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Machine translation
1. (WO2006124448) REDUCED RISK TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND METHODS OF MAKING SAME
Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

WHAT IS CLAIMED:

1. A method of making a tobacco product with a reduced potential to contribute to a tobacco related disease comprising:
a. providing a genetically modified tobacco configured to deliver a reduced amount of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease, as compared to a reference tobacco or a conventional tobacco;
b. contacting a mammalian cell with smoke, or a smoke condensate obtained from said genetically modified tobacco;
c. identifying a modulation of homeostasis of said cell, as compared to a control cell, which has been contacted with smoke, or a smoke condensate obtained from said reference tobacco or said conventional tobacco, wherein a decreased modulation of homeostasis in said cell compared to modulation of homeostasis in said control cell indicates a reduction in the potential to contribute to a tobacco related disease;
and
d. incorporating said identified genetically modified tobacco into a tobacco product.
2. The method of Claim 1, wherein modulation of homeostasis in the cell is identified by determining the presence, absence or level of a molecular marker in the cell.
3. The method of Claim 1 or Claim 2, wherein the mammalian cell is a lung cell or a cell of the oral cavity.
4. The method of any of Claims 1-3, wherein the genetically modified tobacco is identified as producing a reduced amount of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease, as compared to a conventional tobacco product of the same class or a reference tobacco product of the same class.
5. The method of any of Claims 1-4, wherein the genetically modified tobacco is incorporated into a tobacco product that contains a filter, which retains an increased amount of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease, as compared to a reference filter or a conventional filter.
6. The method of any one of Claims 1-5, wherein the genetically modified tobacco comprises a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of an enzyme in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway.
7. The method of Claim 6, wherein said heterologous nucleic acid inhibits expression of at least two enzymes in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway.

8. The method of any one of Claims 1-5, wherein the genetically modified tobacco comprises a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of an enzyme in the sterol biosynthetic pathway.
9. The method of Claim 8, wherein said heterologous nucleic acid inhibits expression of at least two enzymes in the sterol biosynthetic pathway.
10. The method of any one of Claims 1-5, wherein said genetically modified tobacco comprises a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of an enzyme in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway and an enzyme in the sterol biosynthetic pathway.
11. The method of any one of Claims 1-10, wherein said genetically modified tobacco has a reduced amount of nornicotine and a conventional amount of nicotine.
12. The method of any one of Claims 1-11, wherein said genetically modified tobacco comprises a nucleic acid construct selected from the group consisting of SEQ. ID. NOs.: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50.
13. A tobacco product made by the method of any of Claims 1-12.
14. A tobacco product comprising a genetically modified tobacco that comprises a reduced amount of nicotine as compared to a conventional tobacco product of the same class or a reference tobacco product of the same class and a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of at least two enzymes involved in nicotine biosynthesis.

15. A tobacco product comprising a genetically modified tobacco that comprises a reduced amount of a sterol as compared to a conventional tobacco product of the same class or a reference tobacco product of the same class and a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of an enzyme involved in sterol biosynthesis.
16. The tobacco product of any of Claims 13-15, wherein said genetically modified tobacco comprises a nucleic acid construct as described herein.

17. The tobacco product of any of Claims 13-16, wherein said genetically modified tobacco comprises a nucleic acid construct selected from the group consisting of SEQ. ID. NOs.: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,

17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50.
18. The method of any of Claims 1-12 or the tobacco product of any of Claims 13-17, wherein said genetically modified tobacco comprises a reduced activity of a gene selected from the group consisting of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), methylputrescine oxidase (MPO), NADH dehydrogenase, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase (PRAI), putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), quinolate phosphoribosyl transferase (QPT), S-adenosyl-methionine synthetase (SAMS), or A622 or comprises an inhibition of a gene that regulates the production of sterol biosynthesis include HMG-CoA reductase, 14alpha demethylase, squalene synthase, SMT2, SMTl, C14 sterol reductase, A8- A7-isomerase, and C4-demethylase.
19. The method of any of Claims 1-12 or the tobacco product of any of Claims 13-18, wherein said genetically modified tobacco has reduced production of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease which is stable over at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 or 50 generations.
20. The method of any of Claims 1-12 or the tobacco product of any of Claims 13-19, wherein said genetically modified tobacco has agronomic characteristics suitable for commercial production.

US2006/018065

21. The method or tobacco product of Claim 20, wherein said agronomic characteristics are phenotypically different from conventional tobacco, and said agronomic characteristics can be compensated for by conventional agronomic methods.
22. The method or tobacco product of Claim 21, wherein said conventional agronomic methods are selected from the group consisting of irrigation, administration of fertilizer, and administration of nutrients.
23. A genetically modified tobacco that produces a reduced amount of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease, as compared to a conventional tobacco product of the same class or a reference tobacco product of the same class, comprising a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease.
24. A reduced risk tobacco product comprising a genetically modified tobacco that produces a reduced amount of a compound that contributes to a tobacco related disease, as compared to a conventional tobacco product of the same class or a reference tobacco product of the same class.
25. The tobacco or tobacco product of Claim 23 or Claim 24, wherein said modified tobacco comprises a nucleic acid construct as described herein.
26. The tobacco or tobacco product of any of Claims 23-25, wherein said modified tobacco comprises a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of at least two enzymes in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway.
27. The tobacco or tobacco product of any of Claims 23-26, wherein said modified tobacco comprises a heterologous nucleic acid that inhibits expression of at least two enzymes in the sterol biosynthetic pathway.
28. A method of making a reduced risk tobacco product comprising:
a. providing a modified tobacco or modified tobacco product
configured to deliver to a user a reduced amount of a compound that
contributes to a tobacco related disease, as compared to a reference
tobacco or tobacco product or a conventional tobacco or tobacco
product;

b. contacting smoke or smoke condensate obtained from said modified tobacco or modified tobacco product with a cell;
c. identifying a modulation of homeostasis of said cell, as compared to a control cell, which has been contacted with smoke or a smoke condensate obtained from said reference tobacco or tobacco product or said conventional tobacco or tobacco product, wherein a decreased modulation of homeostasis in said cell compared to modulation of homeostasis in said control cell indicates a reduction in the potential to contribute to a tobacco related disease; and
d. incorporating said modified tobacco or modified tobacco product into said reduced risk tobacco product.
29. The method of Claim 28, wherein modulation of homeostasis in the cell is identified by determining the presence, absence or level of a molecular marker in the cell.
30. The method of Claim 28 or Claim 29, wherein the modified tobacco is genetically modified tobacco.
31. The method of Claim 31, wherein the genetically modified tobacco is modified according to any of Claims 1-12.
32. A reduced risk tobacco substantially described herein.
33. A reduced risk tobacco product substantially described herein.
34. Use of a tobacco or tobacco product of any of Claims 12-27, 32 or 33.
35. An isolated nulcleic acid substantially as described herein.
36. An isolated inhibition cassette substantially as described herein.
37. A genetically modified tobacco having a reduced amount of nicotine as compared to conventional tobacco, further comprising a heterologous nucleic acid that encodes a gene that produces a composition selected from the group consisting of a medicinal compound, industrial oil, or dietary supplement, wherein said composition is substantially not present in conventional or wild-type tobacco.

38. The genetically modified tobacco of Claim 37, wherein said medicinal compound is an antibody or fragment thereof or an immunogenic preparation.
39. The genetically modified tobacco of Claim 37, wherein said medicinal compound is a vaccine preparation.
40. The genetically modified tobacco of Claim 37, wherein said medicinal compound is a veterinary product.