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1. WO2020139509 - INTEGRITY PROTECTION FOR FREQUENT SMALL DATA TRANSMISSION

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

INTEGRITY PROTECTION FOR FREQUENT SMALL DATA

TRANSMISSION

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional

Patent Application Serial No. 62/785,542, filed December 27, 2018, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 62/824,126, filed March 26, 2019, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] Embodiments pertain to radio access networks (RANs). Some embodiments relate to cellular networks, including Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE), 4th generation (4G) and 5th generation (5G) New Radio (NR) (or next generation (NG)) networks. Some embodiments relate to frequent small data transmission for cellular internet of things (CIoT) devices.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The use of various types of systems has increased due to both an increase in the types of devices user equipment (UEs) using network resources as well as the amount of data and bandwidth being used by various applications, such as video streaming, operating on these UEs. To increase the ability of the network to contend with the explosion in network use and variation, various changes to existing systems are being contemplated to improve network processes. In particular, devices such as CIoT UEs may transmit relatively small amounts of data at frequent intervals it may be beneficial to adjust resource management to allow for such transmissions in an efficient manner.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0004] In the figures, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, like numerals may describe similar components in different views. Like numerals having different letter suffixes may represent different instances of similar components. The figures illustrate generally, by way of example, but not by way of limitation, various aspects discussed in the present document.

[0005] FIG. 1 illustrates combined communication system in accordance with some embodiments.

[0006] FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of a communication device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0007] FIG. 3 illustrates a Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) control packet data unit (PDU) format for data radio bearers (DRBs) in accordance with some embodiments.

[0008] FIG. 4 illustrates another PDCP control PDU format for DRBs in accordance with some embodiments.

[0009] FIG. 5 illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection of a group of PDUs in accordance with some embodiments.

[0010] FIG. 6 illustrates another PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection of a group of PDUs in accordance with some embodiments.

[0011] FIG. 7 illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection during early data transmission (EDT) in accordance with some embodiments.

[0012] FIG. 8 illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection of a PDU in accordance with some embodiments.

[0013] FIG. 9 illustrates an EDT procedure in accordance with some embodiments.

[0014] FIG. 10 illustrates another EDT procedure in accordance with some embodiments.

[0015] FIG. 11 illustrates another EDT procedure in accordance with some embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0016] The following description and the drawings sufficiently illustrate specific aspects to enable those skilled in the art to practice them. Other aspects may incorporate structural, logical, electrical, process, and other changes.

Portions and features of some aspects may be included in, or substituted for, those of other aspects. Aspects set forth in the claims encompass all available equivalents of those claims.

[0017] FIG. 1 illustrates a combined communication system in accordance with some embodiments. The system 100 includes 3GPP LTE/4G and NG network functions. A network function can be implemented as a discrete network element on a dedicated hardware, as a software instance running on dedicated hardware, or as a virtualized function instantiated on an appropriate platform, e.g., dedicated hardware or a cloud infrastructure.

[0018] The evolved packet core (EPC) of the LTE/4G network contains protocol and reference points defined for each entity. These core network (CN) entities may include a mobility management entity (MME) 122, serving gateway (S-GW) 124, and paging gateway (P-GW) 126.

[0019] In the NG network, the control plane and the user plane may be separated, which may permit independent scaling and distribution of the resources of each plane. The UE 102 may be connected to a radio access network (RAN) 110 and/or may be connected to the NG-RAN 130 (gNB) or an Access and Mobility Function (AMF) 142. The RAN 110 may be an eNB or a general non-3GPP access point, such as that for Wi-Fi. The NG core network may contain multiple network functions besides the AMF 112. The UE 102 may generate, encode and perhaps encrypt uplink transmissions to, and decode (and decrypt) downlink transmissions from, the RAN 110 and/or gNB 130 (with the reverse being true by the RAN 110/gNB 130).

[0020] The network functions may include a User Plane Function (UPF)

146, a Session Management Function (SMF) 144, a Policy Control Function (PCF) 132, an Application Function (AF) 148, an Authentication Server Function (AUSF) 152 and User Data Management (UDM) 128. The various elements are connected by the NG reference points shown in FIG. 1.

[0021] The AMF 142 may provide UE-based authentication,

authorization, mobility management, etc. The AMF 142 may be independent of the access technologies. The SMF 144 may be responsible for session management and allocation of IP addresses to the UE 102. The SMF 144 may

also select and control the UPF 146 for data transfer. The SMF 144 may be associated with a single session of the UE 102 or multiple sessions of the UE 102. This is to say that the EE 102 may have multiple 5G sessions. Different SMFs may be allocated to each session. The use of different SMFs may permit each session to be individually managed. As a consequence, the functionalities of each session may be independent of each other. The EIPF 126 may be connected with a data network, with which the EE 102 may communicate, the EE 102 transmitting uplink data to or receiving downlink data from the data network.

[0022] The AF 148 may provide information on the packet flow to the

PCF 132 responsible for policy control to support a desired QoS. The PCF 132 may set mobility and session management policies for the EE 102. To this end, the PCF 132 may use the packet flow information to determine the appropriate policies for proper operation of the AMF 142 and SMF 144. The AUSF 152 may store data for EE authentication. The EE)M 128 may similarly store the EE subscription data.

[0023] The gNB 130 may be a standalone gNB or a non- standalone gNB, e.g., operating in Dual Connectivity (DC) mode as a booster controlled by the eNB 110 through an X2 or Xn interface. At least some of functionality of the EPC and the NG CN may be shared (alternatively, separate components may be used for each of the combined component shown). The eNB 110 may be connected with an MME 122 of the EPC through an SI interface and with a SGW 124 of the EPC 120 through an Sl-U interface. The MME 122 may be connected with an HSS 128 through an S6a interface while the TE)M is connected to the AMF 142 through the N8 interface. The SGW 124 may connected with the PGW 126 through an S5 interface (control plane PGW-C through S5-C and user plane PGW-U through S5-U). The PGW 126 may serve as an IP anchor for data through the internet.

[0024] The NG CN, as above, may contain an AMF 142, SMF 144 and

UPF 146, among others. The eNB 110 and gNB 130 may communicate data with the SGW 124 of the EPC 120 and the UPF 146 of the NG CN. The MME 122 and the AMF 142 may be connected via the N26 interface to provide control information there between, if the N26 interface is supported by the EPC 120. In some embodiments, when the gNB 130 is a standalone gNB, the 5G CN and the EPC 120 may be connected via the N26 interface.

[0025] FIG. 2 illustrates a block diagram of a communication device in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the communication device may be a UE (including an IoT device and NB-IoT device), eNB, gNB or other equipment used in the network environment. For example, the

communication device 200 may be a specialized computer, a personal or laptop computer (PC), a tablet PC, a mobile telephone, a smart phone, a network router, switch or bridge, or any machine capable of executing instructions (sequential or otherwise) that specify actions to be taken by that machine. In some

embodiments, the communication device 200 may be embedded within other, non-communication-based devices such as vehicles and appliances.

[0026] Examples, as described herein, may include, or may operate on, logic or a number of components, modules, or mechanisms. Modules and components are tangible entities (e.g., hardware) capable of performing specified operations and may be configured or arranged in a certain manner. In an example, circuits may be arranged (e.g., internally or with respect to external entities such as other circuits) in a specified manner as a module. In an example, the whole or part of one or more computer systems (e.g., a standalone, client or server computer system) or one or more hardware processors may be configured by firmware or software (e.g., instructions, an application portion, or an application) as a module that operates to perform specified operations. In an example, the software may reside on a machine readable medium. In an example, the software, when executed by the underlying hardware of the module, causes the hardware to perform the specified operations.

[0027] Accordingly, the term“module” (and“component”) is understood to encompass a tangible entity, be that an entity that is physically constructed, specifically configured (e.g., hardwired), or temporarily (e.g., transitorily) configured (e.g., programmed) to operate in a specified manner or to perform part or all of any operation described herein. Considering examples in which modules are temporarily configured, each of the modules need not be

instantiated at any one moment in time. For example, where the modules comprise a general-purpose hardware processor configured using software, the general-purpose hardware processor may be configured as respective different modules at different times. Software may accordingly configure a hardware processor, for example, to constitute a particular module at one instance of time and to constitute a different module at a different instance of time.

[0028] The communication device 200 may include a hardware processor 202 (e.g., a central processing unit (CPU), a GPU, a hardware processor core, or any combination thereof), a main memory 204 and a static memory 206, some or all of which may communicate with each other via an interlink (e.g., bus) 208. The main memory 204 may contain any or all of removable storage and non-removable storage, volatile memory or non-volatile memory. The communication device 200 may further include a display unit 210 such as a video display, an alphanumeric input device 212 (e.g., a keyboard), and a user interface (UI) navigation device 214 (e.g., a mouse). In an example, the display unit 210, input device 212 and UI navigation device 214 may be a touch screen display. The communication device 200 may additionally include a storage device (e.g., drive unit) 216, a signal generation device 218 (e.g., a speaker), a network interface device 220, and one or more sensors, such as a global positioning system (GPS) sensor, compass, accelerometer, or other sensor. The communication device 200 may further include an output controller, such as a serial (e.g., universal serial bus (USB), parallel, or other wired or wireless (e.g., infrared (IR), near field communication (NFC), etc.) connection to communicate or control one or more peripheral devices (e.g., a printer, card reader, etc.).

[0029] The storage device 216 may include a non-transitory machine readable medium 222 (hereinafter simply referred to as machine readable medium) on which is stored one or more sets of data structures or instructions 224 (e.g., software) embodying or utilized by any one or more of the techniques or functions described herein. The instructions 224 may also reside, successfully or at least partially, within the main memory 204, within static memory 206, and/or within the hardware processor 202 during execution thereof by the

communication device 200. While the machine readable medium 222 is illustrated as a single medium, the term "machine readable medium" may include a single medium or multiple media (e.g., a centralized or distributed database, and/or associated caches and servers) configured to store the one or more instructions 224.

[0030] The term“machine readable medium” may include any medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carrying instructions for execution by the communication device 200 and that cause the communication device 200 to perform any one or more of the techniques of the present disclosure, or that is capable of storing, encoding or carrying data structures used by or associated with such instructions. Non-limiting machine readable medium examples may include solid-state memories, and optical and magnetic media. Specific examples of machine readable media may include: non-volatile memory, such as semiconductor memory devices (e.g., Electrically Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)) and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, such as internal hard disks and removable disks; magneto-optical disks; Random Access Memory (RAM); and CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks.

[0031] The instructions 224 may further be transmitted or received over a communications network using a transmission medium 226 via the network interface device 220 utilizing any one of a number of transfer protocols (e.g., frame relay, internet protocol (IP), transmission control protocol (TCP), user datagram protocol (UDP), hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), etc.). Example communication networks may include a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), a packet data network (e.g., the Internet), mobile telephone networks (e.g., cellular networks), Plain Old Telephone (POTS) networks, and wireless data networks. Communications over the networks may include one or more different protocols, such as Institute of Electrical and Electronics

Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 family of standards known as Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.16 family of standards known as WiMax, IEEE 802.15.4 family of standards, a Long Term Evolution (LTE) family of standards, a Universal Mobile

Telecommunications System (UMTS) family of standards, peer-to-peer (P2P)

networks, a NG/NR standards among others. In an example, the network interface device 220 may include one or more physical jacks (e.g., Ethernet, coaxial, or phone jacks) or one or more antennas to connect to the transmission medium 226.

[0032] The communication device 200 may be an IoT device (also referred to as a“Machine-Type Communication device” or“MTC device”), a narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) device, or a non-IoT device (e.g., smart phone, vehicular UE), any which may communicate with the core network via the eNB or gNB shown in FIG. 1. The communication device 200 may be an

autonomous or semiautonomous device that performs one or more functions, such as sensing or control, among others, in communication with other communication devices and a wider network, such as the Internet. If the communication device 200 is IoT device, in some embodiments, the

communication device 200 may be limited in memory, size, or functionality, allowing larger numbers to be deployed for a similar cost to smaller numbers of larger devices. The communication device 200 may, in some embodiments, be a virtual device, such as an application on a smart phone or other computing device.

[0033] As above, 5G systems are expected to provide connectivity and other types of services to a massive number of devices simultaneously. Such devices include IoT devices (CIoT UEs) that may send or receive frequent or infrequent small amounts of data. However, due to the rapid increase in the number of CIoT UEs deployed, the amount of data being transmitted on over networks will grow, even though the individual amounts of data transmitted may be relatively small. Moreover, independent of the amount of data transmitted, encryption or other security may be applied to the data.

[0034] The security overhead for frequent data transmission from massively deployed CIoT UEs, independent of the data rate used by the CIoT UEs, may further strain the network resources and lead to network attacks such as Denial of Service/Distributed Denial of Service (DOS/DDOS) attacks on the availability of network services. Thus, it is desirable to provide security solutions to support efficient frequent small data transmissions for low complexity, and low data-rate CIoT UEs.

[0035] Lower than Evolved Packet System (EPS) security protection for frequent data transmission from a large number of CIoT EIEs can serve as a vulnerability for exploits and network availability attacks on CIoT (e.g., bidding down attacks). In some embodiments, limiting the security overhead for frequent small data transmission may be desirable. Instead, the system security mechanisms may be used to ensure availability of the network and at least an equivalent level of security mechanisms, as in EPS, for a massive number of CIoT UEs with frequent small data transmission.

[0036] However, even if protection of small data is provided at application layer, protection in the lower layers may be added to protect the core network from malicious packets. In 5G Rel-15, the UE and the AMF support integrity protection of non-access stratum (NAS) signaling in the NAS layer.

The UE and the gNB support integrity protection of radio resource control (RRC) signaling and user plane data in the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer. In some embodiments, integrity protection of NAS and RRC signaling is mandatory, while integrity protection of user plane data is optional.

[0037] The support of integrity protection of user plane data in PDCP layer was introduced as a new feature in Rel-15 compared to LTE. Not all UEs, however, may support the full data rate for integrity protection for data radio bearers (DRBs) in the PDCP layer between the UE and the gNB. For example, if the UE indicates to the gNB in control signaling that 64 kbps as its maximum data rate, then the network is assumed to turn on the integrity protection for user plane data only for data rates equal or lower than 64 kbps. Note that enhanced LTE eNB’s (i.e., ng-eNB) connected to a 5GC does not support integrity protection of user plane data in PDCP layer in Rel-15.

[0038] If the infrequent or frequent small data is not integrity protected between the UE and network, then an attacker may be able to modify the small data or even inject fake small data packets on behalf of the IoT device or the network on the air interface. If integrity protection of small data is not provided by the lower layers, then any modification of the small data or any replayed

small data may be unable to be detected by the lower layers to avoid the delivery of the small data to the application layer for further processing. Thus, some embodiments support integrity protection and replay protection of small data where the small data would be integrity and replay protected.

[0039] Embodiments herein may provide mechanisms to reduce the integrity protection overhead if the integrity protection is applied to user plane transmissions. The embodiments herein may reduce the overhead of Message Authentication Code-Integrity (MAC-I) included in the small data when integrity protection is applied in the user plane. Some embodiments may include a lightweight algorithm that uses a hash function to provide data integrity (HASH MARK). In this case the hash may be calculated based on the PDCP packet and may be stored at the end of PDCP data packet. The hash or HASH MARK may be calculated using a key shared between the UE and the RAN or core network to provide authenticity of the data. According to various embodiments, data may be organized into groups of PDCP packets and groups of packets may be linked with each other by storing the hash of the group in the following group. The HASH MARK (HM) may be a hash of a group of PDCP packets and is applied to the concatenation of all data elements in the group of PDCP packets.

[0040] PDCP Packet Group Organization

[0041] According to various embodiments, an HM may be calculated for the set of N PDCP packet as a single group (where N >1 and can be configured). In some embodiments, all PDCP packets in the group may be provided as an input to a secure HASH function along with a security key, a PDCP count, and/or other parameters. The security key may be provided at any point, e.g., prior to transmission of the first PDCP packet in the group, prior to transmission of the last PDCP packet in the group and after transmission of the first PDCP packet in the group, or after transmission of the last PDCP packet in the group.

In some embodiments, the hash function may use a PDCP sequence number (or sequence number) of the last PDCP packet in the group in the calculation of HASH MARK value. The HASH MARK value may be calculated using the following equation.

[0042] HMi=HASH(K || PDCP GROUPi II PDCP SN)

[0043] In the above equation, HMi is the HASH MARK value, HASH() is a suitable hash function, K is the security key, PDCP GROUPi is the PDCP group number or identifier, and PDCP SN is the PDCP SN of the last PDCP packet in the group. The security key K can be any key shared between the UE and the Core Network, eNB/gNB, or RAN component, for example, RRCint (integrity protection key for RRC messages), RRCenc (encryption key for RRC messages), Upint (integrity protection key for user plane traffic), etc.

[0044] PDCP packets or data within the group may be transmitted to the receiver individually. PDCP groups can be formed based on different criteria such as QoS, Traffic patterns, etc.

[0045] The HM may not be embedded or sent with the corresponding group of PDCP packets, but may form a chain where each PDCP group has the HM for the next PDCP group that will be sent (forward chaining), or for the previous PDCP group (backward chaining). According to various embodiments, the HASH MARK may be embedded in the earlier group of PDCP packets, for example, where the HMi may be sent with PDCP GROUPi-i. Alternatively, the HM can be stored in the following group, for example, where the HMi will be sent in PDCP_GROUPi+i

[0046] In some embodiments, the UE and CN may synchronize the groups using the HASH MARK as a delimiter. A separate delimiter bit can be sent to denote the end of the group after the HASH MARK.

[0047] The HM can be sent at the least significant bit of group of PDCP packets. In another embodiment, the hash mark can be split equally among packets within the group. For example, if there are 128 PDCP packets in each group and the hash mark is of size 128, then each PDCP packet can be concatenated with 1 digit from the hash marker. Alternatively, the hash marker can be equally divided into the different groups (Z=4) like 32 bits, and each part of HM of 32 bits size may be concatenated with after every 4th PDCP packet in the group. A reserved bit in PDCP header can be used to denote the HASH value availability in the PDCP packet.

[0048] The receiver can extract the HM from the received PDCP data using the same function. The PDCP header bit can be used to check the availability of the HASH MARKER.

[0049] Signaling HASH MARK

[0050] In some embodiments, the SN length may be 12 bits or 18 bits.

Currently, PDCP data PDUs for DRBs are mapped to radio link control (RLC) Acknowledge Mode (AM) and RLC Unacknowledge Mode (UM). When the 12 bit SN length or 18 bit extended SN length is used, the existing PDCP data PDU format may have multiple reserved bits, one of which can be used to indicate the presence of HASH MARK. FIG. 3 illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for

DRBs in accordance with some embodiments, while FIG. 4 illustrates another PDCP control PDU format for DRBs in accordance with some embodiments.

The embodiments of FIGS. 3 and 4 show the use of 12 bit sequence numbers (SNs). The first octet may include a single bit that indicates whether the PDU is a control packet or data packet (D/C). The first octet may include a portion of the PDCP SN, which may extend through the terminal portion of the first octet and through the second octet. The third through N-x+1 octets may include the data of the PDCP control PDU, while the N-x+1 to N octets may include the x-byte HASH MARK. In FIG. 4, the first octet may also include an Assistance Information bit for Local Cache (AILC) field.

[0051] The HM field may have length of a single bit. The HM field may be an indication of whether or not integrity protection is enabled for the PDU. A value T may indicate that the integrity protection (HASH MARKER) is to be checked for the PDU. The receiver may thus wait for the complete PDU of a group for integrity protection check before forwarding the PDU to the upper layers.


Table 1 : HM field

[0052] The HPM field may have length of a single bit and may be positioned either after the HM field in the first octet, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, or between the D/C field and the HM field. The HPM field may be an indication of whether or not the HASH MARKER is present in the PDU. In this embodiment, a value of T may indicate that integrity protection (HASH

MARKER) is to be checked for the received group of PDCP PDU including the present PDU. In other embodiments, a value of T may indicate that integrity protection (HASH MARKER) is to be checked for the next received group of PDCP PDU using the HASH MARKER.


Table 2: HMP field

[0053] Using a control PDCP PDU for DRBs

[0054] When a 7 bit SN length (e.g., for NB-IoT) or a 15 bit extended SN length is used, no reserved bit (R bit) may be available to modify the existing PDCP data PDU format. Thus, in some embodiments, a new control PDCP PDU for DRBs can be defined to work with any length of SN. This new PDCP PDU for DRBs can be sent with a HASH MARKER value and a first SN of a group of PDCP PDUs for which the integrity protection is to be checked. The number of PDUs in a group for which the integrity protection is to be checked can be pre-defmed (hardcoded) or configured by dedicated RRC signaling.

FIGS. 5 and 6 each illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection of a group of PDUs in accordance with some embodiments.

[0055] As shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, the first octet may contain the D/C field, a three bit PDU type field that indicates the type of the PDU, and a first sequence number (FSN). The second octet contains the remainder of the FSN.

In FIG. 5, octets 3 to 2+N may contain the N-byte HASH MARKER, while in FIG. 6, octets 4 to 3+N may contain the N-byte HASH MARKER with the size of the group of PDU Service Data Units (SDUs) in octet 3.

[0056] The new three bit PDU type may be defined as follows:


Table 3: PDU type

[0057] The new FSN type may have different lengths, depending on the SN length. For example, the FSN length may be 12 bits when a 12 bit SN length is used, 15 bits when a 15 bit SN length is used, and 18 bits when an 18 bit SN length is used. The FSN field may include the PDCP SN of the first PDCP SDU of a group of SDUs for which the integrity protection is to be checked. Whether or not the control PDU for integrity protection is to be used can be configured via dedicated RRC signaling per 3GPP TS 36.331.

[0058] PDCP-Config

[0059] The IE PDCP-Config may be used to set the configurable PDCP parameters for data radio bearers. The PDCP-Config information element may be provided as:

- ASN1 START

PDCP-Config ::= SEQUENCE {

discardTimer ENUMERATED { ms50, mslOO, msl50, ms300, ms500,

ms750, msl500, infinity

}

OPTIONAL, - Cond Setup

rlc-AM SEQUENCE { statusReportRequired BOOLEAN

}

OPTIONAL, - Cond Rlc-AM

rlc-UM SEQUENCE { pdcp-SN-Size ENUMERATED {len7bits, lenl2bits}

}

OPTIONAL, - Cond

Rlc-UM

headerCompression CHOICE {

notUsed NULL, rohc

SEQUENCE {

maxCID

INTEGER (1..16383) DEFAULT 15,

profiles

SEQUENCE {

profileOxOOOl

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0002

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0003

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0004

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0006

BOOLEAN,

profileOxOlOl

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0102

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0103

BOOLEAN,

profile0x0104

BOOLEAN

},

}

},

[[ m-IntegrityProtection-rlO ENUMERATED {enabled} OPTIONAL

- Cond RN

]],

[[ pdcp-SN-Size-vl l30 ENUMERATED

{lenl5bits} OPTIONAL - Cond Rlc-AM2

]],

[[ ul-DataSplitDRB -V iaSCG-rl 2 BOOLEAN

OPTIONAL, - Need ON

t-Reordering-rl2 ENUMERATED {

msO, ms20, ms40, ms60, ms80, mslOO, msl20, msl40,

msl60, msl80, ms200, ms220, ms240, ms260, ms280, ms300,

ms500, ms750, sparel4, sparel3, sparel2, sparel l, sparelO,

spare 9, spare8, spare7, spare6, spare5, spare4, spare3,

spare2, spare 1 } OPTIONAL — Cond SetupS

]],

[[ ul-DataSplitThreshold-rl 3 CHOICE {

release NULL, setup ENUMERATED

{

bO, blOO, b200, b400, b800, bl600, b3200, b6400, M2800,

b25600, b51200, bl02400, b204800, b409600, b819200,

spare 1 }

}

OPTIONAL, -- Need

ON

pdcp-SN-Size-vl310 ENUMERATED

{len!8bits} OPTIONAL, - Cond Rlc-AM3

statusFeedback-rl3 CHOICE {

release NULL, setup SEQUENCE { statusPDU-TypeForPolling-rl3 ENUMERATED {typel, type2} OPTIONAL, - Need ON

statusPDU -Periodicity -Type 1 -r 13 ENUMERATED

{

ms5, mslO, ms20, ms30, ms40, ms50, ms60, ms70, ms80, ms90,

mslOO, msl50, ms200, ms300, ms500, mslOOO, ms2000, ms5000,

mslOOOO, ms20000, ms50000} OPTIONAL, - Need ON

statusPDU-Periodicity-Type2-rl3 ENUMERATED

{

ms5, mslO, ms20, ms30, ms40, ms50, ms60, ms70, ms80, ms90,

mslOO, msl50, ms200, ms300, ms500, mslOOO, ms2000, ms5000,

mslOOOO, ms20000, ms50000} OPTIONAL, - Need ON

statusPDU -Periodicity -Offset-r 13 ENUMERATED {

msl, ms2, ms5, mslO, ms25, ms50, mslOO, ms250, ms500,

ms2500, ms5000, ms25000} OPTIONAL — Need ON

}

}

OPTIONAL - Need

ON

]],

[[ ul-LWA-Config-rl4 CHOICE {

release NULL, setup SEQUENCE { ul-LWA-DRB - ViaWL AN-r 14 BOOLEAN, ul-LWA-DataSplitThreshold-rl4 ENUMERATED {

bO, blOO, b200, b400, b800, b!600, b3200, b6400,

b!2800, b25600, b51200, b!02400, b204800, b409600,

b819200 } OPTIONAL — Need OR

}

}

OPTIONAL, - Need ON uplinkOnlyHeaderCompression-rl4 CHOICE {

notUsed-rl4

NULL,

rohc-rl4

SEQUENCE {

maxCID-rl4

INTEGER (1..16383) DEFAULT 15,

profiles-rl4

SEQUENCE {

profile0x0006-rl4

BOOLEAN

},

}

}

OPTIONAL - Need ON

]],

[[ uplmkDataCompression-rl5 SEQUENCE {

bufferSize-rl5 ENUMERATED {kbyte2, kbyte4, kbyte8, sparel },

dictionary -rl 5 ENUMERATED {sip-SDP, operator} OPTIONAL,— Need OR

}

OPTIONAL,- Cond Rlc-AM2 pdcp-DuplicationConfig-rl5 CHOICE {

release NULL, setup SEQUENCE { pdcp-Duplication-rl 5 ENUMERATED

{configured, activated}

}

}

OPTIONAL - Need ON

]],

[[ IP-Required-DRB-rl5xy BOOLEAN,

OPTIONAL - Need ON

IP-GroupSize-rl 5xy ENUMERATED { 1, 2, 4, sparel }

OPTIONAL - Need ON

]]

}

- ASN1STOP

PDCP-Config field descriptions

r bufferSize

Indicates the buffer size applied for UDC specified in TS 36.323 [8] Value kbyte2 means 2048 j j bytes, kbyte4 means 4096 bytes and so on. E-UTRAN does not reconfigure buffersize for a i j DRB except for handover cases.


i dictionary

Indicates which pre-defined dictionary is used for UDC as specified in TS 36.323 [8] The value i i sip-SDP means that UE shall prefill the buffer with standard dictionary for SIP and SDP defined j in TS 36.323 [8], and the value operator means that UE shall prefill the buffer with operator- I defined dictionary.

I discardfimer

Indicates the discard timer value specified in TS 36.323 [8] Value in milliseconds. Value ms50 j

L. means 50 ms, ms100 means 100 ms and so on.

headerCompression

E-UTRAN does not reconfigure header compression for an MCG DRB except for upon I , handover and upon the first reconfiguration after RRC connection re-establishment. E-UTRAN j does not reconfigure header compression for a SCG DRB except for upon SCG change j involving PDCP re-establishment. For split and LWA DRBs E-UTRAN configures only notUsed. j E-UTRAN only configures this field when neither uplinkOnlyHeaderCompression nor j uplinkDataCompression is configured. j

If headerCompression is configured, the UE shall apply the configured ROHC profile(s) in both j uplink and downlink. i maxCID

Indicates the value of the MAX_CID parameter as specified in TS 36.323 [8] The total value of 1 i MAX_CIDs across all bearers for the UE should be less than or equal to the value of j maxNumberROHC-ContextSessions parameter as indicated by the UE. E-UTRAN configures j the same value for maxCID in both headerCompression and uplinkOnlyHeaderCompression. i pdcp-Duplication

Parameter for configuring PDCP duplication as specified in TS 36.323 [8] Value configured indicates that PDCP duplication is configured but initially deactivated and value activated indicates that PDCP duplication is configured and activated upon configuration. For EN-DC, E- ; UTRAN configures PDCP duplication for MCG DRB only if PDCP duplication is not configured for any split DRB.

i pdcp-SN-Size

Indicates the PDCP Sequence Number length in bits. For RLC UM: value Ien7bits means that ! the 7-bit PDCP SN format is used and len 12bits means that the 12-bit PDCP SN format is


statusPDU-Periodicity-Typel i

Indicates the value of the PDCP Status reporting periodicity for typel Status PDU, as specified i in TS 36.323 [8] Value in milliseconds. Value ms5 means 5 ms, ms10 means 10 ms and so on. ! j statusPDU-Periodicity-Type2

Indicates the value of the PDCP Status reporting periodicity for ty

j in TS 36.323 [8] Value in milliseconds. Value ms5 means 5 ms,

i on.

I statusPDU-Periodicity- Offset }

\ Indicates the value of the offset for type2 Status PDU periodicity, as specified in TS 36.323 [8] j \ Value in milliseconds. Value ms1 means 1 ms, ms2 means 2 ms and so on. j

I t-Reordering

j Indicates the value of the reordering timer, as specified in TS 36.323 [8] Value in milliseconds j i Value msO means 0 ms and behaviour as specified in 7.3.2 applies, ms20 means 20 ms and j i so on. i

\ Indicates that integrity protection or verification shall be applied for all subsequent packets j i received and sent by the RN on the D

j staiusReportRequired

\ Indicates whether or not the UE shall send a PDCP Status Report upon re-establishment of the j [ PDCP entity and upon PDCP data recovery as specified in TS 36.323 [8J. j

\ ul-DataSplitDRB-ViaSCG . ] i Indicates whether the UE shall send PDCP PDUs via SCG as specified in TS 36.323 [8] E- j j UTRAN only configures the field (i.e. indicates value TRUE) for split DRBs. j i ui-DaiaSpiiifhreshoTd

\ Indicates the threshold value for uplink data split operation specified in TS 36.323 [8] Value i i b100 means 100 Bytes, b200 means 200 Bytes and so on. E-UTRAN only configures this field j \ for split DRBs. j

\ Indicates whether the UE shall send PDCP PDUs via the LWAAP entity as specified in TS j i 36.323 [8] E-UTRAN only configures this field (i.e. indicates value TRUE) for LWA DRBs. i j ui-L WA-DataSpltfh res hold .

i Indicates the threshold value for uplink data split operation as specified in TS 36.323 [8] Value j i bO means 0 Bytes, b100 means 100 Bytes and so on. E-UTRAN only configures this field for j

\ Indicates the UDC configuration that the UE shall apply. E-UTRAN does not configure i i uplinkDataCompression for a DRB, if headerCompression or uplinkOnlyHeaderCompression is j j already configured for the DRB. E-UTRAN does not configure uplinkDataCompression for the j i split and LWA DRBs.The maximum number of DRBs where uplinkDataCompression can be j i applied is two. In this version of the specification, for existing DRBs, E-UTRAN can only j j configure uplinkDataCompression via handover procedure. j i uplinkOnlyHeaderCompression

j Indicates the ROHC configuration that the UE shall apply uplink-only ROHC operations, see i i TS 36.323 [8] E-UTRAN only configures this field when headerCompression is not configured j j E-UTRAN does not reconfigure header compression for an MCG DRB except for upon j i handover and upon the first reconfiguration after RRC connection re-establishment. E-UTRAN j i does not reconfigure header compression for a SCG DRB except for upon SCG change j i involving PDCP re-establishment. For split and LWA DRBs E-UTRAN configures only notUsed. i ΪR-Required-DRB ] j Indicates whether to send the integrity protection control PDU for PDCP PDUs in the DRBs. j i TP-Groupsize

\ Indicates some PDCP SDUs for which the integrity protection is checked. i

[0060] Integrity protection for Early Data Transmission (EDT)

[0061] EDT involves transmitting a single packet, such as a single PDCP

PDU. For example, in some EDT embodiment one uplink data transmission may be optionally followed by one downlink data transmission during the random access procedure. EDT may be triggered when the upper layers have requested the establishment or resumption of the RRC Connection for Mobile Originated (MO) data and the uplink data size is less than or equal to a transport block size indicated in the system information.

[0062] In EDT, the UE may send a preamble (Msgl) over a Physical

Random Access Channel (PRACH) transmission to the base station (eNB/gNB) to start a random access channel (RACH) procedure. The preamble may indicate the intent of the UE to use EDT. The RACH request may be transmitted by the UE to the base station using a RACH resource. For example, the RACH request may be transmitted over 6 Resource blocks. The RACH request may contain a preamble index, which may be randomly selected based on the size of the RRC connection request from preamble information in system information block (SIB). However, the RACH Request for EDT may use a unique preamble that is different from that used for a legacy procedure.

[0063] The base station, having received the RACH request may allocate a temporary Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier (C-RNTI) for the UE.

The temporary Cell RNTI may be transmitted to the UE in a RACH Response message (RAR) (Msg2) from the RAN. The RAR message may also contain the appropriate timing advance (TA) for the UE, determined by the base station.

The RAR message may contain a scheduling grant for the UE to send a

RRCConnectionResumeRequest message, where the scheduling grant may indicate whether frequency hopping is to be used as well as the resource block assignment. The RAR message may further indicate the modulation and coding scheme and the power for the PUSCH to be used by the UE. If EDT is to be used, the UL grant in the RAR message may be larger than that of a legacy RAR grant to provide additional UL resources for transmission by the UE of a UL message in addition to a RRCConnectionResumeRequest message.

[0064] When the UE receives the UL grant in RAR for EDT, as in the legacy procedure, the UE may transmit a RRCConnectionResumeRequest message including a shortResumeMAC-I . The UE may also multiplex the UL UP data with the RRC message to transmit in Msg3. Msg3 may use a S AE-Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (S-TMSI).

[0065] The base station may in response transmit an RRC Connection

Setup message (Msg4) to the UE. Note that the UE may not transition from the RRC Idle state to the RRC Connected state during EDT.

[0066] In EDT-based embodiments, integrity protection is to be checked for a single PDCP PDU. A new MAC-I or hash marker can be calculated for the PDCP PDU for EDT and added either to the existing PDCP data PDU for DRBs or a new PDCP control PDU for DRB can be defined similarly as described in relation to FIGS. 3-6.

[0067] EDT may be applied to narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) transmissions.

However, as NB-IoT uses only a 7 bit SN, the existing PDU format may be unable to be used. Thus, a new PDCP control PDU to send the authentication code for the integrity protection of PDCP PDU can be defined for any UE supporting EDT. The new PDCP control PDU may, in some embodiments, be limited to being sent only when the UE is performing EDT. The PDCP data PDU and the PDCP control PDU may be multiplexed by lower layers and sent as a single MAC PDU using EDT grant. The overhead of integrity protection control PDU can also be taken into account on deciding whether to use EDT (in Msg3 or Msg4) or not for the given size of user data.

[0068] In case of fallback to a legacy procedure from EDT, the UE may update the Msg3 buffer. In this case, the PDCP control PDU for integrity protection may be discarded and not sent, as in the legacy procedure. If the PDCP control packet for integrity protection is not present, the integrity protection may not be applied. In one example, the value of the hash marker can be a new 16 bit (or 32 bit) shortResumeMAC-I (or MAC-I) calculated with additional input parameter called HASH code of the PDCP PDU.

[0069] FIG. 7 illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection during EDT in accordance with some embodiments. The new PDU type may have a three bit length and may be:


Table 3: EDT PDU type

[0070] As not many bits available for the PDU type, one reserved code point of the PDU type can be used to indicate another extended PDU type with a length of 4 bits. The extended PDU type can be used to indicate the integrity protection for only EDT data in some embodiments. In other embodiments, the extended PDU type can be used to indicate the integrity protection for EDT data and other types of data.

[0071] Using existing shortResumeMAC-I

[0072] For EDT, the existing shortResumeMAC-I algorithm can be used with an additional input parameter extracted from the UL data. As the length of the newly calculated shortResumeMAC-I may be same as that of the legacy shortResumeMAC-I, the newly calculated shortResumeMAC-I can be sent by replacing the legacy shortResumeMAC-I in the RRC message. However, the value of the new shortResumeMAC-I may be different from that of the legacy shortResumeMAC-I and in case of fallback to the legacy procedure, the UE may send only the RRC message without UL data. In this case, the base station may receive the newly calculated shortResumeMAC-I but will be unaware of the input parameter that was extracted from the UL data, as UL data is not sent in legacy procedure.

[0073] In such a fallback mechanism, a new MAC CE can be defined to transfer the input parameter that was extracted from the UL data and sent together with the RRC message.

[0074] In another option, a new 32-bit short resume MAC-I can be defined. The 16 bit LSB (or MSB) of the new shortResumeMAC-I may correspond to the value of legacy shortResumeMAC-I, whereas the 16 bit MSB (or LSB) may corresponds to the value of shortResumeMAC-I calculated with additional input parameter extracted from the UL data. In the case of a fallback, there will be no UL data present, in which case eNB will use only the 16 bit LSB of the new shortResumeMAC-I.

[0075] In another option, in addition to the legacy shortResumeMAC-I, another shortResumeMAC-I calculated with additional input parameter extracted from the UL data may also be included in the RRC message or PDCP control PDU or MAC CE for integrity protection of UL data. In case of a fallback, the other shortResumeMAC-I may either be transmitted or ignored by the base station. In this case, a spare bit in the RRC connection resume request message can be used and extended, or a new message class extension can be used, to include the new shortResumeMAC-I for UL data.

[0076] In another option, if the UE prepares multiple RRC messages for

EDT, then one of the messages may be the legacy RRC message including the short resume ID (24 bits) and shortResumeMAC-I with legacy input parameters and sent in Msg3 in case of fallback from EDT to the legacy procedure.

[0077] Further details are provided below regarding the manner in which a new MAC-I or CRC is calculated using a derived key and HASH code of UL data for integrity protection of UL data and sent via the MAC layer. In addition, the manner in which network verifies the integrity protection of the UL data is provided.

[0078] PDCP control PDU for DRB for integrity protection of UP data

[0079] In some embodiments, the length of the HASH MARKER can be

8 bit or 12 bits. FIG. 8 illustrates a PDCP control PDU format for integrity protection of a PDU in accordance with some embodiments. If the length is 12 bits, as shown in FIG. 8, then four reserved fields can be used for the HASH MARKER. The HASH MARKER may be simply a CRC check of a single PDCP SDUs or PDUs, or of multiple PDCP SDUs or PDUs. The CRC check can be calculated using an old or newly derived AS key (e.g., KRRCint).

[0080] RRC/MAC modeling

[0081] In some embodiments, the RRC or PDCP layer can also calculate a HASH key or new MAC-I (which can be a new shortResumeMAC-I or new CRC) derived using an AS key (e.g., KRRint) and HASH code from the PDCP SDU(s) or PDCP PDU(s). The HASH key can be X bit (e.g., > 8 bits) long and delivered by the lower layers (e.g., MAC). In more detail, four operations may occur: the RRC layer may calculate the shortResumeMAC-I as in legacy operations to include the shortResumeMAC-I in the

RRCConnectionResumeRequest message. When resuming the integrity protection and ciphering algorithm in the lower layer, the RRC layer may indicate to calculate the HASH. The RRC layer may receive a HASH code(s) of one or more PDCP PDU(s) from the lower layers. The RRC layer may calculate the new MAC-I and request lowers layer to transmit the new MAC-I. As in legacy operation, the RRC layer may submit the

RRCConnectionResumeRequest message to the lower layers for transmission.

[0082] The UE may configure the lower layers to use EDT. The lower layers may be configured to provide the HASH of the uplink data PDCP PDUs and store them in VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-Input. The new

shortRe sumeMAC -ED T-I may be set to the 16 least significant bits of the MAC-I calculated: over the ASN.1 encoded as per section 8 (i.e., a multiple of 8 bits) VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-Input (or VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-Input-NB in NB-IoT), with the KRRCint key and the previously configured integrity protection algorithm; and with all input bits for COUNT, BEARER and

DIRECTION set to binary ones. The shortRe sumeMAC -ED T-I may be submitted to the lower layers for transmission.

[0083] That is, at the MAC layer, when the UE receives a UL grant for

EDT, the UE may check if the upper layers (i.e., RRC layer) has provided the new MAC-I (VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-I) for transmission. If so, the MAC layer may append the new MAC-I before the CCCH SDUs. The“R” field in the MAC subheader can be used to indicate that a fixed size MAC CE is appended either in the front or at the end of the CCCH SDU. Alternatively, it may be specified that the UL EDT CCCH SDU always begins with a fixed length (x bit) MAC control element for MAC-I.

[0084] If the Random Access Preamble associated with EDT was transmitted and UL grant provided in the Random Access Response message is not for EDT : an indication may be provided to the upper layers that EDT is cancelled due to the UL grant not being for EDT; the Msg3 buffer may be flushed for CP -EDT; for UP -EDT, the MAC PDU may be updated in the Msg3 buffer in accordance with the uplink grant received in the Random Access Response and the shortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC CE, if present, may be discarded. If the Random Access Preamble associated with EDT was transmitted, the UL grant was received in a Random Access Response for EDT, and there is a MAC PDU in the Msg3 buffer: if the TB size according to edt- SmallTBS-Enabled and as described in subclause 8.6.2 and 16.3.3 of

TS 36.213 does not match the size of the MAC PDU in the Msg3 buffer: the MAC entity may update the MAC PDU in the Msg3 buffer in accordance with the TB size. If the response is the first successfully received Random Access Response within this Random Access procedure; or if CP-EDT is cancelled due to the UL grant provided in the Random Access Response message not being for EDT: if the transmission is not being made for the CCCH logical channel, an indication may be provided to the Multiplexing and assembly entity to include a C-RNTI MAC control element in the subsequent uplink transmission; for UP-EDT, if the upper layer has provided VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-I, an indication may be provided to the Multiplexing and assembly entity to include a shortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC control element in the subsequent uplink transmission; and the MAC PDU may be obtained to transmit from the

"Multiplexing and assembly" entity and store it in the Msg3 buffer.

[0085] The UE can add a new MAC CE for the MAC-I. To let the eNB know that shortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC control element is included in the MAC PDU, a new LCID can be used or a reserved bit in the MAC subheader can be used. In some embodiments, the length of the LCID can be extended from 5 bits to 6 bits with additional of“R” bits to the LCID bits.


Table 4 Values of LCID for UL-SCH


Table 5 Values of LCID for UL-SCH when“R” bit in MAC subheader is set to

[0086] In another option, the LCID for the Power Headroom Report

(PHR) MAC control element may be reused for another MAC control element if the“R” field is set to“1”. For example, when the“R” field in the MAC subheader is set to“1”, the LCID assigned for the Power Headroom Report (PHR) MAC control element may be used for VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC control element or Msg3 quality report MAC control element. In some embodiments, the“R” field in the Power Headroom Report (PHR) MAC control element may be set to“1” to use the 7 remaining bits for another purpose, for examplethe VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC control element or CRC check or Msg3 quality report MAC control element etc.

[0087] Verification of integrity protection in the network

[0088] Case 1 : using a separate ShortResumeMAC-EDT-I

[0089] FIG. 9 illustrates an EDT procedure in accordance with some embodiments. As shown in FIG. 9, a separate ShortResumeMAC-EDT-I may be sent to the target eNB. In particular, in EDT, the key (KeNB*) is derived at the target eNB after the source eNB verifies the legacy shortResumeMAC-I and provides UE context together with security context to the target eNB as in the legacy procedure. In this case, the source eNB additionally provides the original KeNB/NH to the target eNB for the derivation of KeNB*.

[0090] In some embodiments, as in non-EDT case, the source eNB may always derive the KeNB* after the source eNB verifies the legacy

shortResumeMAC-I and provides the KeNB* to the target eNB.

[0091] However, after key derivation, the target eNB may first calculate the HASH code of the UL EDT data and check the shortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC. In some embodiments, the UE may signal UE capability as to whether the UE supports IP of UL data. If the target eNB knows from the retrieved UE context that the UE supports IP of UL data, the target eNB may calculate the HASH code of the UL EDT data to verify the new MAC -I. Alternatively, the first X bit after/before the MAC subheader for the CCCH SDU or CCCH SDU element or the first X bit after/before the MAC subheader for the DTCH SDU or DTCH SDU element may be used for the new MAC-I, if the UE reports the capability to support IP of UL data.

[0092] In some embodiments, KRRCint may not be used in the calculation of new MAC-I (shortResumeMAC-EDT-I). In some embodiments, if the old KRRCint is used, then the source eNB may check the

shortResumeMAC-EDT-I in which case the legacy shortResumeMAC-I may be

ignored by the target eNB. The target eNB may send the shortResumeMAC-EDT-I together with the EDT ETL data in the Retrieve UE context request message.

[0093] In some embodiments, the newly derived KRRCint may be used in the calculation of new MAC-I (shortResumeMAC-EDT-I). In this case, the target eNB may receive the UE context from the source eNB as the legacy procedure, derive the new keys and HASH code of UL data and verify the new MAC-I (shortResumeMAC-EDT-I). If the check of VarShortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC is successful, the target eNB may perform the legacy procedure (i.e., derive KeNB*, derive new AS keys using NCC provided by source eNB, if not derived yet, decipher the UL EDT data and forward it to the S-GW). If the check of shortResumeMAC-EDT-I MAC fails, the target eNB can indicate to the source eNB that the context retrieval process failed, send the

RRCConnectionReject message to the UE and discard all UE context, security context (newly derived keys), UL data, shortResumeMAC-EDT-I. The target eNB may also send the RRCConnectionSetup message in this case.

[0094] Case 2: Provided by SA3

[0095] FIG. 10 illustrates another EDT procedure in accordance with some embodiments. FIG. 10 illustrates a case in which the target eNB cannot calculate the HASH code of the UL data without UE context. For this reason, the target eNB may also forward the EDT UL data to the source eNB together with the Retrieve UE Context Request. The source eNB may calculate the HASH code and verify the MAC-I. If the check of the MAC-I is successful, the source eNB may send the Retrieve UE Context Response together with the UL EDT data back to the target eNB. The target eNB may then follow the legacy procedure.

[0096] Case 3 : context relocation not performed

[0097] FIG. 11 illustrates another EDT procedure in accordance with some embodiments. In FIG. 11, context relocation may not be performed. The target eNB may instead merely forward the Msg3 content for EDT to the source eNB. Similarly, the source eNB may forward the Msg4 context to the target eNB to deliver to the UE.

[0098] In some embodiments, the X2AP signaling details of the method shown in FIG. 10 are provided below. In particular, during the“Verification of integrity protection in the network” section of FIG. 10, step 2.1 and step 2.2 may be realized by a new dedicated class-1 X2AP procedure or by the existing X2AP RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT REQUEST and RESPONSE messages with enhancements, for which one example implementation of the latter is shown as follows:

[0099] RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT REQUEST

[00100] The RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT REQUEST message may be sent by the new eNB to request the old eNB to transfer the UE Context to the new eNB.



[00101] RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT RESPONSE

[00102] The RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT RESPONSE message may be sent by the old eNB to transfer the UE context to the new eNB.




RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT RESPONSE


[00103] For Case 3 above in the“Verification of integrity protection in the network” section, step 2.1 and step 8.1 may be realized by the new dedicated class-1 X2AP procedure or by the existing X2AP RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT REQUEST and FAILURE messages with enhancements, for which one example implementation of the latter for the RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT FAILURE message is shown as follows: Also for case 1 above in“Verification of integrity protection in the network” section, the RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT FAILURE message can be reused from the new eNB to the old eNB to indicate that integrity protection of the UL EDT data has failed and the old eNB should keep the UE context as it is.

[00104] RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT FAILURE

[00105] The RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT FAILURE message may be sent by the old eNB to inform the new eNB that the Retrieve UE Context procedure has failed.


RETRIEVE UE CONTEXT FAILURE

[00106] Although an aspect has been described with reference to specific example aspects, it will be evident that various modifications and changes may be made to these aspects without departing from the broader scope of the present disclosure. Accordingly, the specification and drawings are to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense. The accompanying drawings that form a part hereof show, by way of illustration, and not of limitation, specific aspects in which the subject matter may be practiced. The aspects illustrated are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the teachings disclosed herein. Other aspects may be utilized and derived therefrom, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of this disclosure. This Detailed Description, therefore, is not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of various aspects is defined only by the appended claims, along with the full range of equivalents to which such claims are entitled.

[00107] The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided to comply with 37 C.F.R. § 1.72(b), requiring an abstract that will allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. In addition, in the foregoing Detailed Description, it can be seen that various features are grouped together in a single aspect for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure. This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed aspects require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter lies in less than all features of a single disclosed aspect. Thus, the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed

Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate aspect.