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1. WO2013013009 - 2',3'-DIDEOXY-2'-α-FLUORO-2'-β-C-METHYLNUCLEOSIDES AND PRODRUGS THEREOF

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]
2\3'-DIDEOXY-2'-a-FLUORO-2'-P-C-METHYLNUCLEOSIDES

AND PRODRUGS THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Provisional

Patent Application Serial No. 61/509,478, filed on July 19, 2011, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-a-fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides and their prodrugs, and therapeutic use thereof for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The present invention also relates to processes and intermediates for the preparation of the nucleosides disclosed herein.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus. It is estimated that there are about 170 million of people infected with HCV in the world. Until May 2011, the treatment that has been approved by the US FDA for chronic HCV is pegylated interferon-cc in combination with ribavirin as standard of care (SOC). Unfortunately, this treatment has limited efficacy with response rates of only 40-50% for the genotype- 1 infected population, which is the most prevalent genotype in the US and China. In May 2011, FDA approved Incivek (Vertex) and Victelis (Merck) for the treatment of HCV infection in combination with SOC. These combinations may improve the response rates to high 60% to high 70%. However, their clinical usefulness is still limited by their serious side effects including depression, anaemia, and rashes.

A number of potential molecular targets for drug development of direct acting anti-HCV agents have been identified including the NS2-NS3 autoprotease, the N3 protease, the N3 helicase and the NS5B polymerase. The NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is essential for replication of the single- stranded, positive sense RNA genome, and this enzyme has attracted significant interest among medicinal chemists. Nucleosides active against HCV are the inhibitors of NS5B RdRp.

Nucleosides have to be converted to their corresponding triphosphates that incorporate into viral RNA at 3'-terminal so as to stop viral RNA elongation as chain terminator.

Some nucleosides are weakly active because they cannot be efficiently phosphorylated by kinases or are not substrates of kinases at all, as some inactive nucleosides, when converted chemically to their triphosphates, become potently active against certain viruses in vitro. Nucleoside phosphates (nucleotides) per se cannot be used as drugs very often because they are de-phosphorylated by membrane nucleotides and other hydrolases before entering the cells or are too polar to enter the cells. To improve the biological activity of nucleosides, their phosphate prodrugs have been studied because they can potentially bypass the rate-limiting first step phosphorylation. Recently, the phosphoramidate prodrug approach has been proved to be an effective method for converting biologically inactive nucleosides into active nucleoside monophosphate bypassing the rate-limiting first step of phosphorylation (J. Med. Chem., 2007, 50(22), 5463-5470). Nucleoside phosphoramidate has been reported to efficiently deliver nucleoside 5 '-monophosphate into the liver (WO 2008/121634; WO 2008/082601 and WO 2008/082602). In recent years, there have been a number of patent applications disclosing utilization of the phosphoramidates as prodrugs of nucleosides to deliver nucleoside monophosphates to tissues, in particular to the liver (US 6455513, WO 2009/052050, WO 2008/121634, WO 2008/0833101, WO 2008/062206, WO 2007/002931, WO 2008/085508, WO 2007/095269, WO 2006/012078, WO 2006/100439). The nucleoside monophosphates can be further phosphorylated to di-, and then biologically active triphosphate. Therefore, phosphate prodrugs of the synthesized nucleosides were investigated together.

Two classes of nucleosides or nucleotides, 2'- and 4'-modified nucleosides or nucleotides have been identified as anti-HCV agents. Several of them have been advanced into various stages of clinical trials. Phase II clinical trials for R1626 and NM-283 had been terminated due to their serious side effects including GI toxicity and anaemia, respectively. Another five candidates, namely R7128 (US 7429572), PSI-7977 (US 7964580), PSI-938 (WO/2009/152095), IDX-184 (WO/2008/082601) and INX- 189 (WO/2010/081082) demonstrated promising anti-HCV efficacy and a higher barrier to viral resistance in vitro and in clinical trials.

These nucleoside and nucleotides act as non-obligate chain terminators of HCV RdRp because they all have 3'-OH. Obligate chain-terminators that inhibit HCV replication have yet not been developed so far, perhaps because the presence of 3'-hydroxy group is a crucial structural determinant for the intracellular phosphorylation of n'bo nucleosides.

Most of potent antiviral nucleosides, such as FTC, 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides, 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydronucleosides, exert their effect for the treatment of HBV and HIV because they cannot support the elongation of the newly synthesized viral polynucleotide due to their lack of 3'-OH. 2'-C-Methylnucleosides and 4'-azidonucleosides demonstrated their anti-HCV activity probably due to their stereo-hindrance at the 2'- or 4'-position which reduces the possibility of chain elongation of newly synthesized viral polynucleotide at the 3'-OH. If nucleosides without 3'-OH showed potent anti-HCV activity, they would act as obligate chain terminators of viral RNA. However, n'bonucleosides without 3'-OH may not be good substrates of kinases for the phosphorylation (J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 5041). Some groups investigated 3'-deoxynucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs as potential anti-HCV agents (Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 2002, 13, 363; Antivir. Res. 2003, 58. 243; Collet. Czech. Chem. Comm. 2006, 71, 991). The loss of anti-HCV activity of 3'-deoxy-2'-C-methylcytidine may be because its lack of 3'-OH resulted in inefficiency of phosphorylation of this n'bonucleosides (Antiviral Res. 2003, 58, 243; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005, 49, 2050; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2007, 51, 2920).


B = uracial, guanine, 3'-Deoxy-2'-C- cytosine and adenine methylcytidine

3'-Deoxynucleosides

2'-Deoxy-2'-a-fluoro-2'- -C-methylnucleosides demonstrated potent anti-HCV activity in vitro, in vivo and in clinic. However, their 3'-deoxynucleoside analogs have not been reported as potent anti-HCV agents in literature, and the related patent applications (Pharmasset: US 7429572 and WO/2010/075549; Idenix: US 7547704

and US 7608600, Merck: US 7105499 and US 6777395) only claimed nucleosides with 3'-OH as anti-HCV agents probably due to the lack of successful examples of 3'-deoxynucleosides. Therefore, there is a need to develop 3'-deoxynucleoside analogs as efficient anti-HCV agents.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is made to fulfill the foregoing need. Since most of anti-HIV nucleosides are 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides that have been proved to be excellent substrates of kinases for the phosphorylations. 2',3'-Dideoxy-2'-a-fluoro-2'-P-C-methyl-nucleosides can be considered as one unique class of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides to be good substrate of kinases because fluorine mimics hydrogen. It also can be considered as n'bonucleosides to incorporate into RNA of HCV because 2'-fluorine-a mimics 2'-a-OH group.

We synthesized 2',3'-dideoxy-2'- -fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides with modified guanine base and their phosphoramidate prodrugs, and evaluated their anti-HCV activity in Replicon. It was discovered that phosphoramidates of 2',3'-dideoxy-2'- -fluoro-2'-P-C-methyluncleoside analogs of guanosine demonstrated potent anti-HCV activity without significant cytotoxicity in vitro. Thus, in one aspect the present invention provides 2',3'-dideoxy-2'- -fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs, and composition thereof for the treatment of HCV infection in human. In another aspect the present invention provides processes and intermediates for the preparation of 2',3'-dideoxy-2'- -fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides.

The present invention relates to 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-cc-fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs, and the composition thereof for the treatment of HCV infection in humans. The present invention also relates to process and intermediates for the preparation of 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-cc-fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides .

In particular, the present invention provides a compound of formula I:


I

or its pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug, salt, solvate, a stereoisomic, tautomeric or polymorphic form, a metabolite thereof,

wherein:

R1 is selected from H, monophosphate, diphosphate, triphosphate or their stable phosphate prodrugs, acyl (R2CO), R2OCO, and R2NHCO, RaRbNCO wherein: Ra and Rb are independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, benzyl, cyclic alkyl, heterocyclyl, and heteroaromatic groups; RaRbN can be aminoacid residue; Ra and Rb, together with the nitrogen atom, can form a 4- to 7-membered ring;

X is selected from H, NH2, and halogen (I, Br, CI, F);

X6 is selected from H, OH, OMe, OEt, SMe, alkyloxy, aryloxy, cyclic alkyloxy, alkylthio, arylthio, cyclic alkylthio, thienyl, furyl, alkylamino, dialkylamino, arylamino, diarylamino, aryl alkylamino, cyclic alkylamino, and cyclopropylamino, wherein the dialkyl portion of the dialkylamino group, together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group, can optionally form a ring, such as azetidine;

amino and/or hydroxyl groups of above selected compounds are optionally protected.

In another aspect, the present invention provides compound and composition for the treatment of HCV infection in humans.

In another aspect, the present invention provides obligate chain terminators of NS5B polymerase of hepatitis C virus (HCV).

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method for the treatment of HCV infection by administering an effective amount of compound disclosed herein to patient alone or in combination with other antiviral agents.

In another aspect, the present invention provides process and intermediates for the preparation of compound disclosed herein.

DETAILED DISCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-cc-fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs, and the composition thereof for the treatment of HCV infection in humans. The present invention also relates to process and intermediates for the preparation of 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-cc-fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides .

In one embodiment, the present invention provides a compound of formula I:


or its pharmaceutically acceptable prodrug, salt, solvate, a stereoisomic, tautomeric or polymorphic form, a metabolite thereof,

wherein:

R1 is selected from H, monophosphate, diphosphate, triphosphate or their stable phosphate prodrugs, acyl (R2CO), R2OCO, and R2NHCO, RaRbNCO wherein: Ra and Rb are independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, benzyl, cyclic alkyl, heterocyclyl, and heteroaromatic groups; RaRbN can be aminoacid residue; Ra and Rb, together with the nitrogen atom, can form a 4- to 7-membered ring;

X is selected from H, NH2, or halogen (I, Br, CI, F);

X6 is selected from H, OH, OMe, OEt, SMe, alkyloxy, aryloxy, cyclic alkyloxy, alkylthio, arylthio, cyclic alkylthio, thienyl, furyl, alkylamino, dialkylamino, arylamino, diarylamino, aryl alkylamino, cyclic alkylamino, cyclopropylamino, dialkyl of dialkylamino can form a ring, such as azetidine; and

amino and/or hydroxyl groups of above selected compounds are optionally protected.

In the second embodiment, a stable phosphate prodrug of compound of formula I is selected from compounds of formulae Ila-c:


wherein:

X2 and X6 are defined as above;

R3 and R4 are independently selected from alkyl, cyclic alkyl, aryl and benzyl or


wherein: R is defined as above;

Ar is aryl selected from unsubstituted or substituted heteroaromatic and aromatic groups, including but not limited to phenyl and naphthyl groups;

R5 and R6 are independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, benzyl, cyclic alkyl, heterocyclyl, and heteroaromatic groups; R5 and R6, together with the nitrogen atom, can optionally form a 4- to 7-membered ring;

can also be amino ol derivative of formulae:


wherein:

R is defined as above;

R7, R8, R9, R10 and R11 are independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, cyclic alkyl, heterocyclyl, and heteroaromatic groups; and

R 7 , R 8° and R 10 , R 11 can independently, together with the carbon atom they attach to, form a 3- to 7-membered ring.

In the third embodiment, a stable phosphate prodrug of compound of formula III is one or a mixture of diastereomers of formula III:


III

wherein: Ar, R 7', R 8°, R 9", X 2" and X 6" are defined as above; and

symbol * represents for a chiral center.

In the forth embodiment, a stable phosphate prodrug of compound of formula III is selected from diastereomeric com ounds of formulae IVa and IVb:


IVa IVb

wherein: Ar, R9, X2 and X6 are defined as above.

In the fifth embodiment, a stable phosphate prodrug of compound of formula selected from a compound of formulae:


24 25

THERAPEUTIC USE

In the sixth embodiment, 2',3'-Dideoxy-2'- -fluoro-2'-P-C-methylnucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs, and compositions thereof are provided. Therapeutic use of the nucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs, as well as compositions thereof is also provided for the treatment of HCV infection. Compounds disclosed herein and compositions thereof can be administered either alone or in combination with other therapeutically effective agents for the treatment of HCV infection.

DEFINITIONS

When referring to the compounds provided herein, the following terms have the following meanings unless indicated otherwise.

The term "acyl" or "O-linked ester" includes a group of the formula of alkyl-CO or aryl-CO or cyclic alkyl-CO.

The term "alkyl", as used herein, includes a saturated straight, branched, or cyclic, hydrocarbon of typically Ci to C20, and specifically includes methyl, CF3, CCI3, CFCI2, CF2CI, ethyl, CH2CF3, CF2CF3, propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, and the like. Non-limiting examples of moieties with which the alkyl group can be substituted are selected from the group consisting of halogen (fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo), hydroxyl, amino, alkylamino, arylamino, alkoxy, aryloxy, nitro, cyano and the like.

"Alkenyl" includes monovalent olefinic unsaturated hydrocarbon groups, in certain embodiment, having up to 11 carbon atoms, which can be straight-chained or branched and having at least 1 or from 1 to 2 sites of olefinic unsaturation. Exemplary alkenyl groups include ethenyl (— CH=CH2), n-propenyl (— CH2CH=CH2), isopropenyl (— C(CH3)=CH2), vinyl and substituted vinyl, and the like.

"Alkynyl" includes acetylenic unsaturated hydrocarbon groups, in certain embodiments, having up to about 11 carbon atoms which can be straight-chained or branched and having at least 1 or from 1 to 2 sites of alkynyl unsaturation. Non-limiting examples of alkynyl groups include acetylenic, ethynyl, propargyl, and the like.

The term "aryl", as used herein, includes phenyl, biphenyl, or naphthyl, and preferably phenyl. The term includes both substituted and unsubstituted moieties. The aryl group can be substituted with any described moiety, including, but not limited to, one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of halogen (fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo), alkyl, hydroxyl, amino, alkylamino, arylamino, alkoxy, aryloxy, nitro, cyano, sulfono, sulfato, phosphono, phosphato, or phosphonoxy, either unprotected, or protected as necessary.

"Cyclic alkyl" or cycloalkyl includes 3-7 membered rings of hydrocarbon, such as cyclopropyl.

"Heterocycles" includes 3-7 membered rings of carbon compounds with 1-3 heteroatoms, such as O, S, N in the ring.

"Heteroaromatic group" includes aromatic ring containing one to three heteroatoms, such as O, S, N, for example, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl.

"Alkoxy or alkyloxy" includes the group -OR where R is alkyl. Particular alkoxy groups include n-pentoxy, n-hexoxy, 1,2-dimethylbutoxy, and the like.

"Amino" includes the radical -NH2.

The term "alkylamino" or "arylamino" includes an amino group that has one or two alkyl or aryl substituents, respectively.

"Halogen" or "halo" includes chloro (CI), bromo (Br), fluoro (F) or iodo (I). "Monoalkylamino" includes the group alkyl-NHR'-, wherein R' is selected from alkyl or aryl.

"Alkylthio" includes the group -SR where R is alkyl or aryl.

The term "protected" as used herein and unless otherwise defined refers to a group that is added to an oxygen, nitrogen, or phosphorus atom to prevent its further reaction or for other purposes. A wide variety of oxygen and nitrogen protecting groups are known to those skilled in the art of organic synthesis. Protection and de-protection of functional groups in the processes below may be carried out by procedures generally known in the art (see, for example, T.W. Greene & P.G.M. Wuts, "Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis", 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1999), which is hereby incorporated by reference. Examples of "protecting group" of oxygen or nitrogen include, but are not limited to, acyl (e.g., acetyl, formyl, benzoyl, etc.), carbonate (e.g., ROC(O)-, where R can be substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, benzyl, or the like), carbamate (e.g., RaRbN-C(0)-, wherein Ra and Rb are each independently hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, or the like). The oxygen and nitrogen protecting groups may also include unsubstituted or substituted benzyl groups, allyl, t-butyl groups, or silyl groups, which can be removed readily by methods well known in the art. In particular, suitable nitrogen protecting group is exemplified by benzyl- [Bn], tert-butoxycarbonyl- [BOC], ie/t-butyldimethylsilyl- [TBDMS], or the like.

The term "leaving group", as used herein, refers to a group that can be replaced by another through a reaction such as displacement. Suitable leaving groups include, but are not limited to, halogen (CI, Br, I) and sulfonates (-OS(0)2-aryl (e.g., -OS(0)2Ph or -OS(0)2C6H4CH3-p), or -OS(0)2-alkyl (e.g., -OS(0)2CH3 or -OS(0)2CF3)), or the like.

"Pharmaceutically acceptable salt" includes any salt of a compound provided herein which retains its biological properties and which is not toxic or otherwise undesirable for pharmaceutical use.

The term "prodrug" as used herein refers to any compound that generates a biologically active compound when administered to a biological system as the result of spontaneous chemical reaction(s), enzyme catalyzed reaction(s), and/or metabolic process(es) or a combination of each. Standard prodrugs are formed using groups attached to functionality, e. g. -OH, -NH2, -P(0)(NH)(OH), -P(0)(OH)2, associated with the drug, that cleave in vivo. The prodrugs described in the present invention are exemplary, but not limited to, and one skilled in the art could prepare other known varieties of prodrugs.

The term "nucleoside" refers to a purine or pyrimidine base, or analogs thereof, connected to a sugar, including heterocyclic and carbocyclic analogues thereof.

The term "phosphate" refers to -O-PO3 ".

The term "phosphoramidate" refers to -N(R)-P03 ", wherein R is a hydrogen or a carbon-based substituent.

The term "biologically active drug or agent" refers to the chemical entity that produces the biological effect. In this invention, biolgically active agents refer to nucleoside, nucleoside mono-phosphates, nucleoside diphosphates, nucleoside triphosphates.

The term "alkaryl" or "alkylaryl" includes an aryl group with an alkyl substituent. The term aralkyl or arylalkyl includes an alkyl group with an aryl substituent.

The term "amino acid" includes naturally occurring and synthetic α-, β-, γ- or δ-amino acids, and includes but is not limited to, amino acids found in proteins, i.e. glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, proline, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine, aspartate, glutamate, lysine, arginine and histidine. In a preferred embodiment, the amino acid is in the L-configuration. Alternatively, the amino acid can be a derivative of alanyl, valinyl, leucinyl, isoleuccinyl, prolinyl, phenylalaninyl, tryptophanyl, methioninyl, glycinyl, serinyl, threoninyl, cysteinyl, tyrosinyl, asparaginyl, glutaminyl, aspartoyl, glutamyl, lysinyl, argininyl, histidinyl, β-alanyl, β-valinyl, β-leucinyl, β-isoleuccinyl, β-prolinyl, β-phenylalaninyl, β-tryptophanyl, β-methioninyl, β-glycinyl, β-serinyl, β-threoninyl, β-cysteinyl, β-tyrosinyl, β-asparaginyl, β-glutaminyl, β-aspartoyl, β-glutaroyl, β-lysinyl, β-argininyl or β-histidinyl.

As used herein, the terms "therapeutic agent" and "therapeutic agents" refer to any agent(s) which can be used in the treatment or prevention of a disorder or one or more symptoms thereof. In certain embodiments, the term "therapeutic agent" includes a compound provided herein. In one embodiment, a therapeutic agent is an agent which is known to be useful for, or has been or is currently being used for the treatment or prevention of a disorder or one or more symptoms thereof.

"Therapeutically effective amount" includes an amount of a compound or composition that, when administered to a subject for treating a disease, is sufficient to effect such treatment for the disease.

"Treating" or "treatment" of any disease or disorder refers, in one embodiment, to ameliorating a disease or disorder that exists in a subject. In another embodiment, "treating" or "treatment" includes ameliorating at least one physical parameter, which may be indiscernible by the subject. In yet another embodiment, "treating" or "treatment" includes modulating the disease or disorder, either physically (e.g., stabilization of a discernible symptom) or physiologically (e.g., stabilization of a physical parameter) or both. In yet another embodiment, "treating" or "treatment" includes delaying the onset of the disease or disorder.

PREPARATION OF COMPOUNDS

The compounds provided herein can be prepared, isolated or obtained by any method apparent to those of skill in the art. Exemplary methods of preparation are described in detail in the Examples Section below.

Exemplary preparation of 2',3'-dideoxy-2'-a-fluoro-2'^-C-methylnucleosides is illustrated in Schemes 1 and 2. Compound 1 was prepared from 1,2;5,6-diisopropylidinyl-D-manitol. Reaction of compound 1 with Wittig reagent gave compound 2 which was converted to compound 3 by hydrogenation in the presence of Pd/C. Treatment of compound 3 with HC1 in aq EtOH followed by TBDPSC1 protection of primary hydroxyl group produced compound 4. Treatment of a solution of compound 4 and (PhS02)2 NF in THF with LiHMDS afforded compound 5 with the desired chirarity, exclusively. It was reported that fluorine attacked enolate

intermediate from opposite side of silyloxymethyl group due to its bulkiness to generate single a-fluorinated precursor (J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 2161). Desilylation of compound 5 with TBAF followed by benzoylation with BzCl provided compound 7. Key intermediate lactol 8 was obtained by reduction of compound 7 by reducing agent, such as Li(t-BuO)3AlH. The lactol 8 was converted to a-bromosugar 9 by the treatment of compound 8 with Ph3P/CBr4 (Scheme 2). The bromosugar then reacted with 6-chloro-2-aminopurine in the preaence of base, such as t-BuOK, to give β-nucleoside 10 selectively. The final nucleoside 11 was obtained by treatment of compound 10 with MeONa in MeOH.

Scheme 1. Preparation of sugar precursor


7 8

Reaction conditions: a) Wittig Reaction; b) H2/Pd; c) i. HCI/EtOH/H20, ii.TBDPSCI /imidazole; d) (PhS02)2NF/LHMDS; e) TBAF; f) BzCI/pyr; g) Li(t-BuO)3AIH.

Scheme 2. Preparation of nucleoside analog


11 10

Reaction conditions: Ph3P/CBr4; b) t-BuOK t-BuOH; c) NaOMe.

Preparation of compound 11 was also accomplished from nucleoside precursor with 3'-OH by 3'-deoxygenation (Scheme 3). Compound 12 was prepared according to method disclosed in patent application (WO/2010/075550). Treatment of 12 with NaOMe in MeOH provided nucleoside 13. Selective protection of compound 13 with DMTrCl in pyridine gave compound 14. Treatment of 14 with PhOCSCl in the presence of Et3N/DMAP in ACN followed by deoxygenation with Bu3SnH/AIBN provided 3'-deoxynucleoside 11 after deprotection with TFA.

Scheme 3. Preparation of 3'-Deoxyguanosine Analog


Reaction conditions: a. MeONa/MeOH; b. DMTrCI/Pyr.; c.

- UM I r PhOCSCI/Et3N/DMAP; d. Bu3SnH/AIBN; e. TFA CH2CI2

Preparation of phosphoramidate prodrugs of nucleoside 11 was accomplished (Scheme 4) following literature method (WO/2008/121634) as diastereomeric mixture due to the chiral center newly generated at phosphorus. Treatment of POCl3 with one mole of phenol or alcohol and one mole of Et3N at -78 °C followed by one mole of amine (or aminoacid ester) and one mole of Et3N gave phosphorus monochloride. Treatment of nucleoside 11 with the newly prepared phosphorus chloride in the presence of N-methylimidazole (NMI) gave the nucleoside phosphoramidate 17 and 18, respectively.

Scheme 4. Preparation of phosphoramidate prodrugs


18

The preparation of chiral phosphoramidate prdodrugs was accomplished by reaction of chiral reagents, such as compound 21 and 23, with nucleoside. As example, treatment of phenyl dichlorophosphate (1 mmol) with aminoacid ester hydrochloride 20 and 22 (1 mmol) and triethylamine (2 mmol) at -78 °C followed by reaction of the resulting intermediate with pentafluorophenol (1 mmol) and triethylamine (1 mmol) to give the chiral intermediate isopropyl ester (21) and cyclopentyl ester (23), respectively after recrystallization (Scheme 5). Reaction of nucleoside 11 with chiral reagents 21 and 23 in the presence of t-BuMgCl provided diastereomeric pure phosphoramidate 24 and 25 (Scheme 6), respectively.

Scheme 5. Pre aration of chiral phosphoramidate reagents


Scheme 6. Preparation of chiral phosphoramidate prodrugs


Diastereomers of 21 and 23 can be obtained by separation of the mother liquor from recrystallization. These diastereomers of 21 and 23 can be used for the preparation of diastereomers of 24 and 25, respectively.

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

The anti-HCV activity and cytotoxicity of compounds disclosed herein were evaluated following patent method (WO/2007/027248).

EXAMPLES

The following examples illustrate the synthesis of representative compounds provided herein. These examples are not intended, nor are they to be construed, as limiting the scope of the claimed subject matter. It will be clear that the scope of claimed subject matter may be practiced otherwise than as particularly described herein. Numerous modifications and variations of the subject matter are possible in view of the teachings herein and, therefore, are within the scope the claimed subject matter.

Product of phosphoramidates prepared herein can be one or a mixture of diasteromers due to the newly formed chiral center of phosphorus and tested as one or a mixture in biological assays.

Single isomers can be obtained by HPLC separation or prepared from chiral intermediates.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded on a Bruker advance II 400MHz and a VarianUnity Plus 400MHz spectrometers at room temperature, with tetramethylsilane as an internal standard. Chemical shifts (δ) are reported in parts per million (ppm), and signals are reported as s (singlet), d (doublet), t (triplet), q (quartet), m(multiplet), or br s (broad singlet).

1. Pre aration of compound 3


1 2 3

To a solution of (carbethoxyethylidine)triphosphorane (2.0 g, 5.5 mmol) in dry CH2CI2 (10 mL) at room temperature was added dropwise a solution of 2,3-isopropylidene-D-glyceraldehyde (0.94 g, 7.2 mmol) in CH2CI2 (3 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness, diluted with light petroleum ether (50 mL), and kept at room temperature for 2h. Triphenylphosphine oxide precipitated was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-5% EtOAc in hexanes) to give compound 2 (0.83 g, 70%)

(Carbohydrate Res. 1983, 115, 250). <¾ (CDC13): «5 1.30 (t, J = 6.8Hz, 3H), 1.41 (s, 3H), 1.45 (s, 3H), 1.89 (d, J = 1.2Hz), 3.63 (t, J = 8.0Hz, 1H), 4.14 (m, 3H), 4.86 (m, 1H), 6.69 (dd, J = 1.6, 8.0Hz) ppm.

To a solution of compound 2 (0.8 g, 3.7 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added Pd/C (100 mg, 10%) and the mixture was stirred under H2 in balloon for 5h. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to give compound 3 (0.80 g, 100%) as a mixture of diastereomers.

2. Preparation of compound 4 (4' and 4")


4' 4"

To a solution of compound 3 (20 g, 92 mmol) in EOH (100 mL) and H20 (20 mL) was added concentrated HC1 (37%, 3 mL) and the solution was heated at reflux for 5h. Solvent was removed and the residue was co-evaporated with pyridine (2x50 mL) then dissolved in pyridine (100 mL). To the solution were added CH2C12 (200 mL) and then t-butyldiphenylsilylchloride (37.9 g, 138 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20h. The solvents were evaporated to dryness and the residue was co-evaporated with toluene twice. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (300 mL) and the mixture was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was removed and the residue was purified by silica gel column (0-30% EtOAc in hexanes) to give a mixture of diastereomers (4, 27.2g, 80%) which were separated by silica gel column chromatography to give individual isomers. Less polar isomer: <¾ (CDC13): δ

I.01 (s, 9H), 1.28 (d, J = 7.6Hz, 3H), 2.44 (m, 1H), 2.84 (m, 1H), 3.66 (dd, J = 3.6,

I I.6Hz, 1H), 3.85 (dd, J = 3.6, 11.6Hz, 1H), 4.54 (m, 1H), 7.65, 7.42 (mm, 10H). More polar isomer: <¾ (CDC13): 1.05 (s, 9H), 1.29 (d, J = 6.8Hz, 3H), 1.85 (m, 1H), 2.39 (m, 1H), 2.70 (m, 1H), 2.72 (, dd, J = 4.0, 11.2Hz, 1H), 3.85 (dd, J = 3.6, 11.6Hz, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 7.41-7.66 (m, 10H).

Mixture of 4 (4' and 4") can be directly used for the next fluorination without separation.

3. Preparation of compound 5.


4 5

To a solution of compound 4 (3.68 g, 10 mmol) and N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide (4.73 g, 15 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added 1M LHMDS in THF (20 mmol, 20 mL) dropwise at -78 °C and the solution was stirred at -78 °C for an additional 2h and then room temperature for lh. The reaction solution was quenched with aq NH4C1 and the organic solution was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was removed and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give compound 5 (2.72 g, 71%). <¾ (CDC13): δ 1.05 (s, 9H), 1.66 (d, J = 22.4Hz, 3H), 2.44 (m, 2H), 3.70 (dd, J = 3.6, 12.0Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J = 3.6, 12.0Hz, 1H), 4.72 (m, 1H), 7.43-7.65 (mm, 10H). 19F

4. Preparation of compound 7


To a solution of compound 5 (3.86 g, 10 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added TBAF (1.5 eq) and the solution was stirred at rt for 3h. The solvent was removed and the residue was co-evaporated with pyridine (2x10 mL). The residue was dissolved in pyridine (10 mL) and CH2C12 (20 mL). To the solution was added BzCl (1.5 eq) and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 3h. Water (5 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with CH2C12 (2x50 mL). Organic solution was dried over Na2S04. Solvent was removed and the residue was co-evaporated with toluene (2x50 mL). The resulting residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-30% EtOAc in hexanes) to give compound 7 as single compound. <¾ (CDCI3): 1.68 (d, J = 22.4Hz, 3H), 2.12 (m, 1H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 4.44 (dd, J = 5.6, 12.4Hz. 1H), 4.61 (dd, J = 3.2, 12.4Hz, 1H), 5.00 (m, 1H), 7.48, 7.58, 8.02 (mmm, 5H). & (CDC13): 149 (m). m/z: 253 [M+H]+.

5. Preparation of lactol 8.


7 8

To a solution of compound 7 (2.52 g, 10 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added a solution of LiAl(t-BuO)3H in THF (1M, 11 mmol, 11 mL) dropwise and the solution was stirred at -30 °C for 2h. The reaction was quenched with a solution of NH4C1. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL) and the organic solution was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was removed and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give compound 8 (2.3 g, 92%).

6. Preparation of purine nucleoside 10


8 9 10

To a solution of triphenylphosphine (3.66 g, 14 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added lactol 8 (2.54 g, 10 mmol) and the solution was stirred at -20 °C for 15 min. CBr4 (4.97 g, 15 mmol) was added portion- wise at -20 °C within 30 min. After completion of addition of CBr4, reaction mixture was stirred at -20 °C for additional 20 min then passed through a silica gel pad. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness to give 1-bromo-a-sugar 9 as major product.

To a suspension of 2-amino-6-chloropurine (4.22 g, 25 mmol) in t-BuOH (100 mL) was added t-BuOK (2.8 g, 25 mmol) portion- wise under N2. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for an additional 30 min. To the reaction mixture was added a-bromosugar 9 prepared above and dry ACN (80 mL) at room temperature.

The mixture was heated to 50 °C over 2h and stirred at room temperature for 20h. The reaction was quenched with aq NH4C1. The suspended solid was removed by filtration through celite. The filtrate was neutralized by adding 6 N HC1 until pH7.0. The mixture was concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-80% EtOAc in hexances) to give product β-nucleoside 13.

7. Preparation of compound 11


10 11

To a solution of compound 10 (4.06 g, 10 mmol) in MeOH (100 mL) was added NaOMe (25% in MeOH, 30 mmol) and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 24h. Solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-15% MeOH in CH2CI2) to give compound 11 (2.5 g, 84%). <¾ (CD3OD): 1.20 (d, J = 21.6Hz, 3H), 2.24 (m, 1H), 2.47 (m, 1H), 3.76 (dd, J = 3.2, 12.8Hz, 1H), 4.01 (dd, J = 3.2, 12.8Hz, 1H), 4.48 (m, 1H), 6.15 (d, J = 16.8Hz, 1H), 8.32 (s, 1H). m/z: 298 [M+H]+.

8. Preparation of compound 11 by 3'-deoxygenation of nucleoside precursor (Scheme 3).

To a solution of compound 12 (5.26 g, 10 mmol) in MeOH (100 mL) was added NaOMe (25% in MeOH, 45 mmol) and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 24h. Solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-15% MeOH in CH2C12) to give compound 13 (2.9 g, 93%).

To a solution of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-a-2'-C-methylnucleoside 13 (1.57 g, 5 mmol) in pyridine (20 mL) was added DMTrCl (2.88 g, 7.5 mmol) portion-wise and the solution was stirred at 0 °C for 2h. Water (10 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2x100 mL). The organic solution was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was evaporated to dryness and the residue was co-evaporated with toluene twice. The residue was dissolved in pyridine (20 mL). To the solution were added DMAP (1.8 g, 15 mmol) and triethylamine (1.52 g, 15 mmol), then PhOCSCl (2.59 g, 15 mmol) and the solution was stirred at 0 °C for lh and room temperature for 16h. EtOAc (200 mL) was added and the mixture was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was removed and the residue was dissolved in dry toluene (20 mL). The solution was bubbled with N2 for 5 min. To the solution was added Bu3SnH (10 eq) and AIBN (1 mmol), and the solution was heated at 100 °C for 8h. Solvent was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in CH2C12 (100 mL) and TFA (2 mL) was added. The solution was stirred at room temperature for 3h. Ammonium hydroxide was added to neutralize the solution to pH7. The mixture was concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0-10% MeOH in CH2C12) to give 3'-deoxynucleoside 11 (overall yield 50-70%).

9. Preparation of phosphoramidates 17


To a solution of phosphorus oxychloride (3.07 g, 20 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added a solution of 2'-methylbenzyl alcohol (2.44 g, 20 mmol) and triethylamine (2.02 g, 20 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at -78 °C, and the mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 3h. To the resulting mixture was added a solution of benzylamine (2.14 g, 20 mmol) and triethylamine (2.02 g, 20 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at -78 °C and the mixture was stirred at -78 °C for lh then room temperature for overnight. THF was removed under vacuum and the residue was filtered and washed with ethyl ether (50 mL). The filtrate and washing was evaporated to give crude monochloride which was dissolved in CH2C12 (10 mL) for the next reaction without further purification. To a suspension of nucleoside 11 (1.49 g, 5 mmol) in CH2C12 (40 mL) was added N-methylimidazole (NMI, 5 mL) and the mixture was cooled in an ice-bath. To the solution was added a solution of monochloride above and the resulting solution was stirred in an ice-bath for 3h. Water (5 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The organic solution was washed with 0.5 N HC1 solution, aq NaHC03, brine, and dried over Na2S04. The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-8% MeOH in CH2C12) to give compound 17 (1.25 g, 43.9%). <¼ (CDC13): 1.18, 1.22 (dd, J = 21.6Hz, 3H), 2.2-2.8 (m, 5H), 3.18 (m, IH), 4.0-4.2 (m, 6H), 4.60 (m, 2H), 5.10 (m, 2H), 5.16, 5.28 (ss, IH), 6.00 (dd, J = 17.6Hz, IH), 7.10 (m, 9H), 7.70 (s, IH). m/r. 571 [M+H]+.

10. Preparation of phosphoramidates 18


18

From L-alanyl methyl ester, applying similar reaction used for 17 provided compound 18. <¾ (CD3OD): 1.20, 1.40 (mm, 6H), 2.20-2.80 (m, 2H), 3.59 (m, IH), 3.68, 3.69 (ss, 3H), 4.06, 4.26 (ss, 3H), 4.29 (m, IH), 4.62 (m, IH), 4.74 (m, IH), 5.11, 5.30 (ss, 2H), 6.00 (dd, J = 17.6Hz, IH), 7.25 (m, 5H), 7.66, 7.73 (ss, IH). m/z: 539 [M+H]+.

11. Preparation of chiral phosphorus reagents 21


To a solution of PhOPOCl2 (19, 6.14 g, 40 mmol) in CH2C12 (80 mL) was added L-alanyl isopropyl ester hydrochloride (20, 6.7 g, 40 mmol) then a solution of Et3N (80 mmol) in CH2C12 (10 mL) at -78 °C. The mixture was stirred at room

temperature for overnight. To the mixture was added a solution of pentafluorophenol (7.36 g, 40 mmol) and Et3N (80 mmol) in CH2CI2 (10 mL) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4h. Filtered and the cake was washed with CH2CI2. The filtrate was evaporated and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (200 mL). The solution was washed with Aq. NaHC03, brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (5-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give a mixture of diastereomers of compound 21. The mixture was recrystallized from EtOAc-hexane to give single isomer 21 (25-40% yield). <¾ (CDCI3): m/z: 539 [M+H]+.

12. Preparation of chiral phosphorus reagents 23


23

From L-alanyl cyclopentyl ester hydrochloride 22, applying similar reaction used for 21 produced compound 23. <¾ (CDC13): m/z: 539 [M+H]+.

13. Preparation of chiral phosphoramidate prodrugs 24


To a mixture of reagent 21 (1.36 g, 3.0 mmol) and purine nucleoside 11 (0.594 g, 2.0 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added a solution of t-BuMgCl (1 M in THF, 6 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2h. EtOAc (200 mL) was added and the mixture was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. Solvent was removed and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (5%

MeOH in CH2C12) to give compound 24 as white foam (60-80% yield), m/z: 539 [M+H]+.

14. Preparation of chiral phosphoramidate prodrugs 25


From chiral reagent 23, applying similar reaction used for 24 produced compound 25. & (400MHz, CDC13): 7.66 (s, 1H), 7.15-7.35 (m, 5H), 5.96 (d, J = 17.6Hz, 1H), 5.33 (br s, 2H), 5.14 (m, 1H), 4.80 (m, 1H), 4.61 (m, 1H), 4.27 (m, 1H), 4.06 (s, 3H), 3.97 (m, 1H), 3.62 (t, J = 10.4Hz, 1H), 2.80 (m, 1H), 2.20 (m, 1H), 1.80 (m, 2H), 1.60 (m, 8H), 1.34 (d, J = 6.8Hz, 3H), 1.20 (d, J = 22.0Hz, 3H). m/z: 539 [M+H]+. 31P (CDC13): 4.288 ppm.

15. HCV replicon assay

The anti-HCV activity and toxicity of the exemplary compounds can be tested in two biological assays -a cell-based HCV replicon assay and cytotoxicity assay (WO 2007/027248).

I. Anti-HCV Assay

A human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7) containing replicating HCV subgenomic genotype lb replicon with a luciferase reporter gene (luc-ubi-neo) was used to evaluate anti-HCV activity of the compounds. In this assay, the level of luciferase signal correlates with the viral RNA replication directly. The HCV replicon-reporter cell line (NK/luc-ubi-neo) was cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.5 mg/ml Geneticin (G418). Cells were maintained in a subconfluent state to ensure high levels of HCV replicon RNA synthesis.

To evaluate the antiviral activity of compounds, serial dilutions were prepared with concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 300 μΜ. Diluted compounds were transferred to a 96-well plate followed by the addition of replicon cells (6000 cells per well). Cells were incubated with the compounds for 48h after which luciferase activity was measured. Reduction of luciferase signal reflected the decrease of HCV replicon RNA in the treated cells and used to determine the EC50 value (concentration which yielded a 50% reduction in luciferase activity).

II. Cytotoxicity Assay

A Huh-7 cell line carrying a luciferase reporter gene (driven by a HIV LTR promoter) stably integrated into the chromosome was used to analyze the cytotoxic effect of the selected compounds. This cell line (LTR-luc) was maintained in DMEM medium with 10% FBS. Design of the cytotoxicity assay was similar to that of the HCV replicon assay. Reduction of luciferase activity in the treated cells correlated with the cytotoxic effect of the test compound and was used to calculate the CC50 value (concentration that inhibited cell growth by 50%).

The biological results of the selected compounds are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1. Activity of exemplary compound in replicon assay (genotype lb)


EC50 is concentration of drug inhibiting HCV by 50%.

CC50 is concentration of drug inhibiting cellular growth by 50%.

The results of anti-HCV activity of the selected nucleoside prodrugs summarized in Table 1 indicated that these nucleoside phosphate prodrugs 17, 18 and 25 demonstrated potent anti-HCV activity without significant cytotoxicity, which warrants further investigation towards the development of novel nucleosides or their prodrugs disclosed herein as anti-HCV agents.

The foregoing examples and description of the preferred embodiments should be taken as illustrating, rather than as limiting the present invention as defined by the claims. As will be readily appreciated, numerous variations and combinations of the features set forth above can be utilized without departing from the present invention as set forth in the claims. All such variations are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims. All references cited hereby are incorporated by reference in their entirety.