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1. WO2020142666 - ACCESSING A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL USING DISPARATE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

ACCESSING A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL USING DISPARATE

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of U.S. Provisional

Application No. 62/788,552, filed January 4, 2019, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to wireless communications, and more specifically, to vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications.

SUMMARY

[0003] Aspects and advantages of embodiments of the present disclosure will be set forth in part in the following description, or may be learned from the description, or may be learned through practice of the embodiments. Example aspects of the disclosure describe minimum-invasive methods for co-channel coexistence of the two existing V2X technologies ITS-G5/DSRC and LTE-V2X. More particularly, example aspects of the disclosure describe assignment of time-slots for the various technologies and provides suitable means on how to make these time-slots known to both distinct technologies (ITS- G5 / DSRC and LTE-V2X).

[0004] One example aspect of the present disclosure is directed to an apparatus for

providing vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications. The apparatus includes a first communication system configured to access a communication frequency channel during a first time interval. The apparatus further includes a second communication system configured to access the communication frequency channel during a second time interval adjacent to the first time interval. The first communication system is configured to communicate using cellular communication techniques, and the second communication system is configured to communicate using IEEE 802.11 based communication techniques.

[0005] Other aspects of the present disclosure are directed to methods, systems, apparatus, tangible, non-transitory computer-readable media, user interfaces and devices for providing vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications on a shared communication channel.

[0006] These and other features, aspects, and advantages of various embodiments will become better understood with reference to the following description and appended claims. The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in, and constitute part of, this specification, illustrate embodiments of the present disclosure and, together with the description, serve to explain the related principles.

[0007] This Summary is provided merely for purposes of reviewing some exemplary embodiments, so as to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the subject matter described herein. Accordingly, it will be appreciated that the above-described features are merely examples and should not be construed to narrow the scope or spirit of the subject matter described herein in any way. Other features, aspects, and advantages of the subject matter described herein will become apparent from the following Detailed Description, Figures, and Claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0008] Detailed discussion of embodiments directed to one of ordinary skill in the art is set forth in the specification, which makes reference to the appended figures, in which:

[0009] FIG. 1 depicts a diagram of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) spectrum allocation in Europe.

[0010] FIG. 2 depicts diagram of channel access techniques for LTE C-V2X and ITS- G5/DSRC communications.

[0011] FIG. 3 depicts a diagram of an example technique for technology allocations of

LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC communication techniques on a shared communication channel according to embodiments.

[0012] FIG. 4 depicts a diagram of an example technique for technology allocations of

LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC communication techniques on a shared communication channel according to embodiments.

[0013] FIG. 5 depicts a diagram of an example channel access countdown technique for ITS-G5/DSRC for the coexistence of LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC communication techniques on a shared communication channel according to embodiments.

[0014] FIG. 6 depicts a diagram of an example frame-carryover technique for ITS- G5/DSRC on a shared communication channel according to embodiments.

[0015] FIG. 7 depicts a diagram of example communication intervals triggered by on/off signals according to embodiments.

[0016] FIG. 8 depicts a diagram of an example time slot division in the dynamic

allocation of communication intervals according to embodiments.

[0017] FIG. 9 depicts a diagram of example allocation techniques for LTE C-V2X and

ITS-G5/DSRC with dynamic interval management.

[0018] FIG. 10 depicts a diagram of an example distributed dynamic resource allocation process according to embodiments.

[0019] FIG. 11 depicts a diagram of an example distributed dynamic resource allocation process for joining a communication channel according to embodiments.

[0020] FIG. 12 depicts a diagram of an example distributed dynamic resource allocation process for leaving a communication channel according to embodiments.

[0021] FIG. 13 depicts a diagram of example technology allocations on a shared channel using channel reservation messages according to embodiments.

[0022] FIG. 14 depicts a diagram of an example transition to an LTE C-V2X uplink frame according to embodiments.

[0023] FIG. 15 depicts a diagram of an example communication intervals according to embodiments.

[0024] FIG. 16 depicts a diagram of example CSMA/CA communication techniques during an ITS-G5/DSRC time interval according to embodiments.

[0025] FIG. 17 depicts a flow diagram of an example method of transmitting data during an ITS-G5/DSRC time interval according to embodiments.

[0026] FIG. 18 depicts an example system architecture according to embodiments.

[0027] FIG. 19 depicts another example system architecture according to embodiments.

[0028] FIG. 20 depicts another example system architecture according to embodiments.

[0029] FIG. 21 A depicts a block diagram of an example infrastructure equipment

according to embodiments.

[0030] FIG. 2 IB depicts a block diagram of another example infrastructure equipment according to embodiments.

[0031] FIG. 22 depicts a block diagram of an example platform according to

embodiments.

[0032] FIG. 23 depicts a block diagram of example baseband circuitry and front end modules according to embodiments.

[0033] FIG. 24 depicts a block diagram of example protocol functions that may be

implemented in a wireless communication device according to embodiments.

[0034] FIG. 25 depicts a block diagram of example core network components according to embodiments.

[0035] FIG. 26 depicts a block diagram of an example computer system that can be

utilized to implement various embodiments.

[0036] FIG. 27 depicts a flow diagram of an example method of accessing a

communication frequency channel by a first communication system and a second communication system.

[0037] FIG. 28 depicts a flow diagram of an example method of accessing a

communication frequency channel by a first communication system and a second communication system.

[0038] The features and advantages of the embodiments will become more apparent from the detailed description set forth below when taken in conjunction with the drawings, in which like reference characters identify corresponding elements throughout. In the drawings, like reference numbers generally indicate identical, functionally similar, and/or structurally similar elements. The drawing in which an element first appears is indicated by the leftmost digit(s) in the corresponding reference number.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0039] Reference will now be made in detail to embodiments, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the drawings. Each example is provided by way of explanation of the embodiments, not limitation of the invention. In fact, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modification and variations can be made to the embodiments without departing from the scope or spirit of the present disclosure. For instance, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used with another embodiment to yield a still further embodiment. Thus it is intended that aspects of the present disclosure cover such modifications and variations.

[0040] The foregoing description is intended to enable any person skilled in the art to make and use the disclosure, and is provided in the context of a particular application and its requirements. Moreover, the foregoing descriptions of embodiments of the present disclosure have been presented for purposes of illustration and description only. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the present disclosure to the forms disclosed. Accordingly, many modifications and variations will be apparent to practitioners skilled in the art, and the general principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure. Additionally, the discussion of the preceding embodiments is not intended to limit the present disclosure. Thus, the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown, but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and features disclosed herein.

[0041] For intelligent transportation systems (ITS) (Safety Applications) in Europe, a 30

MHz frequency band is available, which is split up into 3 channels of 10 MHz each as depicted in FIG. 1. There are ongoing discussions on how to enable 3GPP LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5 / DSRC (ITS-G5 for Europe and DSRC for US) to efficiently co-exist in an identical channel, in particular in one of the safety related channels between 5875-5905 MHz. This is challenging because 3GPP LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5 / DSRC have been defined fully independently without any provisions for coexistence. For example, key differences include: (1) ITS-G5 / DSRC uses the CSMA/CA protocol to access the communication channel, while 3GPP C-V2X uses a fixed slot structure; (2) ITS-G5 / DSRC applies TDMA based channel access (i.e., a station has access to all spectral resources for a channel during its transmission period), while 3GPP C-V2X stations use distinct Time/Frequency resources (the so-called resource blocks); and (3) the Access Layers, including PHY and MAC, of ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X are fully different.

[0042] The challenge is thus to ensure co-channel coexistence for fully different systems which are having no provisions for co-channel coexistence. One solution is to use a frequency split (aka“Preferred Channels” solution), i.e. LTE C-V2X is allocated to one part of the band between 5875-5905 MHz and ITS-G5 / DSRC is allocated to a different part of the band between 5875-5905 MHz. But this technique may suffer from poor

spectral efficiency in case of an unbalanced level of usage of both technologies (ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X) in a given geographic area.

[0043] Example aspects of the disclosure describe minimum-invasive methods for co channel coexistence of cellular and 802.11-based communications (802.11 based also referred to herein as“WLAN based communications”). For instance, in some

implementations, example aspects of the disclosure describe minimum-invasive methods for co-channel coexistence of the two existing V2X technologies ITS-G5/DSRC (e.g. IEEE 802.11 based technology) and LTE-V2X (cellular based technology). More particularly, example aspects of the disclosure describe assignment of time-slots for the various technologies and provides suitable means on how to make these time-slots known to both distinct technologies (ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE-V2X). In various

implementations, highly efficient sharing of the spectral resources may be enabled through co-channel coexistence. Several alternatives may be used to achieve co-channel coexistence for ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X. These are presented below with the following structure:

[0044] Coexistence through fixed allocation of access intervals for ITS-G5 / DSRC and

LTE C-V2X.

[0045] Coexistence through ON/OFF signature signal.

[0046] Coexistence through dynamic allocation of access intervals for ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X.

[0047] Coexistence through reservation messages.

[0048] Coexistence with adding CSMA/CA to LTE C-V2X and using the last symbol for transmission.

[0049] Improvement on CSMA/CA of ITS-G5/DSRC by prioritizing the transmission.

I. Coexistence through fixed allocation of access intervals for ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X

[0050] In this solution, all systems (ITS-G5 / DSRC as well as LTE C-V2X) acquire knowledge about the timing of respective fixed allocation slots. The coexistence of two different approaches is considered. First, LTE C-V2X has fixed channelization and timing; timing is typically coordinated using GNSS timing (but other alternatives exist as well, timing may be provided by Road Side Units, etc.). ITS-G5 / DSRC on the other hand, doesn’t apply any absolute timing reference for the start of transmissions or similar.

Rather, the applied Carrier Sensing Multiple Access (CSMA) protocol is a fully distributed channel access protocol that does not rely on a general reference timing. General spectrum allocation techniques for these communication techniques are depicted in FIG. 2.

[0051] According to example aspects of the present disclosure, an overall time slotting may be introduced for LTE C-V2X and DSRC. In one set of time slots (e.g. pair/impair time slot IDs) LTE C-V2X may be operated and in a second set of time slots (e.g.

impair/pair time slot IDs) ITS-G5/DSRC may be being operated. Typically, the LTE C- V2X devices timing is achieved following the processes defined by 3GPP (e.g., based on GNSS, based on timing provided by Base Stations, etc.). The ITS-G5 devices timing can be optionally acquired using the same methods (in particular GNSS may be suitable) or alternatively through sensing of the LTE-C2V signal. In particular, it is possible to acquire the timing by identifying the start of the transmissions and to further refine the estimates by detecting the time instances when sub-channels remain unused (as illustrated in FIG. 2 above).

[0052] FIGS. 3-4 depict example allocations of LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5 intervals

according to example aspects of the present disclosure. Within the ITS-G5 / DSRC technology slot, the respective system is applying its existing channel access methods.

The same applies to the LTE C-V2X slot. The configuration of the technology slots is fixed, pre-configured and known a-priori to all stations.

[0053] Example aspects of the present disclosure can further use modified CSMA

techniques for technology allocation. In classical CSMA, each user identifies a randomized number (from a pre-determined range) for the contention process for accessing the channel. This number is counted down to zero and then the channel is accessed if the channel is available (i.e. energy detect and/or listen before talk indicates that no other user is on the channel). Example aspects of the present disclosure freeze the countdown process for all ITS-G5/DSRC nodes during LTE C-V2X slot time. FIG. 5 depicts a diagram of an example technology allocation wherein the countdown process for all ITS-G5/DSRC nodes during LTE C-V2X slot time.

[0054] It also possible that all channel access processes for all ITS-G5/DSRC nodes are reset at the beginning of the LTE C-V2X slot time. In such implementations, all ITS- G5/DSRC nodes need to restart the channel access procedure (i.e., identifying a new

randomized number (from a pre-determined range) for the contention process, counting down to zero, etc.) after the LTE C-V2X slot time.

[0055] If an ITS-G5/DSRC node has successfully performed the channel access

procedure (i.e., identifying a new randomized number (from a pre-determined range) for the contention process, counting down to zero, etc.) and the channel is available

(identified through energy detect and/or listen before talk), another check can be performed in addition to the existing process (in current WiFi / ITS-G5 / DSRC). This check can verify that the duration of the transmission can be terminated within the remaining duration of the ITS-G5/DSRC slot. If this is the case, the ITS-G5/DSRC node can start the transmission. If this is not the case, the ITS-G5/DSRC node can either a) shorten the transmission such that the remaining duration of the ITS-G5/DSRC slot is sufficient or b) freeze the process until the start of the next ITS-G5/DSRC period (then a new energy detect / listen before talk needs to be done in order to verify whether the channel is empty) or c) abandon the process so that the process has to start again all over (i.e., identifying a new randomized number (from a pre-determined range) for the contention process, counting down to zero, etc.). For case b), i.e. the process is frozen until the start of the next ITS-G5/DSRC period, an issue may arise if multiple users are in this position, and if all of them try to access the channel simultaneously at the start of the next ITS-G5/DSRC period. In such case, collisions may occur. As an option, an additional randomized number (from a (small) pre-determined range) can be determined by all concerned nodes so that the count-down process is initiated at the start of the next ITS-G5/DSRC period. Then, it can be expected that the various concerned nodes will start the energy detect / listen before talk procedure at a slightly delay time and collisions can be avoided. FIG. 6 depicts a diagram of an example technology allocation technique for the above scenario if the remainder of the ITS-G5/DSRC interval isn’t sufficient for a frame according to embodiments.

[0056] The“freezing” periods during the LTE C-V2X interval can be easily implemented in practice by generating an“on/off’ signal following the synchronization to the LTE C- V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC intervals. An“on” single may indicate that the current interval is reserved for ITS-G5/DSRC and the count-down process (and channel access procedure) may move forward while an“off’ signal may indicate that the current interval is reserved for LTE C-V2X and the countdown process should be frozen. Alternatively,“on” /“off’ can be used in the opposite sense as well, i.e.“off’ may signal that the current interval is reserved for ITS-G5/DSRC, etc. FIG. 7 depicts an example technology allocation using such on/off signaling technique.

[0057] In example aspects, timing for LTE C-V2X / ITS-G5 / DSRC can be acquired by the number of users or the amount of requests in each technology. For ITS-G5 the interval can be various, for LTE C-V2X the interval is better to be in the unit of 10ms or at least 5 ms.

[0058] CSMA parameters can be changed so that the ITS-G5 / DSRC slot maintains spectral efficiency when the time slots are fixed and pre-configured. ITS-G5/DSRC users do not need to sense the channel during a LTE C-V2X interval. However, ITS-G5/DSRC devices can start sensing (minimum duration of CSMA/CA + AIFS) earlier than the beginning of the ITS-G5/DSRC interval start to catch the earliest chance to transmit. As an additional option, the duration of the intervals can be pre- or reconfigured according to the geographic area, regional regulation, penetration rate of each system, etc. The time scale here is changing with the penetration of the systems (e.g. once a month). This is different from the next dynamic allocation scenario for dynamic adaptation of the LTE C- V2X and ITS-G5 / DSRC transmission intervals that will be described below. Also, in this implementation, all devices know a priori how long the time interval will be.

[0059] In some implementations, the duration of the transmission interval of each

technology may be changed by configuration (e.g. by manufacturers). For instance, a look up table can be stored in the device to provide all possible durations. An index to an entry in the table can be pre-configured from the factory, but also after the vehicle entered in the market. The reconfiguration can occur via specialized workshop or over-the-air. If a connection to the cellular network is available, the Uu interface can be used for reconfiguration or both systems. The signaling can be defined in the access layer of 3 GPP, for example, but also in higher layers. Moreover, specific messages can be defined to provide reconfiguration via short range communication with RSUs, for example.

[0060] In the middle of the ITS-G5/DSRC interval, the ITS-G5/DSRC devices will

operate normally. If the channel vacancy time left in the end of the ITS-G5/DSRC interval is less than the time required for the transmission or 40us (ITS-G5 preamble + header), there is not enough time for the ITS-G5/DSRC user to finish one transmission. Thus, ITS-G5/DSRC devices do not need to sense the channel when there is less than 40us to the end of the ITS-G5/DSRC interval.

- lo

ll. Coexistence through ON/OFF signature signal

[0061] In some implementations, the technology allocations can be performed using an on/off signature signal. In such implementations, when there is a central controller, such as ITS-G5/DSRC Access Point, LTE base station or RSU, the central controller can inform the ITS-G5/DSRC about the start of the LTE C-V2X interval and its duration, so ITS-G5/DSRC devices will stop the back-off process and wait for the ITS-G5/DSRC interval. When there is no central controller, ITS-G5/DSRC requires an additional sensing procedure on top of energy detection to detect if the current transmitter that is using the channel is a LTE C-V2X device or an ITS-G5/DSRC device. In this case, feature or signature signals can be used in the detection, such as LTE PSCCH or DMRS signal. In alternative implementations, detection can be performed using the secondary

synchronization signal (SSS), the primary synchronization signal (PSS), PSSCH, for future NR systems it can be based on the 5G-NR Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS), 5G-NR Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS), etc. It is furthermore possible to target joint exploitation control & sync signals. Alternatively, detection can be performed using one of the Sidelink Synchronization Signals (SLSS), i.e. Primary or Secondary

Synchronization Signals (PSS or SSS), or both of them. Yet another option is to use the Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel (PSBCH), which can also carry some small payload.

[0062] Furthermore, data resource (RB) detection is also possible, which can be occupied by user data for given blocks over time and frequency domain. Detection algorithms may work on a per-Resource-Block detection basis. This is because it is difficult to predict which specific resource blocks are being used for data transmission, and which are left empty. There may also be empty sub frames, which may be fluctuating over time/freq.

[0063] In embodiments, once an LTE C-V2X signal is detected, the ITS-G5/DSRC

procedure, including back-off and retransmission, will be paused until the channel is available again (which will be the next ITS-G5/DSRC interval), or the channel is busy but LTE C-V2X is not detected, which means there is another ITS-G5/DSRC device transmitting. FIG. 8 depicts a diagram of an example implementation of this process.

[0064] As indicated, to indicate different intervals, an ON/OFF signal can be sent from

ITS-G5/DSRC devices. The ON/OFF signal can be transmitted in the guard band or the side band. This can be performed by a modification of the ITS-G5/DSRC CSMA protocol. Such modified CSMA technique can also be applied to technique I. above.

III. Coexistence through dynamic allocation of access intervals for ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X

[0065] In some implementations, the shared communication channel can be accessed through dynamic allocation of access intervals for ITS-G5 / DSRC and LTE C-V2X. In such implementations, all systems (ITS-G5 / DSRC as well as LTE C-V2X) can acquire knowledge about the timing of respective dynamic allocation slots. Within the ITS-G5 / DSRC technology slot, the respective system is applying its existing channel access methods. The same applies to the LTE C-V2X slot. The configuration of the technology slots is dynamic and will be adapted to the level of usage and penetration by LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5 / DSRC respectively.

[0066] FIG. 9 depicts a diagram of an example technology allocation using dynamic intervals according to example aspects. To acquire timing for LTE C-V2X / ITS-G5 / DSRC (e.g., transmission start time for each respective interval), at the configuration information stage, all users submit their requests on resource in time and frequency. The intervals can be allocated accordingly. Alternatively, interval allocation can be obtained from learning the historical data/spectrum usage of the same geo-area. The update of the configuration information could be periodically or based on the changes of the number of requests. In this method, a central controller is needed.

[0067] Devices using CSMA in ITS-G5/DSRC may need to know when the LTE C-V2X intervals occur, so that the node can exclude this duration from the back-off process. Alternatively, ITS-G5/DSRC devices can stop back-off process by the end of the ITS- G5/DSRC interval and start a new CSMA cycle from the next ITS-G5/DSRC interval.

[0068] If an ITS-G5/DSRC device is connected to an AP or an LTE C-V2X device is connected to a base station, either the AP or the base station can be the central controller. If the ITS-G5/DSRC device and/or the LTE C-V2X device is not connected to any AP or base station. The transmission will be determined by the devices

distributed/collaboratively. If there is no central controller, a distributed method can be used among LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC devices to adjust the resource allocation dynamically based on communication requests from the devices. FIG. 10 depicts a diagram of an example communication duration where intervals are further divided into two slots: t_l and t_2.

[0069] In such scenario, all existing devices will transmit a sequence with the

configuration information for the following transmitting interval in t_l . The same

maximum interval applies to all devices. During t_2, all existing devices will switch to receive and listen to the band, except during the gap before its own configuration information for downlink and uplink switch. The gap between t_2 and the transmission interval is for switching from downlink to uplink for the first user that will transmit. All devices will listen to the transmission interval for the messages sent from other devices.

[0070] In some implementations, acknowledgement signals (Ack) may be sent by RSUs.

Alternatively, such Ack signals may be sent by existing devices. All existing devices would send Ack using zero-autocorrelation sequence. In some implementations, related discovery function may be handled in the higher layers (including features for access request and ack).

[0071] Any new devices will first listen to the band for at least 2(t_l + t_2) + t_TX of time to detect the existing interval allocations from t_l and ongoing/new requests in t_2. The new device then transmits a sequence with the scheduling request in the t_2. The sequences from all users in t_2 are allowed to overlap. The scheduling request includes the device identification, requested interval, and the order in the waiting list for joining the channel (if the device detected any existing ongoing requests).

[0072] Once the existing devices detect new scheduling request(s) in t_2, they can reduce their own transmit interval in order to leave space for the new devices. In the next t_l interval, the existing device will transmit the configuration information with the reduced interval information together with the acknowledgement information. During this time, the new device that sent the scheduling request will listen to t_l and t_2 to see if the resource allocation has been adjusted for its transmission. In the next t_l interval, the new device will transmit its configuration information and normal transmission in its interval. The existing device will listen during t_l except its own configuration information to see if the requested device has started transmission

[0073] In embodiments, the joining process may be a FIFO for devices having the same level of priority. In such embodiments, the interval order is based on the joining order. If there are too many devices and the interval cannot be reduced further, the device in the first interval, which is the first joining device, will need to quit the queue and re-join the process. FIG. 11 depicts a diagram of an example implementation for requesting transmission in the next available (+2) interval, order number 2, and duration 50% of the interval. This method requires devices to be synchronized, at least to know when will each time slot starts. If there is a collision of multiple devices sending joining requests at the same time, there will be multiple acknowledgement information sending out at the same time for different available slots for each of the joining devices. FIG. 11 depicts the overlapping requests.

[0074] Config in FIG. 11 can indicate that“no transmission” is scheduled for the next timeslot. Alternatively, transmissions will not require any config symbol. However, in such scenario, the existing device may leave the channel. Any new transmission requires initiating the attachment procedure.

[0075] In some implementations, the design of the configuration information (and

acknowledgement) message, can include a 1) ITS-G5/DSRC packet, or 2) Zadoff-Chu sequence or any zero-cross correlation sequence. The configuration information (and acknowledgement) can be spreading coded/modulated on the sequence. The configuration information includes: to reserve the Kth interval after the current interval for

transmission, the order of the interval used for this device in the Kth interval, the duration of the transmission. The acknowledgement information includes: the requesting device id, order, available slot and duration of transmission. The raw message contains M bits. BPSK/QPSK can be used for the modulation to obtain the complex symbols c_ij. The complex symbols then multiply with the zero cross-correlation sequence r_ij and finally perform an IFFT to get the SC-FDMA/OFDM signal for transmission. The design of the requests in t_2, can include Zad-off Chu or any other zero-cross correlation sequence.

The configuration information and request sequence could be pre-processed and stored for future transmission.

[0076] If a device was forced to leave the channel due to the congestion of the channel, it will need to send a request in t_2 to rejoin the channel. If a device left the channel by itself, it can be assumed that the device will not notify other devices. When other devices listen to t_l except their own configuration information and the gap before, they will know the total occupant time of the channel is less than 100%. The existing devices will send an extension request in t_l together with the config information and in the next interval getting and sending acknowledgement, then in the next interval increase the duration. This is to prevent any collisions with new requests in t_2 and also with the extension requests from other existing devices. FIG. 12 depicts a diagram of an example allocation process wherein a device leaves the channel and other devices receive duration extensions.

[0077] In embodiments, priority of the requests can be added to the configuration information. Possible priority levels may be: urgent transmission; previous existing device rejoining request; new device joining request; existing device duration extension request due to other devices leaving the channel. For continuous LTE C-V2X intervals, the congestion control with CBR measurement can be used between the LTE C-V2X devices if the data pool (PSSCH) is congested. If the control pool (PSCCH) is congested, the device will need to request new interval following the proposed method.

IV. Coexistence through reservation messages

[0078] In some implementations, the technology allocations on a shared communications channel can be performed using reservation messages. In such implementations, all systems (ITS-G5 /DSRC as well as LTE C-V2X) acquire knowledge about the timing of respective fixed allocation slots. Within the ITS-G5 / DSRC technology slot, the respective system is applying its existing channel access methods. The same applies to the LTE C-V2X slot. The configuration of the technology slots is either fixed or dynamic and will be adapted to the level of usage by LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5 / DSRC respectively. This method will be combined with one of the approaches above (sections T, II. and III). Alternatively, no slotting is identified and all systems can access the medium as required.

[0079] FIG. 13 depicts example technology allocations using reservation messages. As shown, channel reservation messages (IEEE 802.11 RTS messages) are defined at the start of the LTE C-V2X transmission. Other types of reservation messages can be used, such as IEEE 802.11 messages including a channel reservation message (TXOP, NAV, or similar). If the LTE C-V2X is connected to a central controller, such as a base station or a RSU, the central controller or a designated device that is assigned by the central controller will send out a CTS. The ITS-G5 / DSRC system will detect the RTS (Request to Send) messages as used in the standard WiFi protocol and will use this knowledge in order to identify the start of the LTE C-V2X interval. In the classical WiFi protocol, a CTS (clear to send) message would typically follow but this is not required here and is typically omitted. It is thus a modified usage of the RTS/CTS mechanism which was originally designed to mitigate the hidden node problem for point-to-point transmissions.

V. Coexistence with adding CSMA/CA to LTE C-V2X and using the last symbol for transmission

[0080] In some implementations, time intervals are not predefined, but rather are

determined dynamically. In these implementations, all technologies (e.g., LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5 / DSRC) may access the medium upon need. In these implementations, LTE C-V2X may be modified to accommodate the dynamic time interval determination.

Specifically, LTE C-V2X can follow the same CSMA/LBT as ITS-G5/DSRC before transmission. The same maximum transmission duration applies to both ITS-G5/DSRC and LTE C-V2X (e.g. 5ms or 10ms). In this manner, LTE C-V2X devices appear as ITS- G5/DSRC devices, but the transmission is using an LTE and ITS-G5 or jamming signal.

[0081] To prevent collisions, after using CSMA/LBT to confirm the vacancy of the

channel, LTE C-V2X devices can transmit constantly from the feasible transmission time until the end of the duration/maximum transmission duration. This can include two changes to the current LTE C-V2X. First, if the feasible transmission time starts before the uplink subframe, LTE C-V2X devices can either transmit an ITS-G5/DSRC packet until the uplink subframe begins, or they can transmit a jamming signal.

[0082] FIG. 14 depicts a diagram showing a duration from the start of transmission until the start of the LTE uplink sub frame. Interval t_a is the total transmission time for an LTE C-V2X device, and t_w is the duration from the beginning of transmission to the beginning of the LTE uplink sub frame. If the device supports LTE C-V2X and ITS- G5/DSRC dual-mode and the duration t_w is greater than a minimum ITS-G5 packet, the device can transmit an ITS-G5/DSRC packet for the t_w duration. If the device supports LTE C-V2X only or the duration t_w is less than a minimum ITS-G5 packet, the device can transmit jamming signal or a ITS-G5/DSRC preamble for the t_w duration.

[0083] Second, in typical LTE C-V2X uplink subframes, the last SC-FDMA symbol left as blank for 72us. But if other device senses the channel during this time, they will find the channel vacant and start to transmit, which could cause collisions. Thus, in some implementations, LTE C-V2X devices can use this symbol for LTE transmission, if there is a following uplink subframe for transmission. If the following subframe is downlink, the LTE C-V2X user will not use the last SC-FDMA symbol for transmission and will switch to receive. FIG. 15 depicts diagram of example time intervals wherein the last SC- FDMA symbol is used for LTE transmission before the following uplink subrame.

VI. Improvement on CSMA/CA of ITS-G5/DSRC by prioritizing the transmission

[0084] In some implementations, transmission of high priority messages can be

prioritized through modifications to CSMA/CA techniques. In these implementations, an ITS-G5 / DSRC device does not start transmitting immediately after an LTE C-V2X interval, but waits for an Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing (AIFS) time period as illustrated in FIG. 16. Specifically, depicts example techniques for implementing modified CSMA/CA techniques at the beginning of an ITS-G5/DCRS interval.

[0085] The exact start of the ITS-G5 / DSRC interval is known to all devices since a deterministic slotting of LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC is applied, i.e. all nodes exactly know when the LTE C-V2X and ITS-G5/DSRC intervals start/end. Because of this, in embodiments, the AIFS duration may be shortened to“0” (or any small value) for ultra high-priority messages. This is possible, since no time needs to be allocated for energy detect and/or listen-before talk, switching between DL/UL or UL/DL, or any other task. FIG. 16 depicts such a shortening of the AIFS duration is possible for ultra-high priority services. In embodiments, transmissions of low AIFS for specific ultra-high priority services which are directly related to the safety of the passengers, e.g.

signaling/avoidance of imminent collision, etc., may be reserved.

[0086] FIG. 17 depicts a flow diagram of data transmission using CSMA/CA and

improved CSMA/CA techniques. At 1701, a device can request transmission. At 1702, the device can listen to the channel. At 1703, the device can determine whether the channel is idle. If the channel is idle, at 1704, the device can listen for the AIFS. At 1705, the device can again determine if the channel is idle based on the AIFS. If the channel is idle, at 1711, the device can transmit. If the channel is not idle, at 1706 the device can perform a random backoff. At 1707, the device can again listen to the AIFS. At 1708, the device can determine if the channel is idle. If the channel is idle, at 1709, the device can decrease the backoff. At 1710, the device can determine if the backoff is greater than zero. If the backoff is greater than zero, the method can return to 1708. If the backoff is not greater than zero, at 1711, the device can transmit until transmission is complete at 1712.

[0087] If, at 1703, the channel is not idle, at 1713, the device can determine whether the channel is occupied by C-V2X communications. If the channel is not occupied by C-V2X communications, the method can proceed to 1704. If the channel is occupied by C-V2X,

at 1714, the device can listen to the channel. When the C-V2X interval ends at 1715, the device can listen (AIFS minus min (AIFS[i])) at 1716. The method then can proceed to 1705.

[0088] If at 1708, the channel is not idle, the device can determine if the channel is

occupied by C-V2X communications at 1717. If the channel is not so occupied, the method can proceed to 1707. If the channel is so occupied, the method can proceed to 1714.

Example Systems and Implementations

[0089] Any of the radio links described herein may operate according to any one or more of the following radio communication technologies and/or standards including but not limited to: a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) radio communication technology, a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) radio communication technology, an Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) radio communication technology, and/or a Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) radio communication technology, for example Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Freedom of Multimedia Access (FOMA), 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), 3GPP Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE Advanced), Code division multiple access 2000

(CDMA2000), Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), Mobitex, Third Generation (3G), Circuit Switched Data (CSD), High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (Third Generation) (UMTS (3G)), Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) (W-CDMA (UMTS)), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), High Speed Packet Access Plus (HSPA+), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System-Time-Division Duplex (UMTS-TDD), Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA), Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA), 3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 8 (Pre-4th Generation) (3 GPP Rel. 8 (Pre-4G)), 3 GPP Rel. 9 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 9), 3GPP Rel. 10 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 10) , 3GPP Rel. 11 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 11),

3GPP Rel. 12 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 12), 3GPP Rel. 13 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 13), 3GPP Rel. 14 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 14), 3GPP Rel. 15 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 15), 3GPP Rel. 16 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 16), 3GPP Rel. 17 (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 17) and subsequent Releases (such as Rel. 18, Rel. 19, etc.), 3GPP 5G, 3GPP LTE Extra, LTE-Advanced Pro, LTE Licensed-Assisted Access (LAA), MuLTEfire, UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA), Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA), Long Term Evolution Advanced (4th Generation) (LTE Advanced (4G)), cdmaOne (2G), Code division multiple access 2000 (Third generation)

(CDMA2000 (3G)), Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data Only (EV-DO), Advanced Mobile Phone System (1st Generation) (AMPS (1G)), Total Access

Communication System/Extended Total Access Communication System

(TACS/ETACS), Digital AMPS (2nd Generation) (D-AMPS (2G)), Push-to-talk (PTT), Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone System (IMTS),

Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony), MTD (Swedish abbreviation for

Mobiltelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D), Public Automated Land Mobile (Autotel/PALM), ARP (Finnish for Autoradiopuhelin, "car radio phone"), NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), High capacity version of NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) (Hicap), Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD), Mobitex, DataTAC, Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN), Personal Digital Cellular (PDC), Circuit Switched Data (CSD), Personal Handy-phone System (PHS), Wideband Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (WiDEN), iBurst, Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), also referred to as also referred to as 3 GPP Generic Access Network, or GAN standard), Zigbee, Bluetooth(r), Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) standard, mmWave standards in general (wireless systems operating at 10-300 GHz and above such as WiGig, IEEE 802.1 lad, IEEE 802.1 lay, etc.), technologies operating above 300 GHz and THz bands, (3GPP/LTE based or IEEE 802.1 lp and other) Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-X (V2X) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Infrastructure-to- Vehicle (12 V) communication technologies, 3GPP cellular V2X, DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) communication systems such as Intelligent-Transport-Systems and others (typically operating in 5850 MHz to 5925 MHz), the European ITS-G5 system (i.e. the European flavor of IEEE 802.1 lp based DSRC, including ITS-G5A (i.e., Operation of ITS-G5 in European ITS frequency bands dedicated to ITS for safety related applications in the frequency range 5,875 GHz to 5,905 GHz), ITS-G5B (i.e., Operation in European ITS frequency bands dedicated to ITS non- safety applications in the frequency range 5,855 GHz to 5,875 GHz), ITS-G5C (i.e., Operation of ITS applications in the frequency range 5,470 GHz to 5,725 GHz)), DSRC in Japan in the 700MHz band (including 715 MHz to 725 MHz) etc.

[0090] Aspects described herein can be used in the context of any spectrum management scheme including dedicated licensed spectrum, unlicensed spectrum, (licensed) shared spectrum (such as LSA = Licensed Shared Access in 2.3-2.4 GHz, 3.4-3.6 GHz, 3.6-3.8 GHz and further frequencies and SAS = Spectrum Access System / CBRS = Citizen Broadband Radio System in 3.55-3.7 GHz and further frequencies). Applicable spectrum bands include IMT (International Mobile Telecommunications) spectrum as well as other types of spectrum/bands, such as bands with national allocation (including 450 - 470 MHz, 902-928 MHz (note: allocated for example in US (FCC Part 15)), 863-868.6 MHz (note: allocated for example in European Union (ETSI EN 300 220)), 915.9-929.7 MHz (note: allocated for example in Japan), 917-923.5 MHz (note: allocated for example in South Korea), 755-779 MHz and 779-787 MHz (note: allocated for example in China), 790 - 960 MHz, 1710 - 2025 MHz, 2110 - 2200 MHz, 2300 - 2400 MHz, 2.4-2.4835 GHz (note: it is an ISM band with global availability and it is used by Wi-Fi technology family (1 lb/g/n/ax) and also by Bluetooth), 2500 - 2690 MHz, 698-790 MHz, 610 - 790 MHz, 3400 - 3600 MHz, 3400 - 3800 MHz, 3.55-3.7 GHz (note: allocated for example in the US for Citizen Broadband Radio Service), 5.15-5.25 GHz and 5.25-5.35 GHz and 5.47- 5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.85 GHz bands (note: allocated for example in the US (FCC part 15), consists four U-NII bands in total 500 MHz spectrum), 5.725-5.875 GHz (note: allocated for example in EU (ETSI EN 301 893)), 5.47-5.65 GHz (note: allocated for example in South Korea, 5925-7125 MHz and 5925-6425MHz band (note: under consideration in US and EU, respectively. Next generation Wi-Fi system is expected to include the 6 GHz spectrum as operating band but it is noted that, as of December 2017, Wi-Fi system is not yet allowed in this band. Regulation is expected to be finished in 2019-2020 time frame), IMT-advanced spectrum, IMT-2020 spectrum (expected to include 3600-3800 MHz, 3.5 GHz bands, 700 MHz bands, bands within the 24.25-86 GHz range, etc.), spectrum made available under FCC's "Spectrum Frontier" 5G initiative (including 27.5 - 28.35 GHz, 29.1 - 29.25 GHz, 31 - 31.3 GHz, 37 - 38.6 GHz, 38.6 - 40 GHz, 42 - 42.5 GHz, 57 - 64 GHz, 71 - 76 GHz, 81 - 86 GHz and 92 - 94 GHz, etc), the ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) band of 5.9 GHz (typically 5.85-5.925 GHz) and 63- 64 GHz, bands currently allocated to WiGig such as WiGig Band 1 (57.24-59.40 GHz),

WiGig Band 2 (59.40-61.56 GHz) and WiGig Band 3 (61.56-63.72 GHz) and WiGig Band 4 (63.72-65.88 GHz), 57-64/66 GHz (note: this band has near-global designation for Multi-Gigabit Wireless Systems (MGWS)/WiGig . In US (FCC part 15) allocates total 14 GHz spectrum, while EU (ETSI EN 302 567 and ETSI EN 301 217-2 for fixed P2P) allocates total 9 GHz spectrum), the 70.2 GHz - 71 GHz band, any band between 65.88 GHz and 71 GHz, bands currently allocated to automotive radar applications such as 76- 81 GHz, and future bands including 94-300 GHz and above. Furthermore, the scheme can be used on a secondary basis on bands such as the TV White Space bands (typically below 790 MHz) where in particular the 400 MHz and 700 MHz bands are promising candidates. Besides cellular applications, specific applications for vertical markets may be addressed such as PMSE (Program Making and Special Events), medical, health, surgery, automotive, low-latency, drones, etc. applications.

[0091] Aspects described herein can also implement a hierarchical application of the scheme is possible, e.g. by introducing a hierarchical prioritization of usage for different types of users (e.g., low/medium/high priority, etc.), based on a prioritized access to the spectrum e.g. with highest priority to tier-1 users, followed by tier-2, then tier-3, etc. users, etc.

[0092] Aspects described herein can also be applied to different Single Carrier or OFDM flavors (CP-OFDM, SC-FDMA, SC-OFDM, filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC), OFDMA, etc.) and in particular 3GPP NR (New Radio) by allocating the OFDM carrier data bit vectors to the corresponding symbol resources.].

[0093] Some of the features in this disclosure are defined for the network side, such as Access Points, eNodeBs, New Radio (NR) or next generation Node Bs (gNodeB or gNB - note that this term is typically used in the context of 3GPP fifth generation (5G) communication systems), etc. Still, a User Equipment (UE) may take this role as well and act as an Access Points, eNodeBs, gNodeBs, etc. I.e., some or all features defined for network equipment may be implemented by a UE.

[0094] FIG. 18 illustrates an example architecture of a system 100 of a network, in

accordance with various embodiments. The following description is provided for an example system 100 that operates in conjunction with the LTE system standards and 5G or NR system standards as provided by 3GPP technical specifications. However, the example embodiments are not limited in this regard and the described embodiments may apply to other networks that benefit from the principles described herein, such as future 3GPP systems (e.g., Sixth Generation (6G)) systems, IEEE 802.16 protocols (e.g., WMAN, WiMAX, etc.), or the like.

[0095] As shown by FIG. 18, the system 100 includes UE 101a and UE 101b

(collectively referred to as“UEs 101” or“UE 101”). In this example, UEs 101 are illustrated as smartphones (e.g., handheld touchscreen mobile computing devices connectable to one or more cellular networks), but may also comprise any mobile or non- mobile computing device, such as consumer electronics devices, cellular phones, smartphones, feature phones, tablet computers, wearable computer devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), pagers, wireless handsets, desktop computers, laptop computers, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), in-car entertainment (ICE) devices, an

Instrument Cluster (IC), head-up display (HUD) devices, onboard diagnostic (OBD) devices, dashtop mobile equipment (DME), mobile data terminals (MDTs), Electronic Engine Management System (EEMS), electronic/engine control units (ECUs), electronic/engine control modules (ECMs), embedded systems, microcontrollers, control modules, engine management systems (EMS), networked or“smart” appliances, MTC devices, M2M, IoT devices, and/or the like.

[0096] In some embodiments, any of the UEs 101 may be IoT UEs, which may comprise a network access layer designed for low-power IoT applications utilizing short-lived UE connections. An IoT UE can utilize technologies such as M2M or MTC for exchanging data with an MTC server or device via a PLMN, ProSe or D2D communication, sensor networks, or IoT networks. The M2M or MTC exchange of data may be a machine- initiated exchange of data. An IoT network describes interconnecting IoT UEs, which may include uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices (within the Internet infrastructure), with short-lived connections. The IoT UEs may execute background applications (e.g., keep-alive messages, status updates, etc.) to facilitate the connections of the IoT network.

[0097] The UEs 101 may be configured to connect, for example, communicatively

couple, with an RAN 110. In embodiments, the RAN 110 may be an NG RAN or a 5G RAN, an E-UTRAN, or a legacy RAN, such as a UTRAN or GERAN. As used herein, the term“NG RAN” or the like may refer to a RAN 110 that operates in an NR or 5G system 100, and the term“E-UTRAN” or the like may refer to a RAN 110 that operates in an LTE or 4G system 100. The UEs 101 utilize connections (or channels) 103 and 104, respectively, each of which comprises a physical communications interface or layer (discussed in further detail below).

[0098] In this example, the connections 103 and 104 are illustrated as an air interface to enable communicative coupling, and can be consistent with cellular communications protocols, such as a GSM protocol, a CDMA network protocol, a PTT protocol, a POC protocol, a UMTS protocol, a 3GPP LTE protocol, a 5G protocol, a NR protocol, and/or any of the other communications protocols discussed herein. In embodiments, the UEs 101 may directly exchange communication data via a ProSe interface 105. The ProSe interface 105 may alternatively be referred to as a SL interface 105 and may comprise one or more logical channels, including but not limited to a PSCCH, a PSSCH, a PSDCH, and a PSBCH.

[0099] The UE 101b is shown to be configured to access an AP 106 (also referred to as “WLAN node 106,”“WLAN 106,”“WLAN Termination 106,”“WT 106” or the like) via connection 107. The connection 107 can comprise a local wireless connection, such as a connection consistent with any IEEE 802.11 protocol, wherein the AP 106 would comprise a wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi®) router. In this example, the AP 106 is shown to be connected to the Internet without connecting to the core network of the wireless system (described in further detail below). In various embodiments, the UE 101b, RAN 110, and AP 106 may be configured to utilize LWA operation and/or LWIP operation. The LWA operation may involve the UE 101b in RRC CONNECTED being configured by a RAN node 11 la-b to utilize radio resources of LTE and WLAN. LWIP operation may involve the UE 101b using WLAN radio resources (e.g., connection 107) via IPsec protocol tunneling to authenticate and encrypt packets (e.g., IP packets) sent over the connection 107. IPsec tunneling may include encapsulating the entirety of original IP packets and adding a new packet header, thereby protecting the original header of the IP packets.

[0100] The RAN 110 can include one or more AN nodes or RAN nodes 111a and 111b (collectively referred to as“RAN nodes 111” or“RAN node 111”) that enable the connections 103 and 104. As used herein, the terms“access node,”“access point,” or the like may describe equipment that provides the radio baseband functions for data and/or voice connectivity between a network and one or more users. These access nodes can be referred to as BS, gNBs, RAN nodes, eNBs, NodeBs, RSUs, TRxPs or TRPs, and so forth, and can comprise ground stations (e.g., terrestrial access points) or satellite stations providing coverage within a geographic area (e.g., a cell). As used herein, the term“NG

RAN node” or the like may refer to a RAN node 111 that operates in an NR. or 5G system 100 (for example, a gNB), and the term“E-UTRAN node” or the like may refer to a RAN node 111 that operates in an LTE or 4G system 100 (e.g., an eNB). According to various embodiments, the RAN nodes 111 may be implemented as one or more of a dedicated physical device such as a macrocell base station, and/or a low power (LP) base station for providing femtocells, picocells or other like cells having smaller coverage areas, smaller user capacity, or higher bandwidth compared to macrocells.

[0101] In some embodiments, all or parts of the RAN nodes 111 may be implemented as one or more software entities running on server computers as part of a virtual network, which may be referred to as a CRAN and/or a virtual baseband unit pool (vBBUP). In these embodiments, the CRAN or vBBUP may implement a RAN function split, such as a PDCP split wherein RRC and PDCP layers are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and other L2 protocol entities are operated by individual RAN nodes 111; a MAC/PHY split wherein RRC, PDCP, RLC, and MAC layers are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and the PHY layer is operated by individual RAN nodes 111; or a“lower PHY” split wherein RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC layers and upper portions of the PHY layer are operated by the CRAN/vBBUP and lower portions of the PHY layer are operated by individual RAN nodes 111. This virtualized framework allows the freed-up processor cores of the RAN nodes 111 to perform other virtualized applications. In some implementations, an individual RAN node 111 may represent individual gNB-DUs that are connected to a gNB-CU via individual FI interfaces (not shown by FIG. 18). In these implementations, the gNB-DUs may include one or more remote radio heads or RFEMs (see, e.g., FIGs.

21 A and 21B), and the gNB-CU may be operated by a server that is located in the RAN 110 (not shown) or by a server pool in a similar manner as the CRAN/vBBUP.

Additionally or alternatively, one or more of the RAN nodes 111 may be next generation eNBs (ng-eNBs), which are RAN nodes that provide E-UTRA user plane and control plane protocol terminations toward the UEs 101, and are connected to a 5GC (e.g., CN 320 of FIG. 19) via an NG interface (discussed infra).

[0102] In V2X scenarios one or more of the RAN nodes 111 may be or act as RSUs. The term“Road Side Unit” or“RSU” may refer to any transportation infrastructure entity used for V2X communications. An RSU may be implemented in or by a suitable RAN node or a stationary (or relatively stationary) UE, where an RSU implemented in or by a UE may be referred to as a“UE-type RSU,” an RSU implemented in or by an eNB may

be referred to as an“eNB-type RSU,” an RSU implemented in or by a gNB may be referred to as a“gNB-type RSU,” and the like. In one example, an RSU is a computing device coupled with radio frequency circuitry located on a roadside that provides connectivity support to passing vehicle UEs 101 (vUEs 101). The RSU may also include internal data storage circuitry to store intersection map geometry, traffic statistics, media, as well as applications/software to sense and control ongoing vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The RSU may operate on the 5.9 GHz Direct Short Range Communications (DSRC) band to provide very low latency communications required for high speed events, such as crash avoidance, traffic warnings, and the like. Additionally or alternatively, the RSU may operate on the cellular V2X band to provide the

aforementioned low latency communications, as well as other cellular communications services. Additionally or alternatively, the RSU may operate as a Wi-Fi hotspot (2.4 GHz band) and/or provide connectivity to one or more cellular networks to provide uplink and downlink communications. The computing device(s) and some or all of the

radiofrequency circuitry of the RSU may be packaged in a weatherproof enclosure suitable for outdoor installation, and may include a network interface controller to provide a wired connection (e.g., Ethernet) to a traffic signal controller and/or a backhaul network.

[0103] Any of the RAN nodes 111 can terminate the air interface protocol and can be the first point of contact for the UEs 101. In some embodiments, any of the RAN nodes 111 can fulfill various logical functions for the RAN 110 including, but not limited to, radio network controller (RNC) functions such as radio bearer management, uplink and downlink dynamic radio resource management and data packet scheduling, and mobility management.

[0104] In embodiments, the UEs 101 can be configured to communicate using OFDM communication signals with each other or with any of the RAN nodes 111 over a multicarrier communication channel in accordance with various communication techniques, such as, but not limited to, an OFDMA communication technique (e.g., for downlink communications) or a SC-FDMA communication technique (e.g., for uplink and ProSe or sidelink communications), although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. The OFDM signals can comprise a plurality of orthogonal subcarriers.

[0105] In some embodiments, a downlink resource grid can be used for downlink transmissions from any of the RAN nodes 111 to the UEs 101, while uplink transmissions can utilize similar techniques. The grid can be a time-frequency grid, called a resource grid or time-frequency resource grid, which is the physical resource in the downlink in each slot. Such a time-frequency plane representation is a common practice for OFDM systems, which makes it intuitive for radio resource allocation. Each column and each row of the resource grid corresponds to one OFDM symbol and one OFDM subcarrier, respectively. The duration of the resource grid in the time domain corresponds to one slot in a radio frame. The smallest time-frequency unit in a resource grid is denoted as a resource element. Each resource grid comprises a number of resource blocks, which describe the mapping of certain physical channels to resource elements. Each resource block comprises a collection of resource elements; in the frequency domain, this may represent the smallest quantity of resources that currently can be allocated. There are several different physical downlink channels that are conveyed using such resource blocks.

[0106] According to various embodiments, the UEs 101 and the RAN nodes 111

communicate data (for example, transmit and receive) data over a licensed medium (also referred to as the“licensed spectrum” and/or the“licensed band”) and an unlicensed shared medium (also referred to as the“unlicensed spectrum” and/or the“unlicensed band”). The licensed spectrum may include channels that operate in the frequency range of approximately 400 MHz to approximately 3.8 GHz, whereas the unlicensed spectrum may include the 5 GHz band.

[0107] To operate in the unlicensed spectrum, the UEs 101 and the RAN nodes 111 may operate using LAA, eLAA, and/or feLAA mechanisms. In these implementations, the UEs 101 and the RAN nodes 111 may perform one or more known medium-sensing operations and/or carrier-sensing operations in order to determine whether one or more channels in the unlicensed spectrum is unavailable or otherwise occupied prior to transmitting in the unlicensed spectrum. The medium/carrier sensing operations may be performed according to a listen-before-talk (LBT) protocol.

[0108] LBT is a mechanism whereby equipment (for example, UEs 101, RAN nodes 111 etc.) senses a medium (for example, a channel or carrier frequency) and transmits when the medium is sensed to be idle (or when a specific channel in the medium is sensed to be unoccupied). The medium sensing operation may include CCA, which utilizes at least ED to determine the presence or absence of other signals on a channel in order to determine if a channel is occupied or clear. This LBT mechanism allows cellular/LAA networks to coexist with incumbent systems in the unlicensed spectrum and with other LAA networks. ED may include sensing RF energy across an intended transmission band for a period of time and comparing the sensed RF energy to a predefined or configured threshold.

[0109] Typically, the incumbent systems in the 5 GHz band are WLANs based on IEEE

802.11 technologies. WLAN employs a contention-based channel access mechanism, called CSMA/CA. Here, when a WLAN node (e.g., a mobile station (MS) such as UEs 101, AP 106, or the like) intends to transmit, the WLAN node may first perform CCA before transmission. Additionally, a backoff mechanism is used to avoid collisions in situations where more than one WLAN node senses the channel as idle and transmits at the same time. The backoff mechanism may be a counter that is drawn randomly within the CWS, which is increased exponentially upon the occurrence of collision and reset to a minimum value when the transmission succeeds. The LBT mechanism designed for LAA is somewhat similar to the CSMA/CA of WLAN. In some implementations, the LBT procedure for DL or UL transmission bursts including PDSCH or PUSCH transmissions, respectively, may have an LAA contention window that is variable in length between X and Y ECCA slots, where X and Y are minimum and maximum values for the CWSs for LAA. In one example, the minimum CWS for an LAA transmission may be 9

microseconds (ps); however, the size of the CWS and a MCOT (for example, a transmission burst) may be based on governmental regulatory requirements.

[0110] The LAA mechanisms are built upon CA technologies of LTE- Advanced systems.

In CA, each aggregated carrier is referred to as a CC. A CC may have a bandwidth of 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz and a maximum of five CCs can be aggregated, and therefore, a maximum aggregated bandwidth is 100 MHz. In FDD systems, the number of aggregated carriers can be different for DL and UL, where the number of UL CCs is equal to or lower than the number of DL component carriers. In some cases, individual CCs can have a different bandwidth than other CCs. In TDD systems, the number of CCs as well as the bandwidths of each CC is usually the same for DL and UL.

[0111] CA also comprises individual serving cells to provide individual CCs. The

coverage of the serving cells may differ, for example, because CCs on different frequency bands will experience different pathloss. A primary service cell or PCell may provide a PCC for both UL and DL, and may handle RRC and NAS related activities. The other serving cells are referred to as SCells, and each SCell may provide an individual SCC for both UL and DL. The SCCs may be added and removed as required, while changing the PCC may require the UEs 101 to undergo a handover. In LAA, eLAA, and feLAA, some or all of the SCells may operate in the unlicensed spectrum (referred to as“LAA SCells”), and the LAA SCells are assisted by a PCell operating in the licensed spectrum. When a UE is configured with more than one LAA SCell, the UE may receive UL grants on the configured LAA SCells indicating different PUSCH starting positions within a same subframe.

[0112] The PDSCH carries user data and higher-layer signaling to the UEs 101. The

PDCCH carries information about the transport format and resource allocations related to the PDSCH channel, among other things. It may also inform the UEs 101 about the transport format, resource allocation, and HARQ information related to the uplink shared channel. Typically, downlink scheduling (assigning control and shared channel resource blocks to the UE 101b within a cell) may be performed at any of the RAN nodes 111 based on channel quality information fed back from any of the UEs 101. The downlink resource assignment information may be sent on the PDCCH used for (e.g., assigned to) each of the UEs 101.

[0113] The PDCCH uses CCEs to convey the control information. Before being mapped to resource elements, the PDCCH complex- valued symbols may first be organized into quadruplets, which may then be permuted using a sub-block interleaver for rate matching. Each PDCCH may be transmitted using one or more of these CCEs, where each CCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource elements known as REGs. Four Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) symbols may be mapped to each REG. The PDCCH can be transmitted using one or more CCEs, depending on the size of the DCI and the channel condition. There can be four or more different PDCCH formats defined in LTE with different numbers of CCEs (e.g., aggregation level, L=l, 2, 4, or 8).

[0114] Some embodiments may use concepts for resource allocation for control channel information that are an extension of the above-described concepts. For example, some embodiments may utilize an EPDCCH that uses PDSCH resources for control

information transmission. The EPDCCH may be transmitted using one or more ECCEs. Similar to above, each ECCE may correspond to nine sets of four physical resource

elements known as an EREGs. An ECCE may have other numbers of EREGs in some situations.

[0115] The RAN nodes 111 may be configured to communicate with one another via interface 112. In embodiments where the system 100 is an LTE system (e.g., when CN 120 is an EPC 220 as in FIG. 18), the interface 112 may be an X2 interface 112. The X2 interface may be defined between two or more RAN nodes 111 (e.g., two or more eNBs and the like) that connect to EPC 120, and/or between two eNBs connecting to EPC 120. In some implementations, the X2 interface may include an X2 user plane interface (X2- U) and an X2 control plane interface (X2-C). The X2-U may provide flow control mechanisms for user data packets transferred over the X2 interface, and may be used to communicate information about the delivery of user data between eNBs. For example, the X2-U may provide specific sequence number information for user data transferred from a MeNB to an SeNB; information about successful in sequence delivery of PDCP PDUs to a UE 101 from an SeNB for user data; information of PDCP PDUs that were not delivered to a UE 101; information about a current minimum desired buffer size at the SeNB for transmitting to the UE user data; and the like. The X2-C may provide intra-LTE access mobility functionality, including context transfers from source to target eNBs, user plane transport control, etc.; load management functionality; as well as inter-cell interference coordination functionality.

[0116] In embodiments where the system 100 is a 5G or NR system (e.g., when CN 120 is an 5GC 320 as in FIG. 19), the interface 112 may be an Xn interface 112. The Xn interface is defined between two or more RAN nodes 111 (e.g., two or more gNBs and the like) that connect to 5GC 120, between a RAN node 111 (e.g., a gNB) connecting to 5GC 120 and an eNB, and/or between two eNBs connecting to 5GC 120. In some implementations, the Xn interface may include an Xn user plane (Xn-U) interface and an Xn control plane (Xn-C) interface. The Xn-U may provide non-guaranteed delivery of user plane PDUs and support/provide data forwarding and flow control functionality. The Xn-C may provide management and error handling functionality, functionality to manage the Xn-C interface; mobility support for UE 101 in a connected mode (e.g., CM- CONNECTED) including functionality to manage the UE mobility for connected mode between one or more RAN nodes 111. The mobility support may include context transfer from an old (source) serving RAN node 111 to new (target) serving RAN node 111; and control of user plane tunnels between old (source) serving RAN node 111 to new (target) serving RAN node 111. A protocol stack of the Xn-U may include a transport network layer built on Internet Protocol (IP) transport layer, and a GTP-U layer on top of a UDP and/or IP layer(s) to carry user plane PDUs. The Xn-C protocol stack may include an application layer signaling protocol (referred to as Xn Application Protocol (Xn-AP)) and a transport network layer that is built on SCTP. The SCTP may be on top of an IP layer, and may provide the guaranteed delivery of application layer messages. In the transport IP layer, point-to-point transmission is used to deliver the signaling PDUs. In other implementations, the Xn-U protocol stack and/or the Xn-C protocol stack may be same or similar to the user plane and/or control plane protocol stack(s) shown and described herein.

[0117] The RAN 110 is shown to be communicatively coupled to a core network— in this embodiment, core network (CN) 120. The CN 120 may comprise a plurality of network elements 122, which are configured to offer various data and telecommunications services to customers/subscribers (e.g., users of UEs 101) who are connected to the CN 120 via the RAN 110. The components of the CN 120 may be implemented in one physical node or separate physical nodes including components to read and execute instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium). In some embodiments, NFV may be utilized to virtualize any or all of the above-described network node functions via executable instructions stored in one or more computer-readable storage mediums (described in further detail below). A logical instantiation of the CN 120 may be referred to as a network slice, and a logical instantiation of a portion of the CN 120 may be referred to as a network sub-slice. NFV architectures and infrastructures may be used to virtualize one or more network functions, alternatively performed by proprietary hardware, onto physical resources comprising a combination of industry-standard server hardware, storage hardware, or switches. In other words, NFV systems can be used to execute virtual or reconfigurable implementations of one or more EPC components/functions.

[0118] Generally, the application server 130 may be an element offering applications that use IP bearer resources with the core network (e.g., UMTS PS domain, LTE PS data services, etc.). The application server 130 can also be configured to support one or more communication services (e.g., VoIP sessions, PTT sessions, group communication sessions, social networking services, etc.) for the UEs 101 via the EPC 120.

[0119] In embodiments, the CN 120 may be a 5GC (referred to as“5GC 120” or the like), and the RAN 110 may be connected with the CN 120 via an NG interface 113. In embodiments, the NG interface 113 may be split into two parts, an NG user plane (NG-U) interface 114, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 111 and a UPF, and the SI control plane (NG-C) interface 115, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 111 and AMFs. Embodiments where the CN 120 is a 5GC 120 are discussed in more detail with regard to FIG. 19.

[0120] In embodiments, the CN 120 may be a 5G CN (referred to as“5GC 120” or the like), while in other embodiments, the CN 120 may be an EPC). Where CN 120 is an EPC (referred to as“EPC 120” or the like), the RAN 110 may be connected with the CN 120 via an SI interface 113. In embodiments, the SI interface 113 may be split into two parts, an SI user plane (Sl-U) interface 114, which carries traffic data between the RAN nodes 111 and the S-GW, and the Sl-MME interface 115, which is a signaling interface between the RAN nodes 111 and MMEs. An example architecture wherein the CN 120 is an EPC 120 is shown by FIG. 18.

[0121] FIG. 19 illustrates an example architecture of a system 200 including a first CN

220, in accordance with various embodiments. In this example, system 200 may implement the LTE standard wherein the CN 220 is an EPC 220 that corresponds with CN 120 of FIG. 19. Additionally, the UE 201 may be the same or similar as the UEs 101 of FIG. 18, and the E-UTRAN 210 may be a RAN that is the same or similar to the RAN 110 of FIG. 18, and which may include RAN nodes 111 discussed previously. The CN 220 may comprise MMEs 221, an S-GW 222, a P-GW 223, a HSS 224, and a SGSN 225.

[0122] The MMEs 221 may be similar in function to the control plane of legacy SGSN, and may implement MM functions to keep track of the current location of a UE 201. The MMEs 221 may perform various MM procedures to manage mobility aspects in access such as gateway selection and tracking area list management. MM (also referred to as “EPS MM” or“EMM” in E-UTRAN systems) may refer to all applicable procedures, methods, data storage, etc. that are used to maintain knowledge about a present location of the UE 201, provide user identity confidentiality, and/or perform other like services to users/subscribers. Each UE 201 and the MME 221 may include an MM or EMM sublayer, and an MM context may be established in the UE 201 and the MME 221 when an attach procedure is successfully completed. The MM context may be a data structure or database object that stores MM-related information of the UE 201. The MMEs 221 may be coupled with the HSS 224 via an S6a reference point, coupled with the SGSN 225 via an S3 reference point, and coupled with the S-GW 222 via an SI 1 reference point.

[0123] The SGSN 225 may be a node that serves the UE 201 by tracking the location of an individual UE 201 and performing security functions. In addition, the SGSN 225 may perform Inter-EPC node signaling for mobility between 2G/3G and E-UTRAN 3 GPP access networks; PDN and S-GW selection as specified by the MMEs 221; handling of UE 201 time zone functions as specified by the MMEs 221; and MME selection for handovers to E-UTRAN 3 GPP access network. The S3 reference point between the MMEs 221 and the SGSN 225 may enable user and bearer information exchange for inter-3GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active states.

[0124] The HSS 224 may comprise a database for network users, including subscription- related information to support the network entities’ handling of communication sessions. The EPC 220 may comprise one or several HSSs 224, depending on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment, on the organization of the network, etc. For example, the HSS 224 can provide support for routing/roaming, authentication, authorization, naming/addressing resolution, location dependencies, etc. An S6a reference point between the HSS 224 and the MMEs 221 may enable transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the EPC 220 between HSS 224 and the MMEs 221.

[0125] The S-GW 222 may terminate the SI interface 113 (“Sl-U” in FIG. 19) toward the RAN 210, and routes data packets between the RAN 210 and the EPC 220. In addition, the S-GW 222 may be a local mobility anchor point for inter-RAN node handovers and also may provide an anchor for inter-3GPP mobility. Other responsibilities may include lawful intercept, charging, and some policy enforcement. The Sl l reference point between the S-GW 222 and the MMEs 221 may provide a control plane between the MMEs 221 and the S-GW 222. The S-GW 222 may be coupled with the P-GW 223 via an S5 reference point.

[0126] The P-GW 223 may terminate an SGi interface toward a PDN 230. The P-GW

223 may route data packets between the EPC 220 and external networks such as a network including the application server 130 (alternatively referred to as an“AF”) via an IP interface 125 (see e.g., Figure 18). In embodiments, the P-GW 223 may be

communicatively coupled to an application server (application server 130 of Figure 17 or PDN 230 in FIG. 19) via an IP communications interface 125 (see, e.g., Figure 18). The S5 reference point between the P-GW 223 and the S-GW 222 may provide user plane tunneling and tunnel management between the P-GW 223 and the S-GW 222. The S5 reference point may also be used for S-GW 222 relocation due to UE 201 mobility and if the S-GW 222 needs to connect to a non-collocated P-GW 223 for the required PDN connectivity. The P-GW 223 may further include a node for policy enforcement and charging data collection (e.g., PCEF (not shown)). Additionally, the SGi reference point between the P-GW 223 and the packet data network (PDN) 230 may be an operator external public, a private PDN, or an intra operator packet data network, for example, for provision of IMS services. The P-GW 223 may be coupled with a PCRF 226 via a Gx reference point.

[0127] PCRF 226 is the policy and charging control element of the EPC 220. In a non roaming scenario, there may be a single PCRF 226 in the Home Public Land Mobile Network (HPLMN) associated with a UE 201’s Internet Protocol Connectivity Access Network (IP-CAN) session. In a roaming scenario with local breakout of traffic, there may be two PCRFs associated with a UE 201’s IP-CAN session, a Home PCRF (H- PCRF) within an HPLMN and a Visited PCRF (V-PCRF) within a Visited Public Land Mobile Network (VPLMN). The PCRF 226 may be communicatively coupled to the application server 230 via the P-GW 223. The application server 230 may signal the PCRF 226 to indicate a new service flow and select the appropriate QoS and charging parameters. The PCRF 226 may provision this rule into a PCEF (not shown) with the appropriate TFT and QCI, which commences the QoS and charging as specified by the application server 230. The Gx reference point between the PCRF 226 and the P-GW 223 may allow for the transfer of QoS policy and charging rules from the PCRF 226 to PCEF in the P-GW 223. An Rx reference point may reside between the PDN 230 (or“AF 230”) and the PCRF 226.

[0128] FIG. 20 illustrates an architecture of a system 300 including a second CN 320 in accordance with various embodiments. The system 300 is shown to include a UE 301, which may be the same or similar to the UEs 101 and UE 201 discussed previously; a (R)AN 310, which may be the same or similar to the RAN 110 and RAN 210 discussed previously, and which may include RAN nodes 111 discussed previously; and a DN 303, which may be, for example, operator services, Internet access or 3rd party services; and a 5GC 320. The 5GC 320 may include an AUSF 322; an AMF 321; a SMF 324; a NEF 323; a PCF 326; a NRF 325; a UDM 327; an AF 328; a UPF 302; and a NSSF 329.

[0129] The UPF 302 may act as an anchor point for intra-RAT and inter-RAT mobility, an external PDU session point of interconnect to DN 303, and a branching point to support multi-homed PDU session. The UPF 302 may also perform packet routing and forwarding, perform packet inspection, enforce the user plane part of policy rules, lawfully intercept packets (UP collection), perform traffic usage reporting, perform QoS handling for a user plane (e.g., packet filtering, gating, UL/DL rate enforcement), perform Uplink Traffic verification (e.g., SDF to QoS flow mapping), transport level packet marking in the uplink and downlink, and perform downlink packet buffering and downlink data notification triggering. UPF 302 may include an uplink classifier to support routing traffic flows to a data network. The DN 303 may represent various network operator services, Internet access, or third party services. DN 303 may include, or be similar to, application server 130 discussed previously. The UPF 302 may interact with the SMF 324 via an N4 reference point between the SMF 324 and the UPF 302.

[0130] The AUSF 322 may store data for authentication of UE 301 and handle

authentication-related functionality. The AUSF 322 may facilitate a common

authentication framework for various access types. The AUSF 322 may communicate with the AMF 321 via an N12 reference point between the AMF 321 and the AUSF 322; and may communicate with the UDM 327 via an N13 reference point between the UDM 327 and the AUSF 322. Additionally, the AUSF 322 may exhibit an Nausf service-based interface.

[0131] The AMF 321 may be responsible for registration management (e.g., for

registering UE 301, etc.), connection management, reachability management, mobility management, and lawful interception of AMF-related events, and access authentication and authorization. The AMF 321 may be a termination point for the an N11 reference point between the AMF 321 and the SMF 324. The AMF 321 may provide transport for SM messages between the UE 301 and the SMF 324, and act as a transparent proxy for routing SM messages. AMF 321 may also provide transport for SMS messages between UE 301 and an SMSF (not shown by FIG. 20). AMF 321 may act as SEAF, which may include interaction with the AUSF 322 and the UE 301, receipt of an intermediate key that was established as a result of the UE 301 authentication process. Where USIM based authentication is used, the AMF 321 may retrieve the security material from the AUSF

322. AMF 321 may also include a SCM function, which receives a key from the SEA that it uses to derive access-network specific keys. Furthermore, AMF 321 may be a termination point of a RAN CP interface, which may include or be an N2 reference point between the (R)AN 310 and the AMF 321; and the AMF 321 may be a termination point of NAS (Nl) signalling, and perform NAS ciphering and integrity protection.

[0132] AMF 321 may also support NAS signalling with a UE 301 over an N3 IWF

interface. The N3IWF may be used to provide access to untrusted entities. N3IWF may be a termination point for the N2 interface between the (R)AN 310 and the AMF 321 for the control plane, and may be a termination point for the N3 reference point between the (R)AN 310 and the UPF 302 for the user plane. As such, the AMF 321 may handle N2 signalling from the SMF 324 and the AMF 321 for PDU sessions and QoS,

encapsulate/de-encapsulate packets for IPSec and N3 tunnelling, mark N3 user-plane packets in the uplink, and enforce QoS corresponding to N3 packet marking taking into account QoS requirements associated with such marking received over N2. N3IWF may also relay uplink and downlink control-plane NAS signalling between the UE 301 and AMF 321 via an Nl reference point between the UE 301 and the AMF 321, and relay uplink and downlink user-plane packets between the UE 301 and UPF 302. The N3IWF also provides mechanisms for IPsec tunnel establishment with the UE 301. The AMF 321 may exhibit an Namf service-based interface, and may be a termination point for an N14 reference point between two AMFs 321 and an N17 reference point between the AMF 321 and a 5G-EIR (not shown by FIG. 20).

[0133] The UE 301 may need to register with the AMF 321 in order to receive network services. RM is used to register or deregister the UE 301 with the network (e.g., AMF 321), and establish a UE context in the network (e.g., AMF 321). The UE 301 may operate in an RM-REGISTERED state or an RM-DEREGISTERED state. In the

RM-DEREGISTERED state, the UE 301 is not registered with the network, and the UE context in AMF 321 holds no valid location or routing information for the UE 301 so the UE 301 is not reachable by the AMF 321. In the RM-REGISTERED state, the UE 301 is registered with the network, and the UE context in AMF 321 may hold a valid location or routing information for the UE 301 so the UE 301 is reachable by the AMF 321. In the RM-REGISTERED state, the UE 301 may perform mobility Registration Update procedures, perform periodic Registration Update procedures triggered by expiration of the periodic update timer (e.g., to notify the network that the UE 301 is still active), and perform a Registration Update procedure to update UE capability information or to re negotiate protocol parameters with the network, among others.

[0134] The AMF 321 may store one or more RM contexts for the UE 301, where each

RM context is associated with a specific access to the network. The RM context may be a data structure, database object, etc. that indicates or stores, inter alia, a registration state per access type and the periodic update timer. The AMF 321 may also store a 5GC MM context that may be the same or similar to the (E)MM context discussed previously. In various embodiments, the AMF 321 may store a CE mode B Restriction parameter of the UE 301 in an associated MM context or RM context. The AMF 321 may also derive the value, when needed, from the UE’ s usage setting parameter already stored in the UE context (and/or MM/RM context).

[0135] CM may be used to establish and release a signaling connection between the UE

301 and the AMF 321 over the N1 interface. The signaling connection is used to enable NAS signaling exchange between the UE 301 and the CN 320, and comprises both the signaling connection between the UE and the AN (e.g., RRC connection or UE-N3IWF connection for non-3GPP access) and the N2 connection for the UE 301 between the AN (e.g., RAN 310) and the AMF 321. The UE 301 may operate in one of two CM states, CM-IDLE mode or CM-CONNECTED mode. When the UE 301 is operating in the CM- IDLE state/mode, the UE 301 may have no NAS signaling connection established with the AMF 321 over the N1 interface, and there may be (R)AN 310 signaling connection (e.g., N2 and/or N3 connections) for the UE 301. When the UE 301 is operating in the CM-CONNECTED state/mode, the UE 301 may have an established NAS signaling connection with the AMF 321 over the N1 interface, and there may be a (R)AN 310 signaling connection (e.g., N2 and/or N3 connections) for the UE 301. Establishment of an N2 connection between the (R)AN 310 and the AMF 321 may cause the UE 301 to transition from CM-IDLE mode to CM-CONNECTED mode, and the UE 301 may transition from the CM-CONNECTED mode to the CM-IDLE mode when N2 signaling between the (R)AN 310 and the AMF 321 is released.

[0136] The SMF 324 may be responsible for SM (e.g., session establishment, modify and release, including tunnel maintain between UPF and AN node); UE IP address allocation and management (including optional authorization); selection and control of UP function; configuring traffic steering at UPF to route traffic to proper destination; termination of interfaces toward policy control functions; controlling part of policy enforcement and

QoS; lawful intercept (for SM events and interface to LI system); termination of SM parts of NAS messages; downlink data notification; initiating AN specific SM information, sent via AMF over N2 to AN; and determining SSC mode of a session. SM may refer to management of a PDU session, and a PDU session or“session” may refer to a PDU connectivity service that provides or enables the exchange of PDUs between a UE 301 and a data network (DN) 303 identified by a Data Network Name (DNN). PDU sessions may be established upon UE 301 request, modified upon UE 301 and 5GC 320 request, and released upon UE 301 and 5GC 320 request using NAS SM signaling exchanged over the N1 reference point between the UE 301 and the SMF 324. Upon request from an application server, the 5GC 320 may trigger a specific application in the UE 301. In response to receipt of the trigger message, the UE 301 may pass the trigger message (or relevant parts/information of the trigger message) to one or more identified applications in the UE 301. The identified application(s) in the UE 301 may establish a PDU session to a specific DNN. The SMF 324 may check whether the UE 301 requests are compliant with user subscription information associated with the UE 301. In this regard, the SMF 324 may retrieve and/or request to receive update notifications on SMF 324 level subscription data from the UDM 327.

[0137] The SMF 324 may include the following roaming functionality: handling local enforcement to apply QoS SLAs (VPLMN); charging data collection and charging interface (VPLMN); lawful intercept (in VPLMN for SM events and interface to LI system); and support for interaction with external DN for transport of signalling for PDU session authorization/authentication by external DN. An N16 reference point between two SMFs 324 may be included in the system 300, which may be between another SMF 324 in a visited network and the SMF 324 in the home network in roaming scenarios.

Additionally, the SMF 324 may exhibit the Nsmf service-based interface.

[0138] The NEF 323 may provide means for securely exposing the services and

capabilities provided by 3 GPP network functions for third party, internal exposure/re exposure, Application Functions (e.g., AF 328), edge computing or fog computing systems, etc. In such embodiments, the NEF 323 may authenticate, authorize, and/or throttle the AFs. NEF 323 may also translate information exchanged with the AF 328 and information exchanged with internal network functions. For example, the NEF 323 may translate between an AF-Service-Identifier and an internal 5GC information. NEF 323 may also receive information from other network functions (NFs) based on exposed

capabilities of other network functions. This information may be stored at the NEF 323 as structured data, or at a data storage NF using standardized interfaces. The stored information can then be re-exposed by the NEF 323 to other NFs and AFs, and/or used for other purposes such as analytics. Additionally, the NEF 323 may exhibit an Nnef service-based interface.

[0139] The NRF 325 may support service discovery functions, receive NF discovery requests from NF instances, and provide the information of the discovered NF instances to the NF instances. NRF 325 also maintains information of available NF instances and their supported services. As used herein, the terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like may refer to the creation of an instance, and an“instance” may refer to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code. Additionally, the NRF 325 may exhibit the Nnrf service-based interface.

[0140] The PCF 326 may provide policy rules to control plane function(s) to enforce them, and may also support unified policy framework to govern network behaviour. The PCF 326 may also implement an FE to access subscription information relevant for policy decisions in a UDR of the UDM 327. The PCF 326 may communicate with the AMF 321 via an N15 reference point between the PCF 326 and the AMF 321, which may include a PCF 326 in a visited network and the AMF 321 in case of roaming scenarios. The PCF

326 may communicate with the AF 328 via an N5 reference point between the PCF 326 and the AF 328; and with the SMF 324 via an N7 reference point between the PCF 326 and the SMF 324. The system 300 and/or CN 320 may also include an N24 reference point between the PCF 326 (in the home network) and a PCF 326 in a visited network. Additionally, the PCF 326 may exhibit an Npcf service-based interface.

[0141] The ETDM 327 may handle subscription-related information to support the

network entities’ handling of communication sessions, and may store subscription data of UE 301. For example, subscription data may be communicated between the UDM 327 and the AMF 321 via an N8 reference point between the UDM 327 and the AMF. The UDM 327 may include two parts, an application FE and a UDR (the FE and UDR are not shown by FIG. 20). The UDR may store subscription data and policy data for the UDM

327 and the PCF 326, and/or structured data for exposure and application data (including PFDs for application detection, application request information for multiple UEs 301) for the NEF 323. The Nudr service-based interface may be exhibited by the UDR 221 to allow the UDM 327, PCF 326, and NEF 323 to access a particular set of the stored data, as well as to read, update (e.g., add, modify), delete, and subscribe to notification of relevant data changes in the UDR. The UDM may include a UDM-FE, which is in charge of processing credentials, location management, subscription management and so on. Several different front ends may serve the same user in different transactions. The UDM- FE accesses subscription information stored in the UDR and performs authentication credential processing, user identification handling, access authorization,

registration/mobility management, and subscription management. The UDR may interact with the SMF 324 via an N10 reference point between the UDM 327 and the SMF 324. UDM 327 may also support SMS management, wherein an SMS-FE implements the similar application logic as discussed previously. Additionally, the UDM 327 may exhibit the Nudm service-based interface.

[0142] The AF 328 may provide application influence on traffic routing, provide access to the NCE, and interact with the policy framework for policy control. The NCE may be a mechanism that allows the 5GC 320 and AF 328 to provide information to each other via NEF 323, which may be used for edge computing implementations. In such

implementations, the network operator and third party services may be hosted close to the UE 301 access point of attachment to achieve an efficient service delivery through the reduced end-to-end latency and load on the transport network. For edge computing implementations, the 5GC may select a UPF 302 close to the UE 301 and execute traffic steering from the UPF 302 to DN 303 via the N6 interface. This may be based on the UE subscription data, UE location, and information provided by the AF 328. In this way, the AF 328 may influence UPF (re)selection and traffic routing. Based on operator deployment, when AF 328 is considered to be a trusted entity, the network operator may permit AF 328 to interact directly with relevant NFs. Additionally, the AF 328 may exhibit an Naf service-based interface.

[0143] The NSSF 329 may select a set of network slice instances serving the UE 301.

The NSSF 329 may also determine allowed NSSAI and the mapping to the subscribed S- NSSAIs, if needed. The NSSF 329 may also determine the AMF set to be used to serve the UE 301, or a list of candidate AMF(s) 321 based on a suitable configuration and possibly by querying the NRF 325. The selection of a set of network slice instances for the UE 301 may be triggered by the AMF 321 with which the UE 301 is registered by interacting with the NSSF 329, which may lead to a change of AMF 321. The NSSF 329 may interact with the AMF 321 via an N22 reference point between AMF 321 and NSSF

329; and may communicate with another NSSF 329 in a visited network via an N31 reference point (not shown by FIG. 19). Additionally, the NSSF 329 may exhibit an Nnssf service-based interface.

[0144] As discussed previously, the CN 320 may include an SMSF, which may be

responsible for SMS subscription checking and verification, and relaying SM messages to/from the UE 301 to/from other entities, such as an SMS-GMSC/IWMSC/SMS-router. The SMS may also interact with AMF 321 and UDM 327 for a notification procedure that the UE 301 is available for SMS transfer (e.g., set a UE not reachable flag, and notifying UDM 327 when UE 301 is available for SMS).

[0145] The CN 320 may also include other elements that are not shown by FIG. 20, such as a Data Storage system/architecture, a 5G-EIR, a SEPP, and the like. The Data Storage system may include a SDSF, an UDSF, and/or the like. Any NF may store and retrieve unstructured data into/from the UDSF (e.g., UE contexts), via N18 reference point between any NF and the UDSF (not shown by FIG. 19). Individual NFs may share a UDSF for storing their respective unstructured data or individual NFs may each have their own UDSF located at or near the individual NFs. Additionally, the UDSF may exhibit an Nudsf service-based interface (not shown by FIG. 20). The 5G-EIR may be an NF that checks the status of PEI for determining whether particular equipment/entities are blacklisted from the network; and the SEPP may be a non-transparent proxy that performs topology hiding, message filtering, and policing on inter-PLMN control plane interfaces.

[0146] Additionally, there may be many more reference points and/or service-based

interfaces between the NF services in the NFs; however, these interfaces and reference points have been omitted from FIG. 20 for clarity. In one example, the CN 320 may include an Nx interface, which is an inter-CN interface between the MME (e.g., MME 221) and the AMF 321 in order to enable interworking between CN 320 and CN 220. Other example interfaces/reference points may include an N5g-EIR service-based interface exhibited by a 5G-EIR, an N27 reference point between the NRF in the visited network and the NRF in the home network; and an N31 reference point between the NSSF in the visited network and the NSSF in the home network.

[0147] FIG. 21 A illustrates an example of infrastructure equipment 400 in accordance with various embodiments. The infrastructure equipment 400 (or“system 400”) may be implemented as a base station, radio head, RAN node such as the RAN nodes 111 and/or AP 106 shown and described previously, application server(s) 130, and/or any other

element/device discussed herein. In other examples, the system 400 could be implemented in or by a UE.

[0148] The system 400 includes application circuitry 405, baseband circuitry 410, one or more radio front end modules (RFEMs) 415, memory circuitry 420, power management integrated circuitry (PMIC) 425, power tee circuitry 430, network controller circuitry 435, network interface connector 440, satellite positioning circuitry 445, and user interface 450. In some embodiments, the device 400 may include additional elements such as, for example, memory/storage, display, camera, sensor, or input/output (EO) interface. In other embodiments, the components described below may be included in more than one device. For example, said circuitries may be separately included in more than one device for CRAN, vBBU, or other like implementations.

[0149] Application circuitry 405 includes circuitry such as, but not limited to one or more processors (or processor cores), cache memory, and one or more of low drop-out voltage regulators (LDOs), interrupt controllers, serial interfaces such as SPI, I2C or universal programmable serial interface module, real time clock (RTC), timer-counters including interval and watchdog timers, general purpose input/output (I/O or IO), memory card controllers such as Secure Digital (SD) MultiMediaCard (MMC) or similar, Universal Serial Bus (USB) interfaces, Mobile Industry Processor Interface (MIPI) interfaces and Joint Test Access Group (JTAG) test access ports. The processors (or cores) of the application circuitry 405 may be coupled with or may include memory/storage elements and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the system 400. In some

implementations, the memory/storage elements may be on-chip memory circuitry, which may include any suitable volatile and/or non-volatile memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash memory, solid-state memory, and/or any other type of memory device technology, such as those discussed herein.

[0150] The processor(s) of application circuitry 405 may include, for example, one or more processor cores (CPUs), one or more application processors, one or more graphics processing units (GPUs), one or more reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processors, one or more Acorn RISC Machine (ARM) processors, one or more complex instruction set computing (CISC) processors, one or more digital signal processors (DSP), one or more FPGAs, one or more PLDs, one or more ASICs, one or more

microprocessors or controllers, or any suitable combination thereof. In some

embodiments, the application circuitry 405 may comprise, or may be, a special-purpose processor/controller to operate according to the various embodiments herein. As examples, the processor(s) of application circuitry 405 may include one or more Intel Pentium®, Core®, or Xeon® processor(s); Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Ryzen® processor(s), Accelerated Processing Units (APUs), or Epyc® processors; ARM-based processor(s) licensed from ARM Holdings, Ltd. such as the ARM Cortex-A family of processors and the ThunderX2® provided by Cavium(TM), Inc.; a MIPS-based design from MIPS Technologies, Inc. such as MIPS Warrior P-class processors; and/or the like. In some embodiments, the system 400 may not utilize application circuitry 405, and instead may include a special-purpose processor/controller to process IP data received from an EPC or 5GC, for example.

[0151] In some implementations, the application circuitry 405 may include one or more hardware accelerators, which may be microprocessors, programmable processing devices, or the like. The one or more hardware accelerators may include, for example, computer vision (CV) and/or deep learning (DL) accelerators. As examples, the programmable processing devices may be one or more a field-programmable devices (FPDs) such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and the like; programmable logic devices (PLDs) such as complex PLDs (CPLDs), high-capacity PLDs (HCPLDs), and the like; ASICs such as structured ASICs and the like; programmable SoCs (PSoCs); and the like. In such implementations, the circuitry of application circuitry 405 may comprise logic blocks or logic fabric, and other interconnected resources that may be programmed to perform various functions, such as the procedures, methods, functions, etc. of the various embodiments discussed herein. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 405 may include memory cells (e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory

(EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory, static memory (e.g., static random access memory (SRAM), anti-fuses, etc.)) used to store logic blocks, logic fabric, data, etc. in look-up-tables (LUTs) and the like.

[0152] The baseband circuitry 410 may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits, a single packaged integrated circuit soldered to a main circuit board or a multi-chip module containing two or more integrated circuits. The various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry 410 are discussed infra with regard to FIG. 23.

[0153] User interface circuitry 450 may include one or more user interfaces designed to enable user interaction with the system 400 or peripheral component interfaces designed to enable peripheral component interaction with the system 400. User interfaces may include, but are not limited to, one or more physical or virtual buttons (e.g., a reset button), one or more indicators (e.g., light emitting diodes (LEDs)), a physical keyboard or keypad, a mouse, a touchpad, a touchscreen, speakers or other audio emitting devices, microphones, a printer, a scanner, a headset, a display screen or display device, etc.

Peripheral component interfaces may include, but are not limited to, a nonvolatile memory port, a universal serial bus (USB) port, an audio jack, a power supply interface, etc.

[0154] The radio front-end modules (RFEMs) 415 may comprise a millimeter wave

(mmWave) RFEM and one or more sub-mmWave radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). In some implementations, the one or more sub-mmWave RFICs may be physically separated from the mmWave RFEM. The RFICs may include connections to one or more antennas or antenna arrays (see e.g., antenna array 611 of FIG. 23 infra), and the RFEM may be connected to multiple antennas. In alternative implementations, both mmWave and sub-mmWave radio functions may be implemented in the same physical RFEM 415, which incorporates both mmWave antennas and sub-mmWave.

[0155] The memory circuitry 420 may include one or more of volatile memory including dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and/or synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM), and nonvolatile memory (NVM) including high-speed electrically erasable memory (commonly referred to as Flash memory), phase change random access memory (PRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), etc., and may incorporate the three-dimensional (3D) cross-point (XPOINT) memories from Intel® and Micron®. Memory circuitry 420 may be implemented as one or more of solder down packaged integrated circuits, socketed memory modules and plug-in memory cards.

[0156] The PMIC 425 may include voltage regulators, surge protectors, power alarm detection circuitry, and one or more backup power sources such as a battery or capacitor. The power alarm detection circuitry may detect one or more of brown out (under-voltage) and surge (over-voltage) conditions. The power tee circuitry 430 may provide for electrical power drawn from a network cable to provide both power supply and data connectivity to the infrastructure equipment 400 using a single cable.

[0157] The network controller circuitry 435 may provide connectivity to a network using a standard network interface protocol such as Ethernet, Ethernet over GRE Tunnels, Ethernet over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), or some other suitable protocol. Network connectivity may be provided to/from the infrastructure equipment 400 via network interface connector 440 using a physical connection, which may be electrical (commonly referred to as a“copper interconnect”), optical, or wireless. The network controller circuitry 435 may include one or more dedicated processors and/or FPGAs to communicate using one or more of the aforementioned protocols. In some

implementations, the network controller circuitry 435 may include multiple controllers to provide connectivity to other networks using the same or different protocols.

[0158] The positioning circuitry 445 includes circuitry to receive and decode signals transmitted/broadcasted by a positioning network of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Examples of navigation satellite constellations (or GNSS) include United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS), Russia’s Global Navigation System (GLONASS), the European Union’s Galileo system, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, a regional navigation system or GNSS augmentation system (e.g., Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC), Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), France’s Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), etc.), or the like. The positioning circuitry 445 comprises various hardware elements (e.g., including hardware devices such as switches, filters, amplifiers, antenna elements, and the like to facilitate OTA communications) to communicate with components of a positioning network, such as navigation satellite constellation nodes. In some embodiments, the positioning circuitry 445 may include a Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (Micro-PNT) IC that uses a master timing clock to perform position tracking/estimation without GNSS assistance. The positioning circuitry 445 may also be part of, or interact with, the baseband circuitry 410 and/or RFEMs 415 to communicate with the nodes and components of the positioning network. The positioning circuitry 445 may also provide position data and/or time data to the application circuitry 405, which may use the data to synchronize operations with various infrastructure (e.g., RAN nodes 111, etc.), or the like.

[0159] The components shown by FIG. 21 A may communicate with one another using interface circuitry, which may include any number of bus and/or interconnect (IX) technologies such as industry standard architecture (ISA), extended ISA (EISA),

peripheral component interconnect (PCI), peripheral component interconnect extended (PCIx), PCI express (PCIe), or any number of other technologies. The bus/IX may be a proprietary bus, for example, used in a SoC based system. Other bus/IX systems may be included, such as an I2C interface, an SPI interface, point to point interfaces, and a power bus, among others.

[0160] FIG. 2 IB depicts example infrastructure equipment 460 in accordance with

various embodiments. The infrastructure equipment 460 (or“system 460”) may be implemented as a base station, radio head, RAN node such as the RAN nodes 111 and/or AP 106 shown and described previously, application server(s) 130, and/or any other element/device discussed herein. In other examples, the system 460 could be

implemented in or by a UE.

[0161] The system 460 is similar to the system 400 depcited in FIG. 21 A, and includes many of the same components as the system 400. For instance, the system 460 includes positioning circuitry 445, user interface circuitry 450, application circuitry 405, memory circuitry 420, network controller circuitry 435, PMIC 425, and power tee 430. In accordance with various embodiments, system 460 further includes communication system 462 and communication system 464. The communication system 462 includes baseband circuitry 466 and a radio front end module 468. The communication system 464 similarly includes baseband circuitry 470 and a radio front end module 472. Various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry 466, 470 and radio front end modules 468, 472 are discussed infra with regard to FIG. 23. In various implementations, the communication system 462 can be a cellular based communication system, such as, for instance, a LTE C-V2X communication system, operating as described herein. The communication system 464 can be an IEEE 802.11 based communication system (i.e., a WLAN based communication system), such as an ITS-G5 communication system or a DSRC communication system, operating as described herein.

[0162] FIG. 22 illustrates an example of a platform 500 (or“device 500”) in accordance with various embodiments. In embodiments, the computer platform 500 may be suitable for use as UEs 101, 201, application servers 130, and/or any other element/device discussed herein. The platform 500 may include any combinations of the components shown in the example. The components of platform 500 may be implemented as integrated circuits (ICs), portions thereof, discrete electronic devices, or other modules, logic, hardware, software, firmware, or a combination thereof adapted in the computer

platform 500, or as components otherwise incorporated within a chassis of a larger system. The block diagram of FIG. 22 is intended to show a high level view of components of the computer platform 500. However, some of the components shown may be omitted, additional components may be present, and different arrangement of the components shown may occur in other implementations.

[0163] Application circuitry 505 includes circuitry such as, but not limited to one or more processors (or processor cores), cache memory, and one or more of LDOs, interrupt controllers, serial interfaces such as SPI, I2C or universal programmable serial interface module, RTC, timer-counters including interval and watchdog timers, general purpose I/O, memory card controllers such as SD MMC or similar, USB interfaces, MIPI interfaces, and JTAG test access ports. The processors (or cores) of the application circuitry 505 may be coupled with or may include memory/storage elements and may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory/storage to enable various applications or operating systems to run on the system 500. In some implementations, the memory/storage elements may be on-chip memory circuitry, which may include any suitable volatile and/or non-volatile memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, EPROM,

EEPROM, Flash memory, solid-state memory, and/or any other type of memory device technology, such as those discussed herein.

[0164] The processor(s) of application circuitry 505 may include, for example, one or more processor cores, one or more application processors, one or more GPUs, one or more RISC processors, one or more ARM processors, one or more CISC processors, one or more DSP, one or more FPGAs, one or more PLDs, one or more ASICs, one or more microprocessors or controllers, a multithreaded processor, an ultra-low voltage processor, an embedded processor, some other known processing element, or any suitable combination thereof. In some embodiments, the application circuitry 505 may comprise, or may be, a special-purpose processor/controller to operate according to the various embodiments herein.

[0165] As examples, the processor(s) of application circuitry 505 may include an Intel®

Architecture Core™ based processor, such as a Quark™, an Atom™, an i3, an i5, an i7, or an MCU-class processor, or another such processor available from Intel® Corporation, Santa Clara, CA. The processors of the application circuitry 505 may also be one or more of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Ryzen® processor(s) or Accelerated Processing Units (APUs); A5-A9 processor(s) from Apple® Inc., Snapdragon™ processor(s) from

Qualcomm® Technologies, Inc., Texas Instruments, Inc.® Open Multimedia Applications Platform (OMAP)™ processor(s); a MIPS-based design from MIPS Technologies, Inc. such as MIPS Warrior M-class, Warrior I-class, and Warrior P-class processors; an ARM-based design licensed from ARM Holdings, Ltd., such as the ARM Cortex- A, Cortex-R, and Cortex-M family of processors; or the like. In some

implementations, the application circuitry 505 may be a part of a system on a chip (SoC) in which the application circuitry 505 and other components are formed into a single integrated circuit, or a single package, such as the Edison™ or Galileo™ SoC boards from Intel® Corporation.

[0166] Additionally or alternatively, application circuitry 505 may include circuitry such as, but not limited to, one or more a field-programmable devices (FPDs) such as FPGAs and the like; programmable logic devices (PLDs) such as complex PLDs (CPLDs), high- capacity PLDs (HCPLDs), and the like; ASICs such as structured ASICs and the like; programmable SoCs (PSoCs); and the like. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 505 may comprise logic blocks or logic fabric, and other

interconnected resources that may be programmed to perform various functions, such as the procedures, methods, functions, etc. of the various embodiments discussed herein. In such embodiments, the circuitry of application circuitry 505 may include memory cells (e.g., erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory, static memory (e.g., static random access memory (SRAM), anti-fuses, etc.)) used to store logic blocks, logic fabric, data, etc. in look-up tables (LUTs) and the like.

[0167] The baseband circuitry 510 may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits, a single packaged integrated circuit soldered to a main circuit board or a multi-chip module containing two or more integrated circuits. The various hardware electronic elements of baseband circuitry 510 are discussed infra with regard to FIG. 23.

[0168] The RFEMs 515 may comprise a millimeter wave (mmWave) RFEM and one or more sub-mmWave radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). In some

implementations, the one or more sub-mmWave RFICs may be physically separated from the mmWave RFEM. The RFICs may include connections to one or more antennas or antenna arrays (see e.g., antenna array 611 of FIG. 23 infra), and the RFEM may be connected to multiple antennas. In alternative implementations, both mmWave and sub- mmWave radio functions may be implemented in the same physical RFEM 515, which incorporates both mmWave antennas and sub-mmWave.

[0169] The memory circuitry 520 may include any number and type of memory devices used to provide for a given amount of system memory. As examples, the memory circuitry 520 may include one or more of volatile memory including random access memory (RAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM) and/or synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM), and nonvolatile memory (NVM) including high-speed electrically erasable memory (commonly referred to as Flash memory), phase change random access memory (PRAM), magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), etc. The memory circuitry 520 may be developed in accordance with a Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council (JEDEC) low power double data rate (LPDDR)-based design, such as LPDDR2, LPDDR3, LPDDR4, or the like. Memory circuitry 520 may be implemented as one or more of solder down packaged integrated circuits, single die package (SDP), dual die package (DDP) or quad die package (Q17P), socketed memory modules, dual inline memory modules (DIMMs) including microDIMMs or MiniDIMMs, and/or soldered onto a motherboard via a ball grid array (BGA). In low power implementations, the memory circuitry 520 may be on-die memory or registers associated with the application circuitry 505. To provide for persistent storage of information such as data, applications, operating systems and so forth, memory circuitry 520 may include one or more mass storage devices, which may include, inter alia, a solid state disk drive (SSDD), hard disk drive (HDD), a micro HDD, resistance change memories, phase change memories, holographic memories, or chemical memories, among others. For example, the computer platform 500 may incorporate the three-dimensional (3D) cross-point (XPOINT) memories from Intel® and Micron®.

[0170] Removable memory circuitry 523 may include devices, circuitry,

enclosures/housings, ports or receptacles, etc. used to couple portable data storage devices with the platform 500. These portable data storage devices may be used for mass storage purposes, and may include, for example, flash memory cards (e.g., Secure Digital (SD) cards, microSD cards, xD picture cards, and the like), and USB flash drives, optical discs, external HDDs, and the like.

[0171] The platform 500 may also include interface circuitry (not shown) that is used to connect external devices with the platform 500. The external devices connected to the platform 500 via the interface circuitry include sensor circuitry 521 and electro-

mechanical components (EMCs) 522, as well as removable memory devices coupled to removable memory circuitry 523.

[0172] The sensor circuitry 521 include devices, modules, or subsystems whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information (sensor data) about the detected events to some other a device, module, subsystem, etc. Examples of such sensors include, inter alia, inertia measurement units (IMUs) comprising

accelerometers, gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers; microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) comprising 3-axis accelerometers, 3-axis gyroscopes, and/or magnetometers; level sensors; flow sensors; temperature sensors (e.g., thermistors); pressure sensors; barometric pressure sensors; gravimeters; altimeters; image capture devices (e.g., cameras or lensless apertures); light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors; proximity sensors (e.g., infrared radiation detector and the like), depth sensors, ambient light sensors, ultrasonic transceivers; microphones or other like audio capture devices; etc.

[0173] EMCs 522 include devices, modules, or subsystems whose purpose is to enable platform 500 to change its state, position, and/or orientation, or move or control a mechanism or (sub)system. Additionally, EMCs 522 may be configured to generate and send messages/signalling to other components of the platform 500 to indicate a current state of the EMCs 522. Examples of the EMCs 522 include one or more power switches, relays including electromechanical relays (EMRs) and/or solid state relays (SSRs), actuators (e.g., valve actuators, etc.), an audible sound generator, a visual warning device, motors (e.g., DC motors, stepper motors, etc.), wheels, thrusters, propellers, claws, clamps, hooks, and/or other like electro-mechanical components. In embodiments, platform 500 is configured to operate one or more EMCs 522 based on one or more captured events and/or instructions or control signals received from a service provider and/or various clients.

[0174] In some implementations, the interface circuitry may connect the platform 500 with positioning circuitry 545. The positioning circuitry 545 includes circuitry to receive and decode signals transmitted/broadcasted by a positioning network of a GNSS.

Examples of navigation satellite constellations (or GNSS) include United States’ GPS, Russia’s GLONASS, the European Union’s Galileo system, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, a regional navigation system or GNSS augmentation system (e.g., NAVIC), Japan’s QZSS, France’s DORIS, etc.), or the like. The positioning circuitry 545 comprises various hardware elements (e.g., including hardware devices such as switches, filters, amplifiers, antenna elements, and the like to facilitate OTA communications) to communicate with components of a positioning network, such as navigation satellite constellation nodes. In some embodiments, the positioning circuitry 545 may include a Micro-PNT IC that uses a master timing clock to perform position tracking/estimation without GNSS assistance. The positioning circuitry 545 may also be part of, or interact with, the baseband circuitry 410 and/or RFEMs 515 to communicate with the nodes and components of the positioning network. The positioning circuitry 545 may also provide position data and/or time data to the application circuitry 505, which may use the data to synchronize operations with various infrastructure (e.g., radio base stations), for turn-by turn navigation applications, or the like

[0175] In some implementations, the interface circuitry may connect the platform 500 with Near-Field Communication (NFC) circuitry 540. NFC circuitry 540 is configured to provide contactless, short-range communications based on radio frequency identification (RFID) standards, wherein magnetic field induction is used to enable communication between NFC circuitry 540 and NFC-enabled devices external to the platform 500 (e.g., an“NFC touchpoinf’). NFC circuitry 540 comprises an NFC controller coupled with an antenna element and a processor coupled with the NFC controller. The NFC controller may be a chip/IC providing NFC functionalities to the NFC circuitry 540 by executing NFC controller firmware and an NFC stack. The NFC stack may be executed by the processor to control the NFC controller, and the NFC controller firmware may be executed by the NFC controller to control the antenna element to emit short-range RF signals. The RF signals may power a passive NFC tag (e.g., a microchip embedded in a sticker or wristband) to transmit stored data to the NFC circuitry 540, or initiate data transfer between the NFC circuitry 540 and another active NFC device (e.g., a smartphone or an NFC-enabled POS terminal) that is proximate to the platform 500.

[0176] The driver circuitry 546 may include software and hardware elements that operate to control particular devices that are embedded in the platform 500, attached to the platform 500, or otherwise communicatively coupled with the platform 500. The driver circuitry 546 may include individual drivers allowing other components of the platform 500 to interact with or control various input/output (I/O) devices that may be present within, or connected to, the platform 500. For example, driver circuitry 546 may include a display driver to control and allow access to a display device, a touchscreen driver to control and allow access to a touchscreen interface of the platform 500, sensor drivers to obtain sensor readings of sensor circuitry 521 and control and allow access to sensor circuitry 521, EMC drivers to obtain actuator positions of the EMCs 522 and/or control and allow access to the EMCs 522, a camera driver to control and allow access to an embedded image capture device, audio drivers to control and allow access to one or more audio devices.

[0177] The power management integrated circuitry (PMIC) 525 (also referred to as

“power management circuitry 525”) may manage power provided to various components of the platform 500. In particular, with respect to the baseband circuitry 510, the PMIC 525 may control power-source selection, voltage scaling, battery charging, or DC-to-DC conversion. The PMIC 525 may often be included when the platform 500 is capable of being powered by a battery 530, for example, when the device is included in a UE 101, 201

[0178] In some embodiments, the PMIC 525 may control, or otherwise be part of, various power saving mechanisms of the platform 500. For example, if the platform 500 is in an RRC Connected state, where it is still connected to the RAN node as it expects to receive traffic shortly, then it may enter a state known as Discontinuous Reception Mode (DRX) after a period of inactivity. During this state, the platform 500 may power down for brief intervals of time and thus save power. If there is no data traffic activity for an extended period of time, then the platform 500 may transition off to an RRC Idle state, where it disconnects from the network and does not perform operations such as channel quality feedback, handover, etc. The platform 500 goes into a very low power state and it performs paging where again it periodically wakes up to listen to the network and then powers down again. The platform 500 may not receive data in this state; in order to receive data, it must transition back to RRC Connected state. An additional power saving mode may allow a device to be unavailable to the network for periods longer than a paging interval (ranging from seconds to a few hours). During this time, the device is totally unreachable to the network and may power down completely. Any data sent during this time incurs a large delay and it is assumed the delay is acceptable.

[0179] A battery 530 may power the platform 500, although in some examples the

platform 500 may be mounted deployed in a fixed location, and may have a power supply coupled to an electrical grid. The battery 530 may be a lithium ion battery, a metal-air battery, such as a zinc-air battery, an aluminum-air battery, a lithium-air battery, and the like. In some implementations, such as in V2X applications, the battery 530 may be a typical lead-acid automotive battery.

[0180] In some implementations, the battery 530 may be a“smart battery,” which

includes or is coupled with a Battery Management System (BMS) or battery monitoring integrated circuitry. The BMS may be included in the platform 500 to track the state of charge (SoCh) of the battery 530. The BMS may be used to monitor other parameters of the battery 530 to provide failure predictions, such as the state of health (SoH) and the state of function (SoF) of the battery 530. The BMS may communicate the information of the battery 530 to the application circuitry 505 or other components of the platform 500. The BMS may also include an analog-to-digital (ADC) convertor that allows the application circuitry 505 to directly monitor the voltage of the battery 530 or the current flow from the battery 530. The battery parameters may be used to determine actions that the platform 500 may perform, such as transmission frequency, network operation, sensing frequency, and the like.

[0181] A power block, or other power supply coupled to an electrical grid may be

coupled with the BMS to charge the battery 530. In some examples, the power block 530 may be replaced with a wireless power receiver to obtain the power wirelessly, for example, through a loop antenna in the computer platform 500. In these examples, a wireless battery charging circuit may be included in the BMS. The specific charging circuits chosen may depend on the size of the battery 530, and thus, the current required. The charging may be performed using the Airfuel standard promulgated by the Airfuel Alliance, the Qi wireless charging standard promulgated by the Wireless Power

Consortium, or the Rezence charging standard promulgated by the Alliance for Wireless Power, among others.

[0182] User interface circuitry 550 includes various input/output (I/O) devices present within, or connected to, the platform 500, and includes one or more user interfaces designed to enable user interaction with the platform 500 and/or peripheral component interfaces designed to enable peripheral component interaction with the platform 500. The user interface circuitry 550 includes input device circuitry and output device circuitry. Input device circuitry includes any physical or virtual means for accepting an input including, inter alia, one or more physical or virtual buttons (e.g., a reset button), a physical keyboard, keypad, mouse, touchpad, touchscreen, microphones, scanner, headset, and/or the like. The output device circuitry includes any physical or virtual means for showing information or otherwise conveying information, such as sensor readings, actuator position(s), or other like information. Output device circuitry may include any number and/or combinations of audio or visual display, including, inter alia, one or more simple visual outputs/indicators (e.g., binary status indicators (e.g., light emitting diodes (LEDs)) and multi-character visual outputs, or more complex outputs such as display devices or touchscreens (e.g., Liquid Chrystal Displays (LCD), LED displays, quantum dot displays, projectors, etc.), with the output of characters, graphics, multimedia objects, and the like being generated or produced from the operation of the platform 500. The output device circuitry may also include speakers or other audio emitting devices, printer(s), and/or the like. In some embodiments, the sensor circuitry 521 may be used as the input device circuitry (e.g., an image capture device, motion capture device, or the like) and one or more EMCs may be used as the output device circuitry (e.g., an actuator to provide haptic feedback or the like). In another example, NFC circuitry comprising an NFC controller coupled with an antenna element and a processing device may be included to read electronic tags and/or connect with another NFC-enabled device. Peripheral component interfaces may include, but are not limited to, a non-volatile memory port, a USB port, an audio jack, a power supply interface, etc.

[0183] Although not shown, the components of platform 500 may communicate with one another using a suitable bus or interconnect (IX) technology, which may include any number of technologies, including ISA, EISA, PCI, PCIx, PCIe, a Time-Trigger Protocol (TTP) system, a FlexRay system, or any number of other technologies. The bus/IX may be a proprietary bus/IX, for example, used in a SoC based system. Other bus/IX systems may be included, such as an I2C interface, an SPI interface, point-to-point interfaces, and a power bus, among others.

[0184] FIG. 23 illustrates example components of baseband circuitry 610 and radio front end modules (RFEM) 615 in accordance with various embodiments. The baseband circuitry 610 corresponds to the baseband circuitry 410, 466, 470 and 510 of FIGS. 21A, 21B and 22. The RFEM 615 corresponds to the RFEM 415, 468, 472, and 515 of FIGS. 21A, 21B, and 22. As shown, the RFEMs 615 may include Radio Frequency (RF) circuitry 606, front-end module (FEM) circuitry 608, antenna array 611 coupled together at least as shown.

[0185] The baseband circuitry 610 includes circuitry and/or control logic configured to carry out various radio/network protocol and radio control functions that enable

communication with one or more radio networks via the RF circuitry 606. The radio control functions may include, but are not limited to, signal modulation/demodulation, encoding/decoding, radio frequency shifting, etc. In some embodiments,

modulation/demodulation circuitry of the baseband circuitry 610 may include Fast- Fourier Transform (FFT), precoding, or constellation mapping/demapping functionality. In some embodiments, encoding/decoding circuitry of the baseband circuitry 610 may include convolution, tail-biting convolution, turbo, Viterbi, or Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) encoder/decoder functionality. Embodiments of modulation/demodulation and encoder/decoder functionality are not limited to these examples and may include other suitable functionality in other embodiments. The baseband circuitry 610 is configured to process baseband signals received from a receive signal path of the RF circuitry 606 and to generate baseband signals for a transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 606. The baseband circuitry 610 is configured to interface with application circuitry 405/505 (see FIGS. 21A, 21B, and 22) for generation and processing of the baseband signals and for controlling operations of the RF circuitry 606. The baseband circuitry 610 may handle various radio control functions.

[0186] The aforementioned circuitry and/or control logic of the baseband circuitry 610 may include one or more single or multi-core processors. For example, the one or more processors may include a 3G baseband processor 604 A, a 4G/LTE baseband processor 604B, a 5G/NR baseband processor 604C, or some other processor(s) 604D for other existing generations, generations in development or to be developed in the future (e.g., sixth generation (6G), etc.), IEEE 802.11 based communications, etc. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 604 A-D may be included in modules stored in the memory 604G and executed via a Central Processing Unit (CPU) 604E. In other embodiments, some or all of the functionality of baseband processors 604A-D may be provided as hardware accelerators (e.g., FPGAs, ASICs, etc.) loaded with the appropriate bit streams or logic blocks stored in respective memory cells. In various embodiments, the memory 604G may store program code of a real-time OS (RTOS), which when executed by the CPU 604E (or other baseband processor), is to cause the CPU 604E (or other baseband processor) to manage resources of the baseband circuitry 610, schedule tasks, etc. Examples of the RTOS may include Operating System Embedded (OSE)™ provided by Enea®, Nucleus RTOS™ provided by Mentor

Graphics®, Versatile Real-Time Executive (VRTX) provided by Mentor Graphics®,

ThreadX™ provided by Express Logic®, FreeRTOS, REX OS provided by Qualcomm®, OKL4 provided by Open Kernel (OK) Labs®, or any other suitable RTOS, such as those discussed herein. In addition, the baseband circuitry 610 includes one or more audio digital signal processor(s) (DSP) 604F. The audio DSP(s) 604F include elements for compression/decompression and echo cancellation and may include other suitable processing elements in other embodiments.

[0187] In some embodiments, each of the processors 604A-604E include respective

memory interfaces to send/receive data to/from the memory 604G. The baseband circuitry 610 may further include one or more interfaces to communicatively couple to other circuitries/devices, such as an interface to send/receive data to/from memory external to the baseband circuitry 610; an application circuitry interface to send/receive data to/from the application circuitry 405/505 of FIGS. 21-23); an RF circuitry interface to

send/receive data to/from RF circuitry 606 of FIG. 23; a wireless hardware connectivity interface to send/receive data to/from one or more wireless hardware elements (e.g., Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth®/ Bluetooth® Low Energy components, Wi-Fi® components, and/or the like); and a power management interface to send/receive power or control signals to/from the PMIC 525.

[0188] In alternate embodiments (which may be combined with the above described

embodiments), baseband circuitry 610 comprises one or more digital baseband systems, which are coupled with one another via an interconnect subsystem and to a CPU subsystem, an audio subsystem, and an interface subsystem. The digital baseband subsystems may also be coupled to a digital baseband interface and a mixed-signal baseband subsystem via another interconnect subsystem. Each of the interconnect subsystems may include a bus system, point-to-point connections, network-on-chip (NOC) structures, and/or some other suitable bus or interconnect technology, such as those discussed herein. The audio subsystem may include DSP circuitry, buffer memory, program memory, speech processing accelerator circuitry, data converter circuitry such as analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter circuitry, analog circuitry including one or more of amplifiers and filters, and/or other like components. In an aspect of the present disclosure, baseband circuitry 610 may include protocol processing circuitry with one or more instances of control circuitry (not shown) to provide control functions for the digital baseband circuitry and/or radio frequency circuitry (e.g., the radio front end modules 615).

[0189] Although not shown by FIG. 23, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry

610 includes individual processing device(s) to operate one or more wireless

communication protocols (e.g., a“multi-protocol baseband processor” or“protocol processing circuitry”) and individual processing device(s) to implement PHY layer functions. In these embodiments, the PHY layer functions include the aforementioned radio control functions. In these embodiments, the protocol processing circuitry operates or implements various protocol layers/entities of one or more wireless communication protocols. In a first example, the protocol processing circuitry may operate LTE protocol entities and/or 5G/NR protocol entities when the baseband circuitry 610 and/or RF circuitry 606 are part of mmWave communication circuitry or some other suitable cellular communication circuitry. In the first example, the protocol processing circuitry would operate MAC, RLC, PDCP, SDAP, RRC, and NAS functions. In a second example, the protocol processing circuitry may operate one or more IEEE-based protocols when the baseband circuitry 610 and/or RF circuitry 606 are part of a 802.11 based communication system. In the second example, the protocol processing circuitry would operate 802.11 based MAC and logical link control (LLC) functions. The protocol processing circuitry may include one or more memory structures (e.g., 604G) to store program code and data for operating the protocol functions, as well as one or more processing cores to execute the program code and perform various operations using the data. The baseband circuitry 610 may also support radio communications for more than one wireless protocol.

[0190] The various hardware elements of the baseband circuitry 610 discussed herein may be implemented, for example, as a solder-down substrate including one or more integrated circuits (ICs), a single packaged IC soldered to a main circuit board or a multi chip module containing two or more ICs. In one example, the components of the baseband circuitry 610 may be suitably combined in a single chip or chipset, or disposed on a same circuit board. In another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 610 and RF circuitry 606 may be implemented together such as, for example, a system on a chip (SoC) or System-in-Package (SiP). In another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 610 may be implemented as a separate SoC that is communicatively coupled with and RF circuitry 606 (or multiple instances of RF circuitry 606). In yet another example, some or all of the constituent components of the baseband circuitry 610 and the application circuitry

405/505 may be implemented together as individual SoCs mounted to a same circuit board (e.g., a“multi-chip package”).

[0191] In some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 610 may provide for communication compatible with one or more radio technologies. For example, in some embodiments, the baseband circuitry 610 may support communication with an E-UTRAN or other WMAN, a WLAN, a WPAN. Embodiments in which the baseband circuitry 610 is configured to support radio communications of more than one wireless protocol may be referred to as multi-mode baseband circuitry.

[0192] RF circuitry 606 may enable communication with wireless networks using

modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. In various

embodiments, the RF circuitry 606 may include switches, filters, amplifiers, etc. to facilitate the communication with the wireless network. RF circuitry 606 may include a receive signal path, which may include circuitry to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 608 and provide baseband signals to the baseband circuitry 610. RF circuitry 606 may also include a transmit signal path, which may include circuitry to up-convert baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 610 and provide RF output signals to the FEM circuitry 608 for transmission.

[0193] In some embodiments, the receive signal path of the RF circuitry 606 may include mixer circuitry 606a, amplifier circuitry 606b and filter circuitry 606c. In some embodiments, the transmit signal path of the RF circuitry 606 may include filter circuitry 606c and mixer circuitry 606a. RF circuitry 606 may also include synthesizer circuitry 606d for synthesizing a frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path and the transmit signal path. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path may be configured to down-convert RF signals received from the FEM circuitry 608 based on the synthesized frequency provided by synthesizer circuitry 606d. The amplifier circuitry 606b may be configured to amplify the down-converted signals and the filter circuitry 606c may be a low-pass filter (LPF) or band-pass filter (BPF) configured to remove unwanted signals from the down-converted signals to generate output baseband signals. Output baseband signals may be provided to the baseband circuitry 610 for further processing. In some embodiments, the output baseband signals may be zero-frequency baseband signals, although this is not a requirement. In some embodiments, mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path may comprise passive mixers, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0194] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 606a of the transmit signal path may be configured to up-convert input baseband signals based on the synthesized frequency provided by the synthesizer circuitry 606d to generate RF output signals for the FEM circuitry 608. The baseband signals may be provided by the baseband circuitry 610 and may be filtered by filter circuitry 606c.

[0195] In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 606a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for quadrature downconversion and upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 606a of the transmit signal path may include two or more mixers and may be arranged for image rejection (e.g., Hartley image rejection). In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 606a of the transmit signal path may be arranged for direct downconversion and direct upconversion, respectively. In some embodiments, the mixer circuitry 606a of the receive signal path and the mixer circuitry 606a of the transmit signal path may be configured for super-heterodyne operation.

[0196] In some embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be analog baseband signals, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect. In some alternate embodiments, the output baseband signals and the input baseband signals may be digital baseband signals. In these alternate embodiments, the RF circuitry 606 may include analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuitry and the baseband circuitry 610 may include a digital baseband interface to communicate with the RF circuitry 606.

[0197] In some dual-mode embodiments, a separate radio IC circuitry may be provided for processing signals for each spectrum, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect.

[0198] In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 606d may be a fractional-N

synthesizer or a fractional N/N+l synthesizer, although the scope of the embodiments is not limited in this respect as other types of frequency synthesizers may be suitable. For example, synthesizer circuitry 606d may be a delta-sigma synthesizer, a frequency multiplier, or a synthesizer comprising a phase-locked loop with a frequency divider.

[0199] The synthesizer circuitry 606d may be configured to synthesize an output

frequency for use by the mixer circuitry 606a of the RF circuitry 606 based on a

frequency input and a divider control input. In some embodiments, the synthesizer circuitry 606d may be a fractional N/N+l synthesizer.

[0200] In some embodiments, frequency input may be provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), although that is not a requirement. Divider control input may be provided by either the baseband circuitry 610 or the application circuitry 405/505 depending on the desired output frequency. In some embodiments, a divider control input (e.g., N) may be determined from a look-up table based on a channel indicated by the application circuitry 405/505.

[0201] Synthesizer circuitry 606d of the RF circuitry 606 may include a divider, a delay- locked loop (DLL), a multiplexer and a phase accumulator. In some embodiments, the divider may be a dual modulus divider (DMD) and the phase accumulator may be a digital phase accumulator (DP A). In some embodiments, the DMD may be configured to divide the input signal by either N or N+l (e.g., based on a carry out) to provide a fractional division ratio. In some example embodiments, the DLL may include a set of cascaded, tunable, delay elements, a phase detector, a charge pump and a D-type flip-flop. In these embodiments, the delay elements may be configured to break a VCO period up into Nd equal packets of phase, where Nd is the number of delay elements in the delay line. In this way, the DLL provides negative feedback to help ensure that the total delay through the delay line is one VCO cycle.

[0202] In some embodiments, synthesizer circuitry 606d may be configured to generate a carrier frequency as the output frequency, while in other embodiments, the output frequency may be a multiple of the carrier frequency (e.g., twice the carrier frequency, four times the carrier frequency) and used in conjunction with quadrature generator and divider circuitry to generate multiple signals at the carrier frequency with multiple different phases with respect to each other. In some embodiments, the output frequency may be a LO frequency (fLO). In some embodiments, the RF circuitry 606 may include an IQ/polar converter.

[0203] FEM circuitry 608 may include a receive signal path, which may include circuitry configured to operate on RF signals received from antenna array 611, amplify the received signals and provide the amplified versions of the received signals to the RF circuitry 606 for further processing. FEM circuitry 608 may also include a transmit signal path, which may include circuitry configured to amplify signals for transmission provided by the RF circuitry 606 for transmission by one or more of antenna elements of antenna array 611. In various embodiments, the amplification through the transmit or receive signal paths may be done solely in the RF circuitry 606, solely in the FEM circuitry 608, or in both the RF circuitry 606 and the FEM circuitry 608.

[0204] In some embodiments, the FEM circuitry 608 may include a TX/RX switch to switch between transmit mode and receive mode operation. The FEM circuitry 608 may include a receive signal path and a transmit signal path. The receive signal path of the FEM circuitry 608 may include an LNA to amplify received RF signals and provide the amplified received RF signals as an output (e.g., to the RF circuitry 606). The transmit signal path of the FEM circuitry 608 may include a power amplifier (PA) to amplify input RF signals (e.g., provided by RF circuitry 606), and one or more filters to generate RF signals for subsequent transmission by one or more antenna elements of the antenna array 611.

[0205] The antenna array 611 comprises one or more antenna elements, each of which is configured convert electrical signals into radio waves to travel through the air and to convert received radio waves into electrical signals. For example, digital baseband signals provided by the baseband circuitry 610 is converted into analog RF signals (e.g., modulated waveform) that will be amplified and transmitted via the antenna elements of the antenna array 611 including one or more antenna elements (not shown). The antenna elements may be omnidirectional, direction, or a combination thereof. The antenna elements may be formed in a multitude of arranges as are known and/or discussed herein. The antenna array 611 may comprise microstrip antennas or printed antennas that are fabricated on the surface of one or more printed circuit boards. The antenna array 611 may be formed in as a patch of metal foil (e.g., a patch antenna) in a variety of shapes, and may be coupled with the RF circuitry 606 and/or FEM circuitry 608 using metal transmission lines or the like.

[0206] Processors of the application circuitry 405/505 and processors of the baseband circuitry 610 may be used to execute elements of one or more instances of a protocol stack. For example, processors of the baseband circuitry 610, alone or in combination, may be used execute Layer 3, Layer 2, or Layer 1 functionality, while processors of the application circuitry 405/505 may utilize data (e.g., packet data) received from these layers and further execute Layer 4 functionality (e.g., TCP and UDP layers). As referred to herein, Layer 3 may comprise a RRC layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 2 may comprise a MAC layer, an RLC layer, and a PDCP layer, described in further detail below. As referred to herein, Layer 1 may comprise a PHY layer of a UE/RAN node, described in further detail below.

[0207] FIG. 24 illustrates various protocol functions that may be implemented in a

wireless communication device according to various embodiments. In particular, FIG. 24 includes an arrangement 700 showing interconnections between various protocol layers/entities. The following description of FIG. 24 is provided for various protocol layers/entities that operate in conjunction with the 5G/NR system standards and LTE system standards, but some or all of the aspects of FIG. 24 may be applicable to other wireless communication network systems as well.

[0208] The protocol layers of arrangement 700 may include one or more of PHY 710,

MAC 720, RLC 730, PDCP 740, SDAP 747, RRC 755, and NAS layer 757, in addition to other higher layer functions not illustrated. The protocol layers may include one or more service access points (e.g., items 759, 756, 750, 749, 745, 735, 725, and 715 in FIG. 24) that may provide communication between two or more protocol layers.

[0209] The PHY 710 may transmit and receive physical layer signals 705 that may be received from or transmitted to one or more other communication devices. The physical layer signals 705 may comprise one or more physical channels, such as those discussed herein. The PHY 710 may further perform link adaptation or adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), power control, cell search (e.g., for initial synchronization and handover purposes), and other measurements used by higher layers, such as the RRC 755. The PHY 710 may still further perform error detection on the transport channels, forward error correction (FEC) coding/decoding of the transport channels, modulation/demodulation of physical channels, interleaving, rate matching, mapping onto physical channels, and MIMO antenna processing. In embodiments, an instance of PHY 710 may process requests from and provide indications to an instance of MAC 720 via one or more PHY- SAP 715. According to some embodiments, requests and indications communicated via PHY-SAP 715 may comprise one or more transport channels.

[0210] Instance(s) of MAC 720 may process requests from, and provide indications to, an instance of RLC 730 via one or more MAC-SAPs 725. These requests and indications communicated via the MAC-SAP 725 may comprise one or more logical channels. The MAC 720 may perform mapping between the logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC SDUs from one or more logical channels onto TBs to be delivered to PHY 710 via the transport channels, de-multiplexing MAC SDUs to one or more

logical channels from TBs delivered from the PHY 710 via transport channels, multiplexing MAC SDUs onto TBs, scheduling information reporting, error correction through HARQ, and logical channel prioritization.

[0211] Instance(s) of RLC 730 may process requests from and provide indications to an instance of PDCP 740 via one or more radio link control service access points (RLC- SAP) 735. These requests and indications communicated via RLC-SAP 735 may comprise one or more RLC channels. The RLC 730 may operate in a plurality of modes of operation, including: Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), and Acknowledged Mode (AM). The RLC 730 may execute transfer of upper layer protocol data units (PDUs), error correction through automatic repeat request (ARQ) for AM data transfers, and concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers. The RLC 730 may also execute re- segmentation of RLC data PDUs for AM data transfers, reorder RLC data PDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect duplicate data for UM and AM data transfers, discard RLC SDUs for UM and AM data transfers, detect protocol errors for AM data transfers, and perform RLC re-establishment.

[0212] Instance(s) of PDCP 740 may process requests from and provide indications to instance(s) of RRC 755 and/or instance(s) of SDAP 747 via one or more packet data convergence protocol service access points (PDCP-SAP) 745. These requests and indications communicated via PDCP-SAP 745 may comprise one or more radio bearers. The PDCP 740 may execute header compression and decompression of IP data, maintain PDCP Sequence Numbers (SNs), perform in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs at re-establishment of lower layers, eliminate duplicates of lower layer SDUs at re establishment of lower layers for radio bearers mapped on RLC AM, cipher and decipher control plane data, perform integrity protection and integrity verification of control plane data, control timer-based discard of data, and perform security operations (e.g., ciphering, deciphering, integrity protection, integrity verification, etc.).

[0213] Instance(s) of SDAP 747 may process requests from and provide indications to one or more higher layer protocol entities via one or more SDAP-SAP 749. These requests and indications communicated via SDAP-SAP 749 may comprise one or more QoS flows. The SDAP 747 may map QoS flows to DRBs, and vice versa, and may also mark QFIs in DL and UL packets. A single SDAP entity 747 may be configured for an individual PDU session. In the UL direction, the NG-RAN 110 may control the mapping of QoS Flows to DRB(s) in two different ways, reflective mapping or explicit mapping.

For reflective mapping, the SDAP 747 of a UE 101 may monitor the QFIs of the DL packets for each DRB, and may apply the same mapping for packets flowing in the UL direction. For a DRB, the SDAP 747 of the UE 101 may map the UL packets belonging to the QoS flows(s) corresponding to the QoS flow ID(s) and PDU session observed in the DL packets for that DRB. To enable reflective mapping, the NG-RAN 310 may mark DL packets over the Uu interface with a QoS flow ID. The explicit mapping may involve the RRC 755 configuring the SDAP 747 with an explicit QoS flow to DRB mapping rule, which may be stored and followed by the SDAP 747. In embodiments, the SDAP 747 may only be used in NR. implementations and may not be used in LTE implementations.

[0214] The RRC 755 may configure, via one or more management service access points

(M-SAP), aspects of one or more protocol layers, which may include one or more instances of PHY 710, MAC 720, RLC 730, PDCP 740 and SDAP 747. In embodiments, an instance of RRC 755 may process requests from and provide indications to one or more NAS entities 757 via one or more RRC-SAPs 756. The main services and functions of the RRC 755 may include broadcast of system information (e.g., included in MIBs or SIBs related to the NAS), broadcast of system information related to the access stratum (AS), paging, establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE 101 and RAN 110 (e.g., RRC connection paging, RRC connection establishment,

RRC connection modification, and RRC connection release), establishment,

configuration, maintenance and release of point to point Radio Bearers, security functions including key management, inter-RAT mobility, and measurement configuration for UE measurement reporting. The MIBs and SIBs may comprise one or more IEs, which may each comprise individual data fields or data structures.

[0215] The NAS 757 may form the highest stratum of the control plane between the UE

101 and the AMF 321. The NAS 757 may support the mobility of the UEs 101 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 101 and a P-GW in LTE systems.

[0216] According to various embodiments, one or more protocol entities of arrangement

700 may be implemented in UEs 101, RAN nodes 111, AMF 321 in NR implementations or MME 221 in LTE implementations, UPF 302 in NR implementations or S-GW 222 and P-GW 223 in LTE implementations, or the like to be used for control plane or user plane communications protocol stack between the aforementioned devices. In such embodiments, one or more protocol entities that may be implemented in one or more of UE 101, gNB 111, AMF 321, etc. may communicate with a respective peer protocol entity that may be implemented in or on another device using the services of respective lower layer protocol entities to perform such communication. In some embodiments, a gNB-CU of the gNB 111 may host the RRC 755, SDAP 747, and PDCP 740 of the gNB that controls the operation of one or more gNB-DUs, and the gNB-DUs of the gNB 111 may each host the RLC 730, MAC 720, and PHY 710 of the gNB 111.

[0217] In a first example, a control plane protocol stack may comprise, in order from

highest layer to lowest layer, NAS 757, RRC 755, PDCP 740, RLC 730, MAC 720, and PHY 710. In this example, upper layers 760 may be built on top of the NAS 757, which includes an IP layer 761, an SCTP 762, and an application layer signaling protocol (AP) 763.

[0218] In NR implementations, the AP 763 may be an NG application protocol layer

(NGAP or NG-AP) 763 for the NG interface 113 defined between the NG-RAN node 111 and the AMF 321, or the AP 763 may be an Xn application protocol layer (XnAP or Xn- AP) 763 for the Xn interface 112 that is defined between two or more RAN nodes 111.

[0219] The NG-AP 763 may support the functions of the NG interface 113 and may

comprise Elementary Procedures (EPs). An NG-AP EP may be a unit of interaction between the NG-RAN node 111 and the AMF 321. The NG-AP 763 services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services (e.g., services related to a UE 101) and non- UE-associated services (e.g., services related to the whole NG interface instance between the NG-RAN node 111 and AMF 321). These services may include functions including, but not limited to: a paging function for the sending of paging requests to NG-RAN nodes 111 involved in a particular paging area; a UE context management function for allowing the AMF 321 to establish, modify, and/or release a UE context in the AMF 321 and the NG-RAN node 111; a mobility function for UEs 101 in ECM-CONNECTED mode for intra-system HOs to support mobility within NG-RAN and inter-system HOs to support mobility from/to EPS systems; a NAS Signaling Transport function for transporting or rerouting NAS messages between UE 101 and AMF 321; a NAS node selection function for determining an association between the AMF 321 and the UE 101; NG interface management function(s) for setting up the NG interface and monitoring for errors over the NG interface; a warning message transmission function for providing means to transfer warning messages via NG interface or cancel ongoing broadcast of warning messages; a Configuration Transfer function for requesting and transferring of RAN

configuration information (e.g., SON information, performance measurement (PM) data, etc.) between two RAN nodes 111 via CN 120; and/or other like functions.

[0220] The XnAP 763 may support the functions of the Xn interface 112 and may

comprise XnAP basic mobility procedures and XnAP global procedures. The XnAP basic mobility procedures may comprise procedures used to handle UE mobility within the NG RAN 111 (or E-UTRAN 210), such as handover preparation and cancellation procedures, SN Status Transfer procedures, UE context retrieval and UE context release procedures, RAN paging procedures, dual connectivity related procedures, and the like. The XnAP global procedures may comprise procedures that are not related to a specific UE 101, such as Xn interface setup and reset procedures, NG-RAN update procedures, cell activation procedures, and the like.

[0221] In LTE implementations, the AP 763 may be an SI Application Protocol layer

(Sl-AP) 763 for the SI interface 113 defined between an E-UTRAN node 111 and an MME, or the AP 763 may be an X2 application protocol layer (X2AP or X2-AP) 763 for the X2 interface 112 that is defined between two or more E-UTRAN nodes 111.

[0222] The SI Application Protocol layer (Sl-AP) 763 may support the functions of the

SI interface, and similar to the NG-AP discussed previously, the Sl-AP may comprise Sl-AP EPs. An Sl-AP EP may be a unit of interaction between the E-UTRAN node 111 and an MME 221within an LTE CN 120. The Sl-AP 763 services may comprise two groups: UE-associated services and non UE-associated services. These services perform functions including, but not limited to: E-UTRAN Radio Access Bearer (E-RAB) management, UE capability indication, mobility, NAS signaling transport, RAN

Information Management (RIM), and configuration transfer.

[0223] The X2AP 763 may support the functions of the X2 interface 112 and may

comprise X2AP basic mobility procedures and X2AP global procedures. The X2AP basic mobility procedures may comprise procedures used to handle UE mobility within the E- UTRAN 120, such as handover preparation and cancellation procedures, SN Status Transfer procedures, UE context retrieval and UE context release procedures, RAN paging procedures, dual connectivity related procedures, and the like. The X2AP global procedures may comprise procedures that are not related to a specific UE 101, such as X2 interface setup and reset procedures, load indication procedures, error indication procedures, cell activation procedures, and the like.

[0224] The SCTP layer (alternatively referred to as the SCTP/IP layer) 762 may provide guaranteed delivery of application layer messages (e.g., NGAP or XnAP messages in NR implementations, or Sl-AP or X2AP messages in LTE implementations). The SCTP 762 may ensure reliable delivery of signaling messages between the RAN node 111 and the AMF 321/MME 221 based, in part, on the IP protocol, supported by the IP 761. The Internet Protocol layer (IP) 761 may be used to perform packet addressing and routing functionality. In some implementations the IP layer 761 may use point-to-point transmission to deliver and convey PDUs. In this regard, the RAN node 111 may comprise L2 and LI layer communication links (e.g., wired or wireless) with the

MME/AMF to exchange information.

[0225] In a second example, a user plane protocol stack may comprise, in order from

highest layer to lowest layer, SDAP 747, PDCP 740, RLC 730, MAC 720, and PHY 710. The user plane protocol stack may be used for communication between the UE 101, the RAN node 111, and UPF 302 in NR implementations or an S-GW 222 and P-GW 223 in LTE implementations. In this example, upper layers 751 may be built on top of the SDAP 747, and may include a user datagram protocol (UDP) and IP security layer (UDP/IP)

752, a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol for the user plane layer (GTP-U) 753, and a User Plane PDU layer (UP PDU) 763.

[0226] The transport network layer 754 (also referred to as a“transport layer”) may be built on IP transport, and the GTP-U 753 may be used on top of the UDP/IP layer 752 (comprising a UDP layer and IP layer) to carry user plane PDUs (UP -PDUs). The IP layer (also referred to as the“Internet layer”) may be used to perform packet addressing and routing functionality. The IP layer may assign IP addresses to user data packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example.

[0227] The GTP-U 753 may be used for carrying user data within the GPRS core network and between the radio access network and the core network. The user data transported can be packets in any of IPv4, IPv6, or PPP formats, for example. The UDP/IP 752 may provide checksums for data integrity, port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination, and encryption and authentication on the selected data flows. The RAN node 111 and the S-GW 222 may utilize an Sl-U interface to exchange user plane data via a protocol stack comprising an LI layer (e.g., PHY 710), an L2 layer (e.g., MAC 720, RLC 730, PDCP 740, and/or SDAP 747), the UDP/IP layer 752, and the GTP- U 753. The S-GW 222 and the P-GW 223 may utilize an S5/S8a interface to exchange

user plane data via a protocol stack comprising an LI layer, an L2 layer, the UDP/IP layer 752, and the GTP-U 753. As discussed previously, NAS protocols may support the mobility of the UE 101 and the session management procedures to establish and maintain IP connectivity between the UE 101 and the P-GW 223.

[0228] Moreover, although not shown by FIG. 24, an application layer may be present above the AP 763 and/or the transport network layer 754. The application layer may be a layer in which a user of the UE 101, RAN node 111, or other network element interacts with software applications being executed, for example, by application circuitry 405 or application circuitry 505, respectively. The application layer may also provide one or more interfaces for software applications to interact with communications systems of the UE 101 or RAN node 111, such as the baseband circuitry 610. In some implementations the IP layer and/or the application layer may provide the same or similar functionality as layers 5-7, or portions thereof, of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (e.g., OSI Layer 7 - the application layer, OSI Layer 6 - the presentation layer, and OSI Layer 5 - the session layer).

[0229] FIG. 25 illustrates components of a core network in accordance with various

embodiments. The components of the CN 220 may be implemented in one physical node or separate physical nodes including components to read and execute instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium). In embodiments, the components of CN 320 may be implemented in a same or similar manner as discussed herein with regard to the components of CN 220. In some embodiments, NFV is utilized to virtualize any or all of the above-described network node functions via executable instructions stored in one or more computer- readable storage mediums (described in further detail below). A logical instantiation of the CN 220 may be referred to as a network slice 801, and individual logical

instantiations of the CN 220 may provide specific network capabilities and network characteristics. A logical instantiation of a portion of the CN 220 may be referred to as a network sub-slice 802 (e.g., the network sub-slice 802 is shown to include the P-GW 223 and the PCRF 226).

[0230] As used herein, the terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like may refer to the creation of an instance, and an“instance” may refer to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code. A network instance may refer to information identifying a domain, which may be used for traffic detection and routing in case of different IP domains or overlapping IP addresses. A network slice instance may refer to a set of network functions (NFs) instances and the resources (e.g., compute, storage, and networking resources) required to deploy the network slice.

[0231] With respect to 5G systems (see, e.g., FIG. 20), a network slice always comprises a RAN part and a CN part. The support of network slicing relies on the principle that traffic for different slices is handled by different PDU sessions. The network can realize the different network slices by scheduling and also by providing different L1/L2 configurations. The UE 301 provides assistance information for network slice selection in an appropriate RRC message, if it has been provided by NAS. While the network can support large number of slices, the UE need not support more than 8 slices

simultaneously.

[0232] A network slice may include the CN 320 control plane and user plane NFs, NG- RANs 310 in a serving PLMN, and a N3IWF functions in the serving PLMN. Individual network slices may have different S-NSSAI and/or may have different SSTs. NSSAI includes one or more S-NSSAIs, and each network slice is uniquely identified by an S- NSSAI. Network slices may differ for supported features and network functions optimizations, and/or multiple network slice instances may deliver the same

service/features but for different groups of UEs 301 (e.g., enterprise users). For example, individual network slices may deliver different committed service(s) and/or may be dedicated to a particular customer or enterprise. In this example, each network slice may have different S-NSSAIs with the same SST but with different slice differentiators.

Additionally, a single UE may be served with one or more network slice instances simultaneously via a 5G AN and associated with eight different S-NSSAIs. Moreover, an AMF 321 instance serving an individual UE 301 may belong to each of the network slice instances serving that UE.

[0233] Network Slicing in the NG-RAN 310 involves RAN slice awareness. RAN slice awareness includes differentiated handling of traffic for different network slices, which have been pre-configured. Slice awareness in the NG-RAN 310 is introduced at the PDU session level by indicating the S-NSSAI corresponding to a PDU session in all signaling that includes PDU session resource information. How the NG-RAN 310 supports the slice enabling in terms of NG-RAN functions (e.g., the set of network functions that comprise each slice) is implementation dependent. The NG-RAN 310 selects the RAN part of the

network slice using assistance information provided by the UE 301 or the 5GC 320, which unambiguously identifies one or more of the pre-configured network slices in the PLMN. The NG-RAN 310 also supports resource management and policy enforcement between slices as per SLAs. A single NG-RAN node may support multiple slices, and the NG-RAN 310 may also apply an appropriate RRM policy for the SLA in place to each supported slice. The NG-RAN 310 may also support QoS differentiation within a slice.

[0234] The NG-RAN 310 may also use the UE assistance information for the selection of an AMF 321 during an initial attach, if available. The NG-RAN 310 uses the assistance information for routing the initial NAS to an AMF 321. If the NG-RAN 310 is unable to select an AMF 321 using the assistance information, or the UE 301 does not provide any such information, the NG-RAN 310 sends the NAS signaling to a default AMF 321, which may be among a pool of AMFs 321. For subsequent accesses, the UE 301 provides a temp ID, which is assigned to the UE 301 by the 5GC 320, to enable the NG-RAN 310 to route the NAS message to the appropriate AMF 321 as long as the temp ID is valid.

The NG-RAN 310 is aware of, and can reach, the AMF 321 that is associated with the temp ID. Otherwise, the method for initial attach applies.

[0235] The NG-RAN 310 supports resource isolation between slices. NG-RAN 310

resource isolation may be achieved by means of RRM policies and protection

mechanisms that should avoid that shortage of shared resources if one slice breaks the service level agreement for another slice. In some implementations, it is possible to fully dedicate NG-RAN 310 resources to a certain slice. How NG-RAN 310 supports resource isolation is implementation dependent.

[0236] Some slices may be available only in part of the network. Awareness in the NG- RAN 310 of the slices supported in the cells of its neighbors may be beneficial for inter- frequency mobility in connected mode. The slice availability may not change within the UE’s registration area. The NG-RAN 310 and the 5GC 320 are responsible to handle a service request for a slice that may or may not be available in a given area. Admission or rejection of access to a slice may depend on factors such as support for the slice, availability of resources, support of the requested service by NG-RAN 310.

[0237] The UE 301 may be associated with multiple network slices simultaneously. In case the UE 301 is associated with multiple slices simultaneously, only one signaling connection is maintained, and for intra-frequency cell reselection, the UE 301 tries to camp on the best cell. For inter-frequency cell reselection, dedicated priorities can be used to control the frequency on which the UE 301 camps. The 5GC 320 is to validate that the UE 301 has the rights to access a network slice. Prior to receiving an Initial Context Setup Request message, the NG-RAN 310 may be allowed to apply some provisional/local policies, based on awareness of a particular slice that the UE 301 is requesting to access. During the initial context setup, the NG-RAN 310 is informed of the slice for which resources are being requested.

[0238] NFV architectures and infrastructures may be used to virtualize one or more NFs, alternatively performed by proprietary hardware, onto physical resources comprising a combination of industry-standard server hardware, storage hardware, or switches. In other words, NFV systems can be used to execute virtual or reconfigurable implementations of one or more EPC components/functions.

[0239] FIG. 26 is a block diagram illustrating components, according to some example embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable or computer-readable medium (e.g., a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. Specifically, FIG. 26 shows a

diagrammatic representation of hardware resources 900 including one or more processors (or processor cores) 910, one or more memory/storage devices 920, and one or more communication resources 930, each of which may be communicatively coupled via a bus 940. For embodiments where node virtualization (e.g., NFV) is utilized, a hypervisor 902 may be executed to provide an execution environment for one or more network slices/sub-slices to utilize the hardware resources 900.

[0240] The processors 910 may include, for example, a processor 912 and a processor

914. The processor(s) 910 may be, for example, a central processing unit (CPU), a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor, a complex instruction set computing (CISC) processor, a graphics processing unit (GPU), a DSP such as a baseband processor, an ASIC, an FPGA, a radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), another processor (including those discussed herein), or any suitable combination thereof.

[0241] The memory/storage devices 920 may include main memory, disk storage, or any suitable combination thereof. The memory/storage devices 920 may include, but are not limited to, any type of volatile or nonvolatile memory such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM), static random access memory (SRAM), erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

(EEPROM), Flash memory, solid-state storage, etc.

[0242] The communication resources 930 may include interconnection or network interface components or other suitable devices to communicate with one or more peripheral devices 904 or one or more databases 906 via a network 908. For example, the communication resources 930 may include wired communication components (e.g., for coupling via USB), cellular communication components, NFC components, Bluetooth® (or Bluetooth® Low Energy) components, Wi-Fi® components, and other

communication components.

[0243] Instructions 950 may comprise software, a program, an application, an applet, an app, or other executable code for causing at least any of the processors 910 to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. The instructions 950 may reside, completely or partially, within at least one of the processors 910 (e.g., within the processor’s cache memory), the memory/storage devices 920, or any suitable combination thereof. Furthermore, any portion of the instructions 950 may be transferred to the hardware resources 900 from any combination of the peripheral devices 904 or the databases 906. Accordingly, the memory of processors 910, the memory/storage devices 920, the peripheral devices 904, and the databases 906 are examples of computer-readable and machine-readable media.

Example methods and procedures

[0244] FIG. 27 depicts a flow diagram of an example method 1000 of accessing a shared communication channel by multiple communication systems according to embodiments. In some embodiments, the electronic device(s), network(s), system(s), chip(s) or component s), or portions or implementations thereof, of FIGS. 18-26, or some other figure herein, may be configured to perform the method of FIG. 27 and/or one or more other processes, techniques, or methods as described herein, or portions thereof.

[0245] For example, at 1002, the method 1000 may include accessing or causing to

access, by a first communication system, a communication frequency channel while a second communication system is already using the channel. The first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0246] In some implementations, for example, the frequency channel has a bandwidth of

10 MHz.

[0247] In some implementations, for example, the first communication system is one of

3 GPP LTE C-V2X, 3 GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5 or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0248] In some implementations, for example, the second communication system is one of GPP LTE C-V2X, 3 GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5, or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0249] In some implementations, for example, a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the first communication system.

[0250] In some implementations, for example, a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the second communication system.

[0251] In some implementations, for example, when the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system ends, then a fraction of time reserved for a second communication system starts.

[0252] In some implementations, for example, there is a pause period between the

fraction of time reserved for the first communication system and the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system.

[0253] In some implementations, for example, when the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system begins again.

[0254] In some implementations, for example, when the fraction of time reserved for a second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a first communication system begins again, with a pause period between the two fractions of time.

[0255] In some implementations, for example, the method 1000 further comprises

accessing or causing to access a channel, and further comprising during the fraction of time reserved for a communication system based on IEEE 802 including DSRC and/or ITS-G5, accessing or causing to access the channel includes applying or causing to apply CSMA based channel access.

[0256] In some implementations, for example, the method 1000 further comprises

receiving or causing to receive a configuration information field.

[0257] In some implementations, for example, the configuration information field is used to at least one of request communication resources or obtain decisions regarding when communication resources are reserved for a specific user.

[0258] In some implementations, for example, the pause period is reduced for high- priority messages.

[0259] In some implementations, for example, the high priority messages include

messages for avoidance of collisions or protection of life.

[0260] In some implementations, for example, the method 1000 is performed by an

apparatus disposed in a vehicle, smartphone, Internet of Things devices, truck, car or bicycle.

[0261] For one or more embodiments, at least one of the components set forth in one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to perform one or more operations, techniques, processes, and/or methods as set forth in the example section below. For example, the baseband circuitry as described above in connection with one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more of the examples set forth below. For another example, circuitry associated with a UE, base station, network element, etc. as described above in connection with one or more of the preceding figures may be configured to operate in accordance with one or more of the examples set forth below in the example section.

[0262] FIG. 28 depicts a flow diagram of an example method 1100 of accessing a

communication frequency channel by first and second communication systems according to embodiments. At 1102, the method 1100 includes accessing, by a first communication system, a communication frequency channel during a first time interval. The first communication system communicates using cellular communication technologies. At 1104, the method 1100 includes accessing, by a second communication system, the communication frequency channel during a second time interval adjacent to the first time interval. The second communication system communicates using WLAN techniques.

[0263] In embodiments, the first communication system can be configured to

communicate cellular communication signals during the first time interval. The second communication system can be configured to communicate WLAN communication signals during the second time interval.

[0264] In embodiments, the first communication system can be configured to

communicate during a first set of time intervals, and the second communication system can be configured to communicate during a second set of time intervals. The first set of time intervals alternates with the second set of time intervals such that each time interval from the first set of time intervals is adjacent to a time interval from the second set of time intervals. The first time interval is included in the first set of time intervals, and the second time interval is included in the second set of time intervals.

[0265] In embodiments, the first communication system is an LTE C-V2X

communication system, and the second communication system is an IEEE 802-based DSRC or ITS-G5 communication system.

[0266] In embodiments, the first time interval is a predetermined, fixed time slot

dedicated to the first communication system, and the second time interval is a

predetermined, fixed time slot dedicated to the second communication system.

[0267] In embodiments, the first time interval and the second time interval are

predetermined based at least in part on a level of usage of cellular communications and WLAN communications in a geographic area proximate the apparatus.

[0268] In embodiments, the level of usage of cellular communications and WLAN

communications is determined based at least in part on a plurality of resource requests from a plurality of users in the geographic area proximate the apparatus.

[0269] In embodiments, the level of usage of cellular communications and WLAN

communications is determined based at least in part on historical communication usage of the geographic area proximate the apparatus.

[0270] In embodiments, the apparatus is urther configured to receive a reservation request message and to identify a start of the first time interval based at least in part on the reservation request message.

[0271] In embodiments, the first communication system is configured to sense that the communication frequency channel is vacant, and access the communication frequency channel in response to sensing that the communication frequency channel is vacant. The first time interval begins when the first communication system senses that the

communication frequency channel is vacant.

[0272] In embodiments, the first time interval and the second time interval are separated by a pause period.

[0273] In embodiments, the pause period is reduced for ultra-high priority

communications.

Examples

[0274] Example 1 may include an apparatus, comprising: means for accessing a

communication frequency channel via a first communication system while the channel is already in use by a second communication system, wherein the first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0275] Example 2 may include the apparatus of example 1, and/or any other example herein, wherein the first communication system is one of 3GPP LTE C-V2X, 3GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5 or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0276] Example 3 may include the apparatus of example 1, and/or any other example herein, wherein the second communication system is one of GPP LTE C-V2X, 3GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5, or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0277] Example 4 may include the apparatus of example 1, and/or any other example herein, wherein a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the first communication system.

[0278] Example 5 may include the apparatus of example 1, and/or any other example herein, wherein a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the second communication system.

[0279] Example 6 may include the apparatus of example 4, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system ends, then a fraction of time reserved for a second communication system starts.

[0280] Example 7 may include the apparatus of example 6, and/or any other example herein, wherein there is a pause period between the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system and the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system.

[0281] Example 8 may include the apparatus of example 6, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system begins again.

[0282] Example 9 may include the apparatus of example 6, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for a second communication system

ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a first communication system begins again, with a pause period between the two fractions of time.

[0283] Example 10 may include the apparatus of example 6, and/or any other example herein, further comprising means for accessing a channel, and wherein during the fraction of time reserved for a communication system based on IEEE 802 including DSRC and/or ITS-G5, the means for accessing a channel further comprises means for applying CSMA based channel access.

[0284] Example 11 may include the apparatus of example 1, and/or any other example herein, further comprising means for receiving a configuration information field.

[0285] Example 12 may include the apparatus of example 11, and/or any other example herein, wherein the configuration information field is used to at least one of request communication resources or obtain decisions regarding when communication resources are reserved for a specific user.

[0286] Example 13 may include the apparatus of either of examples 7 or 9, and/or any other example herein, wherein the pause period is reduced for high-priority messages.

[0287] Example 14 may include the apparatus of example 13, and/or any other example herein, wherein the high priority messages include messages for avoidance of collisions or protection of life.

[0288] Example 15 may include the apparatus of example 1, and/or any other example herein, disposed in a vehicle, smartphone, Internet of Things devices, truck, car or bicycle.

[0289] Example 16 may include an apparatus, to: access a communication frequency channel (typically of 10 MHz bandwidth) via a first communication system while the channel is already in use by a second communication system, wherein the first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0290] Example 17 may include the apparatus of example 16, and/or any other example herein, wherein the first communication system is one of 3GPP LTE C-V2X, 3GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5 or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0291] Example 18 may include the apparatus of example 16, and/or any other example herein, wherein the second communication system is one of GPP LTE C-V2X, 3GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5, or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0292] Example 19 may include the apparatus of example 16, and/or any other example herein, wherein a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the first communication system.

[0293] Example 20 may include the apparatus of example 16, and/or any other example herein, wherein a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the second communication system.

[0294] Example 21 may include the apparatus of example 19, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system ends, then a fraction of time reserved for a second communication system starts.

[0295] Example 22 may include the apparatus of example 21, and/or any other example herein, wherein there is a pause period between the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system and the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system.

[0296] Example 23 may include the apparatus of example 21, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system begins again.

[0297] Example 24 may include the apparatus of example 21, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for a second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a first communication system begins again, with a pause period between the two fractions of time.

[0298] Example 25 may include the apparatus of example 21, and/or any other example herein, further to access a channel by applying CSMA based channel access during the fraction of time reserved for a communication system based on IEEE 802 including DSRC and/or ITS-G5

[0299] Example 26 may include the apparatus of example 16, and/or any other example herein, further to receive a configuration information field.

[0300] Example 27 may include the apparatus of example 26, and/or any other example herein, wherein the configuration information field is used to at least one of request communication resources or obtain decisions regarding when communication resources are reserved for a specific user.

[0301] Example 28 may include the apparatus of either of examples 22 or 31, and/or any other example herein, wherein the pause period is reduced for high-priority messages. [0302] Example 29 may include the apparatus of example 28, and/or any other example herein, wherein the high priority messages include messages for avoidance of collisions or protection of life.

[0303] Example 30 may include the apparatus of example 16, and/or any other example herein, disposed in a vehicle, smartphone, Internet of Things devices, truck, car or bicycle.

[0304] Example 31 may include a method, comprising: accessing or causing to access a communication frequency channel via a first communication system while the channel is already in use by a second communication system, wherein the first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0305] Example 32 may include the method of example 31, and/or any other example herein, wherein the first communication system is one of 3GPP LTE C-V2X, 3GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5 or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0306] Example 33 may include the method of example 31, and/or any other example herein, wherein the second communication system is one of GPP LTE C-V2X, 3GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 based DSRC or ITS-G5, or any respective evolution of these systems.

[0307] Example 34 may include the method of example 31, and/or any other example herein, wherein a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the first communication system.

[0308] Example 35 may include the method of example 31, and/or any other example herein, wherein a pre-determined fraction of time of the channel is reserved for the second communication system.

[0309] Example 36 may include the method of example 34, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system ends, then a fraction of time reserved for a second communication system starts.

[0310] Example 37 may include the method of example 36, and/or any other example herein, wherein there is a pause period between the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system and the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system.

[0311] Example 38 may include the method of example 36, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for the second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for the first communication system begins again.

[0312] Example 39 may include the method of example 36, and/or any other example herein, wherein when the fraction of time reserved for a second communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a first communication system begins again, with a pause period between the two fractions of time.

[0313] Example 40 may include the method of example 36, and/or any other example herein, further comprising accessing or causing to access a channel, and further comprising during the fraction of time reserved for a communication system based on IEEE 802 including DSRC and/or ITS-G5, accessing or causing to access the channel includes applying or causing to apply CSMA based channel access.

[0314] Example 41 may include the method of example 31, and/or any other example herein, further comprising receiving or causing to receive a configuration information field.

[0315] Example 42 may include the method of example 41, and/or any other example herein, wherein the configuration information field is used to at least one of request communication resources or obtain decisions regarding when communication resources are reserved for a specific user.

[0316] Example 43 may include the method of either of examples 37 or 39, and/or any other example herein, wherein the pause period is reduced for high-priority messages.

[0317] Example 44 may include the method of example 43, and/or any other example herein, wherein the high priority messages include messages for avoidance of collisions or protection of life.

[0318] Example 45 may include the method of example 31, and/or any other example herein, disposed in a vehicle, smartphone, Internet of Things devices, truck, car or bicycle.

[0319] Example 46 includes the apparatus of examples 1-15, and/or some other examples herein, wherein the apparatus is implemented in or by a user equipment (UE).

[0320] Example 47 includes the apparatus of examples 16-3,0 and/or some other

examples herein, wherein the apparatus is implemented in or by a user equipment (UE).

[0321] Example 48 includes the method of examples 31-45, and/or some other examples herein, wherein the method is performed by a user equipment (UE) or a portion thereof. [0322] Example 49 may include a first communication system is accessing a communication frequency channel (typically of 10 MHz bandwidth) while a second communication system is already using the channel. The first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0323] Example 50 may include a first communication system is for example 3GPP LTE

C-V2X, 3 GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 (such as IEEE 802.1 lp) based DSRC or ITS-G5 or any evolution of these systems. The first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0324] Example 51 may include a second communication system is for example 3GPP

LTE C-V2X, 3 GPP NR C-V2X or IEEE 802 (such as IEEE 802.1 lp) based DSRC or ITS-G5 or any evolution of these systems. The first communication system is different from the second communication system.

[0325] Example 52 may include a pre-determined fraction of time of any concerned channel is reserved for a first communication system.

[0326] Example 53 may include a pre-determined fraction of time of any concerned channel is reserved for a second communication system.

[0327] Example 54 may include when the fraction of time reserved for a first

communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a second

communication system starts.

[0328] Example 55 may include when the fraction of time reserved for a first

communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a second

communication system starts. Optionally, there may be a pause period between the two durations reserved for a first and second communication system.

[0329] Example 56 may include a When the fraction of time reserved for a second

communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a first communication system starts.

[0330] Example 57 may include a When the fraction of time reserved for a second

communication system ends, then the fraction of time reserved for a first communication system starts. Optionally, there may be a pause period between the two durations reserved for a second and first communication system.

[0331] Example 58 may include a The fraction of time reserved for a communication system based on IEEE 802 (such as IEEE 802.1 lp) including DSRC and/or ITS-G5 will apply CSMA based channel access in its reserved time period.

[0332] Example 59 may include cyclically, a configuration information field is sent.

[0333] Example 60 may include that the configuration information field may be access by a first and/or second communication system in order to request communication resources and/or indicate decisions on when communication resources are reserved for a specific user.

[0334] Example 61 may include that the AIFS period may be reduced for high-priority messages.

[0335] Example 62 may include that high priority messages may include messages for avoidance of collisions, protection of life, etc.

[0336] Example 63 may include where users may include vehicles, smartphones, IoT

(Internet of Things) devices, trucks, cars, bicycles, etc.

[0337] Example 64 may include an apparatus comprising means to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-45, or any other method or process described herein.

[0338] Example 65 may include one or more non-transitory computer-readable media comprising instructions to cause an electronic device, upon execution of the instructions by one or more processors of the electronic device, to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1-45, or any other method or process described herein.

[0339] Example 66 may include an apparatus comprising logic, modules, or circuitry to perform one or more elements of a method described in or related to any of examples 1- 45, or any other method or process described herein.

[0340] Example 67 may include a method, technique, or process as described in or

related to any of examples 1-45, or portions or parts thereof.

[0341] Example 68 may include an apparatus comprising: one or more processors and one or more computer-readable media comprising instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to perform the method, techniques, or process as described in or related to any of examples 1-45, or portions thereof.

[0342] Example 69 may include a signal as described in or related to any of examples 1- 45, or portions or parts thereof.

[0343] Example 70 may include a signal in a wireless network as shown and described herein.

[0344] Example 71 may include a method of communicating in a wireless network as shown and described herein.

[0345] Example 72 may include a system for providing wireless communication as

shown and described herein.

[0346] Example 73 may include a device for providing wireless communication as shown and described herein.

[0347] Any of the above-described examples may be combined with any other example

(or combination of examples), unless explicitly stated otherwise. The foregoing description of one or more implementations provides illustration and description, but is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the scope of embodiments to the precise form disclosed. Modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of various embodiments.

Abbreviations

[0348] For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations may apply to the examples and embodiments discussed herein, but are not meant to be limiting.

[0349] 3 GPP Third Generation Partnership Project

[0350] 4G Fourth Generation

[0351] 5G Fifth Generation

[0352] 5GC 5G Core network

[0353] ACK Acknowledgement

[0354] AF Application Function

[0355] AM Acknowledged Mode

[0356] AMBR Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate

[0357] AMF Access and Mobility Management Function

[0358] AN Access Network

[0359] ANR Automatic Neighbour Relation

[0360] AP Application Protocol, Antenna Port, Access Point

[0361] API Application Programming Interface

[0362] APN Access Point Name

[0363] ARP Allocation and Retention Priority

[0364] ARQ Automatic Repeat Request

[0365] AS Access Stratum

[0366] ASN. l Abstract Syntax Notation One

[0367] AUSF Authentication Server Function

[0368] AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

[0369] BCH Broadcast Channel

[0370] BER Bit Error Ratio

[0371] BFD Beam Failure Detection

[0372] BLER Block Error Rate

[0373] BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying

[0374] BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server

[0375] BSS Business Support System

[0376] BS Base Station

[0377] BSR Buffer Status Report

[0378] BW Bandwidth

[0379] BWP Bandwidth Part

[0380] C-RNTI Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0381] CA Carrier Aggregation, Certification Authority

[0382] CAPEX CAPital Expenditure

[0383] CBRA Contention Based Random Access

[0384] CC Component Carrier, Country Code, Cryptographic Checksum

[0385] CCA Clear Channel Assessment

[0386] CCE Control Channel Element

[0387] CCCH Common Control Channel

[0388] CE Coverage Enhancement

[0389] CDM Content Delivery Network

[0390] CDMA Code-Division Multiple Access

[0391] CFRA Contention Free Random Access

[0392] CG Cell Group

[0393] Cl Cell Identity

[0394] CID Cell-ID (e.g., positioning method)

[0395] CIM Common Information Model

[0396] CIR Carrier to Interference Ratio

[0397] CK Cipher Key

[0398] CM Connection Management, Conditional Mandatory

[0399] CMAS Commercial Mobile Alert Service

[0400] CMD Command

[0401] CMS Cloud Management System

[0402] CO Conditional Optional

[0403] CoMP Coordinated Multi-Point

[0404] CORESET Control Resource Set

[0405] COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf

[0406] CP Control Plane, Cyclic Prefix, Connection Point

[0407] CPD Connection Point Descriptor

[0408] CPE Customer Premise Equipment

[0409] CPICH Common Pilot Channel

[0410] CQI Channel Quality Indicator

[0411] CPU CSI processing unit, Central Processing Unit

[0412] C/R Command/Response field bit

[0413] CRAN Cloud Radio Access Network, Cloud RAN

[0414] CRB Common Resource Block

[0415] CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check

[0416] CRI Channel-State Information Resource Indicator, CSI-RS Resource

Indicator

[0417] C-RNTI Cell RNTI

[0418] CS Circuit Switched

[0419] CSAR Cloud Service Archive

[0420] CSI Channel-State Information

[0421] CSI-IM CSI Interference Measurement

[0422] CSI-RS CSI Reference Signal

[0423] CSI-RSRP CSI reference signal received power

[0424] CSI-RSRQ CSI reference signal received quality

[0425] CSI-SINR CSI signal-to-noise and interference ratio

[0426] CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access

[0427] CSMA/CA CSMA with collision avoidance

[0428] CSS Common Search Space, Cell-specific Search Space

[0429] CTS Clear-to-Send

[0430] cw Codeword

[0431] CWS Contention Window Size

[0432] D2D Device-to-Device

[0433] DC Dual Connectivity, Direct Current

[0434] DCI Downlink Control Information

[0435] DF Deployment Flavour

[0436] DL Downlink

[0437] DMTF Distributed Management Task Force

[0438] DPDK Data Plane Development Kit

[0439] DM-RS, DMRS Demodulation Reference Signal

[0440] DN Data network

[0441] DRB Data Radio Bearer

[0442] DRS Discovery Reference Signal

[0443] DRX Discontinuous Reception

[0444] DSL Domain Specific Language. Digital Subscriber Line

[0445] DSLAM DSL Access Multiplexer

[0446] DSRC Dedicated Short-Range Communications

[0447] DwPTS Downlink Pilot Time Slot

[0448] E-LAN Ethernet Local Area Network

[0449] E2E End-to-End

[0450] ECCA extended clear channel assessment, extended CCA

[0451] ECCE Enhanced Control Channel Element, Enhanced CCE

[0452] ED Energy Detection

[0453] EDGE Enhanced Datarates for GSM Evolution (GSM Evolution)

[0454] EGMF Exposure Governance Management Function

[0455] EGPRS Enhanced GPRS

[0456] EIR Equipment Identity Register

[0457] eLAA enhanced Licensed Assisted Access, enhanced LAA

[0458] EM Element Manager

[0459] eMBB Enhanced Mobile Broadband

[0460] EMS Element Management System

[0461] eNB evolved NodeB, E-UTRAN Node B

[0462] EN-DC E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity

[0463] EPC Evolved Packet Core

[0464] EPDCCH enhanced PDCCH, enhanced Physical Downlink Control Cannel

[0465] EPRE Energy per resource element

[0466] EPS Evolved Packet System

[0467] EREG enhanced REG, enhanced resource element groups

[0468] ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute

[0469] ETWS Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

[0470] eUICC embedded UICC, embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card

[0471] E-UTRA Evolved UTRA

[0472] E-UTRAN Evolved UTRAN

[0473] EV2X Enhanced V2X

[0474] FIAP FI Application Protocol

[0475] Fl-C FI Control plane interface

[0476] Fl-U FI User plane interface

[0477] FACCH Fast Associated Control CHannel

[0478] FACCH/F Fast Associated Control Channel/Full rate

[0479] FACCH/H Fast Associated Control Channel/Half rate

[0480] FACH Forward Access Channel

[0481] FAUSCH Fast Uplink Signalling Channel

[0482] FB Functional Block

[0483] FBI Feedback Information

[0484] FCC Federal Communications Commission

[0485] FCCH Frequency Correction CHannel

[0486] FDD Frequency Division Duplex

[0487] FDM Frequency Division Multiplex

[0488] FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0489] FE Front End

[0490] FEC Forward Error Correction

[0491] FFS For Further Study

[0492] FFT Fast Fourier Transformation

[0493] feLAA further enhanced Licensed Assisted Access, further enhanced

LAA

[0494] FN Frame Number

[0495] FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array

[0496] FR Frequency Range

[0497] G-RNTI GERAN Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0498] GERAN GSM EDGE RAN, GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

[0499] GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node

[0500] GLONASS GLObal'naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (Engl.:

Global Navigation Satellite System)

[0501] gNB Next Generation NodeB

[0502] gNB-CU gNB-centralized unit, Next Generation NodeB centralized unit

[0503] gNB-DU gNB-distributed unit, Next Generation NodeB distributed unit

[0504] GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System

[0505] GPRS General Packet Radio Service

[0506] GSM Global System for Mobile Communications, Groupe Special

Mobile

[0507] GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol

[0508] GTP-U GPRS Tunnelling Protocol for User Plane

[0509] GTS Go To Sleep Signal (related to WUS)

[0510] GUMMEI Globally Unique MME Identifier

[0511] GUTI Globally Unique Temporary UE Identity

[0512] HARQ Hybrid ARQ, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

[0513] HANDO, HO Handover

[0514] HFN HyperFrame Number

[0515] HHO Hard Handover

[0516] HLR Home Location Register

[0517] HN Home Network

[0518] HO Handover

[0519] HPLMN Home Public Land Mobile Network

[0520] HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access

[0521] HSN Hopping Sequence Number

[0522] HSPA High Speed Packet Access

[0523] HSS Home Subscriber Server

[0524] HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access

[0525] HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

[0526] HTTPS Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (https is http/ 1.1 over SSL, i.e. port 443)

[0527] I-Block Information Block

[0528] ICCID Integrated Circuit Card Identification

[0529] ICIC Inter-Cell Interference Coordination

[0530] ID Identity, identifier

[0531] IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

[0532] IE Information element

[0533] IBE In-Band Emission

[0534] IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

[0535] IEI Information Element Identifier

[0536] IEIDL Information Element Identifier Data Length

[0537] IETF Internet Engineering Task Force

[0538] IF Infrastructure

[0539] IM Interference Measurement, Intermodulation, IP Multimedia

[0540] IMC IMS Credentials

[0541] IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity

[0542] IMGI International mobile group identity

[0543] IMPI IP Multimedia Private Identity

[0544] IMPU IP Multimedia PUblic identity

[0545] IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem

[0546] IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity

[0547] IoT Internet of Things

[0548] IP Internet Protocol

[0549] Ipsec IP Security, Internet Protocol Security

[0550] IP-CAN IP-Connectivity Access Network

[0551] IP-M IP Multicast

[0552] IPv4 Internet Protocol Version 4

[0553] IPv6 Internet Protocol Version 6

[0554] IR Infrared

[0555] IS In Sync

[0556] IRP Integration Reference Point

[0557] ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

[0558] ISIM IM Services Identity Module

[0559] ISO International Organisation for Standardisation

[0560] ISP Internet Service Provider

[0561] IWF Interworking-Function

[0562] I-WLAN Interworking WLAN

[0563] K Constraint length of the convolutional code, USIM Individual key

[0564] kB Kilobyte (1000 bytes)

[0565] kbps kilo-bits per second

[0566] Kc Ciphering key

[0567] Ki Individual subscriber authentication key

[0568] KPI Key Performance Indicator

[0569] KQI Key Quality Indicator

[0570] KSI Key Set Identifier

[0571] ksps kilo-symbols per second

[0572] KVM Kernel Virtual Machine

[0573] LI Layer 1 (physical layer)

[0574] Ll-RSRP Layer 1 reference signal received power

[0575] L2 Layer 2 (data link layer)

[0576] L3 Layer 3 (network layer)

[0577] LAA Licensed Assisted Access

[0578] LAN Local Area Network

[0579] LBT Listen Before Talk

[0580] LCM LifeCycle Management

[0581] LCR Low Chip Rate

[0582] LCS Location Services

[0583] LCID Logical Channel ID

[0584] LI Layer Indicator

[0585] LLC Logical Link Control, Low Layer Compatibility

[0586] LPLMN Local PLMN

[0587] LPP LTE Positioning Protocol

[0588] LSB Least Significant Bit

[0589] LTE Long Term Evolution

[0590] LWA LTE-WLAN aggregation

[0591] LWIP LTE/WLAN Radio Level Integration with IPsec Tunnel

[0592] LTE Long Term Evolution

[0593] M2M Machine-to-Machine

[0594] MAC Medium Access Control (protocol layering context)

[0595] MAC Message authentication code (security/encryption context)

[0596] MAC-A MAC used for authentication and key agreement (TSG T WG3 context)

[0597] MAC-I MAC used for data integrity of signalling messages (TSG T

WG3 context)

[0598] MANO Management and Orchestration

[0599] MB MS Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service

[0600] MBSFN Multimedia Broadcast multicast service Single Frequency

Network

[0601] MCC Mobile Country Code

[0602] MCG Master Cell Group

[0603] MCOT Maximum Channel Occupancy Time

[0604] MCS Modulation and coding scheme

[0605] MDAF Management Data Analytics Function

[0606] MDAS Management Data Analytics Service

[0607] MDT Minimization of Drive Tests

[0608] ME Mobile Equipment

[0609] MeNB master eNB

[0610] MER Message Error Ratio

[0611] MGL Measurement Gap Length

[0612] MGRP Measurement Gap Repetition Period

[0613] MIB Master Information Block, Management Information Base

[0614] MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output

[0615] MLC Mobile Location Centre

[0616] MM Mobility Management

[0617] MME Mobility Management Entity

[0618] MN Master Node

[0619] MO Measurement Object, Mobile Originated

[0620] MPBCH MTC Physical Broadcast CHannel

[0621] MPDCCH MTC Physical Downlink Control CHannel

[0622] MPDSCH MTC Physical Downlink Shared CHannel

[0623] MPRACH MTC Physical Random Access CHannel

[0624] MPUSCH MTC Physical Uplink Shared Channel

[0625] MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching

[0626] MS Mobile Station

[0627] MSB Most Significant Bit

[0628] MSC Mobile Switching Centre

[0629] MSI Minimum System Information, MCH Scheduling Information

[0630] MSID Mobile Station Identifier

[0631] MSIN Mobile Station Identification Number

[0632] MSISDN Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number

[0633] MT Mobile Terminated, Mobile Termination

[0634] MTC Machine-Type Communications

[0635] mMTC massive MTC, massive Machine-Type Communications

[0636] MU-MIMO Multi User MIMO

[0637] MWUS MTC wake-up signal, MTC WUS

[0638] NACK Negative Acknowledgement

[0639] NAI Network Access Identifier

[0640] NAS Non-Access Stratum, Non-Access Stratum layer

[0641] NCT Network Connectivity Topology

[0642] NEC Network Capability Exposure

[0643] NE-DC NR-E-UTRA Dual Connectivity

[0644] NEF Network Exposure Function

[0645] NF Network Function

[0646] NFP Network Forwarding Path

[0647] NFPD Network Forwarding Path Descriptor

[0648] NFV Network Functions Virtualization

[0649] NFVI NFV Infrastructure

[0650] NFVO NFV Orchestrator

[0651] NG Next Generation, Next Gen

[0652] NGEN-DC NG-RAN E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity

[0653] NM Network Manager

[0654] NMS Network Management System

[0655] N-PoP Network Point of Presence

[0656] NMIB, N-MIB Narrowband MIB

[0657] NPBCH Narrowband Physical Broadcast CHannel

[0658] NPDCCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Control CHannel

[0659] NPDSCH Narrowband Physical Downlink Shared CHannel

[0660] NPRACH Narrowband Physical Random Access CHannel

[0661] NPUSCH Narrowband Physical Uplink Shared CHannel

[0662] NPSS Narrowband Primary Synchronization Signal

[0663] NSSS Narrowband Secondary Synchronization Signal

[0664] NR New Radio, Neighbour Relation

[0665] NRF NF Repository Function

[0666] NRS Narrowband Reference Signal

[0667] NS Network Service

[0668] NS A Non- Standalone operation mode

[0669] NSD Network Service Descriptor

[0670] NSR Network Service Record

[0671] NSSAI 'Network Slice Selection Assistance Information

[0672] S-NNSAI Single-NSSAI

[0673] NSSF Network Slice Selection Function

[0674] NW Network

[0675] NWUS Narrowband wake-up signal, Narrowband WUS

[0676] NZP Non-Zero Power

[0677] O&M Operation and Maintenance

[0678] ODU2 Optical channel Data Unit - type 2

[0679] OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

[0680] OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0681] OOB Out-of-band

[0682] OOS Out of Sync

[0683] OPEX OPerating EXpense

[0684] OSI Other System Information

[0685] OSS Operations Support System

[0686] OTA over-the-air

[0687] PAPR Peak-to- Average Power Ratio

[0688] PAR Peak to Average Ratio

[0689] PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel

[0690] PC Power Control, Personal Computer

[0691] PCC Primary Component Carrier, Primary CC

[0692] PCell Primary Cell

[0693] PCI Physical Cell ID, Physical Cell Identity

[0694] PCEF Policy and Charging Enforcement Function

[0695] PCF Policy Control Function

[0696] PCRF Policy Control and Charging Rules Function

[0697] PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol, Packet Data Convergence

Protocol layer

[0698] PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel

[0699] PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol

[0700] PDN Packet Data Network, Public Data Network

[0701] PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

[0702] PDU Protocol Data Unit

[0703] PEI Permanent Equipment Identifiers

[0704] PFD Packet Flow Description

[0705] P-GW PDN Gateway

[0706] PHICH Physical hybrid-ARQ indicator channel

[0707] PHY Physical layer

[0708] PLMN Public Land Mobile Network

[0709] PIN Personal Identification Number

[0710] PM Performance Measurement

[0711] PMI Precoding Matrix Indicator

[0712] PNF Physical Network Function

[0713] PNFD Physical Network Function Descriptor

[0714] PNFR Physical Network Function Record

[0715] POC PTT over Cellular

[0716] PP, PTP Point-to-Point

[0717] PPP Point-to-Point Protocol

[0718] PRACH Physical RACH

[0719] PRB Physical resource block

[0720] PRG Physical resource block group

[0721] ProSe Proximity Services, Proximity-Based Service

[0722] PRS Positioning Reference Signal

[0723] PRR Packet Reception Radio

[0724] PS Packet Services

[0725] PSBCH Physical Sidelink Broadcast Channel

[0726] PSDCH Physical Sidelink Downlink Channel

[0727] PSCCH Physical Sidelink Control Channel

[0728] PSSCH Physical Sidelink Shared Channel

[0729] PSCell Primary SCell

[0730] PSS Primary Synchronization Signal

[0731] PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network

[0732] PT-RS Phase-tracking reference signal

[0733] PH Push-to-Talk

[0734] PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel

[0735] PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

[0736] QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

[0737] QCI QoS class of identifier

[0738] QCL Quasi co-location

[0739] QFI QoS Flow ID, QoS Flow Identifier

[0740] QoS Quality of Service

[0741] QPSK Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase Shift Keying

[0742] QZSS Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

[0743] RA-RNTI Random Access RNTI

[0744] RAB Radio Access Bearer, Random Access Burst

[0745] RACH Random Access Channel

[0746] RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service

[0747] RAN Radio Access Network

[0748] RAND RANDom number (used for authentication)

[0749] RAR Random Access Response

[0750] RAT Radio Access Technology

[0751] RAU Routing Area ETpdate

[0752] RB Resource block, Radio Bearer

[0753] RBG Resource block group

[0754] REG Resource Element Group

[0755] Rel Release

[0756] REQ REQuest

[0757] RF Radio Frequency

[0758] RI Rank Indicator

[0759] RIV Resource indicator value

[0760] RL Radio Link

[0761] RLC Radio Link Control, Radio Link Control layer

[0762] RLC AM RLC Acknowledged Mode

[0763] RLC UM RLC Unacknowledged Mode

[0764] RLF Radio Link Failure

[0765] RLM Radio Link Monitoring

[0766] RLM-RS Reference Signal for RLM

[0767] RM Registration Management

[0768] RMC Reference Measurement Channel

[0769] RMS I Remaining MSI, Remaining Minimum System Information

[0770] RN Relay Node

[0771] RNC Radio Network Controller

[0772] RNL Radio Network Layer

[0773] RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identifier

[0774] ROHC RObust Header Compression

[0775] RRC Radio Resource Control, Radio Resource Control layer

[0776] RRM Radio Resource Management

[0777] RS Reference Signal

[0778] RSRP Reference Signal Received Power

[0779] RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality

[0780] RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator

[0781] RSU Road Side Unit

[0782] RSTD Reference Signal Time difference

[0783] RTP Real Time Protocol

[0784] RTS Ready-To-Send

[0785] RTT Round Trip Time

[0786] Rx Reception, Receiving, Receiver

[0787] S1AP SI Application Protocol

[0788] Sl-MME SI for the control plane

[0789] S 1 -U S 1 for the user plane

[0790] S-GW Serving Gateway

[0791] S-RNTI SRNC Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0792] S-TMSI SAE Temporary Mobile Station Identifier

[0793] SA Standalone operation mode

[0794] SAE System Architecture Evolution

[0795] SAP Service Access Point

[0796] SAPD Service Access Point Descriptor

[0797] SAPI Service Access Point Identifier

[0798] SCC Secondary Component Carrier, Secondary CC

[0799] SCell Secondary Cell

[0800] SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

[0801] SCG Secondary Cell Group

[0802] SCM Security Context Management

[0803] SCS Subcarrier Spacing

[0804] SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol

[0805] SDAP Service Data Adaptation Protocol, Service Data Adaptation

Protocol layer

[0806] SDL Supplementary Downlink

[0807] SDNF Structured Data Storage Network Function

[0808] SDP Service Discovery Protocol (Bluetooth related)

[0809] SDSF Structured Data Storage Function

[0810] SDU Service Data Unit

[0811] SEAF Security Anchor Function

[0812] SeNB secondary eNB

[0813] SEPP Security Edge Protection Proxy

[0814] SFI Slot format indication

[0815] SFTD Space-Frequency Time Diversity, SFN and frame timing difference

[0816] SFN System Frame Number

[0817] SgNB Secondary gNB

[0818] SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

[0819] S-GW Serving Gateway

[0820] SI System Information

[0821] SI-RNTI System Information RNTI

[0822] SIB System Information Block

[0823] SIM Subscriber Identity Module

[0824] SIP Session Initiated Protocol

[0825] SiP System in Package

[0826] SL Sidelink

[0827] SLA Service Level Agreement

[0828] SM Session Management

[0829] SMF Session Management Function

[0830] SMS Short Message Service

[0831] SMSF SMS Function

[0832] SMTC S SB-based Measurement Timing Configuration

[0833] SN Secondary Node, Sequence Number

[0834] SoC System on Chip

[0835] SON Self-Organizing Network

[0836] SpCell Special Cell

[0837] SP-C SI-RNTI Semi-Persistent CSI RNTI

[0838] SPS Semi-Persistent Scheduling

[0839] SQN Sequence number

[0840] SR Scheduling Request

[0841] SRB Signalling Radio Bearer

[0842] SRS Sounding Reference Signal

[0843] ss Synchronization Signal

[0844] SSB Synchronization Signal Block, SS/PBCH Block

[0845] SSBRI SS/PBCH Block Resource Indicator, Synchronization Signal

Block Resource Indicator

[0846] SSC Session and Service Continuity

[0847] SS-RSRP Synchronization Signal based Reference Signal Received Power

[0848] SS-RSRQ Synchronization Signal based Reference Signal Received Quality

[0849] SS-SINR Synchronization Signal based Signal to Noise and Interference

Ratio

[0850] SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal

[0851] SSSG Search Space Set Group

[0852] SSSIF Search Space Set Indicator

[0853] SST Slice/Service Types

[0854] SU-MIMO Single User MIMO

[0855] SUL Supplementary Uplink

[0856] TA Timing Advance, Tracking Area

[0857] TAC Tracking Area Code

[0858] TAG Timing Advance Group

[0859] TAU Tracking Area Update

[0860] TB Transport Block

[0861] TBS Transport Block Size

[0862] TBD To Be Defined

[0863] TCI Transmission Configuration Indicator

[0864] TCP Transmission Communication Protocol

[0865] TDD Time Division Duplex

[0866] TDM Time Division Multiplexing

[0867] TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

[0868] TE Terminal Equipment

[0869] TEID Tunnel End Point Identifier

[0870] TFT Traffic Flow Template

[0871] TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

[0872] TNL Transport Network Layer

[0873] TPC Transmit Power Control

[0874] TPMI Transmitted Precoding Matrix Indicator

[0875] TR Technical Report

[0876] TRP, TRxP Transmission Reception Point

[0877] TRS Tracking Reference Signal

[0878] TRx Transceiver

[0879] TS Technical Specifications, Technical Standard

[0880] TTI Transmission Time Interval

[0881] Tx Transmission, Transmitting, Transmitter

[0882] U-RNTI UTRAN Radio Network Temporary Identity

[0883] UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

[0884] UCI Uplink Control Information

[0885] UE User Equipment

[0886] UDM Unified Data Management

[0887] UDP User Datagram Protocol

[0888] UDSF Unstructured Data Storage Network Function

[0889] UICC Universal Integrated Circuit Card

[0890] UL Uplink

[0891] UM Unacknowledged Mode

[0892] UML Unified Modelling Language

[0893] UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

[0894] UP User Plane

[0895] UPF User Plane Function

[0896] URI Uniform Resource Identifier

[0897] URL Uniform Resource Locator

[0898] URLLC Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency

[0899] USB Universal Serial Bus

[0900] USIM Universal Subscriber Identity Module

[0901] USS UE-specific search space

[0902] UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

[0903] UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network

[0904] UwPTS Uplink Pilot Time Slot

[0905] V2I V ehi cl e-to-Infrastructi on

[0906] V2P V ehi cl e-to-Pede stri an

[0907] V2V V ehi cl e-to- V ehi cl e

[0908] V2X Vehicle-to-everything

[0909] VIM Virtualized Infrastructure Manager

[0910] VL Virtual Link,

[0911] VLAN Virtual LAN, Virtual Local Area Network

[0912] VM Virtual Machine

[0913] VNF Virtualized Network Function

[0914] VNFFG VNF Forwarding Graph

[0915] VNFFGD VNF Forwarding Graph Descriptor

[0916] VNFM VNF Manager

[0917] VoIP Voice-over-IP, Voice-over-Internet Protocol

[0918] VPLMN Visited Public Land Mobile Network

[0919] VPN Virtual Private Network

[0920] VRB Virtual Resource Block

[0921] WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

[0922] WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

[0923] WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network

[0924] WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network

[0925] X2-C X2-Control plane

[0926] X2-U X2-User plane

[0927] XML extensible Markup Language

[0928] XRES EXpected user RESponse

[0929] XOR exclusive OR

[0930] ZC Zadoff-Chu

[0931] ZP Zero Power

Terminology

[0932] For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions are applicable to the examples and embodiments discussed herein, but are not meant to be limiting.

[0933] The term“circuitry” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes hardware

components such as an electronic circuit, a logic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group) and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), a field-programmable device (FPD) (e.g., a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic device (PLD), a complex PLD (CPLD), a high- capacity PLD (HCPLD), a structured ASIC, or a programmable SoC), digital signal processors (DSPs), etc., that are configured to provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may execute one or more software or firmware programs to provide at least some of the described functionality. The term“circuitry” may also refer to a combination of one or more hardware elements (or a combination of circuits used in an electrical or electronic system) with the program code used to carry out the functionality of that program code. In these embodiments, the combination of hardware elements and program code may be referred to as a particular type of circuitry.

[0934] The term“processor circuitry” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes circuitry capable of sequentially and automatically carrying out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations, or recording, storing, and/or transferring digital data. The term “processor circuitry” may refer to one or more application processors, one or more baseband processors, a physical central processing unit (CPU), a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a triple-core processor, a quad-core processor, and/or any other device capable of executing or otherwise operating computer-executable instructions, such as program code, software modules, and/or functional processes. The terms “application circuitry” and/or“baseband circuitry” may be considered synonymous to, and may be referred to as,“processor circuitry.”

[0935] The term“interface circuitry” as used herein refers to, is part of, or includes

circuitry that enables the exchange of information between two or more components or devices. The term“interface circuitry” may refer to one or more hardware interfaces, for example, buses, I/O interfaces, peripheral component interfaces, network interface cards, and/or the like.

[0936] The term“user equipment” or“UE” as used herein refers to a device with radio communication capabilities and may describe a remote user of network resources in a communications network. The term“user equipment” or“UE” may be considered synonymous to, and may be referred to as, client, mobile, mobile device, mobile terminal, user terminal, mobile unit, mobile station, mobile user, subscriber, user, remote station, access agent, user agent, receiver, radio equipment, reconfigurable radio equipment, reconfigurable mobile device, etc. Furthermore, the term“user equipment” or“UE” may include any type of wireless/wired device or any computing device including a wireless communications interface.

[0937] The term“network element” as used herein refers to physical or virtualized

equipment and/or infrastructure used to provide wired or wireless communication network services. The term“network element” may be considered synonymous to and/or

referred to as a networked computer, networking hardware, network equipment, network node, router, switch, hub, bridge, radio network controller, RAN device, RAN node, gateway, server, virtualized VNF, NFVI, and/or the like.

[0938] The term“computer system” as used herein refers to any type interconnected electronic devices, computer devices, or components thereof. Additionally, the term “computer system” and/or“system” may refer to various components of a computer that are communicatively coupled with one another. Furthermore, the term“computer system” and/or“system” may refer to multiple computer devices and/or multiple computing systems that are communicatively coupled with one another and configured to share computing and/or networking resources.

[0939] The term“appliance,”“computer appliance,” or the like, as used herein refers to a computer device or computer system with program code (e.g., software or firmware) that is specifically designed to provide a specific computing resource. A“virtual appliance” is a virtual machine image to be implemented by a hypervisor-equipped device that virtualizes or emulates a computer appliance or otherwise is dedicated to provide a specific computing resource.

[0940] The term“resource” as used herein refers to a physical or virtual device, a

physical or virtual component within a computing environment, and/or a physical or virtual component within a particular device, such as computer devices, mechanical devices, memory space, processor/CPU time, processor/CPU usage, processor and accelerator loads, hardware time or usage, electrical power, input/output operations, ports or network sockets, channel/link allocation, throughput, memory usage, storage, network, database and applications, workload units, and/or the like. A“hardware resource” may refer to compute, storage, and/or network resources provided by physical hardware element(s). A“virtualized resource” may refer to compute, storage, and/or network resources provided by virtualization infrastructure to an application, device, system, etc. The term“network resource” or“communication resource” may refer to resources that are accessible by computer devices/sy stems via a communications network. The term “system resources” may refer to any kind of shared entities to provide services, and may include computing and/or network resources. System resources may be considered as a set of coherent functions, network data objects or services, accessible through a server where such system resources reside on a single host or multiple hosts and are clearly identifiable.

[0941] The term“channel” as used herein refers to any transmission medium, either tangible or intangible, which is used to communicate data or a data stream. The term “channel” may be synonymous with and/or equivalent to“communications channel,” “data communications channel,”“transmission channel,”“data transmission channel,” “access channel,”“data access channel,”“link,”“data link,”“carrier,”“radiofrequency carrier,” and/or any other like term denoting a pathway or medium through which data is communicated. Additionally, the term“link” as used herein refers to a connection between two devices through a RAT for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information.

[0942] The terms“instantiate,”“instantiation,” and the like as used herein refers to the creation of an instance. An“instance” also refers to a concrete occurrence of an object, which may occur, for example, during execution of program code.

[0943] The terms“coupled,”“communicatively coupled,” along with derivatives thereof are used herein. The term“coupled” may mean two or more elements are in direct physical or electrical contact with one another, may mean that two or more elements indirectly contact each other but still cooperate or interact with each other, and/or may mean that one or more other elements are coupled or connected between the elements that are said to be coupled with each other. The term“directly coupled” may mean that two or more elements are in direct contact with one another. The term“communicatively coupled” may mean that two or more elements may be in contact with one another by a means of communication including through a wire or other interconnect connection, through a wireless communication channel or ink, and/or the like.

[0944] The term“information element” refers to a structural element containing one or more fields. The term“field” refers to individual contents of an information element, or a data element that contains content.

[0945] The term“SMTC” refers to an S SB-based measurement timing configuration configured by SSB-MeasurementTimingConfiguration.

[0946] The term“SSB” refers to an SS/PBCH block.

[0947] The term“a“Primary Cell” refers to the MCG cell, operating on the primary

frequency, in which the UE either performs the initial connection establishment procedure or initiates the connection re-establishment procedure.

[0948] The term“Primary SCG Cell” refers to the SCG cell in which the UE performs random access when performing the Reconfiguration with Sync procedure for DC operation.

[0949] The term“Secondary Cell” refers to a cell providing additional radio resources on top of a Special Cell for a UE configured with CA.

[0950] The term“Secondary Cell Group” refers to the subset of serving cells comprising the PSCell and zero or more secondary cells for a UE configured with DC.

[0951] The term“Serving Cell” refers to the primary cell for a UE in

RRC CONNECTED not configured with CA/DC there is only one serving cell comprising of the primary cell.

[0952] The term“serving cell” or“serving cells” refers to the set of cells comprising the

Special Cell(s) and all secondary cells for a UE in RRC CONNECTED configured with CA/.

[0953] The term“Special Cell” refers to the PCell of the MCG or the PSCell of the SCG for DC operation; otherwise, the term“Special Cell” refers to the Pcell.