred to h~r~in collectively æ means for producing di~ihslon o~ isotopic hYdro~n from the source lnto the lnt~lce o~ kha met cathode nd ~ electrolytic means.
The generator ~n the apparatus ln¢ludl-~ a h~ at sxohange system 46 whlch opar~tes to clrt;:ulAt~ coolant fluid through condult 4a i o the reactor, and fluid hetlted wlthln t~Q reactor to el boiler not shown wlt~l~ the g~nor~tor ~tea~ g~n~ra~lon, by conventional ~t~m turbine ln the g-nQr2tor. Thus heat produc4d ln the charged WaitAll cathode ~ ir. the reactor 1~ thuE utilized, vld h-at exchange between the reactor and the ger~er~tor, to ~rlv~ the generator for electrical ~oner~tlon. Although not shown, tho g-operator by b- connect~d to sourco 44, for supplying a portion o~ the ol~ctrl~ity generated ln op~r~tlon o~ Apparatus to ~ourca 5he g~ rator may also in¢lude A roacto~-fluid relation system for supplying ~urcQ material ~o the r~ tor J and for boring reactor byp~ duct nGl~d~r~g trlt~
It wlll bo appreciate that the re~cto~ may alternatively by d~--lgn4d for ol?eration At te~p~rat;u~o o~ oe-~e~al hur.rad ~agroa~ c o~ higher, ~o product boro GridAnt conversion Or ls.ttc t lnto ~t4~m, ln 2 ~t~am turbine. Such a r~ or brc~uld ps~t~sa~ly ~illz~ ~ 3S ~etal/~u~ed a~ut~ld- aatt mixture, with hlgh energy heating
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12~90 ; 1~15 , 7137893524 t 1613232B440;#45 to pro ca i801;0pic hydrogen AtO~l dlf~u~lon into metal partial dec:r~b~d herein The rc~ul~lng rapidly h~ted pl~r~lcl~ could be cooled, for ~xa~pl~, by ~ir~ulat~ng l.l~h~um o~ the li~c~, according to lcnown r~ac~Gr d~lgn~.
From the foregoing, lt can ~e appreciate how t~6 g~n~r~tor apparatus meet various obs ~ct~ o~ the invention . the apparatus utlized deut~2~1u~a, a ~r~ rtually inexhaustible source o~ onorgy, Eco product h-at ~ and the products of rhG 14 rezlctlon -- trlt~u~ and presumably isotopes o~ HQ -- are either 3ho~t-livod (tritium) or r~l~ti~r41y benlgn the
F~ her, the apparatus can be constructed on a n~all ala, tiltable, for example j for a portabl6 g~nera~or SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHIT~DURKE~ : 3-12-9~ ; 10:15 ; 7137893524~ 1613232~440;#46
The hsat-generating reactions wh~oh oocur in ~ metal Vantico charged wlth deuterium can by ~h~r~t~ri~d by
S tritium production. Trltium can by formed in the reactor either ~ tritlatod heavy water (DT0) or, by electrolytic o~
D~0, as trl~iatod deutorium ga4 ~D~). Where the reactor 80ur~s ~180 contain6 ordinary wat4r, addl~lon~l t~i~lat~d ~p~ci~ 0 and HT gas may also by ~or~ed. Since the amount o~ t~i~lwn in tho rector will build up our tlm~, the reactor 1~ preferably provld.o:l w~ n QX~r~otion ay~t~ for roving ~rlt~m and m.lntalning ~h4 ~ritlum low in the reactor within p~sQleCt~d l~v~l;o.
1~ F~gur- ~-lO i~ a ~ch~atlc vlow o~ an extraction ~yRtam 160 de41gn~d for removing t~i~lu~ ~ro~ both r~cto~ wet-r and gas generated wl~hln the r~ctor~ The ~y~t~m i~ designed to carry out two depart pro~s~e~: one which ~r~n~ trl~ium in the reactor source ~o scutellum or hydrogen gas, and the second to sepA~at~ initiate-d lootoplc hydrogen gas by cryogenic dl-distillation.
~hl~ catalytic exchange o~ trltiu~ a~ d out in a vapor-phr or l~¢ul~-p~a~ hydrophobic catalytic by, 2S in~lo~ted generally at 162. In the Vilquin-phr t~od,
D~o~DTo or ~0/D~0/D~0/D~0/H~0 ~ro~ the ct4~ c~ supplied through ~ condult TC4 which tn turn i- supplied from the to the Catalytic fed.
water from the reac:tor oGll i~ brought ~n direct c:ont~l~t with a deuterium has ~tr~ y courltRr-current cl2cu~ation through the by. Tbo d-lut~rlu~ gAa bcr-~m by ~e ~uppl~ed from a gas-distillation ~:olumn ~64 whloh 1~ used, ag SENT BY:ARNOLD WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-1 2-90; 1 0 : 1 7; 71 37 a 9 3524 ~ 1 61 3232844~ ;#47 d~wribQd below, in tritium ~ep~r~t~en~ The countercurrent flow over the catalytic fed pro e~ the section:
DTo +D~ e ln-t DiO + DE.
The water, whs ch lo now en~lch~d in DaO~ i9 returned to the reactor cell through a tube 168. the ~IB~gn and operation o~ llquld-p~a~ catalytic exchange By~lt43g ~ulto.bla ~c~r u~ ~n the pr~on~ invorltlon halr~ baen ~ crlb~C in ~rlor publ S catlon~ and 3ro will known ln the art .
Alternatively, the catalytic bed may be de41gn~d for ll~uld-phao9 counter-current Operatisn, according to known methodo. Here thia water from ~ reactor 1~ 8t vaporized lS and oupe~h~at~d, than paa~ed over tho hydrophobic catalytle bed ~ourlter-current to the d~ut~rium saa strQ~. After the exchange section, to gaa~ou~ ~tr~AD~ i~ cond-n~d and returned to the Reac:tor.
the gas stream coming out or the exchange ~d lo led and purlfled, and passed through a tube 17Q to cryogenic ~l~'cill~tlon oolumn 1~6, ~h~ou~h ~ pump 161. ~h- column contain Sulzer pa¢~lng, and ~1- cooled wlth liquid h-lug from ~n auxiliary liguid h~liuJ4 circuit ~,70. Dll low i8 c~rrl~d out at about 1. 5 bar . Tho D ~ wh~Oh 1~ concentrated at the top o~ the coluwn, ~ which 1~ p~:rtially s~ri~p-1 o~ ~crl~ , la ~up~ d to th- eatal~lo bar through ~ adult 74, a~ lcell-~.
q!he h~vl~r isotopic hydrog-n ~a~æ ln ths colu~, l.e.,
DE and ~a ~ ~r~ clrcul~t~ to ~ ond did atlQn aoluDu~ 17 9 packed with d~xor~ rings, and cooled by a liquid h~ ~l~cu~t 178. Tha ET which ooncontra~e~ at the u~p~r portlon SENT ~Y:ARNOLD, WHIT~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~; 10:2~ ; 713~99352~ ~ 1613232344~
o~ the oolumn m2-y ba cyclad though a con~r~rt4~ 180, to obtain ~a, according to tTG rQZ~Ct101'1:
This material i8 separated $n the ~olu~on to produco D2 and at She UppQ~ cnd o~ the column sn~ ~2 at the lowor end. The ~ withdrawn periodically and stored either in a gas container, J3uch ae container 182, or ~ a tall nitida. lo The ~y~em 18 c~.pabl~ of operating trit~ o ~o~t 9~ ~Dola p~rc4nt ~uri~y~
at wlll h~ approved that where ~c~e r~Aatc~ wet-r contain o~dlna~y water, ~a and DH lootoplc gas will al40 by 1~ f o~-d both ln the ra~c~o~ and by c:~ta~ytlc ~ch~ng~ ~rith ~ . ~hi~ has ~z~y ~ parted ~ro~ and era in tho crysgi~nlc Villalon colu~, and ~a~lly ~ old o~, ~.g., by c~abu~tior~ wll OF.
AhR ~bovo d4scrlbed ~y~t~ assignor to r~-moY- trllim rrom tlc r~to~ wator. A0 rloted novo, t2a electrolytic coD~pre-aion ~roce6- occurring in two rector also generated Vol-~u~ar lootoplc hydrogen, ~.~., Da and DE fo~6d her elo¢trolyt$c doco~po~it~on o~ heavy way:A~ cone ing trltlat~d h4avy ~-,tar. The 74ay ~ reconciled to war, by catalytic coJlbu4tlon within the rotor, as r~ot~d above.
rna ely, or in addition, the otopl~ gpB ma.y b~a
Cl in the trltlu~ ~xt~ct~on sy0t~ esor~b-~ above, by into:producing gas from the r~c~or dlreetly lnto tlo oS~yoç~ $c di6t~ tion columns ~n th-- sy~tom, ~ raly~ oondul~ 1~4 ln the tri tion ~y~e~.
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHIT~&DURK~E ; 3~12-9~ ; 10:21 ; 7137893524' 1613232~440;~ 2
The gss ls separated in the two c:umn di~t$11atlotl
Iy~tem~ wlth separated D2 b~lng supplied to the catalytlo bed, ~o~ trltium exohargo with factor water, 3nd the Dtr gen~rAtln~ D2 and T;~, a~ a~ov-l.
From the roregolrlg, lt can be apprsciatQd how various additional feature Or the ln~v2ntlon are :at. Tha h~atg~2~eratiny ~ac~tior~s within the metal lat~ica o~ rector glabrata tritium, wh~h it~ol~ o n b- utilixed a~ a ~c~u~c~ o~ 0 isotopic hydrogen ln a r~cto~ o~ thl~ hypo, and oan ~l~o ~e~ readily loolsted in pure ~or~ for ot2~r pur~ooo~, such ~ A vary Atty o~ medical and d$~gno~tlc U81~
incorporated by R~rQnc~): 1. ~T~hnO10gY ABS ment Report on 8~ar~0wer: 51?h~ U~, and International ~e~t for ~ on En~gy", U~ Con~rs~
O~lc~ o~ ~Q~bnology A-4~ ent, 100th Congreo-.
MuGller, J.P., ~ ~ tal ~yc~rldo~", Aaad4mlc Prl~s~,
3. non, M., at ~., d~. "M9tal ~ydrl~le~ 1984, Vol nd
II, El~vl~r, NY t ~85).
V~zlrc~gl~ tall-hydrogen Sy~t~s~,
P~lxg~mon Pro Y ~19~
5 . D~a~Anl , ET nd Fla h~zmn , ~ ., J . Electroanal .
LlaDI., 39~3~3 tl97~).
C . ~balca~l~, G ., od., "M-tall hydride.eel', PA u~ PA SENT B~:ARN~LDI WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12 90; 1~:21 i 7137893524 ' 1613232844~;~ 3
N~ut~ Gql)er~t~ An~L~
S Ac~ordlng to one Aspect o~ the invention, it hue bin discovered that lcotoPl~ hydrogen ~tcms, such ~4 douterlum atoms, when ~if~u~d into the lattice o~ ~t~l~ which are c:apablo Or dissolving hydrosol, cAn ach~v~ a compression and moblllty ln the lattleo whlch 1~ Gur~lcien~ to product nQutron-generating events. The neutron-~en~r~t~ng 4~ant~ are also Gharacterlzed by extra-enthalpic hot generation; that i~, the amount o~ heat generated ln the 1 lattice l e substantially qreater thlm tho joule-heat oquiv~lerl: u~od to oharge tha lAt~lC~a to ~ eh~m$cal potent 1 at which the n-utran-~enera~ng events occur, section I, ~ p~Yiou~Iy noted, de~cri~es materials and conditions ~itAbls for achieving Cha quired conditions for the neutron-g6~ tlon e~nts wlthin ~ meal elastica.
0 Neutron produced by the ~ota~ lattice are collated to prod~ neutron ~B~, and this beam i~ used ln a var1ety 0 neutron~eam ~et~4~ for analyzing ~t~lal~. ~hl~ Tectilon doocrlb~s exemplary appa~u~ do~l~ned for neutrons m a~aly~is or ~arg~ atrial.
Aad noted above, and acoord.lng to ~n ~DIpo~ant as~ct o~ th- lnvention, lt has been dll ov~r~d that ~ tall lattica oh~rg~d with hydrogen laptop- a~¢om- to ~ c~ia~l potential o~ at least about 0.5 V promotant neutron-g-ner~tlng events wA$ch ~ evi~hc~d by the producton oP hla-energy neutron.
SENT 3Y'ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE . 3-l2-90 ; l0:22 ; 7l37893524~ 16132J2844O;~ 4 one explanation for th6 generation o~ neutrons produced in tha ~et~l lattice 4een ln khz charged lattlce 15 tho plos~iblllty Or reactions ~twe~ co~pr~ d nucle1 wlthln the lattice. A~ hotel above, hydrogen isotopio nuclei dl~301v~d in a tall latch at ch~ic~l potential aboYa about 0.5 eV are highly comprised and mobile. In ~pits o~ thl~ high compression, 4a to not ~o~ , dU~ to the low ~ ction charactor o~ the el~ctro~l~ wav~unction~. Tho MoW-8 character, however, combined with t~h~ high Compritol o~ the dl~olvs~ sp~cles, rugged the po~ib~ llty for a ~lgnirlo~nt nu~r o~ ~lo~e collision betw-,~n the olv~d r,uclai. It is ~here~or~ plausible to con~id~r that ~o~ o~ t~e~ collisions produce r~ac~ona be~w~on nu~lol. ~o ~e~ctlon~ whlc2~ mlght ~a ~xp~oted 1rt the tlc containing predominantly dl3ut~r~ nuclei ores 2~ ~ ~D ~ 3T ( l . OlM-V) + H ( 3 . 0~M~V~ lD ~ ~D ~ 3Hao.~a~Mett) t n~2.45M~V) (v~)
Th-~ r~c~orl~ would acount for ~ch~ generation o~ trltiu3l (3~1) and nautrons (n) in to m-talc ~o measure neutron generation ~T~ a ch~rg~d total lattice, the neutron f lux ~ro~ a lpm d~a~-to x ~Oc~ long palladium rod cathod-~ way m~surod u~ g an ~ utran
Dos- E~ulval~n'c Monitor, ~ 95/0949~ h~ ~ount~ng lcloncy o~ ~hi~ Connor-~3h~rQ ty~ lnstn~nt for ~.5 ~5~V nOU1~rOn~ W~a ~t1m~t~d tO ~ abOUt ~.4 X 10 G, FU~th~ he
CO11~Ct1Orl ~f~1¢1~nC:Y OF CtrO~tOr rOC the g~Om~Y Used 1~ Va~Y POOL. NOnOth-1e~, t1~8~ ~XP~ r1i mOn~tOr~ UtrO~ g~n~r~tiOn 1~YO1a 0e~V~a1rO1d al~4~f~ background at ths~ ~on~to~ing o~ ec~od~.
8~ ral ~5~ic hoat g~n~tlon ~ vents work performed to d-~onatrs~ hat to neutron-~an~r~t$ng ¢~nt~ oG~urrtn~
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:23 ; ~137~93524' 1613232~440;# 5 in a chage metal lAttlc~ al~Q i~volye the production o~ excess enthalpic haat , ~., heat ln Exs:eds Or tha ~ ou}~ heat ~ divalent energy u~0d in ~harglng the mot 1 lattice. trhe experiments wer~l based on the c:a~hod~ c re~uc~lon o~ D20 l~ro~ liquid phase at near room ~mp~ra'curo u~ln~ current ~len~ltl~ betwaen about O . ~ snd up to 70 ~A/c~2. who d~ute2~1um atoms w~3re oompr-~s~d lnto E~h~t and roll sa~plQ~ o~ palladium tall r~Om O.lM ~iOI~ ~n 99~5~ DiO + O.S~20 solution. Elec:trode potent r~ mea~ur~d wit!~ r~a~p~ct ~o ~ Pd-D reference ~l~ct~od~ charged to phase ~qul dos~c~b~a ~bov~.
Flg~r~ 5 1~ a schomatic vlaw o~ a neutron-b~aam genarator 60 com~truct~d according to the ~nv~ntlon. generator includes stacked-plate r-motor 62 which generate neutrons ~n acoord~nce with the principle o~ t2~ imrontion,
And ~ com.ll5nator ~4 wh1Ch collimate neutrons p~odu~od $n the reactor to ~o~ a ne-~tron beam ln~lce.tbd at 61.
Nh~r~a the 8~U~C:C~ 01 isotopic hydrogen yield- both d~ut~lum and tr1tlu~ ~Lto~s, another re~¢tlon thit:h t~ou1d by exp-ctq~d 1r; to ~st'clc~ 2r~ 0782M~V) + ~17.58 ~S~V) (vii)
Whl~:h would yi-ld neutron wl'c~ n~rgy ~ stributlon ln who SENT 8Y:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKEE . 3-12-90; 1~:23 ; 7137B93524~ 1613232B440;~ 6
The collimator illustrated in Figure 5 i5 ~ dlve~gent oolli~A~or designed for producing a beam o~ hlgh-Qn~r~y or thorm~l neutrons ( of the neutrons from the reactor are therm~l~z~ before rQachlng or withln the collimator). An up~treæm collimator action 80 ~ Ormet oS cost o~ machined
AlUmlnum~ And has a oirculAr aperture 82 ~d~ac~nt reactor. A shutter 84 made or borat ~B~C) 1~ used ~o oontrol exposure he in~rlor o~ tho ba~r~l lo l lnd with ~ cadmium or ~or~l Boutros ~hl~ld 86, typically 1~ than lpm thlak.
For uo~ in generating thermal nQut~on~, a material s~f~ctlye to thermalize the neutrons ch A~ a polyethylene block (not shown), may by in~orpo~ed bo~w~n the ~Ra~tor and collector or housed within tho collector.
A down~tr~am collimator action 88 i8 ~or~-~ oX aluminum or the 1 iko and has A boron o~ nQr 90 to hip aup~r~s~ gamma rays erpo~ b~tw~ ctlons 80 and 88 is a shielded fll~0r housing 92 containing a r~mo~bl~ flt 94, such ~ a bismuth monocrystal ~lt~r, ~o~ rlltorl~ ga~m~ rays ~ro~ the neutron book.
The collimator and reactor may ~o ~ub~rg~d ln ~ poQl who- cement wall 18 1Ad1~at~d at ~C. Tlo pool ~ot~ ~ a neutron ~hlOld.
Pu411~h~ rQ~e~enc~ uch a~ Collimator for Tnermal
Nautron R~diography" M~r3c~a~a~, 6~. D. Reidol Pub. CD., porton
MA, 119~7), day further detail- on tbe non-truction o~ n-utran-~a~ collimators. the collector ln tea apparatus i~ also r-r~ d to herein A~ 001113~a~o~ ~aan-~
t can ~e appr-elated ~o~ the foregoing low the n-utran-boom g~n~3r~to2~ to va~lou~ o~ot~ o~ the invontlon. the l~OUrCQ 01 neutron ~n tha gon-rAtor SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 10:24 ; 7137893524' 1613232a44~;# 7
~lmpl~ and lnexpenaiYe, requlxlng, in one embodiment, only an electrolytic 3y4tem or low charging ot a tall l~ttla~ with i80topi~ hydrogen atoms. Unlike ocnv~ntlon~l radioisotope ~o~rcoB of neutrons, the ~ou~Ge can be readlly r~ch~r~d
S wlthout isotope handling. Further, health and oa~ty pro~4~ a~80clatod with tonable isotope h a~ polonium or radlum are ~voldod.
Although the system h~4 a Tomita n-utran flux output when Compar-d with A nu~lqar factor o~ particles accelerator, the ncutron output can ~Q ~elec~iv~ly in~r~sÆd, for example, by increasing the numer andior thickness and/o~ optical potential o~ the tall plate ln a reActor. authors t~Q nargy dl~tri~utlon o~ the 4~a~ neutron can ~e ~ tivity varied ~ro~ low-~n~rqy th~rm~l n~u~on~ (or van oold neutrons produced by ~h~mallzln~ two ~a~, aooordln~ to conv~ntlon~l method, up ~o About 3.S ~V for ~ d-ut-rum rgo rector and 17.5 ~V ~o~ ~ ~st~ tic- changed wlth a mixture Or deut~rl~ and ~itlu~ ~to~.
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE&DURKEE , 3-12-90; 1~:25 : 7137893524 ~ 16132328440;~ 8
Radiography ls ~ technique by whlch ~ shadow picture o~ the "~n~ide" of a target material ln produced by axposinq tha material to a beam of radiation. the important ~ateri~lr~lated parameter in radiography iB who cross-section of the m~lterlal, which describes the probability that an atom drill i~t~ac~ with the radiation boam passing through the material, ~n the case o~ x-ray radiography, the cro~lo s~ctlon of elements generally incre with encroaching atomic w~iyht, 80 that high molecular weight ~o~, such ~ d, provide e~c~ivQ Shi-ldlng ~ln~t penetration by the relation.
By contral, ln neutron radiography, tho Bollon cross-sectlon 1~ qu~t~ in~p~ndont o~ ~lz4~ and ~n particular, 1~ relatively hlg for A~om~ such a~ ~y~ro~sn, llthlu~, b~on, and gold, and r61ativ~1y low for el~en~s su¢h a~ aluminum, oul~ur, carbon, oxygen, and oxy~n
INeutron Ra~lattve Captur-", Chrien, R.E., ed., P~rg~on
Press, N~ YorX, ~1384)). Neutron radiography Zhu- provided a unique method for detecting tho pr~enc~ o~ tho high ~ro~~ctio~ nts, such ~ boron, ln a lower c~o~ ction atrial, o~ co~or~aly, th- pregna o~ ~ low oso ction at-rlat, ouch n~ e~ar~on, ln 8 higher crop action ~Aterlal.
Flouro II-6 i~ a ~oh~atl~ view of apparatus TU0 d~lgn-d for neutron radiography, according to on- embodiment o~ th- inv~n~lon. The apparatus gun-rally include ~ ch3rg~et~1 r-actor 102 for producing hlgh nay neutrons, a collimator 104 for collimating n-neutrons into ~ neutron indl~at~6 at 106, and a d~t~tor o~m~ 08 wh~r~ ~dlogr~p~y o~ a ~plOE m~erlal ~10 ~a~o~ ~1AC~
SENT BY:ARNQLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:26 ; 713789~524~ 1613232B44~;# 9 the rector and collimator qmploy the goner~l design feAtu~Q~ discussed in Section I~ above W~er~ tn to usual CAT, the neutron bent energy i~ in the th~r~al-neutron enlergy range, ~che neu'cron can by thermalized wi~h~ n th4 collide top, or prlor to entering the collimator by co,conventional means, Auth ~ pa~ag~ through h polyethylene block.
who sample ahAmber in the apparatus includes suitable support one (not 4hown) ~o~ supp4~tln~ tho say or t~get material in ~ po~l~ion ~n whloh the by aold onto the sample. Al30 ineluded in tho chair i~ a film plat- 112 on which the radiographic i~A~-I OF the OAmpll~ iS recorded, and ~ converter ill from which film~en~it1vQ particles, ~e-, beta pa~tlcl~, are fitted when tha ~onv~rtqr ~u~ac~ t~u¢~ by neutrons . The converter i~ preferably plaoed ~n erect . contol wlth the fllm and i~ ~er~ed o2 ~ thin gadollnlum tilm or the lie capable ot o~lttin~ film-~n~itiv~ particles ln response to neutron bo~bar~m~nt. the ~l~ and convert are also red-rrad to h~r~$n coll~ctlv~?y ~ recording means. the reador i~ refe~d~ ~o~ ~x~mple~ to Harms and Wyman,
IM~lthOmat:lCll And PhyE~lcs of Neutrorl RadiogrAphy", D. Reldal
Publishing Co., porton, Ma8~chu~8tt8 ~1986) for a discussion o~ various type o~ recorded ~4an~ employed in neutron r3dlography.
ThG apparatus by ~- omployed in a variQty o~ tAermal and highly-energy radlographlc ~ppli~a~lon~, such a~ described in "~he N~u'e~on and ~t~3 Appllca~lon4~, Schott, ~ he
In~t~u~ o~ Phy~c~, London, England IR983F- p~rtlcul~ly ~o~ 8tru~tu~al analyze o~ xplo81~ do~r~c-o, c~ramla ~te~ , el~Qtronlc deices ch~nlcAl a~ los, and aircraft turbine blzde~.
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKEE , 3-12-9~, 10:26 ; 7137~3524~ 16132328440;#10 neutron diffraction pro~id~ informat1on about ths portions And motions o~ null-1 in crystalline or semicrystalline material, ~s deduoed from pattern o~ neutrons irl a beam by the nuclei in a oamplo ~t~ri~ h~ method d~,form trom X-ray fraction or crystallography t~ohn~qu~ url whlch the ~catt4rlng center ot t~s X~ray beam a~ ton cloud. B~aau~e the n~Utron bsa depends on storing ~vCnt~ involving nu~lel~ Y~v~ral type OF ln~or~ation can ~ obtained whic:h or- not gerlor~lly ~v~ e by X-ray diffraction:
FirQt, slnc~ the ~o~lttorin~ a~o4~ c~ion of nuclei la 1~ not dependent on a~o~la nunber in any ~y6t-mate way ~8~ nba ), the nuclear den~i~y gap which i~ construct from ~che di~f~act~on pate:~n can enhance many li~ht~r Atoal~ ~it~ hydrogen - a~o~ ~t~, WhiCh are ma~tcad ln all magnetron don~ity
Secondly, tho method i~ able to dl~tlnguloh and locally ze isotopio atom 61t~8, b~cau~ the nucl-l o~ dl~e~nt isotopes o~ the ~mQ atom may s~att~r neutron quite dl~t4~-ntly. ~hç~ method 1~ ~:hub particularly usful rOr crystallographic analyze o~ sample ~n wh~h p-olfin isotope ~u~tltutlon~ have been mads. For example, the analysis o~ 'ch~ thr~R ~lm~n~ion~ ructur-l oP c:o~p~.~x ~acro~ol~c:uls uch as prot-lnQ, splay k~ amplified by ~ubE~t:ltution o~ ~ut~r~um or t~lt~ t s~ ted amino aald at-~, to pinpoint; the location of the site in the d~ a~:tlon phtt~n., naukron-~ea~ di~ractlon haa the ability to detect ~ra~ nl~tla ~c~t~lng contour, due to addl~or,a~. noutron ~C~tter~ng dua to the interaction o~ the ~A~n~t~c moment o~ tl~o a~o~ wlth that of the n-ution. ~ OWD
SENT aY:ARNOLD, ~HITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-90; 1~:27 ; ~137893524 ' 16132328440.#11 inve3tlgatlon o~ the magnetic st~u~ture~ w~lch are responsible for distorting ma~n~ rop~r~la~ o~ a ~aa~pl~, such Alel ferromagnetic, anti-~3rromagn~,tlc;, snd heli~agnstis~,
Figure II-~ i3 a somatic via or an apparatus ~20 Por u~ ln neutron-b~m analysis o~ a sa~pl~ ~atQEl~l. In thl~ appAra~u~, neutrons produced by a neutron reactor $22, and collimated by collimator 124 era directed onto ~ ~$ngl~o crystal monochromator 12 6 . who ~onoahro~to~ cry~t~l funations to rofl~ct thoa~ neutrons which ha~æ ~ particular wavelet h, and therefore ensrgy, to product ~ xe~l~ct~d output beam having a selected r~n~ Or neutron energies. The construction o~ the reason and collimator has been de~crlba~ above The collimator i4 ~r~rcr~bly d~sl~n~d ~o produce ~ narrow beam oprop ., w~ln about +/- 0.5
The monochromatized beam io dlr~ct~d onto a sample m~t~rlal 130, producing a s~att-red beam whose intensity, at ~riou~ ~c~tt~rlng anq~e~ relied to the crystalline structure and atomic compoBltion of to Ba~pl-~ a~ outlet abov-. the distribution o~ tho ~c~tt~r~ neutrons 1~ measured by a rotating doctor o~ detour m~ana 132 2S aligned to ~ url neutron ~-~m lnt~n~ity over ~ large ~ca~t~r~ng ~ngl~, a~ shown. The neutron doctor operably a ~ylln~rlc~l count wlth ~F3 ~a~, 3000Ci to com national m3u~ron ~-tor a4n~ructlon (~c~n~ C~ ~., nN~u~ron Physics Wyk~ham Pu~llaat$oA~,
London ~13693.
he appBr~tu- may by e~loy~d ln a v~ri~ty o~ neutron ~aA~t4rin~ such a~ d~Ao~ n nNautron R~dlatlv~ Capua ~hr$~n, ad., suoh ~ t~rm$nin~ to ~to~ and popular SENT BY:ARN~LDIWHITF~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:28 ; 7137883524' 1613232~440;~12 structurQ of or~anlc and bloor5~arsic molecules, and for investigating flatly and dynamic aspQ~t~ o~ mol~cula2di~ordo~ and phasQ transitions in molocular 8ySt8m~1.
D. Radio;lvi ~"u~n CaT~t~r~
Noutron-radla~lv~ capture involveo collision o~ neutror.~ wlth a targqt nuclei to f or?~ ~ithsr radioactive or very 3hort llved ~o~n~ound nuclei h~ noutron collision p30~uc4a radioactivity, ~., ~ lon proc-Res with a saturable Elf llr, the na'cure of th- nuclei olvad ln neutron absorption can be d~t~r~ d by maturing gamma-ray and/or alpha or l3etA pArticls emission, arld ~or~r~latlng th~ss with tha ~pec~a and/or article Dislon c~a~ac~srlstic~ o~ Xnown ~a~lo~ . Thl~ m6thod ~ 8 also known ~e neutxon Ac~lvatlon analysis, and has bin u~d wldely for de~ermlnatlon off elements or ~:compounds pr~unt in ~ ~A~ m~t~rizll.
of the lie mo o~ the nautron-radiation events lo on tho ordsr of 10-15 to 10 ~8 ~ or 1~ hs natur- o~ ths haplo ~t~rtal 1B determined 2`rom th4 gamma-ray spectra o~ the mst-rlL. Thl~ a~roaoh 1~ ~om~tlme~ referred to 20 prompt emlsslon gamma-ray analyst 5. Th- prompt emission technique i.4 complex-ntary to nautron ~tiv~tlon analysis ln 2S that many target ~lemQrto do not ~OX~ Diablo r~dlo~Gtiv~ nuc:lon- by neutron bombard-at. q~hQ prompt e~ lon 28thod also has the ~dY~nta~- t~h~t it 1~ $~tant~n~ouY, nondestructive, one produced nogligibl- r~ ual zlcstl~ icy
Figura a s~h-m~tlt: vlow OS an apparatus 140 for
U8~1 ln propyl neutron-radii capturR anBlyB14~ or ~ sa~pl~ato~ the app;ar~tu-, n-utron8 p~oducad by a neutron rotor 1~2, one eol ted by collimator 1~ r~ der-clsd SENT BY:ARNOLD, ~HIT~DURKEE ; 3-12-90; 10:29 ; 7137893524~ 1613232a440;~13 onto a samplQ material 14C ln a sampl- oh~mb~r 148. The construct on o~ the reactor and coliimAtor hnve bean d~a3crib~d above. ThQ neutrons produced by the reactor, either ups~ea~ o~ or within. the ooo ator ~ Jnay by th~mallzed and/or morlochrom~L~ed, such as 3:by method lndlcated a~oYe.
T2~ gA~ma 5pectX;~ product in the sample matured by a conventional gAmma detector or d~t~oto~ ~eano lSo, such a~ a sold atato g~lrmAnium detector. For OW-~ACllAtiV~ noutron
CApture proC~s~ the app~r~tu~ may ~ Dlow lod for d~tect~on o~ rad~c~nctiv~ decay Artic:les, Nuc:h a~ by to addition Or ~ ::intlllation det 0~s for d~t~ting Alpha o~ beta partitions,
Tia apparatus has a wide range o~ analytiCal application-, including analysis otop~c ~at~rlnl, museum or a~cha~ologloal ~ple~, sQn~l~lvo detector of environmental contaminants, :section o~ ~xplo~lv~ matable for airl?ort ~curlty, ~or~n~ic an~lly~ie, And medical dl~gno~
Although ~hi~ part o~ th4a invention hAR born ae~ri~e~ w-1th re~e~enc~ to particular ~labo~im~nt~, construction, and applications, inc wlll bo app~rer~t to one ~kllied ln ~ ~r~ that V~ OU8 chang and ~odi~loatlonOE may by m~d~ wlt~out departing from the ~nv~ntlon. ~n patula it w~ apparent than the neutron beam g-Marston wll, hA~e a~plloation~ ou'c~d~ o~ el~ent~l and crystallographic nalyA14, for ~xa~nple, ln ~is3~n~" for ~ tr~at~nt of 401~ tu~o~ wlth nigh-energy noutron by.
SENT ~Y:ARNOLD,WHITE~OURKEE ; 3-12-9~ :29 ; ~1~7893524' 16132328440;#14
~h~l patent Tectilon relate to addlt~ onal handlings than d~ut~ron~3 highly compressed by Pathol polarization in pa~llsdlum hot lattice gen~r~t~ onthalpy in exc or that whch can be ascribed to thia overall enthalpy $nput to the e}ectrolytlq reaction 2DaO ~ 2t~ ~ 0;~
Tho mAgnltude o~ the exc anthalpy wns ~o lard typically 1-20 watts cm3 Or the el~atrodQ volume ntane or ported of 100 hours .~,Q ., glvlng 0 . 3 ~ - 7 . 2~J c~3 over tAC i5 meaQu~e~nt cycles) ~h~t it $~ not pot le to aw~lb~ thl~ enthalpy relate to any chemical Rro¢oas 9
Th- most surprise ink turn o~ the result tappet ~ro~ the ~c~ that nucleAr pro~a~seh can ~e induced at 1~11 in this way) i~ that the enthalpy r~ll92~ apparently 1~ not due to ~itho~ o~ the well o~tab~i~hod fusion roAotlon~ ~3):
ID ~ ~D ~ 3~ (l.Ol ~v) + lH t3.02 M V3 aD ~ ~ ~ 3~e (0-~a CoV) I n ~2.45 MaV) whlch have the highest one roughly s~ual) c:rod-a~o~ion- of the Xnown ~lactlon patho for hlg er.orgy deuteron. Althoug2, low ls~ral~ o~ t~itlu~ and, po~lbly, o~ neutrons w~ dslt~o~d,~ halpy reload way pri~rlly on wh~oh is an~u~ronl~ and atrl~on~a. Oth \por~od work ggo~t that prlm~ry t~lt~u~ proceed 3~y ~ Ca ~e ink olved.
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 1~:3~ ; 7137~93524' 16132328440;~15
Succe0sive series o~ me~uram~nts carried out showed that it was necessary to carry out many experience on a ~ub~tantlal number o~ electrodes and over long period o~ tlm~ Ihh median duration chosen tor ~ measured-nt cycle was
S 3 month). It was necessary th-r~ora to ~dop~ a low cost c2l10rimeter d~iqn; 80~0 o~ tha rea~onln~ underlying the choice OF the single compartment D~w~r-type cell d~oi~n, figure III-l, is outlined h~r~ln.
All ~ea~ur~mHn~ report-d i~ thia colon were ~A~ri~ out wlth 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 ~ di~a~r palladium ~ will a~ o.l cm clam-ter platinum rod electrodes. Tha palladium electrons Johnson Matthey, PPC) cam from three s~p~ate latches o~ ~teri~l and ~ typioal analysis ~8 ~lv-n lsb ~a~le
typical constitutional analysis o~ the Johnson-Matthey palladium-~m rod uPA ln this won.
Elomont ~ by weight
SgcO, 0001
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE , 3-12-90 ; 10:31 ; 7137~93524' 16132328440;#16
The match number of palladium utilized are identiflad ln two result ~lve~ allow. A moxe galled well ~00 o~ the prQs4nt lnvention 1~ e~ th0 Dewar type and ln down in Figure
III-l. n thl~ coll, a palladium electrode al2 way w-ldd ~o 0.05 cm faster palladium lead wlr al4 and thl~ d ~14 ~a~ well aa that 2~G to the plenum anD~e 21~) WAN covered with glass shields 220 in order to ~vcid any po~lbl~ recombination of d~ut~riu~ and oxygen ln the gas held ~pAC~ 222 oS thQ cell 200. The ~latlnu~ (Johnson Matthey, ~g.9%~ held node Ala way tightly wound with a ~lo~ spacing on ~g~ z24 of glAss rodn ~u~round~ng to aathods al2. ~leotro~ 212, 21~ work held in plica by the drop Xyl F ~lu~ ane ~l F 3~A~er ~2~ at to bottom o~ the c~ 00~ T~ conSlguration Or the anode one cathode poured the ~tabll~hm~nt o~ a uniform potential over the ~ur~ o~ the cathode 212. This a~u~ uni~orffl and hlgh level of oh~r~lng o~ thQ oathode 212.
Temp-nature meA~u~oment~ zero m~d~ wlth specially a~llbr~t~d thermistors 232 (T~-rmo~etr~ ul~ra~ta~la $h~moprobe~, - lO xn2 l0.02 stably per year and ths cæll~ 200 web calibrated dur4ng oach ~ ure~nt cy~l2 u~lng r~ tive heating olem~n~ 234 (~lgl-ray ~l~ acou~acy 5x20n metal rile rotor ch~in~, th~m~l stability better than lOo~ C). Connection ~6 to th~o~ components ~34 ~a~ will a~ ~o oth-r components suoh aa ~uEth~ ~h~r~stor~ 232 and rA~er~nC~ otrod~a 237 with a Xe~or~no- connection 235 whloh were inolu~d in ~p~cl~ ) work had- through the top Xet F plu~a a3~ w~l~h ~l~o contains B filling tuba 240 and a g~ n~ 240. The plus 23~ we~o rth-r ~nl~d to the 00 usln~ P~atllm.
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHIT~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ :31 ; 71378935~4 ' 16132328440;~17
The ell 200 way maintained in specially csn~tru~d water batho stirred with Tecan Telmpunlt ~U-16A st:l~re~/rcgulator~. two or tAr~ r ~ the, each cont~lnlng up to five ~ow~r csl 200, have soon maintained 40 that 8 to 15 cells may be run ~imul'ca~a~oUsly~ The result presented ln thls section are based on approximately 54 ~o'c~l e~xperlm~ntE~ and approximately 360 coll cal~br~tion3. It was fDund that the bath temperature at d~pt~o greater than 0. 5 ~4 below the sur~aoe of the water Ath could by mnintalnQ~l to bcltter than +0.01~ o~ thQ art te~por~turo Which tlra~ ln the vlcin~ty o~ 303.15~X) provided 'cl~e w~e~ our~ac~ w~ ~llow~d to evaporate rreely. Ti3 con~t~nt te~p~r~ture maligned throughout the bath voluma. the lovel in each water path has ~alnkaln~d Fontan by ma~nq, o~ ~ continuou
CI using ~ ~Osi~etQr pump connect:tbd 1;o a ~c~nd thermostatted w~t~r bath.
Thl~ ~ln$~um curxlent ua~d in all the ~x~rihlQrlts ro~ort~d h~r~ w~ 200 mA and lt w~ ~o~nd ths'c the c~ could by wed 2~ at ourrsnts up to 800 mA wlth 0.1~ IlOD ~ electrolyte. With 0.1~ LlOD + C.5M ST280 or lM ~laSO~ ctrolyte4 currents a~ hlgh ~ 1600 InA could ~e u~Rd in vlow o~ lower ~oul~ hunting in the solutions ~
the ~lxin~ history w~thln the c~lo~ tar for there ~urr~nt li~lt~ way dot-rmfnad uoln5J eye in~ctlon c:o~ln~Cl with vlo ~eoordln~; radlal m$xing wa- found ~o b- ~xtr~ly rapid t'clme arc:all ~ 3~) S211A axial ~lxln~ look pl~c~ on or approximate 20~ tlm~ scale at th- lowest eurr~n~s u~d. A~ th- ~h~r~al ~ cation time o~ th- cJ~ t-r- w~ ~pproxlls~t~ly 1600~1, thQ c~lorlmetor~ can by con-idaric to be w~ rod tanks . In ~riew o~ the ~lg~ o~ ~ix~ ng and tho ~xl~lly uniform motion o~ neat, ~c~e JAaxlmw~ variation in t~mp~r~tu~ w~hln the calorlmla'ce~ w~ ro~an~ t6~ by 0.01SENT BY:ARN~LD~WHITE~DURKEE , 3-12-gO ; 10:32 ; 7137~93524~ 1613232B440;~18 excapt for ths regiOn ln contact with thç~ bottom Kel ~ ~pacor~ wh~xo ~}~e variat ~ on reached 0 . 02 . The- t~m~r~ure distributions were determined using C~ 3 which Contained 5 thermistor which could by displace in thh r~di~l and axial
S directions.
All m~A~ur~mant~ reported herç w~ ade galvanostatically using ~li'rek Inc;~rumDrlt~ model D~2101 potentiostats connected ao galvanostat. The feedback
Arr~ng~mant u~d, Figura 2A, ar~ourQd total protion against oscillation. 'rhQ g~l~ranoo~t outputs wor4 ~ur~hler nanorod rclgularly to chocX r~r o~cillAtlon~ tnono found throughout thlE~ work) and ripplo ~ont~nt (60 and ~0 Hz 0.04~ o~ the ~.C. currents). ~ ur-a~entf~ abo~f~ 800 InA were lS carrlad out using the clrcuit shown in Pigu~ thi3 n3ur~ that the degree o~ tab zation AchlevablR loy. ~eaA~ o~ th- galvanostat aould by ~x~nd6d to much hi~ha~ our~nt Flavell. (M~l~qur~ nto at current level u~ to 25000
A and u~ln5~ other torn oP c:~lori~at~o has Also ln n performed, ) El~c~rods9 work ch~rs~ed a~ 64~A cm a tor ~lm~s in excess e~ ~ dlfruolon~l ralaxation ~i~e~. Oth-r curr-nt d~nsl~los ~r~rl~ then applled, a~ ln~e~tQd in the reported r~ult~. D~t~ roport~d h6re ~ o ~ n attar a p-rlow ln ~x~a~ a i~ur~ch~r 5 dlffuslorla~ x~t~on ~o~.
Heat t~an~e~ co~lcl~nt-~ w-ro ~lot4rmin~d dally (and for p~:$~1 ~Xp~r~mentQ every ~ hours) u-lng gl~lv~no6t~t~ So driYo the r~ tive h~at$ng eleDIents. ~ A~ur~30nt ~che adopted ~a~ a8 follows: tAC coll ~19c:t~01Y~e volu~o8 woro r~planl~d ~re~y 12, 26 o~ 48 hours for ~ r1m~nts ~ls~g curr-nth ln the r~nS~4 ~00~1600, 400-S00, nnn aoo~400 r-~p~tiv~ly to ~ not mark ;land the ooll ~ ?o~at~o~ work allowed to equilibrate for 3 houro ~ hull r~laxa'c$or~ time out Kitlng w~ then app~iod for 3 hour- u~lng the SENT BY:ARNOLDIWHITE~DURKEE , 3-12-9~ :33 ; ~13~533524~ 1613232~440;#19 red ive h~at~rs, the input curxent from the galvanostat6 beinq ad~us~ed 80 that the ~ln~l temperatur- r~ ~4 over the 310ping ~a~llnc was about 2~. The c~ temperature, well voltage, bath temp~r~tuxe~ and, when appropriate, the heater voit~ga~, were monitored every 5 mln~lte~ ung ~lthl~y Modal 1519 DMM multiplexer6 to input data to Compaq Dnmpro ~86 a6
MHZ computers, Examples of such m~a~ure~ent~ for two different xp4r~ments at t~roa d~ rent t~4 are shown in
Figures 3A–C and III-4A–C. Two ~eA~urln~ circuit warm ~a~nt~ln~d open except during the ac~u~ mpllng perlod~ (agactttaga meaourcm~nt~ were allows to stabilize for ~ Honda b~ore sampling; thormi~tor ra~i~tanco~ work allows to ~t~b~lize for ~ ~eeond~ before sampling). Data who dl~pl~yed tn real tlmq aa well a~ b41ng wren to ~$8Ch.
V~riatlon~ ~ro~ the~o procedure for ~p~el~l ~xp~rl~en~ are ~ivon balow.
Experiments at low and int~m~dia~ current d~nsltl~s w~ru c~ d out using 10 cm long electrode; for the hlyh~t current den~itle~ the ctrode length were traducer to 1.25 oall and the ~paclng of the ~nod~ winding Wt'8 reduced to ensure unl~o~m current dl~t~lbut~on~T suoh 4hort~r electrode web placed at the bottom o~ tho Dewar ~o a~ ~o n-url adaquate ~tlxrlng.
Expe~m~ were c~r~l~d out using ~a ~C~m~r~dgIsotop-~) o~ 9g.9~ ~so~op1c purlty. 0.1 M LlOD wa8 prepared by adding ~ tAl (A.D. Mackay ~ 7~i - lJ9 ) to D20; 0.1
M LiOH + 9.5 M Li~SO~ and l M L~S04 were p~e~arod by ~ddlng ~xled ~SO~ Aldrich 99.~9t, anhydrous, ~TI/7L1 ~ 1/l~) to o. ~.~5 I.lOD and D tO rosp~otlv~ly~ The sht ~t~r content o~ the ~ell~ work morli~cored by N~ and n~ r ro~a A~OV~ O . 5% . ~a~pl~ wlthdrAwn I~Qr EDO and trltlu~ analyze-~ wera ide up u~ln~ the apropriate ele¢~olyt~l~. A single ~atc~ o~
SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKE~ ; 3-12-90; 10:34 ; 7137893524 ' 1613232844~;#20 el~c~x~lyte w~ used or any givQn experimental ~ ~erlss .
Normal losses due to electrolytic (and vaporation s.t hlgh cshl to poratures) were made up by add$ng ~2 who current e~lcloncl~s Sor thl~ olacoides a~cordlng to motion ( i ) were ~let~rmlno~ ~;y m~a~ur$ng the combined rays o~ gln evolution from tho c~ . sur~islng~y, th-o~
Qi~ciencles Were higher 'chan 9~% a~ era- also 8hown by the record of DiO additions. Suc:h high c-current e~icler~cl~o have now ~180 been r~Lport~d ln other warm h$~h ,rnlues oAn by understood in termo o~ thQ ln~l~itlon o~ DFT oxidation at the anc~de 4y at-oxo d~ ~c~r~ation and 4y the ~xt~ lve d~ga~ing o~ tb4 oxygon contsnt o~ the l~¢t~olyt~ ~n the methods reglcn by the DE motion. These hlh current latencies greatly ~mpl~fy the analysis o~ the ~xp~rlm~nt~l data by a "Blac~ Box" model which 1~ brl~ly described below.
"H~A~X B~X~I M~ n~Q~ the C~lorl~t~r n common wlth all othor physicochemical and engaging device, the evaluation o~ dain rxo3 the ~h~vlor of
DQw~r-type electrochemical colorimeters required tho construction o~ ~ wu~at~ "black box module. A ~re~ ed 2S method of data analyze bas4d on ~h- fittlng o~ the ~od~l tcc the exp4~ ~ al ~t~ u~ noT~ nor ~ogr8~10n analyze
~lo~i~e~y for the modal should p~er~ra~ly ko band on 3~ ~ tiltable ~e~ o~ blAnka, on a suitably d~ ned and sealed o~ carefully pinned data ~nAly~l~ including non-llnear regression ~eohn~ue~. Th- ~o~ hould carefully ~on~lt~r 11 h~aat t~n~r Go~on~nt~, in::~udln5~: ~lect~ enthalpy ln~ut, Allbritton heæt input, heat lnput d~u~ to ropl~ni~hing
SENT aY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKE~ ; 3-12-9Q ; 10'34 ; 7137893524' 1613232~44~;#21 electrolyte 1058 by electrolysis and evaporation, heat low ~ro~ the coll by radiation and collductlon, heat t~nY~e2 from the aell due ~o l~t~nt heat oS evaporation o~ DaO~ hQat 1ta~5 du~3 to enthalpy carried o~ in the gas ot~ea~ (for ex~pl~,
DE, , o~ and D 10), h~At generated due to recombination o~ D2 arld 0;~ any), and any ~xcos~ hot generated in the QoL.
Further, th~ro should be condition o~ the time depOEndsnt temperaturQ change in the cell du4 ~o the change o~ the content o~ the cell. Prl~ao con~id~ra~$on should AT80 bo ç~lven to careful th~rmoat~tting o~ the external bath Any atmosphere ~!mp~r~ture. C~re~ul choiqo~ should Also bo m~d~ o~ truncation and temperature ~ea4u~1rg ~vic~ uch a~ the torn, heater components, ohm metro, bolt: m~ter~, bath alroul~tors, potentiostat, mul~lpl~x-r~ and da~l~ processing lS equipment.
A summary o~ th- result obta ~ ned using 0 . 1, O . 2 and 0 . 4 cm ~lamot~r rD~I 91eGtrodeB i65 gly~n ln T~bl6 ~ 3 whila the relevant r~ul~cs rOC other exp~rlm~n~o ~r~ rlza~ ln ~abl~ A6, 1 .
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12~90 ; 10:35 ; ~13~93524~ 1613232844~;#22 far. 1 '9~ '5:~ a~0 ~NF~51~ io; ~ ~
~bl~ ;XQI~ enthalpy o~ d for ~.1. 0.2, ~s~d 0,4~DI d~nelt~r p~ ~c~on o~! a~r~nt ~os~8~ty.
ctrotc ~cch'curr-nt Z Q Q Q 8p~1Plc Q o~ bNC ~ubpu~ ~oo~
L~t~ tolyene ~5~
Ctl ~ C~-8 ~V /U ~`W ,/U ~W c~ d lxlO 1 2) ~) B~2~) 2.7S4 0.0304 0-0379 3~0075 0~0~ 25~2~ 11(12) lxlC 1 ~ 066~200~ 3.6Q2 ~.~12 ~).481 ~.~7~ 1.01 19 ll tx1.25 1 D t~512t200~5,~s 1.491 1,5~3 0.0~2 8,33 ~ 4(5) 2xlO 1 ~ 18~50) 2.702 0.05a 0.094 0.036 0.115~2 27 2~c10 1 1 ~ :364~400) 4.23~ 1.07 1,~7 0.493 1.57 46 29 2xt.2s 1 ~ b51Z(400)1~.46~ 2.71 3,~5 0~378 g.61 '~ 4x~0 1 :~ ~B~100~ 2.910 ~.137 0.290 0.153 0.1~2112~111) 53 4xlO 1 a:~ 4 64~800~ 4.~1S0 2.~6 4.41 1.7~ 1.39 6~ ~5 4x1.2~ 1 D ~~12~00) 3.655 3.69 9.04 ~.3~ 21.4 59 4a
D: 0.1~ L~O~); AlL me--urq~nt~ work tho 8~;~ ~t~h o~ Dz~O o~ 99.9~ ~otoplc pure ty.
V~,u~o ln p-~onth~c~; ~o~ ppl c~ nt6. ~xoo~o h~-tln~ ~xpr~ d a~ po~nup o~ the onth-lpy ~np~t to to- oil. ~xccoo h--tt~n4 ~p~o~--d aJ ~ p-rc~n~,- o~ ~ L~.t to ehs a?J5i. ~h- v~lu-~ ln p~r~ntho-o,- Ln eol~ Sd) and (~ r~ ~L~an in ~ 2 ot` ro~r~ne~ ~ .
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKE~ ; 3-12-9~; 10:3~ ; 7137893524-~ 1613232~44C;023
T~ 3 ll~t5 the time al~pged com the ~t~t o~ any pArtlcular experiment, the current den~lty, the ~411 ~olt~g~, the enthalpy input, the exp enthalpy ~, and the excess enthalpy per unit voluunQ. The d~rlv~d Y~lU~ in the
T2~ were oq~sln~d by both the approximate method c~ data an~ly~is and by an exAct ~ittlng prooç~dur~ using a "black box" design Or the type briefly ~c~lb4~ h~r~in; error e~t~ mates are con~n~ to tho data 4~riv~ by tha late method. Data are given ~o~ the thr-a electrolyte lysed and the batch numbers Or the pa~tlcula~ otro~o are indlcatad. h~ ~-our-m~n~s wsr made, ~ e ~o~ , whon ~ ready ~tat~ o~ excel enthalpy g~nera~on h~Cl ~a~n reached.
However ~ Il6 way not pot 14 rOr ~om~ ol~ctrodo~ at the highosk ourrent d~nalt~ u~a~ au~ tho o~ wars
E~qru~ntly drlv~n to tho box ling point. q~h~ va~u~s glv~n for th~s~ ears apply ~o thQ time ~u4t prlo~ ~o tall- rape increases in cell temperature tso ~oc~lon ~ enthalpy
SENT BY:ARNOLDI WHITE&DURK~E ; 3-12-9~; lC:3S ;~137893524 ' 16132328443;#24 `, 1 ' 50 39 ~120Z :~NFhxSl~;H~
X49~. ~nthA1PY ~b~ t fOr 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ~ d~aTI~t~ PA d1~ rOd~
UnC~ n OF ~U~r~nt d~n"~tY, ~ 1AP~d ~ e ~t6rt ~ ~xp~ m4n~, al~t~lyt~ com~o~Lt~n, nd ~l~cerod~ bAtc~. ad B~tch~C~rrlmt ~S~ ~ Q~ ~ Q Apprsxl~to Spool n~ty s~pcci~c Q
El~ct~lyto~ Q ,..... Frox ao~r~alon naly~
1~ 3 sID 64 ~.86 2.811 ~.032 o.ooa 0,140 0,~642 ~0.0002 1~ 2 2~ Q 128 3.88 4,bOO û.984 0.16~ 2.04 .043 ~0.003 1 3 S' S~ 124 7.72 3.325 0.0~9 O.OOS 0.4B6 0.5131 ~0.0006 1 2 a~ Q ~56 3~97 !~ 201 2~5~3 01 3133r99 4~0~8 WO2007 1~ 2 D Cl2 512 4.06 6.0e5 7.27 l.OS 13.~ 13.77 ~5.02 1 3 2~ p 1024 5 . 38 11 . 640 4 . 04 1 . 03~05 . 112 . 0 ~0, I 2 3 S4p 64 0 51 ~.780 1.30 0.0û6 0.019 0.021 ~0.0~1 2 ~ .ff,~l 64 2 ~0 3.~30 0.~56 0.024 0.077 Q.0~7 ~0.001 2 9 Dp 128 2,S0 8.43B 5.~2 1.65 5.2~ ~.6a ~o~o~ 2^ 3 50' p ~2~ 8.39 l .O44 0.2S0 0.028 0,713 ~.~14 ~O.Oûl 2~ 3 ~ ~:1 256 4.g2 6,0~2 o.ag8 0.056 1.~ 1.49a ~:0.002 2~ 3 Alp 5la 5.~ 9.042 3.00 0.603 ~5.3 ~.03 :~:0.~1 2~ 3 Y ,i:~102~ 1 7.953 5.13 2.~0 71.~ 7S.42 ~0.01 4 2 ~) ~, 64 1.70 5.~19 3,10 0.263 0.20~ 0.214 ~0,003 4~^ 2 ~ ~ 64 7.44 4.745 2.24 0.11~ 0.106 ~.14S +0.002 4' 2 . ~ 6~ 9 S7 3,519 0~198 O.OO~Sû.OOP 0.0023 it3.0~2 4 2 D ~ 128 5 9~ 6,~X 0.50 1.05 0.84 Q,842 ~0.009 by 2 D ~ 256 t,94 t.502 Z.38 0,81~ 8 ~,999 ~0,003 4 2 D ~ 512 8.~2 10.580 7,23 1,~S lQ.S 11.~9 l0,~2 ) tall rod 1~n~ch- lOcm o~ 1.25~ of a.75cr~
O.1~ L~OJ); Y: 0.50~ L~2~04; Jl: 0.1~, L10~ ~ 0.4~ L~sO4. ~1 111~A~ 4 boro n~ n the g~ batch o~ a o of 99.9~ topic puP~ey. All ~ Ur~rlGnt~ in ~ or ~ h~v~- born ~d~ M-rch ,1989 . ~
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURKEE , 3-12-9~ ; 10:37 . 7137~93524l 1613232~440;#25 the values o~ the rate o~ aXCR~ enthalpy generation l;ist~d in TAble 3 are lower limlts bo~u~ both the method o~ calculation and the n~gl~ct o$ the latent huat of e~va~oratlon lQad to ~n underestimate of ~. There i~ a further factor whlch leads to an Additional underestimate o~
Q~: the dissolution o~ D ln tne electrode xo~ho~mlc and oonsequently the aloping baso line c~u~ . d2cre~s~ i~ the solubility wlth tlm~ and thereroro ~n Ab~o~ption o~ heat
Thlo factor 13 difflcUl~ to quantity 51~c~ the d~ut~rlum content o~ the lat~lce wlll not by ln equilibrium at any giv-n ~11 temperature h~vo th~r~orR n~gl-end ~11 ~aator~ which would g$YR all po41t~v~ corrections to the de~lv~d VAlUQ~ 01 the excess ~thalpl~. o~ tha ~ aorr~ctlon~ ted above, ~hAt du4 to the ~y~te~atio 5 contrast ~ o~ the heat output com thE o~ out ~gn~ r ~ cant.
Taq 4 li~t~ the r-aults o~ ty Or blank expQrlmontes ~aour~ment~ wlth Pd ~l~ct~od~ ~n light war, with Pt-electrodes in llgh~ and ~o~vy water and m-a~ur~4nt~ with 0.8 ~m diameter PA ~ld~trod~8 in heavy water. at ~n be been that ~o~t o~ those experiments glv- ~m~11 Rgain values for the ~XC~88 enthalpy. The n~gat~v- v~lu~ ~r~ ~xp~ct~d for ~yst~ giving ~ t~r~Al balance according to tha l~etroly~i~ Pellon ~i) or to corresponding r-Actlon for light war einc- both ths method o~ calculation and the n~gl-ct o~ the enthalpy output from the cell due to tAtion load to ~n und~r~4ti~at~ o~ the haat Iowa ~o~ tho c~
SWNT ~Y:ARNOLD, WHIT~DURKE~ ; 3-l2-9C ; lO:38 ; . 7l37~93524~ l6l32328440;#26 ! ~ r, 1 ' q~ a~ ~a~ F :~:'51~r; o r ~ Q s ;~,
bl~ ~. Ro~ult~ ~o~ bl-nk axp~rlzlloneo on pl~tlnwn o.nd p~ u~ rot aa A ~rUnel:OCn >g current don-tyr ~ ol~lp~d s~nca ~t~27t o~ OXp~rim~ n~ ol-lctrolyes
Qo~o~ltlon .
~dBatch~ Currant ~ o-~ Qln~c Q~ Pproximal ~p~c~ ~c
Electrolyte Q F~o~ ~gr~4~0n
~all~d~um tloccrodo-~' 1 Z ~ 32 11,~2 3.605 0.212 -0.00l ~0.009 ~0.0097 ~0.0002 1 2 or 6~ 0.92 g.~73 0.479 0.~01 -0,014 ~0.016S 1 2 ~ 12~ 3.04 g.l36 1.482 ~0.001 -~.001 ~.001 :1:0.~01 1 2 W 25~ 3.P6 ~.ag4 5.931 0~0~ .007 O.OOB ~0.006 1 2 W 5~2 5.40 11.29 15.70 ~,01 ~0.0~8 0.01 ~0.~
O.9 3.oo ~ 1.4580.001 O.OOQ ~.000 0,001 8 1 D 8 1,22 3.36~ 0.365 0,001 0.000 ~0.0~0 ~.003 a 2 ~ 1 3~527 0.39? ~0.003 ~.000 O.OOT tO.004 l~lnu~ t~od~ 1 ~ 64 ~.02 3.~ 0.4~20,000 0,000 -0.0~07 ~0,4004 l ~ 64 2.06 4.138 0.525 O.OOT 0,00~ -0.~0~4 .~0.000 1 ~ 256 1.28 6.Z18 3.742 ~.001 0~02~ -O.~32 ~0.004 l W 64 3.~ 4.602 0.624 0.002 ~.023 -0.0232 ~0.0006 1 ~ 50 3,3~ 4.821 0.66~ 0.003 Ø03d 0.0392 ~0.0006 1 W 512 iO.25 12.02 16.~ ~0.001 ~0.007 0.01 ~0.02
) P~114diu~ the-e ~l~et~d~ 8 x 0 n 0.2cm. ) ~: 0.1~ LlOD: ~: O.L~ L~O~; Al1 ~ fonts tn ~ O era ~ S~ ehs DE- bAtoh a~ thatull~d ~r~ thyl ~tXp~ nRa ln Toll- 3.
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHlTE~DURKEt ; 3-12-90 ; 10:3~ ; ~137893524~ 1613232844Ci~27
Figura III-5A and ~ are examples o~ the temp~r~tur4tlma and the associated potential-tip plots in ~xpe~lm~nt~ whl1ch show marXod increase ln thQ hot ou~ut~ while Flguras
A and ~ give the d4rlvQd rate o~ the ~p~$~ic sxce~ enthalpy release. Figures III-7A and ~ gly the time dependence o~ the totAl 9p~Ci~iC ex~e~ ~n~h~lp~ or tho corre4~0n~1ng Qeotions oS experimental data. A nu~r o~ important solution3 roller from these tip tendencies: in the ~r~t pl.ce, the ray oP exp enthalpy ~n~rat~on increase slowly with ~im~; s~con~ly, bu~t~ ln the p~od~ction o~ ~xc~ enthalpy ar4 superimposed on the slowly in~raa~ng or steady ~tatQ enthalpy generation and ~ to oocur at unprodlctable tl~qly and are o~ un~n~lotsble du~atlon;
Sollowlng such b~r~ltE~ the ~XCQ5~ nthalpy production :~eturrl~ to a saline value which can bo high-r than that ~u-t pri or to the lnltiatlon o the burst; th~r~ly, we have found that c~ are frequently drlvon to the boiling point, ~.g,, o~ figure III-~. Tha rate oP nthalpy p~oduc~lon must become exit ly large und-r the conditions Minoo the dominant mod4 o~ heat tranfer ~ now the latent hot of ev~po~ation. at ~ not po~slble, however, at thin ~a~ ~o maX~ ~ gu~ntlt~tlvo 4~1mate o$ the hot OUtp~lt ~ C~ who cells and ln~trum~nt~tlon ~r~a unsuitAbl- to make ~4~1ma~4~ undor these condltlon~. It &hould also bo noted that, Although th- CQL potential inltl~lly d~cr~s~s tin co~uaon to the union for the ~ t-) tr8 i8 usually a change to ~n lncr~ o~ the potential with tt:ae when c~ are driven ~o ~- ~ollln~ polnt p~o~bly due to the low o~ alec~oly~- ln spray l~n~,rlng the coll~
Tha attain nt of boiling ray bl~ due to ~ ~ur~t ~n n~hal~y proCluctiort 4~ l:o ~n increase ~n ~- bar-lln- output.
Be~au~ o~ ~ polio:y oS dl~cont~nulng to ox~ori~ant~ ~or"~t
SENT ~Y:ARNOLD,WHIT~DURK~E : 3-12-9C ; 1~:39 ; 71378g3524~ 1~132328440;#2a last, o~ reducing the current den~i~y) when the boiling midpoint 1~ reached has been adopted, th~4s c:annot yai be dls~lngui~he~. The reasono for the ar4 a~ ~olloW~: the dissolution o~ ln ~?d i3 exs:formic under the~a~ conditions; rapid increases o~ temperature must therefore bo acc:Company ed by a ~4ArkQd encroach o~ the chemical l?o~en~;ial ~Xu~acity) of dls~olv~d D+ since ~hemlcAl oct r1um cnnnot bcl established by the relatively 510w d~u~ion~l rclaxation process.
Such conditions should be avoided at the present ~tagq- oS resesrch slnce thoy could lead to unc:control 3nergy release. ~t~entlon io drawn to the ct that rapid increal3es o~ temporal are ac~omp~lnl~ by m~rk~d inc:re3 in the rate oS qon~ra~ion o~ Illum. o~h~r ~p~ct~ o~ the phenomonon o l~u~ are a~r~a~d ~n the Di~au~ior~ 8~o'clon low.
the result for the ~xco~ enthalpy generation, ~a~le
I11-3, ~2~ow that very accurat4 values o~ th- h~At flows can ~o obtained by means o~ a Timpl- calorimetry a te~h~i~ue adopt-d. The reason for ~hl~ hign ~cc~raoy i~ th-~ vary large redundancy o~ th- ~t~ at which cone of -~000 measurement of a highly structured c~11 te~p~r~ture-time proPlle plot which i8 used to dot nlm four parameter o~ the ccc ~ox" Knodel; tha f~f~h ~ara~t~r 1~ d-t~lxmln~d rat~ly froDI ~ m-Sakurada CQL Yoltas~-time Proflo slot. trhis stated ebout th- ~ecur~y ~ppl~,e~ to the rar~do~ ~r~or~ but lt ~ ~mph~zfld again thaJc the method o~ calculation leads to ~ by-t-matic undQre~tlmnte whlch can, how-v-r, readlly ~ acted.
~he~ ~tat~mant~ about ttl6 a~Ur~y are borne out )by the blank ~ to, ~abl~ L, whlch d~ow tll~t SENT BY:ARNOLD, WHITE~DURKEE . 3-12-90; 10:40 ; 7137893S24l 1613232844~;#29 colorimetric t~oh2lique adopted gives $a~ a¢tory ~h~rm~l balance for electrolyte according to reaction (i) or for 2HaO -- 2~2 + ~
eor a wide r~ngo o~ condltlon~ and ~y~ ho Qxp3~i~0nt~ on to- 01 8 cm dial r Pd electrode ln DaO are regarded A8 the ~os~ significant blanks. In colon with porous other $nv~t~g~tlon~ w~ have therefore also ~A~rl~d out ~ rl~!nt~ on the Pd/D ~y~t~m whlah g~rc~ zero 9XC0~ ~nth~l~y. Exon 8 nthalpy generation on 0 . 8c~ diameter electron as now ~eQn achieved by using o. recently obtain )~Ateh 4~e el~ct~oO. mat~rlal. The marked exc r.enthalpy generation for ex~rim~nt~ such a8 thooo ll~t~d 1~ a~ 3 ~Uut by d ~n the llght o~ theae ~lan~ riments~ the cll;c eXC~oo one lpy generation can r~a~h rate AO 'nl5~h a~ 100 watt c~-3; thin i8 a fActor o~ spp:coxib ly ~1Y~ ~5) tls highor than tho h~gh~-t v~lu~ repo:~tod ~r~vlo~ly~) and 1B 0 aomp~r~hl~ to the highly value achi~,rod in a rocant invo~tlg~ticn using Seobeck c:Alorainy(~)~ 'rh~ values of the oxae~ enthalpy l ~ mehtod ~ n ~ba~ 3 Pro also b~oa~ly ln lin4 wlth ths result aonta~n9d ~n ~ nub-r o~ other reports g. ~--(93) for comparable ~xpe~$~ent~1 con~it~on~.
at should be not-d that t~l~3 EJr~nt d~at~ support the ~rie~ at the "~t~zdy-~ta~" enthalpy generation 19 LUQ to a pro~a~ or proo~a~s~ in tho ~ullc o~ ~ eleot~od~- although thin ~a~emsnt ~oe~ nok now stem to by an clear ctxt aa that
Dlad~ on the by o~ the re~ul~g contained ink in~en~o~ prell~lnelry ~u~llc~tion~ 'rh~ d~t~ p~ nt~d hex show in more d~tAll t~t the rate o~ exe-DE enthalpy produotlon lnGr~a#a ~rk~dly win current denl~lty, ~i gur~ tho rata oil t 1~8t on the order I2) w ~ o~ 90 that SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHIT~URKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:41 ; 7137~93524~ 1613232344~;#3~
t:h~ process has the appearance o~ a threshold phanomanon. ]experiments of hlgh~r pr~cl~on at low eurr~nt d~nslti~ are ded, however, to decide whether tht ~ 18 the caaa, ZnCl lf leo, whAt the thr~ho~d current density or pot~rtl~l light by. at the highest current densities there 1~ no discernible
E3yste~atlc difference betwRen thR day for thQ Cloeren batch o~ electrodes and electrolyte usQd ln l:how experiments. the 3cattor ~n tho rosette 18 relatively ~m~ll at tha~e high current don~ltie~ but the ~c~tt~r baco~es l~rgo at low to in~rm~dlat~ current d~n~ity. It could will by ~h~t thl~ scatter 14 duo to dir~or~nce~ ln the ~leotrad~ ~at~ l andlor solution condltlono but lt ¢oul~l azo b- thn the S`Usfacity o~ the deuterons in the l~ttlce iso ~or~ 02~01~iv~ to the pxecl~e ~u~Sac~ c:os~dit~on~ ~o~ A~ur~fflor~ts at low to lnter~n~dlat~ current dencitl0s. The Ab~on~e o~ exc-~ Gnthalpy generation for O . ~ cm dlam~3ter ~l~¢tro~o~ . dry 02 B~toh 1 certainly points to the l~po~tu c~ o~ tAe metallurgical history e~ the sp~cl~4n- ln ~t~rmin~ng Q~ It i~ noted that ~o~t lnv~t$g~t~on~ port-~ to d~tl~ h~va used relAtlv-ly low current den~ltle~ and that thl~ may well
Aooount for ~om~ o~ the varl~lllty o~ the result.
Furthermore the oalorl~QtrlC techniques and method- o~ data evaluation adopted ln many o~ the investigations would not allow to accurate m~asU~-mQnt o~ low ~aluo~ o~ thQ ~x~aenthAlpy.
St~ta~nts ao to the m~gnltud~o o~ tho total ~xc~ r~ cl~rly ~rblt~ry since th~s~ d-pond on the duration o~ any particular oxpa~i3~nt: m-asur-~-nth glvlng ~x~e~es or -50MJ ~m~3 h~v~ not beon carriod out. The totAl ~p~cl~lo ~xa~-~ enthalpy ln tha enthalpy burst- Pro perhaps alter gained ~unnt~ti~a ln thl~ rsgard. Figure 6B, III~7~ and 8~ gif the data for the larg-at burst ob~er~ed to date and it 1~ o~ lntra hat the total ~nth~ ln tho burst ~r~
SENT BY:ARNOLD,WHITE~DURHEE ; 3-12-90 ; 10:41 ; 71378935~4~ 18132328440;#31 also rar above the values whloh can bs attributed to any chemical reactions. Furthermore, for there burst, the rateB of ont:halpy production are up to 17 time (plateau }laYOl~) and 40 tlme~ ~ peak value) the top nthalPY lnputs to the aeils. As polnted out previously) the U81i~ of one ef~iclent systems w041d Allow the c:onE~truct~or~ o~ 6~0C;tiVel hot ~ene~a~lng system evcn i~ the excite snthalpy g-n~ratlon Wire restricted ~o the b~Eaellne vnlu~ o~ T~bla
R8~8NÇ~ lrp TTN ~ ~ Incorporatod By
Re~er~lno~) 1. ~. Fla Bachmann, S. Pont, and M. Hawlc~n~ c!:roanal
Ch0m. ,2~U ~1989) 301. 2. R.C:. Kalnthla~ M. ~XlaYczyk, ~. Xaba, G.H~ ~1R~ 01,
V~ v, N.J.C. ~acXham, J.C. Wako And J. 0'~. 80ckr~,
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 14 (1989) '771. 3. M.~. Oliphant, P. Hart~c~c, and Lord Rutherford, N~
4. N.J.C. backhaul, R.1. Wolf, J.C. Wax, R.C. Xalnthla, dnd
J. O'~ oct, J. Electroanal. Chu 1989~ 451. 5. x.rJ. Wolf, N.J.C. ~ao~cham, D. Law80n, ~. Shoemaker, ~.
C~Qnq, and J. C. W~9-, Proc-6~1nsl~ o~ the ~lo~k~hop on
C~Old Fu~lon ~nqnomenn, Santn ~ 3-~5 MAY, 13a9 nnd submitted to Fu~lon Tcc:hnoloqy . 6. ~. Stored and C!~ talc:otl, P~oc~dings o~ the Wos~X-how on
Cold ru~On Ph-ir,o~rna, 8and Fo ~ UAA, 23-~S ray SENT HY:ARNCLD,WHITE~DURKEE ; 3-12-9~ ; 10:42 ; 7137~93S24~ 1613232~440;#32 7. P.K. Iyengar, Fifth International ~n~er-rae ~ merglng
Nuclaar Energy Systems, Xaa, ~a~t Germany, 3-~ July 8, M.S. Krishnan, S.K. Malhotra, D.G. G~onk~, M.
Srl;rllva~an, S . K. slkka, A. Bhya71l, V. ΔhtrA, T. S.
IyHnga~ and P.K. ly~ng~r, submitted to Fu~lon
Technology .
M.C. Nayar, q.x. ~it~, P. Raghunathan, M.8. Xirona,
S.X. Malhotra, D~a. a~onka~ ~.X. . i~ckA, A~ Shyam and v. chitra, submitted to Fu~lon technology.
P. Radhakrishnan, ~. 5un~a~an, 8. Gangadharan, a.K. 8~n and ~ tAy ~lub~tt~ to Fusion technology.
C. ~ cat~w~r~n, P.N. Moorthy, ~.S. Y~ t~wa~lu, 8.N.
Cuh~, B. Yuvara~u, T. Datta, ~.8. Iy~nga~ .8.
Panama, X.A. Rao and X. Ki~ho~ ~u1~nitt-1d to ~u~lon lac:hnology.
S . ~5u~thy, ~ . 8 . Iyengar, B . X . 8~n arid ~ . B . Joseph ~ubmltt~d to Fu~it3r~ Tochnology.
X. Malhotra, ~.S. Xrl~ n and H.X. 8~dt~uleh~n o ~ tied l;o ~ on T-technology .
X. P.out, ~. ~xinlva-~n and A. ~hyaD~ su~mlttod to
Fusion Technology. 9. R. ~dslo and E. Y~a~sr, Ca60 Cantor ror Electrochemical cl~n~o Annual convex c~, 30-31 Oo~ob-~ tlg~g~, ~l~v~land, oil and ~o bo publish SENT ~Y.ARNOLD,WHITE&DURKEE ; 3-12-90 ; 10:43 ; 7137893524~ 161323~a440;$33 10. R. A. Oriani, J~ C. N~130rl, S. X. Lca,
Broadhurst, 17~1-.h MeQting o~ thia Electrochemical
Society, Hollywood, FL IJSA Oc:tob~r ~ g), And sul~mlt~ed co NaturQ . 11. D. E. Willi4ms, D. J. ~ ay, D. ~. craston, ~. R. sene, M. Ball61y, S. C~ol~t, ~ ool-ln, C. P. Jonza, A.
J. Xucexnak, J~ A. ~a~on, ana R. I. Taylor, Nature