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1. WO2020142783 - IN SITU FORMATION OF SOLID-STATE POLYMER ELECTROLYTES FOR BATTERIES

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[ EN ]

CLAIMS:

1. A composition comprising:

a cyclic ether;

a lithium salt, a sodium salt, or a combination thereof at a concentration of 0.1 M to 5

M; and

optionally, a ring opening polymerization initiator.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the cyclic ether is chosen from 1,3-dioxolane, substituted 1,3-dioxolanes, 1,4-dioxane, substituted 1,4-dioxanes, 1,3-dioxane, substituted 1,3-dioxanes, 1,3,6-trioxocane, substituted 1,3,6-trioxocane, and combinations thereof.

3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the lithium salt is chosen from lithium triflate (LiOTf), LiPFe, LiAsFe, LiBF4, LiBOB, LiF, LiCl, LiBr, Lil, LiNOr, LiC104, and combinations thereof.

4. The composition of claim 1, wherein the sodium salt is chosen from sodium triflate (NaOTf), NaPF6, NaNCb, NaC104, NaAsF6, NaBF4, sodium bis(oxalate)b orate (NaBOB), NaF, NaCl, NaBr, Nal, and combinations thereof.

5. The composition of claim 1, wherein the lithium and/or sodium salt is a lithium ionic liquid and/or a sodium ionic liquid.

6. The composition of claim 5, wherein the lithium ionic liquid is a sulfonimide or an imide lithium ionic liquid and/or the sodium liquid is a sulfonimide or an imide lithium ionic liquid.

7. The composition of claim 1, wherein the initiator is an aluminum salt.

8. The composition of claim 7, wherein the aluminum salt is chosen from aluminum triflate (A1(CF3S03)3), bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide aluminum salt (A1TFSI), aluminum halides, lithium difluoro(oxalato)b orate (LiBF2(C204), LiDFOB), LiBF4, sodium

difluoro(oxalato)b orate (NaBF2(C204), NaDFOB), LiBF4, and combinations thereof.

9. The composition of claim 1, the composition further comprising a solvent chosen from ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), Vinylene carbonate (VC), Dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), 1,2-Dimethoxy ethane (DME), diglyme (DEGDME), tetraglyme (TEGDME), and combinations thereof.

10. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is anhydrous.

11. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is present in a primary battery, a secondary battery, or a supercapacitor.

12. A method for forming a solid-state polymer electrolyte (SPE) comprising:

providing a composition comprising:

a cyclic ether; and

a ring opening polymerization initiator disposed between a cathode and an anode wherein a solid-state polymer electrolyte is formed.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the composition further comprises a lithium salt, a sodium salt, or a combination thereof.

14. The method of claim 12, wherein the providing comprises:

introducing the composition into a space between the cathode and anode; and allowing the composition to polymerize and form a polymeric material, wherein the polymeric material completely fills the space between and/or is in electrical contact with the anode and cathode and at least 80% of the cyclic ether is polymerized.

15. The method of claim 12, wherein the method further comprises contacting a cathode material with the composition.

16. A device comprising:

a solid-state polymer electrolyte (SPE) comprising a polymeric material and/or a polymer formed from a composition comprising:

a cyclic ether; and

a ring opening polymerization initiator.

17. The device of claim 16, the composition further comprises a lithium salt, a sodium salt, or a combination thereof

18. The composition of claim 16, the composition further comprising a solvent chosen from ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), Vinylene carbonate (VC), Dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), 1,2-Dimethoxy ethane (DME), diglyme (DEGDME), tetraglyme (TEGDME), and combinations thereof.

19. The device of claim 16, wherein the device is a primary battery, secondary battery or a supercapacitor.

20. The device of claim 16, wherein the solid-state polymer electrolyte is a network of interconnected and/or entangled polymer chains.

21. The device of claim 16, wherein the solid-state polymer electrolyte comprises a substantially amorphous polymeric material.

22. The device of claim 16, wherein the solid-state polymer electrolyte exhibits one or more of the following:

a glass transition temperature, wherein the glass transition is the only transition observed in DSC analysis of the polymer;

a molecular weight (Mw and/or Mn) of IK to 100K g/mol;

a polydispersity index of 1 to 3;

a room-temperature ionic conductivity of 0.01 mS/cm to 10 mS/cm; or

a glass-transition temperature of -80 °C to -20 °C.

23. The device of claim 16, wherein device is a battery and the battery further comprises: a cathode;

an anode;

optionally, a separator,

wherein the solid-state polymer electrolyte, and, if present, the separator, is disposed between the cathode and anode.

24. The device of claim 23, wherein the device is a lithium-ion conducting solid-state battery and the polymeric material is a lithium ion conductor.

25. The device of claim 24, wherein the cathode comprises a material chosen from lithium-containing cathode materials.

26. The device of claim 23, wherein the anode comprises a material chosen from lithium metal, lithium-ion conducting anode materials, and combinations thereof.

27. The device of claim 23, wherein the device is a sodium-ion conducting solid-state battery and the polymeric material is a sodium ion conductor.

28. The device of 27, wherein the cathode comprises a material chosen from sodium-containing cathode materials and conversion type cathode materials.

29. The device of claim 23, wherein the anode comprises a material chosen from sodium metal, sodium-ion conducting anode materials, and combinations thereof.

30. The device of claim 23, wherein the cathode and/or anode comprises a conducting carbon material and a cathode material.

31. The device of claim 23, wherein the cathode comprises a conversion type material chosen from sulfur, sulfur composite materials, and polysulfide materials, air, iodine, and metal sulfides.

32. The device of claim 23, wherein the anode comprises a material chosen from silicon-containing materials, tin and its alloys, tin/carbon, and phosphorus.

33. The device of claim 23, wherein the device further comprises a liquid electrolyte.

34. The device of claim 23, wherein the solid-state polymer electrolyte, cathode, anode, and, optionally, a current collector form a cell, and the battery comprises a plurality of the cells and each adjacent pair of the cells is separated by a bipolar plate.