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1. (WO2018157622) SUBSTRATE TO BE ENCAPSULATED, ENCAPSULATION ASSEMBLY AND DISPLAY DEVICE HAVING THE SAME
Document

Description

Title of Invention 0001   0002   0003   0004   0005   0006   0007   0008   0009   0010   0011   0012   0013   0014   0015   0016   0017   0018   0019   0020   0021   0022   0023   0024   0025   0026   0027   0028   0029   0030   0031   0032   0033   0034   0035   0036   0037   0038   0039   0040   0041   0042   0043   0044   0045   0046   0047   0048   0049   0050   0051   0052   0053   0054   0055   0056   0057   0058   0059   0060   0061  

Claims

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Drawings

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Description

Title of Invention : SUBSTRATE TO BE ENCAPSULATED, ENCAPSULATION ASSEMBLY AND DISPLAY DEVICE HAVING THE SAME

[0001]
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
[0002]
This application is based upon and claims priority to Chinese Patent Application Serial No. 201710116833.8, filed with the State Intellectual Property Office of P. R. China on March 1, 2017, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003]
The present disclosure relates to a display technology field, and more particularly, to a substrate to be encapsulated, an encapsulation assembly and a display device having the same.

BACKGROUND

[0004]
In the art of encapsulation assemblies, such as an active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display device and an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display device, an encapsulation layer and a substrate are normally attached by an encapsulation process. Generally, the encapsulation process plays an important role in service life of the encapsulation assembly since the encapsulation process may prevent water or oxygen from permeating into the encapsulation assembly. In the encapsulation process, frit or resin may be used as an adhesive during an attaching step. Specifically, there is a plurality of holes, which are normally in a quadrangular shape, in the substrate. These holes may improve the contact surface area between the substrate and an adhesive layer, thus improving the adhesive force and encapsulation performances and decreasing mechanical properties and permeability to water or oxygen. There is still a requirement for a further development of the encapsulation performance of the encapsulation assembly.
[0005]
SUMMARY
[0006]
In the present disclosure, a substrate to be encapsulated, an encapsulation assembly and a display device are provided.
[0007]
In a first aspect of embodiments of the present disclosure, a substrate to be encapsulated is provided, comprising:
[0008]
a base substrate; and
[0009]
a plurality of notches arranged in an array located in a region to be attached to an encapsulation layer, wherein the plurality of notches have a same shape of regular polygon.
[0010]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the array comprises a plurality of first rows and a plurality of second rows arranged alternately, and the plurality of notches of in the plurality of first rows and the plurality of second rows have a displacement along a row direction..
[0011]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, at least two adjacent notches in a same row have a gap with a first length along the row direction, the displacement has a second length along the row direction, and the first length is equal or smaller than the second length.
[0012]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the plurality of notches are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is parallel with the row direction.
[0013]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the plurality of notches are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is perpendicular to the row direction.
[0014]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the substrate to be encapsulated above further comprises a structural layer, wherein the plurality of notches are located in the structural layer.
[0015]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the plurality of notches are located in the base substrate.
[0016]
In a second aspect of embodiments of the present disclosure, an encapsulation assembly is provided, including: a base substrate, an encapsulation layer that packages the base substrate in a encapsulation region, an adhesive layer between the base substrate and the encapsulation layer in the encapsulation region for attaching, and a plurality of notches arranged in an array are located in the encapsulation region, wherein the plurality of notches have a same shape of regular polygon.
[0017]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the encapsulation assembly is an active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display panel.
[0018]
In a third aspect of embodiments of the present disclosure, a display device is provided, including the encapsulation assembly as described in the second aspect.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0019]
Fig. 1 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a corner of a region of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer in other implementations;
[0020]
Fig. 2 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a corner of a region of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer according to some embodiments of the present disclosure;
[0021]
Fig. 3 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a region with a predetermined area of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer in other implementations;
[0022]
Fig. 4 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a region with a predetermined area of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer according to some embodiments of the present disclosure;
[0023]
Fig. 5 is a schematic partial view of a region of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer according to some embodiments of the present disclosure; and
[0024]
Fig. 6 is a schematic partial view of a region of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer according to other embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0025]
Fig. 7 is a schematic view according to some embodiments of the present disclosure with a structural layer.
[0026]
Fig. 8 is a schematic view according to some embodiments of the present disclosure with the notches located in the base substrate.
[0027]
Skilled artisans will appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions and/or relative positioning of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to other elements to help to improve understanding of various examples of the present disclosure. Also, common but well-understood elements that are useful or necessary in a commercially feasible example are often not depicted in order to facilitate a less obstructed view of these various examples. It will further be appreciated that certain actions and/or steps may be described or depicted in a particular order of occurrence while those skilled in the art will understand that such specificity with respect to sequence is not actually required. It will also be understood that the terms and expressions used herein have the ordinary technical meaning as is accorded to such terms and expressions by persons skilled in the technical field as set forth above, except where different specific meanings have otherwise been set forth herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0028]
Reference will now be made in detail to clearly and completely describe exemplary embodiments, examples of the present disclosure which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, thus showing the objects and advantages of the embodiments of the present disclosure. Specifically, embodiments described herein are only a part of all the possible embodiments of the present disclosure. One skilled in the art may achieve other embodiments based on the description of the embodiments of the present disclosure, and these embodiments are still in the scope of the present disclosure.
[0029]
The terminology used in the present disclosure is for the purpose of describing exemplary examples only and is not intended to limit the present disclosure. As used in the present disclosure and the appended claims, the singular forms "a, ” "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It shall also be understood that the terms “or” and "and/or" used herein are intended to signify and include any or all possible combinations of one or more of the associated listed items, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
[0030]
It shall be understood that, although the terms “first, ” “second, ” “third, ” etc. may be used herein to describe various information, the information should not be limited by these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one category of information from another. For example, without departing from the scope of the present disclosure, first information may be termed as second information; and similarly, second information may also be termed as first information. As used herein, the term "if" may be understood to mean "when" or "upon" or "in response to” depending on the context.
[0031]
Reference throughout this specification to "one embodiment, " "an embodiment, " "exemplary embodiment, " or the like in the singular or plural means that one or more particular features, structures, or characteristics described in connection with an example is included in at least one embodiment of the present disclosure. Thus, the appearances of the phrases "in one embodiment" or "in an embodiment, " "in an exemplary embodiment, " or the like in the singular or plural in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, or characteristics in one or more embodiments may be combined in any suitable manner.
[0032]
The technical solutions provided in embodiments of the present disclosure may have following advantageous effects.
[0033]
With the substrate according to embodiments of the present disclosure, the extending part may be formed at any notch and there is a recessed part of the region of the first surface between extending parts of two adjacent notches in the same row. In such a manner, the extending parts of at least some of the notches (i.e., a plurality of the first notches) in the first row are facing to the recessed parts described above. In such a case, compared to quadrangular notches commonly used, at least some of the notches in the first row may be interlaced with the notches in the second row and thus the number of notches arranged in a same area can be increased. Therefore, the contact surface area between the substrate and an adhesive layer in the encapsulation process may be improved, as well as the encapsulation performances
[0034]
Fig. 1 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a corner of a region of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer in other implementations, and Fig. 2 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a corner of a region of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer according to some embodiments of the present disclosure.
[0035]
As shown in Fig. 1, notches in a substrate normally have a quadrangular shape. A normal quadrangular notch 20 has an area of, for example, about 900 μm 2, and the number of the notches 20 arranged in the curved region 10 of a corner of the substrate is 147. As shown in Fig. 2, the notch 200 formed in the substrate according to embodiments of the present disclosure has a hexagonal shape and has an area of, for example, about 903 μm 2. The number of the notches 200 arranged in the same region 100 of the corner of the substrate is 164. Therefore, in the region 100 which has a same shape and a same area as the region 10, the number of the hexagonal notches 200 is increased by 11%, compared to the number of the quadrangular notches 10. Since the number of the notches is closely related to the specific surface area, the increase in the number of the notches may also lead to an improvement of the adhesive force between the substrate and the adhesive layer.
[0036]
As shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 4-8, in some embodiments of the present disclosure, a substrate is provided. The substrate to be encapsulated comprises a base substrate 101, and a plurality of notches 200 arranged in an array located in a region to be attached to an encapsulation layer 50, wherein the plurality of notches 200 have a same shape of regular polygon. The regular polygon may be a regular hexagon or octagon. The base substrate may be an array substrate with a plurality of organic light emitting diodes. The array comprises a plurality of first rows 210 and a plurality of second rows 220 arranged alternately, and the plurality of notches 200 of in the plurality of first rows 210 and the plurality of second rows 220 have a displacement along a row direction. In some embodiments of the present disclosure, at least two adjacent notches in a same row have a gap 301 with a first length along the row direction. The gap 301 presents the nearest distance between two adjacent notches in a same row. The displacement has a second length along the row direction, and the first length is equal or smaller than the second length. The plurality of notches 200 are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is parallel with or perpendicular to the row direction. In other words, the base substrate includes a first surface. The first surface includes a region 100 to be attached to an encapsulation layer. The region 100 defines a plurality of notches 200 arranged in an array. The array includes at least a first row and a second row adjacent to the first row. The first row 210 includes a plurality of first notches 200 and the second row 220 includes a plurality of second notches. The first plurality of notches 200 in the first row 210 are interlaced with the second plurality of notches 200 in the second row 220. An extending part is disposed on at least a portion of each of the notches 200, and a part of the region 100 is present between extending parts of two adjacent notches 200 in a same row. In other words, at least two adjacent notches in a same row are separated by a part of the region. The notches 200 in each row include a first notch 200a, and an extending part of each of the first notches 200a in the first row is facing to a part of the region 100 between extending parts of two adjacent notches 200 in the second row which are adjacent to the first notch 200a.
[0037]
With the substrate according to embodiments of the present disclosure, the extending part may be formed at any notch 200 and there is a recessed part of the region of the first surface between extending parts of two adjacent notches 200 in the same row. In such a manner, the extending parts of at least some of the notches 200 (i.e., a plurality of the first notches 200a) in the first row are facing to the recessed parts described above. In such a case, compared to quadrangular notches 20 commonly used, at least some of the notches 200 in the first row may be interlaced with the notches in the second row and thus the number of notches 200 arranged in a same area can be increased. Therefore, the contact surface area between the substrate and an adhesive layer in the encapsulation process may be improved, as well as the encapsulation performances.
[0038]
It should be noted that, as shown in Fig. 2, the notches 200 in a row (e.g., the first row 210) are interlaced with the notches 200 in another row (e.g., the second row 220) adjacent to the row. Here, the first notch 200a may be any non-peripheral notch in any row, i.e. the first notch 200a is not peripheral notches in any row, and the first notch 200a in a row is facing directly to the part of the region 100 between the extending parts of two adjacent notches in another row adjacent to the row. Specifically, the extending part of each of the first notches 200a in the first row is facing to the part of the region 100 between extending parts of two adjacent notches in the second row which are adjacent to the first notch 200a.
[0039]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, as shown in Fig. 2, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, preferably, the notches 200 have a same shape. It should be appreciated that in actual applications, other examples where the notches 200 do not have a same shape may also be in the scope of this disclosure.
[0040]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, preferably, at least part of the extending part of the first notch 200a in the first row extends to the part of the region 100 between the extending parts of the two adjacent notches 200 in the second row which are adjacent to the first notch 200a.
[0041]
In the embodiments described above, projections of the notches 200 in the two adjacent rows on a plane perpendicular to a row arrangement direction may be at least partially overlapped. In such a case, compared to quadrangular notches 20 commonly used, the number of notches 200 according to embodiments of the present disclosure arranged in the same region 100 is increased. Therefore, the contact surface area between the substrate and an adhesive layer in the encapsulation process may be improved, as well as the encapsulation performances.
[0042]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, as shown in Fig. 5, each of the notches 200 defines a first portion provided with a first extending part 201 and a second portion provided with a second extending part 202. Here, the first portions of the notches 200 are arranged in a same direction, and a part of the region 100 is present between the first extending parts 201 of two adjacent notches 200 in the same row. The second extending part 202 of the first notch 200a in the first row is facing to a part of the region 100 between the first extending parts of two adjacent notches 200 in the second row which are adjacent to the first notch 200a.
[0043]
In one or more embodiments, extending parts are formed at portions of the notch 200 opposite to each other, such that a recessed part of the region 100 may be formed by the first extending parts at the first portions of any two adjacent notches 200. When the notch 200 is the first notch 200a, at least part of the second extending part 202 of the first notch 200a in the first row may extend to the part of the region 100 between the second extending parts 202 of the two adjacent notches 200 in the second row which are adjacent to the first notch 200a.
[0044]
It should be understood that in other embodiments of the present disclosure, the structure of the notches 200 may have various modifications which are also in the scope of this disclosure. Other embodiments of structures of the notches 200 are described as follows.
[0045]
The extending part is only provided at the first portion of the notch 200, and the notches 200 in the first row are interlaced with the notches in the second row and arranged in a different direction from the notches 200 in the second row. That is, the first portions of the notches 200 in the first row are arranged in a first direction and the first portions of the notches 200 in the second row are arranged in a second direction opposite to the first direction. In such a case, a recessed part of the region may be present between the extending parts of two adjacent notches 200 in the first row and the extending part of the first portion of the notch 200 in the second row may extend to the part of the region 100 between the extending parts of the two adjacent notches in the first row.
[0046]
In addition, in some embodiments of the present disclosure, as shown in Fig. 5, a projection of each of the first extending part 201 and the second extending part 202 on the first surface includes an angle formed by two lines starting from a point. It should be understood that the shape of the projection of the extending part can be various according to actual applications, which is also in the scope of this disclosure.
[0047]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, as shown in Fig. 7, the substrate further comprises a structural layer 201 on the base substrate, and the plurality of notches are located in the structural layer. The structural layer comprises at least one of organic material, inorganic material or metal. It should be noted that the person skilled in the art could easily understand that a pattern process may be applied to form the notches in a structural layer having a film.
[0048]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, as shown in Fig. 8, the plurality of notches 200 are located in the base substrate 101. The base substrate 101 may be etched thereby forming the plurality of notches 200.
[0049]
A specific embodiment of the present disclosure is provided as follows.
[0050]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, as shown in Fig. 5, a plurality of notches 200 are arranged into an array in a region to be attached to an encapsulation layer, and the array includes at least a first row and a second row adjacent to the first row. The notches in the first row are interlaced with the notches in the second row. A shape of a projection of the notch 200 on the first surface is a hexagon including a first angle and a second angle arranged diagonally. Specifically, the first extending part 201 corresponds to the first angle and the second extending part 202 corresponds to the second angle. More preferably, the shape of the projection of the notch 200 on the first surface is a regular hexagon and the first angle and the second angle are obtuse angles. Alternatively or additionally, each of the notches may define a hexagon hole.
[0051]
It should be understood that, the structure of the notch may be various in other embodiments. Accordingly, the shape of the extending part may also be various, an example is described below.
[0052]
As shown in Fig. 6, the array comprises a plurality of first rows 210 and a plurality of second rows 220 arranged alternately, and the plurality of notches 200 of in the plurality of first rows A and the plurality of second rows B have a displacement 302 along a row direction. At least two adjacent notches 200 in a same row have a gap 301 with a first length along the row direction. The displacement 302 has a second length along the row direction which is equal to the orthographic projection of the line between centroids of two adjacent regular polygon in two adjacent rows respectively. And the first length is equal or smaller than the second length.
[0053]
Furthermore in detail, the shape of the notch 200 is an octagon including eight sides and eight angles. The sides includes a first side 2001, a second side 2002 opposite to the first side 2001, a third side 2003 adjacent to the first side 2001, a fourth side 2004 adjacent to the first side 2001, a fifth side 2005 adjacent to the second side 2002 and a sixth side 2006 adjacent to the second side 2002. A third angle 230 is formed by the first side 2001 and the third side 2003 and a fourth angle 240 is formed by the first side 2001 and the fourth side 2004. A fifth angle 250 is formed by the second side 2002 and the fifth side 2005 and a sixth angle 260 is formed by the second side 2002 and the sixth side 2006. Specifically, a first extending part 201 is formed by the first side 2001, the third angle 230, the fourth angle 240, the third side 2003 and the fourth side 2004 of the octagonal notch together, and a second extending part 202 is formed by the second side 2002, the fifth angle 250, the sixth angle 260, the fifth side 2005 and the sixth side 2006 of the octagonal notch together.
[0054]
The present disclosure is described in more detail with reference to embodiments of the present disclosure, e.g., a specific embodiment of hexagonal notches described below.
[0055]
In addition, compared to the quadrangular notches arranged in a normal manner, a distribution density of the hexagonal notches arranged according to embodiments of the present disclosure is higher. Fig. 3 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a region with a predetermined area of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer in other implementations. Fig. 4 is a schematic view illustrating a distribution of notches arranged in a region with a predetermined area of a substrate to be attached to an encapsulation layer according to some embodiments of the present disclosure. As shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the regions in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 have the same area and the notches in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 have the same area. For example, the hexagonal notch 200 has the same area as the quadrangular notch 20, and the number of the quadrangular notches is 136 and the number of the hexagonal notches 200 is 145. Therefore, the number of the hexagonal notches 200 is increased by 6%, compared to the number of the quadrangular notches 20. Since the number of the notches is closely related to the specific surface area, the increase in the number of the notches may also lead to an improvement of the adhesive force between the substrate and an adhesive layer.
[0056]
Accordingly, if the hexagonal notches have a same area as the quadrangular notches, the number of the hexagonal notches is increased by 6%in a horizontal direction or a vertical direction, compared to the quadrangular notches. If the notches are arranged in the curved region of the corner of the substrate, the number of the hexagonal notches is increased by 11%, compared to the quadrangular notches.
[0057]
It should be understood that the hexagonal notch 200 as described above is merely examples of notches formed in the substrate according to embodiments of the present disclosure. In other embodiments of the present disclosure, the notch may also have a pentagonal, triangular or irregular shape, which is also in the scope of the present disclosure. Specifically, if the notch has a pentagonal or triangular shape, the arrangement of the notches may be as follows. The notches in the first row are interlaced with the notches in the second row. The first portions of the notches in the first row are arranged in a first direction and the first portions of the notches in the second row are arranged in a second direction opposite to the first direction. In such a case, a recessed part of the region may be present between the extending parts of any two adjacent notches in the first row and the extending part of the first portion of the notch in the second row may extend to the recessed part of the region between the extending parts of the two adjacent notches in the first row.
[0058]
In some embodiments of the present disclosure, an encapsulation assembly is provided. As shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, the encapsulation assembly includes a base substrate 101, an encapsulation layer 50 that packages the base substrate 101 in a encapsulation region 100, an adhesive layer 40 between the base substrate and the encapsulation layer in the encapsulation region for attaching, and a plurality of notches arranged in an array are located in the encapsulation region, wherein the plurality of notches have a same shape of regular polygon. The base substrate may be an array substrate with a plurality of organic light emitting diodes.
[0059]
In the disclosure, the encapsulation assembly may be an active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display panel. It should be understood that in other embodiments, the encapsulation assembly may also be other types of the encapsulation assembly, which are in the scope of the present disclosure.
[0060]
Moreover, in some embodiments of the present disclosure, a display device is provided, including an encapsulation assembly described above.
[0061]
Although explanatory embodiments have been described above, it would be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, amendments, alternatives and modifications can be made without departing from principles and spirit of the present disclosure. The scope of the present disclosure is defined by the claims and the like.

Claims

[Claim 1]
A substrate to be encapsulated, comprising: a base substrate; and a plurality of notches arranged in an array located in a region to be attached to an encapsulation layer, wherein the plurality of notches have a same shape of regular polygon.
[Claim 2]
The substrate according to claim 1, wherein the array comprises a plurality of first rows and a plurality of second rows arranged alternately, and the plurality of notches of in the plurality of first rows and the plurality of second rows have a displacement along a row direction.
[Claim 3]
The substrate according to claim 2, wherein at least two adjacent notches in a same row have a gap with a first length along the row direction, the displacement has a second length along the row direction, and the first length is equal or smaller than the second length.
[Claim 4]
The substrate according to claim 2, wherein the plurality of notches are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is parallel with the row direction.
[Claim 5]
The substrate according to claim 2, wherein the plurality of notches are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is perpendicular to the row direction.
[Claim 6]
The substrate according to any one of claims 1 to 5, further comprising a structural layer on the base substrate, wherein the plurality of notches are located in the structural layer.
[Claim 7]
The substrate according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the plurality of notches are located in the base substrate.
[Claim 8]
The substrate according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the regular polygon is a regular octagon or a regular hexagon.
[Claim 9]
An encapsulation assembly, comprising: a base substrate; an encapsulation layer that packages the base substrate in a encapsulation region; an adhesive layer between the base substrate and the encapsulation layer in the encapsulation region for attaching; and a plurality of notches arranged in an array are located in the encapsulation region, wherein the plurality of notches have a same shape of regular polygon.
[Claim 10]
The encapsulation assembly according to claim 9, wherein the array comprises a plurality of first rows and a plurality of second rows arranged alternately, and the plurality of notches of in the plurality of first rows and the plurality of second rows have a displacement along a row direction.
[Claim 11]
The encapsulation assembly according to claim 10, wherein at least two adjacent notches in a same row have a gap with a first length along the row direction, the displacement has a second length along the row direction, and the first length is equal or smaller than the second length.
[Claim 12]
The encapsulation assembly according to claim 10, wherein the plurality of notches are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is parallel with the row direction.
[Claim 13]
The encapsulation assembly according to claim 10, wherein the plurality of notches are arranged along a same direction, one of diagonals of the regular polygon is perpendicular to the row direction.
[Claim 14]
The encapsulation assembly according to any one of claims 9 to 13, further comprising a structural layer on the base substrate, wherein the plurality of notches are located in the structural layer.
[Claim 15]
The encapsulation assembly according to any one of claims 9 to 13, wherein the plurality of notches are located in the base substrate.
[Claim 16]
The encapsulation assembly according to any one of claims 9 to 15, wherein the regular polygon is a regular octagon or a regular hexagon.
[Claim 17]
The encapsulation assembly according to any one of claims 9 to 16, wherein the encapsulation assembly is an active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display panel.
[Claim 18]
A display device, comprising an encapsulation assembly according to any one of claims 9 to 17.

Drawings

[ Fig. 0001]  
[ Fig. 0002]  
[ Fig. 0003]  
[ Fig. 0004]  
[ Fig. 0005]  
[ Fig. 0006]  
[ Fig. 0007]  
[ Fig. 0008]