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1. (WO2019063061) MATERIAL DEPOSITION ARRANGEMENT, VACUUM DEPOSITION SYSTEM AND METHODS THEREFOR
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MATERIAL DEPOSITION ARRANGEMENT, VACUUM DEPOSITION SYSTEM AND METHODS THEREFOR

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] Embodiments of the present disclosure relate to deposition apparatuses for depositing one or more layers, particularly layers including organic materials, on a substrate. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure relate to material deposition arrangements for depositing evaporated material on a substrate in a vacuum deposition chamber, vacuum deposition systems and methods therefor, particularly for OLED manufacturing. Further, embodiments relate to conditioning of material deposition arrangements.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Organic evaporators are a tool for the production of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). OLEDs are a special type of light-emitting diode in which the emissive layer comprises a thin-film of certain organic compounds. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used in the manufacture of television screens, computer monitors, mobile phones, other hand-held devices, etc., for displaying information. OLEDs can also be used for general space illumination. The range of colors, brightness, and viewing angles possible with OLED displays is greater than that of traditional LCD displays because OLED pixels directly emit light and do not involve a back light. Therefore, the energy consumption of OLED displays is considerably less than that of traditional LCD displays. Further, the fact that OLEDs can be manufactured onto flexible substrates results in further applications.

[0003] OLED materials are often co-evaporated. Two or more materials, for example three materials, are evaporated to form one layer of a layer structure of a device. A source assembly having two or more evaporation sources can be used for co-evaporation. Co-evaporation is challenging with respect to control of the

evaporation rates of the two or more evaporation sources for depositing one layer. An evaporation rate of a first evaporation source and an evaporation rate of a second evaporation source need to be adapted relative to each other. Further, for example for line sources, i.e. sources generating a line of evaporated material, and for area sources, i.e. sources generating a two-dimensional area of evaporated material, individual uniformity of the evaporation sources is of importance.

SUMMARY

[0004] In light of the above, a material deposition arrangement, a vacuum deposition system, and a method for conditioning a material deposition arrangement are provided.

[0005] According to one example, a material deposition arrangement for depositing material on a substrate in a vacuum deposition chamber is provided. The material deposition arrangement includes a first deposition source having one or more first openings; a second deposition source having one or more second openings; and a shutter arrangement having at least a first shutter configured to be movable by an angle to the one or more first openings; to the one or more second openings; and to a first park position.

[0006] According to one example, a material deposition arrangement for depositing material on a substrate in a vacuum deposition chamber is provided. The material deposition arrangement includes a first deposition source having one or more first openings; a second deposition source having one or more second openings; and a shutter arrangement having at least a first shutter configured to be movable by an angle or rotatable by an angle to selectively cover the one or more first openings or to the one or more second openings. Additionally, a first park position may be provided.

[0007] According to one example, a material deposition arrangement for depositing material on a substrate in a vacuum deposition chamber is provided. The material deposition arrangement includes a first deposition source having one or more first openings; a second deposition source having one or more second openings; a first shutter; and an actuator to move the first shutter by an angle in front of the one or more first openings and in front of the one or more second openings.

[0008] According to one example, a vacuum deposition system is provided. The system includes a vacuum deposition chamber; and a material deposition arrangement. The material deposition arrangement can be provided according to any of the embodiments described herein. For example, the material deposition arrangement includes a first deposition source having one or more first openings; a second deposition source having one or more second openings; a first shutter; and an actuator to move the first shutter by an angle in front of the one or more first openings and in front of the one or more second openings.

[0009] According to one example, a method for conditioning a material deposition arrangement having at least a first deposition source and a second deposition source is provided. The method includes blocking materials at the first deposition source with a shutter; conditioning the second deposition source; moving the shutter by an angle to the second deposition source; blocking material at the second deposition source; conditioning the second deposition source; moving the shutter by an angle; and depositing a material layer on a substrate by co-evaporation of the first deposition source and the second deposition source.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present disclosure can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the disclosure, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to embodiments. The accompanying drawings relate to embodiments of the disclosure and are described in the following:

FIG. 1 shows a schematic cross-sectional side view of a material deposition arrangement, e.g. an evaporation source, which can be utilized in embodiments described herein;

FIG. 2A shows a schematic cross-sectional view of a material deposition arrangement, e.g. a source assembly, which can be utilized in embodiments described herein;

FIG. 2B shows a schematic partial view of a material deposition arrangement having a shutter according to embodiments described herein;

FIGS. 3 A to 3C show schematic views of a material deposition arrangement, wherein shutters are shown at different positions according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 4 shows a schematic, partial perspective view of a material deposition arrangement having two shutters according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 5 shows a schematic view of another material deposition arrangement according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 6 shows a schematic view of a material deposition arrangement according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 7 shows a schematic side view of a material deposition arrangement having a support and a deposition source facing a side shield according to embodiments described herein;

FIG. 8 shows a schematic view of a vacuum deposition system according to embodiments described herein; and

FIG. 9 shows a flow chart illustrating a method for operating a material deposition arrangement or a method of conditioning a material deposition arrangement, respectively, according to embodiments described herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0011] Reference will now be made in detail to the various embodiments, one or more examples of which are illustrated in each figure. Each example is provided by way of explanation and is not meant as a limitation. For example, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used on or in conjunction with any other embodiment to yield yet a further embodiment. It is intended that the present disclosure includes such modifications and variations.

[0012] Within the following description of the drawings, the same reference numbers refer to the same or to similar components. Generally, only the differences with respect to the individual embodiments are described. Unless specified otherwise, the description of a part or aspect in one embodiment can apply to a corresponding part or aspect in another embodiment as well.

[0013] FIG. 1 shows a schematic sectional view of a material deposition arrangement 100 which can be utilized for embodiments described herein. In particular, the material deposition arrangement is configured for depositing a material on a substrate in a vacuum deposition chamber. As exemplarily shown in FIG. 1, the material deposition arrangement includes at least one material deposition source 105 having a crucible 110 configured to evaporate the material. Further, the material deposition arrangement includes a distribution assembly 120, for example a distribution pipe. The distribution assembly is configured to provide the evaporated material to the substrate. As exemplarily shown in FIG. 1, the distribution assembly 120 of the at least one deposition source may include a distribution pipe with one or more outlets or openings 126 provided along the length of the distribution pipe. Typically, the distribution assembly 120 is connected to the crucible 110.

[0014] In particular, an opening 113 may be provided at the bottom of the distribution assembly 120. For instance, the opening 113 provided at the bottom of the distribution assembly 120 can be arranged and configured to allow fluid

communication with the crucible 110, for instance via an opening provided in a top wall of the crucible.

[0015] The crucible 110 is in fluid communication with the distribution assembly. The evaporated material is guided in the distribution assembly towards the substrate. For example, the distribution assembly 120 directs the evaporated material through openings 126 onto a substrate (not shown in FIG. 1). According to embodiments of the present disclosure, the material deposition arrangement can include a line source. The openings 126 can be arranged in a line. A line-shaped vapor plume is generated by the distribution assembly 120. The line source can be moved, e.g. perpendicular to the direction of the line. Moving the line source enables deposition of evaporated material onto a rectangular substrate.

[0016] According to yet further embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a shutter or shutter assembly according to embodiments described herein may also be provided for point sources.

[0017] FIG. 2A shows a more detailed schematic cross-sectional top view of a material deposition arrangement according to further embodiments described herein. In particular, FIG. 2A shows a cross-sectional top view of a material deposition arrangement including a first deposition source 105 A, a second deposition source 105B, and a third deposition source 105C. Three distribution assemblies, e.g. distribution pipes, and corresponding evaporation crucibles can be provided next to each other. Accordingly, a material deposition arrangement may be provided as an evaporation source array, e.g. wherein more than one kind of material can be evaporated at the same time. Co-evaporation can be used for depositing of material layers, for example during OLED display manufacturing. The material deposition arrangement can include two or more deposition sources 105.

[0018] The material deposition arrangement, i.e. the deposition sources are conditioned for providing the process conditions for material deposition. It is beneficial to condition deposition sources of a material deposition arrangement independently from each other. For example, uniformity of the material evaporation of the deposition source is considered independently for each of the deposition sources of a material deposition arrangement. The uniformity of the deposition source can, for example, be considered as the uniformity along the line of openings 126. The uniformity can be evaluated and/or adjusted along the line of a line source.

[0019] As shown in FIG. 2A, deposition sources may include a distribution assembly as described herein, and a crucible as described herein. For instance, the first distribution assembly 120A, the second distribution assembly 120B, and the third distribution assembly 120C can be configured as a distribution pipe as described herein.

[0020] As shown in FIG. 2B, according to embodiments of the present disclosure, one or more shutters 210 can be moved by an angle 212. Moving the shutter by an angle, for example, rotating the shutter around an axis 211, allows for positioning of the shutter in front of one or more openings 126 of the first distribution assembly. Alternatively, the shutter can be positioned in front of the one or more openings 126 of the second distribution assembly or in front of the one or more openings of the third distribution assembly. Yet further, the shutter can be positioned in a park position. In the park position, openings of the material deposition arrangement are not covered by the shutter. The shutter does not block material guidance towards the substrate of any of the distribution assemblies of the material deposition arrangement.

[0021] Positioning of the shutter in front of the one or more openings of one distribution assembly, i.e. of one deposition source, allows for individual conditioning of the deposition sources. Further, a park position allows for material deposition of the material deposition arrangement on the substrate having co-evaporation of the two or more deposition sources.

[0022] In the present disclosure, a "material deposition source" can be understood as a device or assembly configured for providing a source of material to be deposited on a substrate. In particular, a "material deposition source" may be understood as a device or assembly having a crucible configured to evaporate the

material to be deposited and a distribution assembly configured for providing the evaporated material to the substrate. The expression "a distribution assembly configured for providing the evaporated material to the substrate" may be understood in that the distribution assembly is configured for guiding gaseous source material in a deposition direction, exemplarily indicated in FIG. 1 by arrows through the outlets or openings 126. Accordingly, the gaseous source material, for example a material for depositing a thin film of an OLED device, is guided within the distribution assembly and exits the distribution assembly through one or more outlets or openings 126. For example, the one or more outlets of the distribution assembly, e.g. a distribution pipe, can be nozzles extending along an evaporation direction. Typically, the evaporation direction is essentially horizontal, e.g. the horizontal direction may correspond to the x-direction indicated in FIG. 1. According to typical embodiments, it may be beneficial to have a slight deviation, for example 15° or less, such as 7° or less, from the horizontal direction to allow for a slight deviation of the substrate orientation from being vertical.

[0023] In the present disclosure, a "crucible" can be understood as a device having a reservoir for the material to be evaporated by heating the crucible. Accordingly, a "crucible" can be understood as a source material reservoir which can be heated to vaporize the source material into a gas by at least one of evaporation and sublimation of the source material. Typically, the crucible includes a heater to vaporize the source material in the crucible into a gaseous source material. For instance, initially the material to be evaporated can be in the form of a powder. The reservoir can have an inner volume for receiving the source material to be evaporated, e.g. an organic material.

[0024] In the present disclosure, a "distribution assembly" can be understood as an assembly configured for providing evaporated material, particularly a plume of evaporated material, from the distribution assembly to the substrate. For example, the distribution assembly may include a distribution pipe which can have an elongated shape. For instance, a distribution pipe as described herein may provide a line source with a plurality of openings and/or nozzles which are arranged in at least one line along the length of the distribution pipe. Accordingly, the distribution assembly can be a linear distribution showerhead, for example, having a plurality of openings (or an elongated slit) disposed therein. A showerhead as understood herein can have an enclosure, hollow space, or pipe, in which the evaporated material can be provided or guided, for example from the evaporation crucible to the substrate. A showerhead can provide a higher pressure, e.g. by one order of magnitude or more, inside the hollow space as compared to the outside of the space.

[0025] According to embodiments which can be combined with any other embodiments described herein, the length of the distribution pipe may correspond at least to the height of the substrate to be deposited. In particular, the length of the distribution pipe may be longer than the height of the substrate to be deposited, at least by 10% or even 20%. For example, the length of the distribution pipe can be 1.3 m or above, for example 2.5 m or above. Accordingly, a uniform deposition at the upper end of the substrate and/or the lower end of the substrate can be provided. According to an alternative configuration, the distribution assembly may include one or more point sources which can be arranged along a vertical axis.

[0026] As shown in FIG. 2A, according to embodiments which can be combined with any other embodiments described herein, the distribution assembly of the at least one deposition source can be configured as a distribution pipe having a noncircular cross-section perpendicular to the length of the distribution pipe. For example, the cross-section perpendicular to the length of the distribution pipe can be triangular with rounded corners and/or cut-off corners as a triangle. For instance, FIG. 2A shows three distribution pipes having a substantially triangular cross-section perpendicular to the length of the distribution pipes. According to embodiments which can be combined with any other embodiment described herein, each distribution assembly is in fluid communication with the respective evaporation crucible.

[0027] It is to be understood that the description with respect to the features of the at least one deposition source 105 as, for example, described with reference to FIGS. 1, 2A and 2B, may also be applied to other deposition sources of a material deposition arrangement 100 having two or more deposition sources 105.

[0028] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with any other embodiment described herein, and as exemplarily shown in FIG. 2A, an evaporator control housing 180 may be provided adjacent to the at least one material deposition source. In particular, the evaporator control housing can be configured to maintain atmospheric pressure therein and is configured to house at least one element selected from the group consisting of a switch, a valve, a controller, a cooling unit, a cooling control unit, a heating control unit, a power supply, and a measurement device.

[0029] According to embodiments which can be combined with any other embodiment described herein, the distribution assembly, particularly the distribution pipe, may be heated by heating elements which are provided inside the distribution assembly. The heating elements can be electrical heaters which can be provided by heating wires, e.g. coated heating wires, which are clamped or otherwise fixed to the inner tubes. With exemplary reference to FIG. 2A a cooling shield 138 can be provided. The cooling shield 138 may include sidewalls which are arranged such that a U-shaped cooling shield is provided in order to reduce the heat radiation towards the deposition area, i.e. a substrate and/or a mask. For example, the cooling shield can be provided as metal plates having conduits for cooling fluid, such as water, attached thereto or provided therein. Additionally, or alternatively, thermoelectric cooling devices or other cooling devices can be provided to cool the cooled shields. Typically, the outer shields, i.e. the outermost shields surrounding the inner hollow space of a distribution pipe, can be cooled.

[0030] In FIG. 2A, for illustrative purposes, evaporated source material exiting the outlets of the distribution assemblies are indicated by arrows. Due to the essentially triangular shape of the distribution assemblies, the evaporation cones originating from the three distribution assemblies are in close proximity to each other, such that mixing of the source material from the different distribution assemblies can be improved. In particular, the shape of the cross-section of the distribution pipes allow for placing the outlets or nozzles of neighboring distribution pipes close to each other. According to some embodiments, which can be combined

with other embodiments described herein, a first outlet or nozzle of the first distribution assemblies and a second outlet or nozzle of the second distribution assemblies can have a distance of 70 mm or below, e.g. 50 mm or below, or 35 mm or below.

[0031] As further shown in FIG. 2A, a shielding device, particularly a shaper shield device 137, can be provided, for example, attached to the cooling shield 138 or as a part of the cooling shield. By providing shaper shields, the direction of the vapor exiting the distribution pipe or pipes through the outlets can be controlled, i.e. the angle of the vapor emission can be reduced. According to some embodiments, at least a portion of evaporated material provided through the outlets or nozzles is blocked by the shaper shield. Accordingly, the width of the emission angle can be controlled.

[0032] As shown in more detail with respect to FIGS. 3 A to 7, a shutter or a shutter assembly can be provided at and/or connected with the shaper shield device 137.

[0033] FIG. 3 A shows a portion of the material deposition arrangement 100. The openings 126 of the deposition sources are shown and the shaper shield device 137. The cross-sectional view of FIG. 3 A shows side portions 317 of the shaper shield device 137. Two shutters 210 are provided. The shutters 210 are movable by an angle, for example, rotatable around axes 211. FIG. 3 A shows an opening 126 on the left-hand side, an opening 126 in the middle, and an opening 126 on the right-hand side. The openings correspond to a respective evaporation source. According to some embodiments, the evaporation sources can be point sources having the respective opening 126. According to other embodiments, the evaporation sources can be line sources and the respective opening 126 is one of the plurality of openings extending along a line perpendicular to the paper plane in FIGS. 3 A to 3C.

[0034] Even though embodiments described herein can, according to the present disclosure, be used for point sources of a material deposition arrangement co-evaporating two or more materials, the shutter arrangement according to

embodiments described herein can be beneficially utilized for line sources. For example, the shutter arrangement can be used for vertically or essentially vertically oriented line sources. The shutter arrangement having one or more shutters that are moved by an angle, e.g. around an axis, can efficiently block one or more lines of openings 126. Further, as described in more detail with respect to FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, the shutter arrangement can be provided in a park position.

[0035] FIG. 3A shows a positioning of the first shutter and a second shutter, wherein the middle opening 126 and the right opening 126 are blocked by the shutter. The left opening 126 or a respective line of openings is not blocked. Evaporated material can be guided on a substrate from the left opening 126, i.e. distribution assembly corresponding to the left opening 126 or a line of left openings 126. The evaporation source on the left-hand side corresponding to the left distribution assembly or the one or more left openings, respectively, can be conditioned, while the center evaporation source and the right evaporation source do not contribute to a layer deposition on a substrate.

[0036] FIG. 3B shows a positioning of the first shutter and the second shutter, wherein the middle opening 126 is not blocked. An evaporation source between left evaporation source and the right evaporation source can be conditioned, while the left evaporation source and the right reverberation source do not contribute to a layer deposition on a substrate. FIG. 3C show a positioning of the first shutter and the second shutter, wherein the right opening 126 is not blocked. The right evaporation source can be conditioned. After conditioning of the evaporation sources, for example subsequently by shutter positioning according to FIGS. 3 A to 3C (in an arbitrary order) the first shutter and the second shutter can be moved in a park position and deposition of a layer, for example an organic layer, by co-evaporation of the left deposition source, the right deposition source, and the deposition source between the left deposition source and the right deposition source can be provided.

[0037] FIG. 4 shows a perspective view of a shaper shield device 137, wherein portions of the shaper shield device 137 are cut away to show the shutters 210 of a shutter arrangement according to embodiments described herein. FIG. 4 shows a side portion 317 of the shaper shield device 137 and, for example, a top portion 417 of the shaper shield device. The shutters 210 extend along a line of a line source provided by openings 126 shown in FIG. 4. The shutter 210 can be moved to cover the openings 126 (four openings are shown) extending along a line of the line source.

[0038] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the shaper shield device can include side portions 317, a top portion 417 and a bottom portion. The shaper shield device forms a shaper box. The shaper shield device can include a frame extending from the openings or row of openings 126 in the direction of the substrate. The frame can surround the openings or row of openings. The openings 126 or row of openings 126 can be used for co-evaporation of two or more deposition sources.

[0039] For example, the shutter arrangement including one or more shutters 210 can be mounted to the shaper shield device, i.e. the shaper box. It is beneficial to mount the shutter arrangement at the shaper shield device, since both components are maintained, for example, cleaned, regularly. Accordingly, mounting the shutter arrangement to the shaper shield device allows for disassembling the shutter arrangement together with the shaper shield device. Further, as explained in more detail with respect to FIG. 7, the shutter arrangement can be mounted at the deposition source arrangement for easy disassembling, to remove the shutter assembly, for example the first shutter and the second shutter, in a short time. This allows for maintenance to be performed quickly.

[0040] FIG. 5 shows a portion of the material deposition arrangement according to yet further embodiments. FIG. 5 shows the shaper shield device 137 having side portions 317. Further, the edge of the top portion 417 is shown in FIG. 5. Even though the edge of the top portion 417 may not be fully straight, the shaper box may be considered to be essentially rectangular in cross-section and/or essentially cuboid.

[0041] FIG. 5 shows a portion of material deposition arrangement, wherein one or more nozzles 526 of a first deposition source provide one or more openings 126, one or more nozzles 526 of a second deposition source provides one or more

openings 126, and one or more nozzles 526 of a third deposition source provides one or more openings 126. According to embodiments described herein, a material deposition arrangement is provided with two or more deposition sources, wherein the two or more deposition sources are configured to co-evaporate different materials to form one layer on the substrate.

[0042] The shaper shield device 137 can, as shown in FIG. 5, be connected to the cooling shield 138. Accordingly, the shaper shield device 137 can be passively cooled by the cooling shield 138. The cooling shield 138 can have an active cooling.

[0043] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a material deposition arrangement can be provided for depositing a material layer on a substrate wherein a pattern mask, for example, fine metal mask (FMM), is provided between the material deposition arrangement and the substrate. The pattern mask, e.g. FMM can provide for a pixel resolution of a display. Accordingly, openings in the pattern mask can have dimensions of a few microns and are positioned with a tolerance of a few microns. According to embodiments of the present disclosure, a shutter arrangement with one or more shutters movable by an angle, for example, rotatable around an axis 211, can beneficially be utilized for line sources, particularly essentially vertically oriented line sources for vertical substrate deposition. Shutter arrangement with rotating or swinging shutters extending along a line of openings of the line source can be easily positioned in front of the line, can be provided in a park position as for example shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, and can be easily removed for maintenance. The individual conditioning of the line sources is beneficial for vertical substrate processing, wherein a vertical substrate orientation and a vertical orientation of a pattern mask is very challenging in a micrometer range for large area substrates.

[0044] FIG. 5 shows shapers 536 connected to the nozzles 526. The shapers 536 can be provided individually, i.e. for a plurality of nozzles 526 or openings 126, one shaper 536 is provided per nozzle or opening. The shapers 536 can be circular, oval, quadratic, rectangular, or the like in cross-section. The shapers 536 extend from the nozzles 526 or openings 126 towards the substrate. The shapers 536 limit the angle of the evaporation plume of the nozzles or openings. A limited angle of the emitted vapor is beneficial to allow for the precision in the range of a few microns with a pattern mask, e.g. an FFM. The shapers 536 can be two-dimensional shapers, for example, shapers limiting the evaporation omission angle in the horizontal and vertical direction for an essentially horizontal main evaporation direction, such as for an essentially vertical oriented substrate. The shapers 536 are, according to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, individual shapers for the openings 126 or nozzles 526. According to yet further embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the shapers 536 may be heated. Heating the shapers 536 can be beneficial to reduce adherence of evaporated material on the shapers.

[0045] The circle 511 shown in FIG. 5 exemplarily illustrates the rotation of the right shutter 210 rotating around the right axis 211. The movement of a shutter plate 510 of the shutter 210 can be provided on a circle or on an arc. A gap 523 is provided between the circle 511 and a surface of one or more shapers 536. Accordingly, the gap is provided between the shutter plate 510 and a surface of the one or more shapers. According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the gap can be 5 mm or below. Additionally or alternatively, the gap can be 0.5 mm or above. For example, the gap can be 2 mm to 4 mm.

[0046] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a shutter plate 510 of a shutter 210 can have a concave shape. The shutter plate can be bent inwardly towards the axis 211. This may improve blocking of evaporated material when the shutter 210 is moved in front of an opening 126.

[0047] The shutters 210, i.e. the first shutter and the second shutter, are shown in a park position in FIG. 5. A park position of a shutter can be adjacent to one or more side portions 317 of the shielding device or shaper shield device 137. As can be understood with respect to FIG. 4 and with respect to FIG. 7, merely the shutter plate 510 is provided in front of an opening 126. The connection portion between the axis 211 and the shutter plate, which is drawn in FIG. 5 (and other figures) does not block evaporated material from reaching the substrate. According to embodiments described herein, a park position can be on a side, for example the left-hand side in or the right hand side in FIG. 5, of the frame providing the shielding device or shaper shield device 137. A park position can be provided outwardly, for example, on either side, with respect to the openings 126 or line of openings 126 to be utilized for co-evaporation.

[0048] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the shaper shield device 137 can include one or more additional walls 517. An additional wall 517, which can, for example, be provided by a sheet of material, can generate an enclosure or surrounding for the shielding plate 510. The enclosure can be provided between the additional wall, i.e. material sheet or surface, and a side portion 317 of the shielding device 137. The enclosure or surrounding can provide a space for the shutter, i.e. the shutter plate, in the power position.

[0049] According to some embodiments, the additional wall or surface can be cooled passively by the cooling shield 138, for example, via the shielding device or shaper shield device 137. The indirectly cooled surfaces of the shielding device cover and/or surround the shutter 210, i.e. the shutter plate 510. The shutter plate 510 can be heated by blocking evaporated material. The enclosure or surrounding having cooled surfaces reduce the heat load of the shutter plate 510 having an elevated temperature that may affect the substrate during processing of the substrate, i.e. co-evaporation of the two or more deposition sources. According to additional or alternative modifications, which can be combined with other embodiments, examples, or modifications described herein, the shutter 210, and particularly the shutter plate 510, may be cooled directly, for example actively.

[0050] FIG. 6 shows an enclosure for a park position, which may also be used for other embodiments described herein, for example material deposition arrangements having individual shapers for openings or nozzles, respectively. Further, the circle around the right axis 211 shown in FIG. 6 is moved towards the nozzles 526 as compared to FIG. 5. Accordingly, a gap between the openings and/or nozzles in embodiments described with respect to FIG. 6 can be similar to the gap 513 described with respect to FIG. 5.

[0051] FIG. 7 shows a material deposition arrangement 100. The material deposition arrangement includes two or more deposition sources 105. Each of the deposition sources (one source is shown in the cross-sectional side view of FIG. 7) can include a crucible 110 distribution assembly 120 and respective openings 126, for example nozzles. Material evaporated in the crucible 110 is guided with the distribution assembly 120 through the openings 126 into a vacuum chamber. For example, the evaporated material can be guided towards a substrate or towards the side shield 710 shown in FIG. 7. The evaporation direction can be horizontally or slightly inclined upwardly, as shown in FIG. 7, relative to a horizontal orientation. The evaporation direction can be inclined from 0° to 10°.

[0052] According to embodiments described herein, an apparatus for material deposition may include a side shield 710. The side shield can be provided in front of the material source arrangement in a rotational idle position of the material source arrangement. The side shield can be provided such that in an idle position of the material deposition arrangement, the material deposition arrangement is moved in front of the idle shield, e.g. moved in front of the idle shield by an angle. The side shield 710 can be an idle shield or generally a shield for the materials deposition source arrangement, e.g. the two or more deposition sources.

[0053] According to some embodiments, the two or more evaporation sources 105 can be mounted to an evaporator control housing 180, for example an atmospheric box. The evaporator control housing can be connected to an outside of the vacuum chamber, in which the material deposition arrangement is operated.

[0054] The two or more evaporation sources can be supported by a support 780 for the material deposition arrangement. The support can be configured for translational movement of the material deposition arrangement. The support can provide a housing for active and/or passive magnetic elements. The active and/or passive magnetic elements can provide for a magnetic levitation and/or a magnetic drive of the material deposition arrangement. For example, referring to FIG. 7, the translational movement of the material deposition arrangement can be perpendicular to the paper plane of FIG. 7.

[0055] FIG. 7 shows the shaper shield device 137 having a top portion 417. The shutter 210 can be mounted to the top portion 417 and the corresponding bottom portion. The shutter 210 can be mounted with, for example, a rotatable pin 722. The cross-sectional view of FIG. 7 shows one shutter, one mounting arrangement for the shutter, and one actuator for moving of the shutter. The shutter arrangement having two or more shutters 210 can include a corresponding number of components.

[0056] An actuator 726 is provided below the bottom portion of the shaper shield device 137. The shaper shield device, i.e. the shaper box can shield the actuator and/or mounting portions of the shutter from being exposed to evaporated material. The actuator 726 can be a motor, for example the shaded-pole motor. For example, the motor can engage to a pin via magnets 724. Alternatively, a direct engagement of the actuator 726 to the pin 722 or an axis of the shutter can be provided.

[0057] According to embodiments of the present disclosure, shutter arrangement includes one or more shutters 210, wherein the shutters are movable by an angle. For example, the shutters can be rotated around an axis. For example, the axis can be provided by a pin 722.

[0058] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the material deposition source arrangement can include vertical shields 717. FIG. 7 shows a vertical shield 717 at a lower portion of the shaper shield device and a vertical shield 717 at an upper portion of the shaper shield device. The one or more vertical shields can delimit the evaporation angle of the material deposition arrangement in the vertical direction. For example, the one or more vertical shields can delimit the angle of evaporation of the evaporation sources 105, for example, two or more evaporation sources 105 in the vertical direction. The vertical shields can be cover sheets.

[0059] A shutter arrangement according to embodiments described herein, allow for conditioning, i.e. evaluating the evaporation characteristics, of a single deposition source of two or more deposition sources of a material deposition arrangement. The shutter arrangement can include two shutters. Two shutters can block material from, for example, two deposition sources. Accordingly, a material deposition arrangement having three deposition sources can be conditioned. According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a shutter arrangement having shutters movable by an angle allow for easy blocking of openings and/or nozzles of a line source. A plurality of openings of evaporation source or a distribution assembly, respectively, can be blocked by one shutter, which is, for example, rotatable.

[0060] A shutter arrangement according to embodiments described herein, allows for moving the shutters in a park position, e.g. after uniformity and other conditioning has been adjusted for the deposition sources individually. The one or more shutters movable by an angle, for example being rotatable, allow for a park position adjacent to the side portion of the shielding device, particularly within an enclosure formed by the shielding device.

[0061] FIG. 8 is a schematic top view of a deposition apparatus 1000 for depositing evaporated material on to two or more substrates, e.g. on a substrate 10 and on a second substrate 11 , according to some embodiments described herein.

[0062] The deposition apparatus 1000 includes a vacuum chamber 1001. A material deposition arrangement 100, e.g. a deposition source according to any of the embodiments described herein, is arranged in the vacuum chamber 1001. A first deposition area 201 and a second deposition area 202 which may be located on opposite sides of the deposition source are provided in the vacuum chamber 1001. A substrate 10 may be arranged in the first deposition area 201, and a second substrate 11 may be arranged in the second deposition area 202.

[0063] In the present disclosure, a "material deposition arrangement" is to be understood as an arrangement configured for material deposition on a substrate as described herein. In particular, a "material deposition arrangement" can be understood as an arrangement configured for deposition of organic materials, e.g. for OLED display manufacturing, on large area substrates. For instance, a "large area substrate" can have a main surface with an area of 0.5 m2 or larger, particularly of 1 m2 or larger. In some embodiments, a large area substrate can be GEN 4.5, which corresponds to about 0.67 m2 of substrate (0.73x0.92m), GEN 5, which corresponds to about 1.4 m2 of substrate (1.1 m x 1.3 m), GEN 7.5, which corresponds to about 4.29 m2 of substrate (1.95 m x 2.2 m), GEN 8.5, which corresponds to about 5.7 m2 of substrate (2.2 m x 2.5 m), or even GEN 10, which corresponds to about 8.7 m2 of substrate (2.85 m x 3.05 m). Even larger generations such as GEN 11 and GEN 12 and corresponding substrate areas can similarly be implemented.

[0064] For instance, the substrate may be made of a material selected from the group consisting of glass (for instance soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass etc.), metal, polymer, ceramic, compound materials, carbon fiber materials or any other material or combination of materials which can be coated by a deposition process.

[0065] In the present disclosure, a "vacuum deposition chamber" is to be understood as a chamber configured for vacuum deposition. The term "vacuum", as used herein, can be understood in the sense of a technical vacuum having a vacuum pressure of less than, for example, 10 mbar. Typically, the pressure in a vacuum chamber as described herein may be between 10~5 mbar and about 10~8 mbar, more typically between 10~5 mbar and 10~7 mbar, and even more typically between about lO 6 mbar and about 10~7 mbar.

[0066] In some embodiments, the material deposition arrangement 100 may be configured to move sequentially past the first deposition area 201 for coating the substrate 10 and the second deposition area 202 for coating the second substrate 11. The plurality of nozzles may be opened or not blocked while the deposition source

moves past the first deposition area 201 so that evaporated material may be directed toward the substrate 10 that is arranged in the first deposition area 201. The substrate 10 may have an essentially vertical orientation. For example, the substrate 10 may be held by a substrate carrier in an essentially vertical orientation, wherein the substrate carrier may be configured for carrying the substrate 10 through the vacuum chamber 1001. The substrate carrier can be supported by a substrate carrier support in the vacuum chamber. For example, the substrate carrier support can be a magnetic levitation system for the substrate carrier.

[0067] The carrier or substrate carrier may be configured for supporting the substrate and/or the mask in a non-horizontal orientation, particularly in an essentially vertical orientation. An "essentially vertical orientation" as used herein may be understood as an orientation wherein an angle between a main surface of substrate carrier and the gravity vector is between +10° and -10°, particularly between 5° and -5°. In some embodiments, the orientation of the substrate carrier may not be (exactly) vertical during transport and/or during deposition, but slightly inclined with respect to the vertical axis, e.g. by an inclination angle between 0° and -5°, particularly between -1° and -5°. A negative angle refers to an orientation of the substrate carrier wherein the substrate carrier is inclined downward, i.e. the substrate surface to be processed is facing downward. A deviation from the gravity vector of orientations of the mask and the substrate during the deposition may be beneficial and may result in a more stable deposition process, or a down-facing orientation might be suitable for reducing particles on the substrate during deposition. However, also an exactly vertical orientation (+/-1°) of the mask device during transport and/or during deposition is possible.

[0068] In some embodiments, a mask 20 may be arranged in front of the substrate 10, i.e. between the substrate 10 and the deposition source 100 during deposition. For example, the mask 20 may be a fine metal mask with an opening pattern configured for depositing a complementary material pattern on the substrate. Alternatively, the mask may be an edge exclusion mask.

[0069] According to embodiments described herein, material deposition with a pattern mask, such as a fine metal mask (FFM) can be provided on large area substrates. Accordingly, the size of the area on which material is to be deposited is e.g. 1.4 m2 or above. Further, a pattern mask, e.g. for pixel generation of a display, provides a pattern in the micron range. Positioning tolerance of openings of the pattern mask in the micron range can be challenging over large areas. This is particularly true for vertically or essentially vertically oriented substrates. Even the gravity acting on the pattern mask and/or a respective frame of the pattern mask may deteriorate positioning accuracy of the pattern mask. Thus, an improved chucking arrangement for chucking the pattern mask to the substrate is particularly beneficial for vertical (essentially vertical) substrate processing.

[0070] In some embodiments, a second mask 21 may be arranged in front of the second substrate 11, i.e. between the second substrate 11 and the material deposition source 105 during deposition on the second substrate 11. The materials deposition source arrangement may rotate as described with respect to FIG. 7 (see axis 701) to subsequently deposit first substrates in a first deposition area 201 and second substrates in a second deposition area 202. For deposition of material on one substrate, the material deposition arrangement can moved along arrow H.

[0071] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the material deposition source 105 may include three or more evaporation crucibles 122 and three or more distribution pipes 121 which are in fluid connection with one of the three or more evaporation crucibles 122, respectively. The three or more distribution pipes may extend essentially parallel to each other in an essentially vertical direction. Nozzles may be provided in the distribution pipes along the length directions of the distribution pipes. For example, ten, thirty or more nozzles may be provided in the front wall of each of the two or more distribution pipes. The nozzles of a first distribution pipe, the nozzles of a second distribution pipe and/or the nozzles of a third distribution pipe may be inclined with respect to each other such that the respective plumes of evaporated material meet at the position of the substrate. Accordingly, the plurality of nozzles may include ninety or more nozzles, e.g. about 150 nozzles. Employing a deposition source 150 according to embodiments described herein may be beneficial for high quality display manufacturing, particularly OLED manufacturing.

[0072] In some embodiments, which may be combined with other embodiments described herein, the first deposition area 201 may be provided opposite to the second deposition area 202 in the vacuum chamber 1001. In some embodiments, the material deposition source 105 may rotate by an angle of essentially 180° from the first deposition area 201 to the second deposition area 202.

[0073] According to embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the distribution pipes or distribution assemblies 120 may be elongated tubes including heating elements. The evaporation crucible 110 can be a reservoir for a material, e.g. an organic material, to be evaporated with a heating unit. For example, the heating unit may be provided within the enclosure of the evaporation crucible. According to embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the distribution pipes may provide line sources.

[0074] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the length of the distribution pipes may correspond to a height of a substrate onto which material is to be deposited. Alternatively, the length of the distribution pipes may be longer than the height of the substrates. Accordingly, a uniform deposition at the upper end of the substrate and/or the lower end of the substrate can be provided. For example, the length of the distribution pipes can be 1.3 m or more, for example 2.5 m or more.

[0075] According to embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the crucible 110, i.e. the evaporation crucible, may be provided at the lower end of the distribution pipe. The material, e.g. an organic material, can be evaporated in the evaporation crucible. The evaporated material may enter the distribution pipe at the bottom of the distribution pipe and may be guided essentially sideways through the plurality of nozzles in the distribution pipe, e.g. towards an essentially vertically oriented substrate.

[0076] According to embodiments which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, the material deposition arrangement 100 may be provided on a source track 30, e.g. a linear guide or a looped track. The source track 30 may be configured for a translational movement of the material deposition source 105, e.g. in a horizontal direction H.

[0077] According to embodiments which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a first valve 1002, for example a gate valve, may be provided which allows for a vacuum seal to an adjacent vacuum chamber, e.g. a routing chamber. The first valve 1002 can be opened for transport of the substrate or the mask into the vacuum chamber 1001 or out of the vacuum chamber 1001.

[0078] According to some embodiments, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, a further vacuum chamber, such as maintenance vacuum chamber 1004 may be provided adjacent to the vacuum chamber 1001, as exemplarily shown in FIG. 8. The vacuum chamber 1001 and the maintenance vacuum chamber 1004 may be connected with a second valve 1003. The second valve 1003 may be configured for opening and closing a vacuum seal between the vacuum chamber 1001 and the maintenance vacuum chamber 1004. The material deposition source 105 can be transferred to the maintenance vacuum chamber 1004 while the second valve 1003 is in an open state. Thereafter, the second valve 1003 can be closed to provide a vacuum seal between the vacuum chamber 1001 and the maintenance vacuum chamber 1004. If the second valve 1003 is closed, the maintenance vacuum chamber 1004 can be vented and opened for maintenance of the material deposition source 105 without breaking the vacuum in the vacuum chamber 1001.

[0079] According to some embodiments, methods of operation of a material deposition arrangement, of a processing system and methods for conditioning a materials deposition arrangement having at least a first deposition source and a second deposition source are provided. FIG. 9 shows a flow chart illustrating a method for conditioning a materials deposition arrangement having at least a first deposition source and a second deposition source. Other methods may be provided with corresponding and/or additional processes disclosed herein. As indicated by box 5 902 material is blocked at the first deposition source with a shutter. For example, the shutter is positioned in front of or at one or more openings of the first deposition source. While the shutter blocks material from the first deposition source, a second deposition source can be conditioned. As indicated by box 904, the shutter is moved by an angle to the second deposition source. For example, the shutter can be rotated 0 around an axis. The shutter is moved by an angle. According to embodiments described herein, which can be combined with other embodiments described herein, additionally to a rotation, a translational movement of the shutter can be provided. The rotation axis can be provided outside of the body of the shutter, particularly outside of the body of a shutter plate.

5 [0080] As indicated by box 906, material is blocked at the second deposition source with the shutter. The shutter has moved to the second deposition source as indicated by box 904 for blocking the material. For example, the shutter is positioned in front of or at one or more openings of the second deposition source. While the shutter blocks material from the second deposition source, the first deposition source can be 0 conditioned. As indicated by box 908, the shutter is moved by an angle to a park position. The park position is a position, in which neither material from the first deposition source nor from the second deposition source is blocked. For example, the shutter can be rotated around an axis. The shutter is moved by an angle. According to embodiments described herein, which can be combined with other embodiments 5 described herein, additionally to a rotation, a translational movement of the shutter can be provided. The rotation axis can be provided outside of the body of the shutter, particularly outside of the body of a shutter plate. As indicated by box 910, e.g. after both deposition sources have been conditioned (boxes 902 and 906), a material layer is deposited on a substrate by co-evaporation of the first deposition 0 source and the second deposition source.

[0081] While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the disclosure, other and further embodiments of the disclosure may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.

[0082] In particular, this written description uses examples to disclose the disclosure, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the described subject-matter, including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods. While various specific embodiments have been disclosed in the foregoing, mutually non-exclusive features of the embodiments described above may be combined with each other. The patentable scope is defined by the claims, and other examples are intended to be within the scope of the claims if the claims have structural elements that do not differ from the literal language of the claims, or if the claims include equivalent structural elements with insubstantial differences from the literal language of the claims.