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1. US20130055471 - Transgenic Ozone-Resistant Plants

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Claims

1. A transgenic plant comprising a gene that confers resistance to oxidative stress in said plant, wherein said gene encodes an enzyme that has anti-oxidant activity or an enzyme that produces an antioxidant compound, and wherein said gene is under the control of a regulated promoter functional during the early ontogeny of said plant.
2. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said oxidative stress is caused by drought, temperature, radiation, salt and/or exposure to reactive oxygen species.
3. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said regulated promoter is an inducible promoter, a developmentally regulated promoter, and/or a tissue-specific promoter.
4. Transgenic plant according to claim 3, wherein said regulated promoter does not express said gene after the early ontogeny of said plant.
5. Transgenic plant according to claim 3, wherein said inducible promoter is a member selected from the group consisting of the alcA/alcR gene switch promoter, the GST promoter, an ozone inducible promoter and the ecdysone switch system.
6. Transgenic plant according to claim 3, wherein said developmentally regulated promoter is an ontogenesis-specific promoter selected from the group consisting of the Pyk10 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, the malate synthase promoter from Brassica napus, the isocitrate lyase promoter from Brassica napus, the promoter of the GSBF1 gene from Brassica napus, the glycine-rich RNA binding protein gene of Oryza sativa, the cysteine protease gene promoter of Brassica napus, the promoters of lipid transfer protein genes from Hordeum vulgare, and homologues thereof in other plant species.
7. Transgenic plant according to claim 3, wherein said tissue-specific promoter is a member selected from the group consisting of the promoter of the isoprene synthase gene from Populus alba, the rbcS (Rubisco) promoter from Coffea, Brassica, Chrysanthemum, Phaseolus; and Glycine max, the cy-FBPase promoter, the promoter sequence of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein from Elaeis, the STP3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, the promoter of the PAL2 gene from Phaseolus, the enhancer sequences of the ST-LS1 promoter from Solanum tuberosum, the CAB1 promoter from Triticum, the stomata-specific promoter from the ADP-glucose-phosphorylase gene from Solanum tuberosum, the LPSE1 element from the P(D540) gene of Oryza sativa, and the stomata specific promoter pGC1(At1g22690) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and homologues in other plant species.
8. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said enzyme that produces an antioxidant compound is a member selected from the group consisting of isoprene synthase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase, phosphomannomutase, GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-mannose-3′,5′-epimerase, L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, Gal-UR, the gene encoding miox4, and L-idonate dehydrogenase.
9. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said enzyme that has anti-oxidant activity is a member selected from the group consisting of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase.
10. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said early ontogeny is the prefloral stage or the vegetative stage.
11. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said gene is expressed in the plastids of said plant.
12. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein the gene is the isoprene synthase gene.
13. Transgenic plant according to claim 12, wherein the expression of said vector in said plant results in an terpene emission rate of at least 0.1-200 nmol·m −2·s −1.
14. Transgenic plant according to claim 12, wherein said plant is from a species that does not naturally emit isoprene.
15. Transgenic plant according to claim 1, wherein said plant as an adult plant exhibits a first rate of respiration under ambient ozone that is essentially equal to the rate of maintenance respiration exhibited by said plant during early ontogeny, and wherein said plant upon temporary exposure to ambient plus 100 ppb of ozone exhibits a second rate of respiration, which second rate is a significant increase relative to said first rate, and wherein following said temporary exposure said second rate of respiration returns to pre-exposure levels.
16. A progeny plant or seed from the transgenic plant of claim 1, wherein said progeny plant or seed comprises said gene under the control of said regulated promoter.
17. A seed from the progeny plant of claim 16, wherein said seed comprises said gene under the control of said regulated promoter.
18. A plant from the seed of claim 17, wherein said plant comprises said gene under the control of said regulated promoter.
19. A method of preparing a transgenic plant having improved yield under conditions of periodic oxidative stress, said method comprising the steps of:
(a) obtaining a nucleic acid segment comprising a gene that encodes an enzyme that has anti-oxidant activity or an enzyme that produces an antioxidant compound, and wherein said gene is operably linked to a regulated promoter functional during the early ontogeny of said plant;
(b) transforming a plant cell with said nucleic acid segment; and
(c) regenerating from said plant cell a transgenic plant which expresses said gene and wherein said transgenic plant exhibits improved yield under conditions of periodic oxidative stress as compared to a non-transformed plant.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein step a) further comprises introducing said nucleic acid segment into a vector, and wherein step b) comprises transforming said plant cell with said vector.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein said vector is a phage vector, bacterial vector, a plasmid vector or viral vector.
22. The method of claim 19, wherein said oxidative stress is caused by drought, temperature, radiation, salt and/or exposure to reactive oxygen species.
23. The method of claim 19, wherein said regulated promoter is an inducible promoter, a developmentally regulated promoter, or a tissue-specific promoter
24. The method of any claim 23, wherein said regulated promoter does not express said gene after the early ontogeny of said plant.
25. The method of claim 23, wherein said inducible promoter is a member selected from the group consisting of the alcA/alcR gene switch promoter, the GST promoter, an ozone inducible promoter and the ecdysone switch system.
26. The method of claim 23, wherein said developmentally regulated promoter is an ontogenesis-specific promoter selected from the group consisting of the Pyk10 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, the malate synthase promoter from Brassica napus, the isocitrate lyase promoter from Brassica napus, the promoter of the GSBF1 gene from Brassica napus, the glycine-rich RNA binding protein gene of Oryza sativa, the cysteine protease gene promoter of Brassica napus, the promoters of lipid transfer protein genes from Hordeum vulgare, and homologues thereof in other plant species.
27. The method of claim 23, wherein said tissue-specific promoter is a member selected from the group consisting of the promoter of the isoprene synthase gene from Populus alba, the rbcS (Rubisco) promoter from Coffea, Brassica, Chrysanthemum, Phaseolus; and Glycine max, the cy-FBPase promoter, the promoter sequence of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein from Elaeis, the STP3 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, the promoter of the PAL2 gene from Phaseolus, the enhancer sequences of the ST-LS1 promoter from Solanum tuberosum, the CAB1 promoter from Triticum, the stomata-specific promoter from the ADP-glucose-phosphorylase gene from Solanum tuberosum, the LPSE1 element from the P(D540) gene of Oryza sativa, and the stomata specific promoter pGC1(At1g22690) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and homologues in other plant species.
28. The method of claim 19, wherein said enzyme that produces an antioxidant compound is a member selected from the group consisting of isoprene synthase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase, phosphomannomutase, GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-mannose-3′,5′-epimerase, L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, Gal-UR, the gene encoding miox4, and L-idonate dehydrogenase.
29. The method of claim 19, wherein said enzyme that has anti-oxidant activity is a member selected from the group consisting of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase.
30. The method of claim 19, wherein said early ontogeny is the prefloral stage or the vegetative stage.
31. The method of claim 19, wherein said gene is expressed in the plastids of said plant.
32. The method of claim 19, wherein the gene is the isoprene synthase gene.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein the expression of said vector in said plant results in a terpene emission rate of at least 20 nmol·m −2·s −1.
34. The method of claim 32, wherein said plant is from a species that does not naturally emit isoprene.
35. The method according to claim 33, wherein the terpene emission rate is an isoprene emission rate.
36. A transgenic plant obtained by the method according to claim 19, wherein said plant comprises said gene under the control of said regulated promoter.
37. A transgenic seed from the plant of claim 36, wherein said seed comprises said gene under the control of said regulated promoter.
38. A transgenic plant from the seed of claim 37, wherein said plant comprises said gene under the control of said regulated promoter and wherein said plant, when grown from said seed to maturity under periodic conditions that cause oxidative stress, exhibits a total dark respiration and/or respiration via the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway that is significantly less as compared to a non-transformed plant.
39. The plant of claim 38, wherein said plant exhibits a rate of respiration via the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway that is below 40% of the total dark respiration of said plant.
40. A method of growing plants, comprising the step of allowing a seed, a seedling, tissue culture or plantlet of the plant of claim 36 to develop into a plant, and inducing expression of said gene during early ontogeny of said plant or during periodic conditions that cause oxidative stress, to thereby prevent an increase in the rate of respiration via the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway during said early ontogeny and/or due to said oxidative stress.
41. The method of claim 40, wherein said induction is brought about by contacting said seed, seedling, tissue culture, plantlet or plant with an effective concentration of an promoter-inducing agent.
42. The method of claim 40, wherein the early ontogeny of said plant is the prefloral stage or the vegetative stage.
43. The method of claim 19, wherein said plant is a plant selected from the group consisting of wheat, corn, melon, soy, potato, rice, sugarcane, sugarbeet, evening primrose, meadow foam, hops, jojoba, peanuts, safflower, barley, oats, rye, wheat, sorghum, tobacco, kapok, beans, lentils, peas, soybeans, rape, mustard, poppy, olives, sunflowers, coconut, castor oil plants, cocoa beans, groundnuts, cotton, flax, hemp, jute, cinnamon, tomato, cucumber, pepper, camphor, coffee, sugarcane, tea, and a natural rubber plant.
44. The method of claim 40, wherein said method further comprises the step of discontinuing said induction when said plant reaches the floral stage or the generative stage or when said periodic conditions that cause oxidative stress are absent.
45. The method of claim 40, wherein said method further comprises determining prior to or simultaneously to growing said seed, seedling, tissue culture, plantlet or plant:
(a) the total dark respiration and/or respiration via the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in said plant or a plant of the same variety;
(b) the length of the early ontogenic phase in said plant or a plant of the same variety; and/or
(c) the length and interval of the periodic conditions that cause oxidative stress;
and using said information in order to induce expression of said gene during early ontogeny of said plant and/or during said periodic oxidative stress during the early ontogeny of said plant, but not during maturity of said plant or during the generative phase.
46. Method according to claim 40, wherein said early ontogeny of said plant is the vegetative or prefloral stage.
47. The transgenic plant of claim 1 wherein the gene is a heterologous gene.
48. The transgenic plant of claim 1 wherein the reactive oxygen species is ozone.
49. The transgenic plant according to claim 10, wherein said early ontogeny is the period between germination and 0.5-6 months post germination.
50. The transgenic plant according to claim 12, wherein the expression of said vector in said plant results in a terpene emission rate of between 10-200 nmol·m −2·s −1.
51. The transgenic plant according to claim 12, wherein said plant is a row crop plant that does not naturally emit isoprene.
52. The method of claim 19, wherein said early ontogeny is the period between germination and 0.5-6 months post germination.
53. The method of claim 32, wherein the expression of said vector in said plant results in a terpene emission rate of between 50-1000 nmol·m −2·s −1.
54. The method of claim 32, wherein said plant is a row crop that does not naturally emit isoprene.
55. The plant of claim 38, wherein said plant exhibits a rate of respiration via the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway that is below 30% of the total dark respiration of said plant.
56. The method of claim 40, wherein the early ontogeny of said plant is a period from 1-6 months post-germination.