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1. (WO2018199969) INK INLCUDING AN INORGANIC NEAR INFRARED SCATTERING PIGMENT
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INK INLCUDING AN INORGANIC NEAR INFRARED SCATTERING PIGMENT

BACKGROUND

[0001] Users are increasingly demanding functionalities beyond merely recognizing a touch to the surface of a touch-sensitive device. Such other functionalities include handwriting recognition and direct note taking (using, for example, a stylus). Such functionalities are generally provided in so-called digitizing systems. Digitizing systems may have position-dependent indicia defected by an image sensor in a stylus, such as an electro-optical pen or other image reader, where the position-dependent indicia include an ink.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

[0002] Features of the present disclosure are illustrated by way of example and not limited in the following figure(s), in which like numerals indicate like elements, in which:

[0003] FIG. 1 is a diagram of an example ink composition;

[0004] FIG. 2 is a diagram of an example display;

[0005] FIG. 3 is a flow chart of an example of a method of making a printed substrate; and

[0006] FIG. 4 is a line graph illustrating backscatter reflectance for example ink compositions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0007] For simplicity and illustrative purposes, the present disclosure is described by referring mainly to an example thereof. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough

understanding of the present disclosure. It will be readily apparent however, that the present disclosure may be practiced without limitation to these specific details. In other instances, some methods and structures have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure the present disclosure. As used herein, the terms "a" and "an" are intended to denote at least one of a particular element, the term "includes" means includes but not limited to, the term "including" means including but not limited to, and the term "based on" means based at least in part on.

[0008] With reference to FIG. 1 , there is shown a diagram of an example ink composition 100. The ink composition 100 may include an inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 and a carrier 1 10. The inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 may scatter near infrared irradiance back to an electro-optical reader, such as a pen. As shown in FIG. 2, the ink composition 100 may be applied to a clear surface 210, such as a display or printed medium 200, for example, a plastic film, in a pattern of indicia 220 so that the pattern may be invisible to the human eye. In instances in which the pattern is not totally invisible to the human eye, the ink composition 100 may have a color neutral hue, such as a neutral white color to enhance or augment the non-visible detection of the pattern by the human eye when a display image is rendered below the pattern.

[0009] The inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 may be present in the ink composition 100 in an amount ranging from about 0.5 wt.% to about 45 wt.% relative to the total weight of the ink composition 100. In an aspect, the inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 may be present in the ink composition 100 in an amount ranging from about 1 wt. % to about 35 wt. %, for example, from about 3 wt. % to about 25 wt. %, relative to the total weight of the ink composition 100.

[0010] The inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 may be any pigment that is visibly white-colored. Non-limiting examples of a inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120 for use in the ink composition 100 include titanium oxides, zinc oxide, zinc sulphides, zirconium oxide, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxides, white lead, basic lead sulfate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate

(precipitated, ground, and treated), calcium silicate, kaolin clay, talc, silica, or combinations thereof. In an aspect, the inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120 may include sodium aluminosilicate particles, aluminum-doped zinc oxide, zinc dioxide, titanium dioxide, polytetrafluoroethylene, or combinations thereof.

[0011] The ink composition 100 may include a carrier 1 10, such as a clear carrier 1 10 or clear resin. By way of non-limiting examples, the carrier 1 10 may be polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate polyvinylpyrrolidone, poly(ethoxyethylene), poly(methoxyethylene), poly(acrylic) acid, poly(acrylamide), poly(oxyethylene), poly(maleic anhydride), hydroxyethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate,

poly(sacchrides) such as gum arabic and pectin, poly(acetals) such as polyvinylbutyral, polyvinyl halides) such as polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylene chloride, poly(dienes) such as polybutadiene, poly(alkenes) such as

polyethylene, poly(acrylates) such as polymethyl acrylate, poly(methacrylates) such as poly methylmethacrylate, poly(carbonates) such as poly(oxycarbonyl oxyhexamethylene, poly(esters) such as polyethylene terephthalate,

poly(urethanes), poly(siloxanes), poly(sulphides), poly(sulphones),

poly(vinylnitriles), poly(acrylonitriles), poly(styrene), poly(phenylenes) such as poly(2,5 dihydroxy-1 ,4-phenyleneethylene), poly(amides), natural rubbers, formaldahyde resins, other polymers and mixtures of polymers and polymers with solvents.

[0012] The inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 may be present in the carrier 1 10 in any loading amount so long as the pigment may randomly orient within the carrier 1 10. In an aspect, the ink composition 100 may include from about 0.1 % by volume to about 90%, for example, from about 5% to about 85%, and as a further example, from about 10% to about 80%, by volume of the inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 in the ink composition 100.

[0013] With reference to FIG. 2, a printed medium 200 may include a surface 210 including a pattern of indicia 220 in which the pattern of indicia 220 includes an ink composition 100 including an inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 and a carrier 1 10 as discussed herein. In an aspect, the surface 210 may be a clear surface, such as a display, for example, a plastic film. The pattern of indicia 220 may be a dot array applied to the surface 210 with the ink composition 100. Because the ink composition 100 includes an inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 the individual dots in the dot array may be created using a smaller diameter dot thereby reducing the percent of the display area occupied by the pattern. In an aspect, the dot array may include a dot having a diameter ranging from about 60 microns to about 140 microns, for example, from about 70 microns to about 130 microns, and as a further example, from about 80 microns to about 120 microns. A reduced pattern feature size may enable the pattern of indicia 220 to be less visible to a human eye. In an aspect, a percent area of the surface 210 covered by the pattern of indicia 220, e.g., dot array, may range from about 1 .5 % to about 22.3%, for example, from about 5.6% to about 19.2%, and as a further example, from about 7.3% to about 16.4%.

[0014] With reference now to FIG. 3, there is shown a flow diagram of an example method 300 of making a printed medium. In the method 300, at block 310, an ink composition 100 including a carrier 1 10 and an inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 may be made. In addition, at block 320, a pattern of indicia 220 may be applied onto a clear surface 210 using the ink composition 100. Moreover, at block 330, the applied pattern may be cured.

[0015] The ink composition 100 may be cured using ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared, electron beam, or the like. Curing may proceed in an inert or ambient atmosphere. In an aspect, the curing may utilize an ultraviolet light source having a wavelength of about 395 nm. The ultraviolet light source may be applied to the ink 100 at a dose ranging from about 200 mJ to about 1000 mJ, for example ranging from about 250 mJ to about 900 mJ, and as a further example from about 300 mJ to about 850 mJ. In an aspect, the ink 100 may be cured in a short period of time, for example substantially instantaneously, in order to decrease the possibility of the inorganic near infrared scattering pigment 120, 230 reorienting in the carrier 1 10 in a flat orientation due to the effect of gravity, which would provide for a less scattered irradiance when subjected to an electronic reader..

[0016] The cured ink 100 may be tuned to a neutral white-color hue using a colorimeter.

[0017] EXAMPLE 1 - An ink 100 having zinc oxide pigments was prepared and applied to a substrate. Using a Cary 5000 Reflectometer Instrument the backscatter reflectance for the ink was determined. The incidence of near infrared light (850 nm) onto a film was varied from 0° to 70° by incrementing the sample angle theta. The detector angle was held constant at 10°. At this position the backscatter reflectance at an angle that was 10° past the source radiance was measured. Inks 100 with other materials were also tested. The backscatter reflectance data is presented in FIG. 4. The legend on the graph identifies inks 100 having the following inorganic near infrared scattering pigment: zinc oxide (60 nm) with an average 5% by weight loading (NanoArc® zinc oxide

nanopowder - 100% crystalline, non-porous, non-agglomerated, available from NanoArc); zinc oxide (60 nm) with an average 3% by weight loading (NanoArc® zinc oxide nanopowder - 100% crystalline, non-porous, non-agglomerated, available from NanoArc); nanoparticle of polytetrafluoroethylene with 3% by weight loading of polytetrafluoroethylene (nanoFLON® P39B powder is agglomerated to 10-15 microns, commercially available from Shamrock

Technologies; Fluoro-A 3% by weight loading of polytetrafluoroethylene (Fluoro A is a polytetrafluoroethylene powder, commercially available from Shamrock Technologies); titanium dioxide with 50% by weight loading (printed on full area); azo with 1 % by weight loading (aluminum doped zinc oxide (aluminum nanopower 15 nm-2wt% and zinc oxide nanopowder 15 nm - 98wt%)); and azo with 5% by weight loading (aluminum doped zinc oxide (aluminum nanopower 15 nm-2wt% and zinc oxide nanopowder 15 nm - 98wt%)).

[0018] Although described specifically throughout the entirety of the instant disclosure, representative examples of the present disclosure have utility over a wide range of applications, and the above discussion is not intended and should not be construed to be limiting, but is offered as an illustrative discussion of aspects of the disclosure.

[0019] What has been described and illustrated herein is an example of the disclosure along with some of its variations. The terms, descriptions and figures used herein are set forth by way of illustration only and are not meant as limitations. Many variations are possible within the spirit and scope of the disclosure, which is intended to be defined by the following claims - and their equivalents - in which all terms are meant in their broadest reasonable sense unless otherwise indicated.