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1. WO2014110066 - MACROCYCLIC BENZOFURAN AND AZABENZOFURAN COMPOUNDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS C

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[ EN ]

MACROCYCLIC BENZOFURAN AND AZABENZOFURAN COMPOUNDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS C

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the priority of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No.

61/750,967 filed January 10, 2013 which is herein incorporated by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to novel compounds, including their salts, which have activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and which are useful in treating those infected with HCV. The invention also relates to compositions and methods of making and using these compounds.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen, infecting an estimated

170 million persons worldwide - roughly five times the number infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. A substantial fraction of these HCV infected individuals develop serious progressive liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (Lauer, G. M.; Walker, B. D. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001, 345, 41-52).

HCV is a positive-stranded RNA virus. Based on a comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence and the extensive similarity in the 5'-untranslated region, HCV has been classified as a separate genus in the Flaviviridae family. All members of the Flaviviridae family have enveloped virions that contain a positive stranded RNA genome encoding all known virus-specific proteins via translation of a single, uninterrupted, open reading frame.

Considerable heterogeneity is found within the nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequence throughout the HCV genome. At least six major genotypes have been characterized, and more than 50 subtypes have been described. The major genotypes of HCV differ in their distribution worldwide, and the clinical significance of the genetic heterogeneity of HCV remains elusive despite numerous studies of the possible effect of genotypes on pathogenesis and therapy.

The single strand HCV RNA genome is approximately 9500 nucleotides in length and has a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a single large polyprotein of about 3000 amino acids. In infected cells, this polyprotein is cleaved at multiple sites by cellular and viral proteases to produce the structural and non-structural (NS) proteins. In the case of HCV, the generation of mature non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) is effected by two viral proteases. The first one is believed to be a metalloprotease and cleaves at the NS2-NS3 junction; the second one is a serine protease contained within the N-terminal region of NS3 (also referred to as NS3 protease) and mediates all the subsequent cleavages downstream of NS3, both in cis, at the NS3-NS4A cleavage site, and in trans, for the remaining NS4A-NS4B, NS4B-NS5A, NS5A-NS5B sites. The NS4A protein appears to serve multiple functions, acting as a cofactor for the NS3 protease and possibly assisting in the membrane localization of NS3 and other viral replicase components. The complex formation of the NS3 protein with NS4A seems necessary to the processing events, enhancing the proteolytic efficiency at all of the sites. The NS3 protein also exhibits nucleoside triphosphatase and RNA helicase activities. NS5B (also referred to as HCV polymerase) is a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is involved in the replication of HCV. The HCV NS5B protein is described in "Structural Analysis of the Hepatitis C Virus RNA Polymerase in Complex with Ribonucleotides

(Bressanelli; S. et al, Journal of Virology 2002, 3482-3492; and Defrancesco and Rice, Clinics in Liver Disease 2003, 7, 211-242.

Currently, the most effective HCV therapy employs a combination of alpha-interferon and ribavirin, leading to sustained efficacy in 40% of patients (Poynard, T. et al. Lancet 1998, 352, 1426-1432). Recent clinical results demonstrate that pegylated alpha-interferon is superior to unmodified alpha-interferon as monotherapy (Zeuzem, S. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000, 343, 1666-1672). However, even with experimental therapeutic regimens involving combinations of pegylated alpha-interferon and ribavirin, a substantial fraction of patients do not have a sustained reduction in viral load. Thus, there is a clear and important need to develop effective therapeutics for treatment of HCV infection.

HCV-796, an HCV NS5B inhibitor, has shown an ability to reduce HCV RNA levels in patients. The viral RNA levels decreased transiently and then rebounded during dosing when treatment was with the compound as a single agent but levels dropped more robustly when combined with the standard of care which is a form of interferon and ribavirin. The development of this compound was suspended due to hepatic toxicity observed during extended dosing of the combination regimens. US patent 7,265, 152 and the corresponding PCT patent application WO2004/041201 describe compounds of the HCV-796 class. Other compounds have been disclosed; see for example, WO2009/101022, as well as WO 2012/058125.

What is therefore needed in the art are additional compounds which are novel and effective against hepatitis C. Additionally, these compounds should provide advantages for pharmaceutical uses, for example, with regard to one or more of their mechanism of action, binding, inhibition efficacy, target selectivity, solubility, safety profiles, or bioavailability. Also needed are new formulations and methods of treatment which utilize these compounds.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One aspect of the invention is a compound of formula I, including pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


wherein

n, m are independently 0 or 1 ;

R1 is methyl;

R2 is phenyl that is independently substituted with 0-2 halo or methoxy or is para substituted with W-Ar1;

W is -O- or -NH-;

Ar1 is phenyl or para-halophenyl;

R3 is hydrogen, halo, or alkyl;

R4, R5, R6 are independently selected from hydrogen, halo, alkyl, haloalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxyalkyloxy, alkoxyalkyloxy, COOR11 and CON(R12)(R13);

R11 is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and haloalkoxy;

R12, R13 are each independently hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and haloalkoxy; or

R12 and R13 can form a ring by joining two atoms, one from each of R12 and R13;

R14 is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and haloalkoxy;

R7 is hydrogen, alkyl, halo, N(R21)(R22), or alkylsulfonyl;

R21 and R22 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylsulfonyl, or alkylsulfonylalkyl;

or N(R21)(R22) taken together is azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, or piperazinyl, and is substituted with 0-2 substituents selected from alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, and hydroxy;

X, Y are independently selected from CR31R32, CO, O, NR33, NCN, S, SO, and S(O)2;

R31, R32 are each independently alkyl or cycloalkyl, further substituted with 0-3 substituents; or

R31 and R32 can form a ring by joining two atoms, one from each of R31 and R32;

R33 is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, or S(O)2Rn with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, haloalkoxy, OR11, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13;

Z is an alkylene or alkenylene chain containing 0-12 groups selected from O, NR41, S, S(O), S(O)2, C(O), C(O)O, C(O)NR41, C(S)NR41, OC(O)NR41, NR41C(O)NR42, and Ar2, provided that any O or S atom does not directly bond to another O or S atom, such that ring A is 1 1 -24 membered; and further wherein the alkylene or alkenylene chain is substituted with 0-6 substituents selected from the group of alkyl, cycloalkyl, halo, alkoxy, haloalkyl, OH, OR11, haloalkoxy, NH2, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R1 1, S(O)2NR12R13, NR14CONR12R13, and Ar3;

R41, R42 is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, haloalkoxy, OR11, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13;

Ar2 is phenyl, 5-membered heteroaryl or 6-membered heteroaryl, and is substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from cyano, halo, alkyl, cycloalkyl, haloalkyl, OH, OR11, haloalkoxy, NH2, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13;

Ar3 is phenyl, 5-membered heteroaryl or 6-membered heteroaryl, and is substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from cyano, halo, alkyl, cycloalkyl, haloalkyl, OH, OR11, haloalkoxy, NH2, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13.

The invention also relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of formula 1, including a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof , and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

In addition, the invention provides one or more methods of treating hepatitis

C infection comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I to a patient.

Also provided as part of the invention are one or more methods for making the compounds of formula I.

The present invention is directed to these, as well as other important ends, hereinafter described.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

Unless otherwise specifically set forth elsewhere in the application, the following terms may be used herein and shall have the following meanings:

"Hydrogen" or "H" refers to hydrogen, including its isotopes, such as deuterium. "Halo" means fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo. "Alkyl" means a straight or branched alkyl group composed of 1 to 6 carbons. "Alkenyl" means a straight or branched alkyl group composed of 2 to 6 carbons with at least one double bond. "Cycloalkyl" means a monocyclic ring system composed of 3 to 7 carbons. "Hydroxy alkyl," "alkoxy" and other terms with a substituted alkyl moiety include straight and branched isomers composed of 1 to 6 carbon atoms for the alkyl moiety. "Halo" includes all halogenated isomers from monohalo substituted to perhalo substituted in substituents defined with halo, for example, "Haloalkyl" and "haloalkoxy", "halophenyl", "halophenoxy." "Aryl" means a monocyclic or bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon groups having 6 to 12 carbon atoms, or a bicyclic fused ring system wherein one or both of the rings is a phenyl group. Bicyclic fused ring systems consist of a phenyl group fused to a four- to six-membered aromatic or non-aromatic carbocyclic ring. Representative examples of aryl groups include, but are not limited to, indanyl, indenyl, naphthyl, phenyl, and tetrahydronaphthyl. "Heteroaryl" means a 5 to 7 membered monocyclic or 8 to 1 1 membered bicyclic aromatic ring system with 1-5 heteroatoms independently selected from nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.

Parenthetic and multiparenthetic terms are intended to clarify bonding relationships to those skilled in the art. For example, a term such as ((R)alkyl) means an alkyl substituent further substituted with the substituent R. Substituents which are illustrated by chemical drawing to bond at variable positions on a multiple ring system (for example a bicyclic ring system) are intended to bond to the ring where they are drawn to append.

The invention includes all pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms of the compounds. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are those in which the counter ions do not contribute significantly to the physiological activity or toxicity of the compounds and as such function as pharmacological equivalents. These salts can be made according to common organic techniques employing commercially available reagents. Some anionic salt forms include acetate, acistrate, besylate, bromide, camsylate, chloride, citrate, fumarate, glucouronate, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydroiodide, iodide, lactate, maleate, mesylate, nitrate, pamoate, phosphate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, tosylate, and xinofoate. Some cationic salt forms include ammonium, aluminum, benzathine, bismuth, calcium, choline, diethylamine, diethanolamine, lithium, magnesium, meglumine, 4-phenylcyclohexylamine, piperazine, potassium, sodium, tromethamine, and zinc.

Some of the compounds of the invention possess asymmetric carbon atoms.

The invention includes all stereoisomeric forms, including enantiomers and diastereomers as well as mixtures of stereoisomers such as racemates. Some stereoisomers can be made using methods known in the art. Stereoisomeric mixtures of the compounds and related intermediates can be separated into individual isomers according to methods commonly known in the art. The use of wedges or hashes in the depictions of molecular structures in the following schemes and tables is intended only to indicate relative stereochemistry, and should not be interpreted as implying absolute stereochemical assignments.

The invention is intended to include all isotopes of atoms occurring in the present compounds. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. By way of general example and without limitation, isotopes of hydrogen include deuterium and tritium. Isotopes of carbon include 13C and 14C. Isotopically-labeled compounds of the invention can generally be prepared by conventional techniques known to those skilled in the art or by processes analogous to those described herein, using an appropriate isotopically-labeled reagent in place of the non-labeled reagent otherwise employed. Such compounds may have a variety of potential uses, for example as standards and reagents in determining biological activity. In the case of stable isotopes, such compounds may have the potential to favorably modify biological, pharmacological, or pharmacokinetic properties.

As set forth above, the invention is directed to one or more compounds of formula I, including pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof:


wherein

n, m are independently 0 or 1 ;

R1 is methyl;

R2 is phenyl that is independently substituted with 0-2 halo or methoxy or is para substituted with W-Ar1;

W is -O- or -NH-;

Ar1 is phenyl or para-halophenyl;

R3 is hydrogen, halo, or alkyl;

R4, R5, R6 are independently selected from hydrogen, halo, alkyl, haloalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkoxy, hydroxyalkyloxy, alkoxyalkyloxy, COOR11 and CON(R12)(R13);

R11 is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and haloalkoxy;

R12, R13 are each independently hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and haloalkoxy; or

R12 and R13 can form a ring by joining two atoms, one from each of R12 and R13;

R14 is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, hydroxyl, alkoxy, and haloalkoxy;

R7 is hydrogen, alkyl, halo, N(R21)(R22), or alkylsulfonyl;

R21 and R22 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylsulfonyl, or alkylsulfonylalkyl;

or N(R21)(R22) taken together is azetidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, or piperazinyl, and is substituted with 0-2 substituents selected from alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, and hydroxy;

X, Y are independently selected from CR31R32, CO, O, NR33, NCN, S, SO, and S(O)2;

R31, R32 are each independently alkyl or cycloalkyl, further substituted with 0-3 substituents; or

R31 and R32 can form a ring by joining two atoms, one from each of R31 and R32;

R33 is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, or S(O)2R11 with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, haloalkoxy, OR11, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13;

Z is an alkylene or alkenylene chain containing 0-12 groups selected from the group consisting of O, NR41, S, S(O), S(O)2, C(O), C(O)O, C(O)NR41, C(S)NR41, O-C(O)NR41, NR41C(O)NR42, and Ar2, provided that any O or S atom does not directly bond to another O or S atom, such that ring A is 1 1-24 membered; and further wherein the alkylene or alkenylene chain is substituted with 0-6 substituents selected from alkyl, cycloalkyl, halo, alkoxy, haloalkyl, OH, OR11, haloalkoxy, NH2, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, NR14CONR12R13, and Ar3;

R41, R42 is hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl with 0-3 substituents selected from halo, haloalkoxy, OR11, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13;

Ar2 is phenyl, 5 -membered heteroaryl or 6-membered heteroaryl, and is substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from cyano, halo, alkyl, cycloalkyl, haloalkyl, OH, OR11, haloalkoxy, NH2, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13;

Ar3 is phenyl, 5-membered heteroaryl or 6-membered heteroaryl, and is substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from cyano, halo, alkyl, cycloalkyl, haloalkyl, OH, OR11, haloalkoxy, NH2, NR12R13, COOR11, CONR12R13, S(O)2R11, S(O)2NR12R13, and NR14CONR12R13.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, n and m are each 1.

It is also preferred that R2 is phenyl substituted with halo, and even more preferably, fluoro or F.

Additionally, it is preferred that R3 and R4 and R6 and R7 are each hydi

H.

In certain embodiments it is also preferred that R5 is CONR12R13.

also preferred that X and Y are each NR33.

Further preferred is the embodiment wherein R33 is hydrogen or is S(O)

It is also preferred that A be equal to or greater than 12 members. In other embodiments, it is preferred that A be equal to or greater than 15 members. In other embodiments, it is preferred that A be equal to or greater than 17 members. In yet other embodiments, it is preferred that A be equal to or greater than 19 members. By way of non-limiting example, a compound of the invention wherein ring A has 15 members could be represented as follows (with ring numbers included for illustration):


Also preferred are compounds of formula I, including pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, which are selected from the group of:


,
,
,
,
,
,


,
,


,
,
,
,
,
,and

.


Pharmaceutical Compositions and Methods of Treatment

The compounds according to the various embodiments herein set forth demonstrate activity against HCV NS5B, and can be useful in treating HCV and HCV infection. Therefore, another aspect of the invention is a composition comprising a compound of formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition further comprising an additional compound having anti-HCV activity.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition where the compound having anti-HCV activity is an interferon or a ribavirin. Another aspect of the invention is wherein the interferon is selected from interferon alpha 2B, pegylated interferon alpha, consensus interferon, interferon alpha 2 A, interferon lambda, and

lymphoblastoid interferon tau.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition where the compound having anti-HCV activity is a cyclosporin. Another aspect of the invention is where the cyclosporin is cyclosporin A.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition where the compound having anti-HCV activity is selected from the group consisting of interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 12, a compound that enhances the development of a type 1 helper T cell response, interfering RNA, anti-sense RNA, Imiqimod, ribavirin, an inosine 5'-monophospate dehydrogenase inhibitor, amantadine, and rimantadine.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition where the compound having anti-HCV activity is effective to inhibit the function of a target selected from HCV metalloprotease, HCV serine protease, HCV polymerase, HCV helicase, HCV NS4B protein, HCV entry, HCV assembly, HCV egress, HCV NS5A protein, IMPDH, and a nucleoside analog for the treatment of an HCV infection.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition comprising a compound of formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, an interferon and ribavirin.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of inhibiting the function of the HCV replicon comprising contacting the HCV replicon with a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of inhibiting the function of the HCV NS5B protein comprising contacting the HCV NS5B protein with a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of treating an HCV infection in a patient comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In another embodiment the compound is effective to inhibit the function of the HCV replicon. In another embodiment the compound is effective to inhibit the function of the HCV NS5B protein.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of treating an HCV infection in a patient comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in conjunction with (prior to, after, or concurrently) another compound having anti-HCV activity.

Another aspect of the invention is the method wherein the other compound having anti-HCV activity is an interferon or a ribavirin.

Another aspect of the invention is the method where the interferon is selected from interferon alpha 2B, pegylated interferon alpha, consensus interferon, interferon alpha 2A, interferon lambda, and lymphoblastoid interferon tau.

Another aspect of the invention is the method where the other compound having anti-HCV activity is a cyclosporin.

Another aspect of the invention is the method where the cyclosporin is cyclosporin A.

Another aspect of the invention is the method where the other compound having anti-HCV activity is selected from interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 12, a compound that enhances the development of a type 1 helper T cell response, interfering RNA, anti-sense RNA, Imiqimod, ribavirin, an inosine 5'-monophospate dehydrogenase inhibitor, amantadine, and rimantadine.

Another aspect of the invention is the method wherein the other compound having anti-HCV activity is effective to inhibit the function of a target selected from the group consisting of HCV metalloprotease, HCV serine protease, HCV polymerase, HCV helicase, HCV NS4B protein, HCV entry, HCV assembly, HCV egress, HCV NS5A protein, IMPDH, and a nucleoside analog for the treatment of an HCV infection.

Another aspect of the invention is the method wherein the other compound having anti-HCV activity is effective to inhibit the function of target in the HCV life cycle other than the HCV NS5B protein.

"Therapeutically effective" means the amount of agent required to provide a meaningful patient benefit as understood by practitioners in the field of hepatitis and HCV infection.

"Patient" means a person infected with the HCV virus and suitable for therapy as understood by practitioners in the field of hepatitis and HCV infection.

"Treatment," "therapy," "regimen," "HCV infection," and related terms are used as understood by practitioners in the field of hepatitis and HCV infection.

The compounds of this invention are generally given as pharmaceutical compositions comprised of a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and may contain conventional excipients. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are those

conventionally known carriers having acceptable safety profiles. Compositions encompass all common solid and liquid forms including for example capsules, tablets, lozenges, and powders as well as liquid suspensions, syrups, elixers, and solutions. Compositions are made using common formulation techniques, and conventional excipients (such as binding and wetting agents) and vehicles (such as water and alcohols) are generally used for compositions. See, for example,

Remington 's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, PA, 17th edition, 1985.

Solid compositions are normally formulated in dosage units and compositions providing from about 1 to 1000 mg of the active ingredient per dose are preferred. Some examples of dosages are 1 mg, 10 mg, 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, and 1000 mg. Generally, other agents will be present in a unit range similar to agents of that class used clinically. Typically, this is 0.25-1000 mg/unit.

Liquid compositions are usually in dosage unit ranges. Generally, the liquid composition will be in a unit dosage range of 1-100 mg/mL. Some examples of dosages are 1 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL.

Generally, other agents will be present in a unit range similar to agents of that class used clinically. Typically, this is 1-100 mg/mL.

The invention encompasses all conventional modes of administration; oral and parenteral methods are preferred. Generally, the dosing regimen will be similar to other agents used clinically. Typically, the daily dose will be 1-100 mg/kg body weight daily. Generally, more compound is required orally and less parenterally. The specific dosing regimen, however, will be determined by a physician using sound medical judgment.

The invention also encompasses methods where the compound is given in combination therapy. That is, the compound can be used in conjunction with, but separately from, other agents useful in treating hepatitis and HCV infection. In these combination methods, the compound will generally be given in a daily dose of 1-100 mg/kg body weight daily in conjunction with other agents. The other agents

generally will be given in the amounts used therapeutically. The specific dosing regimen, however, will be determined by a physician using sound medical judgment.

Some examples of compounds suitable for compositions and methods are listed in Table 1.

Synthesis Methods

The compounds may be made by methods known in the art, including those described below. Some reagents and intermediates are known in the art. Other reagents and intermediates can be made by methods known in the art using commercially available materials. The variables (e.g. numbered "R" substituents) used to describe the synthesis of the compounds are intended only to illustrate how to make and are not to be confused with variables used in the claims or in other sections of the specification. Abbreviations used within the schemes generally follow conventions used in the art.

Abbreviations used in the schemes generally follow conventions used in the art. Chemical abbreviations used in the specification and examples are defined as follows: "NaHMDS" for sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide; "DMF" for N,N-dimethylformamide; "MeOH" for methanol; "NBS" for N-bromosuccinimide; "Ar" for aryl; "TFA" for trifluoroacetic acid; "LAH" for lithium aluminum hydride;

"DMSO" for dimethylsulfoxide; "h" for hours; "rt" for room temperature or retention time (context will dictate); "min" for minutes; "EtOAc" for ethyl acetate; "THF" for tetrahydrofuran; "EDTA" for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; "Et2O" for diethyl ether; "DMAP" for 4-dimethylaminopyridine; "DCE" for 1,2-dichloroethane; "ACN" for acetonitrile; "DME" for 1,2-dimethoxy ethane; "HOBt" for 1-hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate; "DIEA" for diisopropylethylamine.

For the section of compounds in the 0000 series all Liquid Chromatography (LC) data were recorded on a Shimadzu LC-10AS or LC-20AS liquid chromotograph using a SPD-10AV or SPD-20A UV-Vis detector and Mass Spectrometry (MS) data were determined with a Micromass Platform for LC in electrospray mode.

HPLC Method (i.e., compound isolation). Compounds purified by preparative HPLC were diluted in methanol (1.2 mL) and purified using a Shimadzu LC-8A or LC-10A or Dionex APS-3000 or Waters Acquity™ automated preparative HPLC system.

Examples:

Preparation of Intermediates, Compound 3 and Compound 4:

Step 1 : To a mixture of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(methylcarbamoyl)-6-nitrobenzofuran- 5-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate (400 mg), (3-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)-5- nitrophenyl)boronic acid (345 mg)and Cs2CO3 (846 mg) in dioxane (8 mL) and water (1.5 mL) was added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (150 mg). The mixture was flushed with nitrogen and then heated at 99°C for 16 hours. The mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 100mL). The organic layers were combined, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel column (hexanes/EtOAc = 3 : 1) to give 5-(3-(tert- butylcarbamoyl)-5-nitrophenyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-methyl-6-nitrobenzofuran-3- carboxamide 2 (350 mg).

Step 2: To a solution of 5-(3-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)-5-nitrophenyl)-2-(4- fluorophenyl)-N-methyl-6-nitrobenzofuran-3-carboxamide (350 mg) in MeOH (50 mL) was added palladium on carbon (69.7 mg). The mixture was stirred under hydrogen with a balloon for 16 hours. Pd/C was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to give 6-amino-5-(3-amino-5-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)phenyl)-2-(4- fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzofuran-3-carboxamide 3 (200 mg).

Step 3: To a solution of 6-amino-5-(3-amino-5-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)phenyl)-2-(4- fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzofuran-3-carboxamide (100 mg) and pyridine (0.170 mL) in CH2Cl2 (10 mL) was added methanesulfonyl chloride (72.4 mg) slowly at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The reaction was quenched with aqueous NaHCO3 and extracted with CH2Cl2. The organic layer was concentrated and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC to give 5-(3-(tert- butylcarbamoyl)-5-(methylsulfonamido)phenyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-methyl-6- (methylsulfonamido)benzofuran-3-carboxamide 4 (92 mg).

General Procedure for the Preparation of Compounds 1001 - 1006:

A mixture of 5-(3-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)-5-(methylsulfonamido)phenyl)-2-(4- fluorophenyl)-N-methyl-6-(methylsulfonamido)benzofuran-3-carboxamide 4 (10 mg, 1 eq.), 1,4-dibromide (1 eq.) and K2CO3 (8.77 mg, 4 eq.) in acetonitrile (5 mL) and DMF (2 mL) was heated at 80 °C for 16 hours. All the solvents were removed under vacuum. The residue purified by preparative HPLC.

General Procedure for the Preparation of Compounds 1051 - 1058:

To a solution of 6-amino-5-(3-amino-5-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)phenyl)-2-(4- fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzofuran-3-carboxamide 3 (10 mg, 1 eq.) in CH2Cl2 (10 mL) was added diacylchloride or dicarbonochloridate or diisothiocyanate (0.8 eq.) and DIPEA (0.022 mL, 6 eq.). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. All the solvents were removed under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in 1.5 mL of DMF and purified by preparative HPLC.

Preparation of Compound 2001:

Step 1 : Cs2CO3 (705 mg) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (62 mg) were added into a solution of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(methylcarbamoyl)-6- nitrobenzofuran-5-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate (500 mg) and 3-(6-methyl-4,8-dioxo- 1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-yl)benzoic acid (360 mg) in dioxane (9 mL) and water (3 mL). The reaction was heated at 90°C for 4 hours. After being cooled to room temperature, the mixture was poured into ice water, which was adjusted to pH 3 by 2N aqueous HCl solution. The compound 101 formed as a brown solid and was isolated via filtration.

Step 2: iPr2NEt (89 mg) and was added into a solution of 3-(2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3- (methylcarbamoyl)-6-nitrobenzofuran-5-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg), 2-amino-2- methylpropan-1-ol (37 mg) and O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (171 mg) in DMF (2 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours, before 20 mL of EtOAc was added. The organic layer was washed with water (2 x 10 mL), brine (5 mL) and dried over MgSO4. After filtration, removal of solvents under vacuum afforded a residue which was used as was.

Step 3: To a solution of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(3-((1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2- yl)carbamoyl)phenyl)-N-methyl-6-nitrobenzofuran-3-carboxamide (108 mg) in ethyl ether (4 mL), was added palladium on carbon (1.137 mg). The mixture was stirred under hydrogen with a balloon for 16 hours. Pd/C was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to give 6-amino-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(3-((1-hydroxy-2- methylpropan-2-yl)carbamoyl)phenyl)-N-methylbenzofuran-3 -carboxamide 103 (95 mg).

Step 4: NaH (3.71 mg) was added into the solution of 6-amino-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5- (3-((1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)carbamoyl)phenyl)-N-methylbenzofuran-3- carboxamide (14.7 mg) and 3-chloro-2-(chloromethyl)prop-1-ene (3.86 mg) in DMF. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours, before being quenched by MeOH. The compound 2001 was isolated by preparative HPLC.

Biological Methods

The compound demonstrated activity against HCV NS5B as determined the following HCV RdRp assays.

HCVNS5B RdRp cloning, expression, and purification. The cDNA encoding the NS5B protein of HCV, genotype lb, was cloned into the pET21a expression vector. The protein was expressed with an 18 amino acid C-terminal truncation to enhance the solubility. The E. coli competent cell line BL21(DE3) was used for expression of the protein. Cultures were grown at 37 °C for ~ 4 hours until the cultures reached an optical density of 2.0 at 600 nm. The cultures were cooled to 20 °C and induced with 1 mM IPTG. Fresh ampicillin was added to a final

concentration of 50 μg/mL and the cells were grown overnight at 20 °C.

Cell pellets (3L) were lysed for purification to yield 15-24 mgs of purified NS5B. The lysis buffer consisted of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 500 mM NaCl, 0.5% triton X-100, 1 mM DTT, 1mM EDTA, 20% glycerol, 0.5 mg/ml lysozyme, 10 mM MgCl2, 15 ug/ml deoxyribonuclease I, and Complete TM protease inhibitor tablets (Roche). After addition of the lysis buffer, frozen cell pellets were resuspended using a tissue homogenizer. To reduce the viscosity of the sample, aliquots of the lysate were sonicated on ice using a microtip attached to a Branson sonicator. The sonicated lysate was centrifuged at 100,000 x g for 30 minutes at 4 °C and filtered through a 0.2 μm filter unit (Corning).

The protein was purified using two sequential chromatography steps:

Heparin sepharose CL-6B and polyU sepharose 4B. The chromatography buffers were identical to the lysis buffer but contained no lysozyme, deoxyribonuclease I, MgCl2 or protease inhibitor and the NaCl concentration of the buffer was adjusted according to the requirements for charging the protein onto the column. Each column was eluted with a NaCl gradient which varied in length from 5-50 column volumes depending on the column type. After the final chromatography step, the resulting purity of the enzyme is >90% based on SDS-PAGE analysis. The enzyme was aliquoted and stored at -80 °C.

Standard HCVNS5B RdRp enzyme assay. HCV RdRp genotype lb assays were run in a final volume of 60 μl in 96 well plates (Costar 3912). The assay buffer is composed of 20 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, 2.5 mM KCl, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 1.6 U RNAse inhibitor (Promega N2515), 0.1 mg/ml BSA (Promega R3961), and 2 %

glycerol. All compounds were serially diluted (3 -fold) in DMSO and diluted further in water such that the final concentration of DMSO in the assay was 2%. HCV RdRp genotype 1b enzyme was used at a final concentration of 28 nM. A polyA template was used at 6 nM, and a biotinylated oligo-dT12 primer was used at 180 nM final concentration. Template was obtained commercially (Amersham 27-4110).

Biotinylated primer was prepared by Sigma Genosys. 3H-UTP was used at 0.6 μCi (0.29 μΜ total UTP). Reactions were initiated by the addition of enzyme, incubated at 30 °C for 60 min, and stopped by adding 25 μL of 50 mM EDTA containing SPA beads (4 μg/μL, Amersham RPNQ 0007). Plates were read on a Packard Top Count NXT after >1hr incubation at room temperature.

Modiƒied HCVNS5B RdRp enzyme assay. An on-bead solid phase homogeneous assay was also used to assess NS5B inhibitors (WangY-K, Rigat K, Roberts S, and Gao M (2006) Anal Biochem, 359: 106-11 1). The assay is a modification of the standard assay described above and was used in a 96-well or a 384-well format. The biotinylated oligo dT12 primer was captured on streptavidin-coupled beads (SPA beads (GE, RPNQ0007) or imaging beads (GE, RPNQ0261) by mixing primer and beads in buffer and incubating at room temperature for three hours. Unbound primer was removed after centrifugation. The primer-bound beads were resuspended in 3x reaction buffer (40 mM Hepes buffer, pH 7.5, 7.5 mM MgCl2, 7.5 mM KCl, dT primer coupled beads, poly A template, 3H-UTP, and RNAse inhibitor (Promega N2515). Compounds were serially diluted 1 :3 in DMSO and aliquoted into assay plates. Equal volumes (20 μL for 96-well assay and 10 μL for 384-well assay) of water, 3X reaction mix, and enzyme in 20 mM Hepes buffer, pH 7.5, 0.1 mg/ml BSA were added to the diluted compound on the assay plate. Final concentration of components in 96-well assay: 0.36 nM template, 15 nM primer, 0.43 μΜ (1 μCi) 3H-UTP, 0.08 U/μL RNAse inhibitor, 7 nM NS5B enzyme, 0.033 mg mL BSA, and 2 μg/μL beads, 20 mM Hepes buffer, pH 7.5, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 2.5 mM KCl, 2% DMSO. Final concentration of components in 384-well assay: 0.2 nM template, 15 nM primer, 0.29 μΜ 3H-UTP (0.3 μCi), 0.08 U/μL

RNAse inhibitor, 7 nM NS5B enzyme, 0.033 mg/mL BSA, and 0.33 μg/μL beads, 20 mM Hepes buffer, pH 7.5, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 2.5 mM KCl, 2% DMSO.

Reactions were allowed to proceed for 4 hours at 30° C and terminated by the addition of 50 mM EDTA (10 μL). After incubating for at least 15 minutes, plates were read on a Packard NXT Topcount or Amersham LEADseeker multimodality imaging system.

Cell lines. The cell lines used to evaluate compounds consist of a human hepatocyte derived cell line (Huh-7) that constitutively expresses a genotype 1a or 1b HCV replicon containing a Renilla luciferase reporter gene. These cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 10% FBS, 100 U/mL penicillin/streptomycin and 1.0 mg/mL G418.

HCV replicon luciƒerase assay. To evaluate compound efficacy, HCV replicon cells were seeded in 96-well plates in DMEM containing 10% FBS at a cell density of 104/well. Following incubation at 37°C overnight, compounds serially diluted in DMSO were added to the cell plates. Alternatively, titrated compounds were transferred to sterile 384-well tissue-culture treated plates and the plates seeded with 50 μL of cells at a density of 2.4 x 103 cells/well in DMEM containing 4 % FCS (final DMSO concentration at 0.5 %). After 3 days incubation at 37°C, cells were analyzed for Renilla Luciferase activity using the EnduRen substrate (Promega cat #E6485) according to the manufacturer's directions. Briefly, the EnduRen substrate was diluted in DMEM and then added to the plates to a final concentration of 7.5 μΜ. The plates were incubated for at least 1 h at 37°C then read on a TopCount NXT Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counter (Packard) or Viewlux Imager (PerkinElmer) using a luminescence program. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was calculated using the exponential form of the median effect equation where EC50 = 100- [(δFinh/δFcon) x100].

To assess cytotoxicity of compounds, Cell Titer-Blue (Promega) was added to the EnduRen-containing plates and incubated for at least 4 hrs at 37°C. The fluorescence signal from each well was read using a Cytoflour 400 (PE Biosystems) or Viewlux Imager.

Compound EC50 data is expressed as A: < 100 nM; B = 100-1000 nM; C > 1000 nM). Representative data for compounds are reported in Table 2.


It will be evident to one skilled in the art that the present disclosure is not limited to the foregoing illustrative examples, and that it can be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the essential attributes thereof. It is therefore desired that the examples be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, reference being made to the appended claims, rather than to the foregoing examples, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.