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1. (WO2017193101) DNA ANTIBODY CONSTRUCTS FOR USE AGAINST PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
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DNA ANTIBODY CONSTRUCTS FOR USE AGAINST PSEUDOMONAS

AERUGINOSA

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/332,363, filed May 5, 2016 which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present invention relates to a composition comprising a recombinant nucleic acid sequence for generating one or more synthetic antibodies, including anti-PcrV and bispecific anti-PcrV anti-Psl antibodies, and functional fragments thereof, in vivo, and a method of preventing and/or treating bacterial infection in a subject by administering said composition.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas spp. are among the most difficult pathogens to treat. Infections by Pseudomonas spp. are a leading cause of acute pneumonia and chronic lung infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis, and are the most common source of infections of burn wounds or other injuries where they can lead to septic mortality. Pseudomonas spp. are able to attach to the surfaces of medical devices such as medical implants, catheters, and artificial joints and cause multiple problems, for example clogging a catheter or physically damaging an implant. Pseudomonas, as biofilm forming bacteria, are highly resistant to high levels of antibiotics. Currently, therapeutic antibodies are approved for treatment of multiple diseases. Unfortunately, manufacture and delivery of purified antibodies is cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, these antibody therapies must be re-administered weekly -to-monthly - a challenging consideration in treatment of chronic conditions such as prevention or treatment of biofilm formation on a medical implant.

[0004] Thus there is need in the art for improved therapeutics that prevent and/or treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and biofilm formation. The current invention satisfies this need.

SUMMARY

[0005] In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a nucleic acid molecule encoding one or more DNA monoclonal antibody (DMAb), wherein the nucleic acid molecule comprises one or more of a) a nucleotide sequence encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of an anti-PcrV DMAb (DMAb-aPcrV), or a fragment or homolog thereof; b) a nucleotide sequence encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of an anti-Psl DMAb (DMAb-aPsl), or a fragment or homolog thereof; and c) a nucleotide sequence encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of a bispecific anti-PcrV anti-Psl DMAb (DMAb-BiSPA), or a fragment or homolog thereof.

[0006] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule further comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a cleavage domain.

[0007] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of a DMAb-aPcrV, or a fragment or homolog thereof, is one or more of a) a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the amino acid sequence to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO: 8; SEQ ID NO: 10; SEQ ID NO: 12; SEQ ID NO: 14 and SEQ ID NO: 16; b)a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8; SEQ ID NO: 10; SEQ ID NO: 12; SEQ ID NO: 14 and SEQ ID NO: 16; c) a nucleotide sequence encoding a fragment of an amino acid sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the amino acid sequence to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8; SEQ ID NO: 10; SEQ ID NO: 12; SEQ ID NO: 14 and SEQ ID NO: 16; d) a nucleotide sequence encoding a fragment of an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8; SEQ ID NO: 10; SEQ ID NO: 12; SEQ ID NO: 14 and SEQ ID NO: 16; e) a nucleotide sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the nucleotide sequence to a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: l, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7; SEQ ID NO:9; SEQ ID NO: 11; SEQ ID NO: 13 and SEQ ID NO: 15; f) a fragment of a nucleotide sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the nucleotide sequence to a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID

NO:7; SEQ ID NO:9; SEQ ID NO: 11; SEQ ID NO: 13 and SEQ ID NO: 15; g) a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7; SEQ ID NO:9; SEQ ID NO: 11; SEQ ID NO: 13 and SEQ ID NO: 15; and h) a fragment of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7; SEQ ID NO:9; SEQ ID NO: 11; SEQ ID NO: 13 and SEQ ID NO: 15.

[0008] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of a DMAb-aPsl, or a fragment or homolog thereof, is one or more of a) a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the amino acid sequence to an amino acid of SEQ ID NO:20; b) a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 20; c) a nucleotide sequence encoding a fragment of an amino acid sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the amino acid sequence to an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20; d) a nucleotide sequence encoding a fragment of an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 20; e) a nucleotide sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the nucleotide sequence to SEQ ID NO: 19; e) a fragment of a nucleotide sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the nucleotide sequence to SEQ ID NO: 19; f) a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 19; and g) a fragment of a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 19.

[0009] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of a DMAb-BiSPA, or a fragment or homolog thereof, is one or more of a) a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the amino acid sequence to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 18 and SEQ ID NO:22; b) a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 18 and SEQ ID NO:22; c) a nucleotide sequence encoding a fragment of an amino acid sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the amino acid sequence to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 18 and SEQ ID NO:22; d) a nucleotide sequence encoding a fragment of an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 18 and SEQ ID NO:22; e) a nucleotide sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the nucleotide sequence to a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 17 and SEQ ID NO: 19; f) a fragment of a nucleotide sequence having at least about 95% identity over an entire length of the nucleotide sequence to a nucleotide sequence

selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 17 and SEQ ID NO: 19; g) a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 17 and SEQ ID NO: 19; and h) a fragment of a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 17 and SEQ ID NO: 19.

[0010] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule further comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding an IRES element. In one embodiment, the IRES element is selected from the group consisting of a viral IRES and an eukaryotic IRES.

[0011] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule further comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a leader sequence.

[0012] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule comprises an expression vector.

[0013] In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a composition comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding one or more DNA monoclonal antibody selected from DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-aPsl, DMAb-BiSPA, or a fragment, or a homolog thereof.

[0014] In one embodiment, the composition further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

[0015] In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing or treating a disease in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a nucleic acid molecule or composition comprising one or more DNA monoclonal antibody selected from DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-aPsl, DMAb-BiSPA, or a fragment, or a homolog thereof.

[0016] In one embodiment, the disease is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

[0017] In one embodiment, the method, further comprises administering an antibiotic agent to the subject. In one embodiment, an antibiotic is administered less than 10 days after administration of the nucleic acid molecule or composition.

[0018] In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing or treating a biofilm formation in a subject, the method comprising administering to the subject a nucleic acid molecule or composition comprising one or more DNA monoclonal antibody selected from DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-aPsl, DMAb-BiSPA, or a fragment, or a homolog thereof.

[0019] In one embodiment, the biofilm is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

[0020] In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering an antibiotic agent to the subject. In one embodiment, an antibiotic is administered less than 10 days after administration of the nucleic acid molecule or composition.

[0021] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a composition comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding one or more DNA monoclonal antibody that is bispecifc for generating one or more antibodies in vivo, wherein the nucleic acid molecule comprises one or more of a) a nucleotide sequence encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of a first antigen, or a fragment or homolog thereof; and b) a nucleotide sequence encoding one or more of a variable heavy chain region and a variable light chain region of a second antigen, or a fragment or homolog thereof.

[0022] In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody molecule according to the invention may have two binding sites of any desired specificity. In some embodiments one of the binding sites is capable of binding a tumor associated antigen. In some embodiment, one of the binding sites is capable of binding a cell surface marker on an immune cell.

[0023] In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody of the invention targets CD19/CD3, HER3/EGFR, TNF/IL-17, IL-la/H-Ιβ, IL-4/IL-13, HER2/HER3, GP100/CD3,

ANG2/VEGFA, CD19/CD32B, TNF/IL17A, IL-17A/IL17E, CD30/CD16A, CD19/CD3, CEA/CD3, HER2/CD3, CD123/CD3, GPA33/CD3, EGRF/CD3, PSMA/CD3, CD28/NG2, CD28/CD20, EpCAM/CD3, or MET/EGFR, among others.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0024] Figure 1, comprising Figure 1 A through Figure 1C. depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating DMAb delivery and in vitro expression. Figure 1A depicts a schematic diagram demonstrating that DMAbs were designed to encode IgG antibody heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibody clones V2L2MD and ABC 123, resulting in the DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA constructs. The optimized DMAb constructs are administered to mice by in vivo IM-EP, and muscle cells being to synthesize an produce mAb. Fully functional DMAb is secreted and enters the systemic circulation. Figure IB depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating that HEK 293 T cells were transfected with ^g/well of DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-BiSPA, or control pGXOOOl . i) supernatant and ii) cell lysates were harvested after 48 hours. Samples were assayed for human IgG. Figure 1C depicts the results of an exemplary Western blot performed with cell lysates from transfected cells. lC^g total cell lysate was loaded in each lane and run on an SDS-PAGE gel, followed by transfer onto a nitrocellulose membrane. The membrane was probed with a goat anti-human IgG H+L antibody, conjugated to HRP. Samples were developed using an ECL chemiluminescence kit and visualized on film.

[0025] Figure 2, comprising Figure 2A through Figure 2D. depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating expression of DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA in

mouse skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice received a DNA injection, in the TA muscle with DMAb-aPcrV or DMAb-BiSpA DNA followed by in vivo electroporation. Figure 2A depicts an exemplary image of cells receiving DMAb-aPcrV. Figure 2B depicts an exemplary image of cells receiving DMAb-BiSPA. Figure 2C depicts an exemplary image of cells receiving pGXOOOl empty vector backbone. Figure 2D depicts an exemplary image of nai ve muscle cells. Muscle tissue was harvested 3 days post-DMAb injection and probed with a goat anti-humanlgG Fc antibody, followed by detection with anti-goat IgG AF88 and DAPI.

[0026] Figure 3, comprising Figure 3A through Figure 3F, depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating the in vivo expression of DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA in mice. Figure 3A depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating serum levels of human IgG monitored over 120 days for B6.Cg-Foxnl<nu>/J mice (n=5/group) administered lOC^g of DMAb-aPcrV by IM-EP. Figure 3B depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating day 7 serum levels in BALB/c mice (n=10/group) administered 100 μg and 300 μg of DMAb-aPcrV. Figure 3C depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating day 7 serum binding to PcrV protein in BALB/c mice (n=10/group) administered 100 μg of DMAb-aPcrV. Figure 3D depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating serum levels of human IgG monitored over 120 days for B6.Cg-Foxnlnu/J mice (n=5/group) administered 100μg of DMAb- BiSPA by IM-EP. Figure 3E depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating day 7 serum levels in BALB/c mice (n=10/group) administered 100 μg and 300 μg of DMAb- BiSPA. Figure 3F depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating day 7 serum binding to PcrV protein in BALB/c mice (n=10/group) administered 100 μg of DMAb-BiSPA.

[0027] Figure 4, comprising Figure 4A through Fibure 4C, depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating the pharmacokinetics of DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-BiSPA, and a mouse IgG2a DMAb in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice received a 100 μg DNA injection of DMAb into the TA muscle, followed by in vivo electroporation (n=10/group). Serum human IgGl levels were monitored for 21 days following DMAb injection and quantified by ELISA. Mouse IgG2a levels were monitored for 103 days following DMAb injection and quantified by ELISA. Figure 4A depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating the pharmacokinetics of DMAb-aPcrV. Figure 4B depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating the pharmacokinetics of DMAb-BiSPA. Figure 4C depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating the pharmacokinetics of control IgG2A DMAb.

[0028] Figure 5, comprising Figure 5A through Figure 5D, depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating in vivo functionality and protection conferred by DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA in BALB/c mice following lethal pneumonia challenge. Figure 5A depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating the serum IgG levels of BALB/c mice administered 30(^g of DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-BiSPA, or ABC123 IgG (2 mg/kg). n=5 mice/group. 2 animals from the DMAb-BiSPA were below the limit of detection of the anti-cytotoxic activity assay. Antibody levels are representative of DMAb in serum on the day of challenge. Figure 5B depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating in vivo protection in BALB/c mice following administration of control DMAb-DVSF3 (black open circles), DMAb-aPcrV (red circle), DMAb-BiSPA (green circle) or on day -5 or purified ABC 123 mAb (purple circle) on day -1 before lethal challenge (data represented is from 2 independent experiments, n=8/group/experiment, total n=16). Figure 5C depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating protection with different doses of DMAb-BiSPA: 100 μg (purple circle), 200 μg (green circle), 300 μg (red circle), or DMAb-DVSF3 (control). n=8 mice/group. Figure 5D depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating serum DMAb concentrations with different doses of DMAb-BiSPA. n=8 mice/group.

[0029] Figure 6, comprising Figure 6A through Figure 6D, depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating organ protective effect of DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA treated animals following lethal P. aeruginosa challenge. Figure 6A depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating that organ burden of P. aeruginosa bacteria (CFU/mL) was quantified from lung, spleen, and kidneys following lethal pneumonia challenge in animals treated with DMAb-DVSF3, DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb- ABC 123, or ABC 123 IgG. Figure 6B depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating lung weight in infected animals following DMAb-treatment. Figure 6C depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in lung homogenates of DMAb-treated animals following lethal challenge. For Figure 6A through Figure 6C, n=8 mice/group. The line represents the mean value. Box and whisker plots display all points and bars indicate minimum to maximum values. Figure 6D depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating serum IgG levels of DMAb and ABC 123 IgG in uninfected animals compared with infected animals at 24 hours following lethal pneumonia challenge.

[0030] Figure 7, comprising Figure 7A through Figure 7H, depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating histology of acute pneumonia at 48 hours post-

infection with P. aeruginosa 6077 (hematoxylin & eosin (HE)). Figure 7A depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating post-electroporation with DMAb-DVSF3 showing coalescing areas of marked alveolar infiltrate and hemorrhage (lOx magnification). Figure 7B depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating alveoli have marked neutrophilic infiltrates, hemorrhage and areas of necrosis (inset). Figure 7C depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating mild pneumonia and occasional bronchiolar debris with DMAb-aPcrV (lOx magnification). Figure 7D depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating alveolar infiltrates comprised of mixed neutrophilic and macrophage populations (inset). Figure 7E depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating mild alveolitis in the DMAb-BiSPA group (lOx magnification). Figure 7F depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating primarily neutrophilic infiltrates and mild hemorrhage in alveolar spaces (inset). Figure 7G depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating ABC 123 IgG control demonstrates moderate alveolitis (lOx magnification). Figure 7H depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating Alveolar spaces contain neutrophils admixed with cellular debris and hemorrhage (inset). Representative data from 5 mice/group.

[0031] Figure 8, comprising Figure 8 A through Figure 8B, depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating DMAb combination with antibiotic regimen. Figure 8 A depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating BALB/c mice were injected with control DMAb-DVSF3 (100 μg), saline + meropenem (MEM, 2.3 mg/kg), DMAb-BiSPA (10(^g), or DMAb-BiSPA (100 μg) + MEM (2.3 mg/kg) and then challenged with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa 6077. MEM was administered 1 hour post-lethal challenge. Animals were monitored for 144 hours post-infection. n=8 mice/group. Figure 7B depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating DMAb serum levels in animals before lethal challenge. n=8 mice/group. The line represents the mean value and error bars represent standard deviation.

[0032] Figure 9 depicts the results of exemplary experiments demonstrating optimization of DMAb-V2L2 in vivo expression. BALB/c mice received a single DNA injection into the TA muscle with DMAb-aPcrV or DMAb-BiSpA DNA followed by in vivo electroporation. Graph represents Day 7 serum levels in BALB/c mice (n=5/group) administered 100 μg, 200 μg, or 300 μg for DMAb-aPcrV, respectively, before and after sequence, formulation with hyaluronidase (400U/mL), and electroporation optimizations.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0033] The present invention relates to compositions comprising a recombinant nucleic acid sequence encoding an antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The composition can be administered to a subject in need thereof to facilitate in vivo expression and formation of a synthetic antibody.

[0034] In particular, the heavy chain and light chain polypeptides expressed from the recombinant nucleic acid sequences can assemble into the synthetic antibody. The heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide can interact with one another such that assembly results in the synthetic antibody being capable of binding the antigen, being more immunogenic as compared to an antibody not assembled as described herein, and being capable of eliciting or inducing an immune response against the antigen.

[0035] Additionally, these synthetic antibodies are generated more rapidly in the subject than antibodies that are produced in response to antigen induced immune response. The synthetic antibodies are able to effectively bind and neutralize a range of antigens. The synthetic antibodies are also able to effectively protect against and/or promote survival of disease.

1. Definitions

[0036] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. In case of conflict, the present document, including definitions, will control. Preferred methods and materials are described below, although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in practice or testing of the present invention. All publications, patent applications, patents and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. The materials, methods, and examples disclosed herein are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.

[0037] The terms "comprise(s)," "include(s)," "having," "has," "can," "contain(s)," and variants thereof, as used herein, are intended to be open-ended transitional phrases, terms, or words that do not preclude the possibility of additional acts or structures. The singular forms "a," "and" and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The present disclosure also contemplates other embodiments "comprising," "consisting of and "consisting essentially of," the embodiments or elements presented herein, whether explicitly set forth or not.

[0038] "Antibody" may mean an antibody of classes IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD or IgE, or fragments, fragments or derivatives thereof, including Fab, F(ab')2, Fd, and single chain antibodies, and derivatives thereof. The antibody may be an antibody isolated from the serum sample of mammal, a polyclonal antibody, affinity purified antibody, or mixtures thereof which exhibits sufficient binding specificity to a desired epitope or a sequence derived therefrom.

[0039] "Antibody fragment" or "fragment of an antibody" as used interchangeably herein refers to a portion of an intact antibody comprising the antigen-binding site or variable region. The portion does not include the constant heavy chain domains (i.e. CH2, CH3, or CH4, depending on the antibody isotype) of the Fc region of the intact antibody. Examples of antibody fragments include, but are not limited to, Fab fragments, Fab' fragments, Fab'-SH fragments, F(ab')2 fragments, Fd fragments, Fv fragments, diabodies, single-chain Fv (scFv) molecules, single-chain polypeptides containing only one light chain variable domain, single-chain polypeptides containing the three CDRs of the light-chain variable domain, single-chain polypeptides containing only one heavy chain variable region, and single-chain polypeptides containing the three CDRs of the heavy chain variable region.

[0040] "Antigen" refers to proteins that have the ability to generate an immune response in a host. An antigen may be recognized and bound by an antibody. An antigen may originate from within the body or from the external environment.

[0041] "Coding sequence" or "encoding nucleic acid" as used herein may refer to a nucleotide sequence (e.g., RNA or DNA) or a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes an antibody as set forth herein. In one embodiment, a coding sequence comprises a DNA sequence from which an RNA sequence encoding an antibody is transcribed. In one embodiment, a coding sequence comprises an RNA sequence encoding an antibody. The coding sequence may further include initiation and termination signals operably linked to regulatory elements including a promoter and polyadenylation signal capable of directing expression in the cells of an individual or mammal to whom the nucleic acid is administered. The coding sequence may further include sequences that encode signal peptides.

[0042] "Complement" or "complementary" as used herein may mean a nucleic acid may mean Watson-Crick (e.g., A-T/U and C-G) or Hoogsteen base pairing between nucleotides or nucleotide analogs of nucleic acid molecules.

[0043] "Constant current" as used herein to define a current that is received or experienced by a tissue, or cells defining said tissue, over the duration of an electrical pulse delivered to same tissue. The electrical pulse is delivered from the electroporation devices described herein. This current remains at a constant amperage in said tissue over the life of an electrical pulse because the electroporation device provided herein has a feedback element, preferably having instantaneous feedback. The feedback element can measure the resistance of the tissue (or cells) throughout the duration of the pulse and cause the electroporation device to alter its electrical energy output (e.g., increase voltage) so current in same tissue remains constant throughout the electrical pulse (on the order of microseconds), and from pulse to pulse. In some embodiments, the feedback element comprises a controller.

[0044] "Current feedback" or "feedback" as used herein may be used interchangeably and may mean the active response of the provided electroporation devices, which comprises measuring the current in tissue between electrodes and altering the energy output delivered by the EP device accordingly in order to maintain the current at a constant level. This constant level is preset by a user prior to initiation of a pulse sequence or electrical treatment. The feedback may be accomplished by the electroporation component, e.g., controller, of the electroporation device, as the electrical circuit therein is able to continuously monitor the current in tissue between electrodes and compare that monitored current (or current within tissue) to a preset current and continuously make energy-output adjustments to maintain the monitored current at preset levels. The feedback loop may be instantaneous as it is an analog closed-loop feedback.

[0045] "Decentralized current" as used herein may mean the pattern of electrical currents delivered from the various needle electrode arrays of the electroporation devices described herein, wherein the patterns minimize, or preferably eliminate, the occurrence of

electroporation related heat stress on any area of tissue being electroporated.

[0046] "Electroporation," "electro-permeabilization," or "electro-kinetic enhancement" ("EP") as used interchangeably herein may refer to the use of a transmembrane electric field pulse to induce microscopic pathways (pores) in a bio-membrane; their presence allows biomolecules such as plasmids, oligonucleotides, siRNA, drugs, ions, and water to pass from one side of the cellular membrane to the other.

[0047] "Endogenous antibody" as used herein may refer to an antibody that is generated in a subject that is administered an effective dose of an antigen for induction of a humoral immune response.

[0048] "Feedback mechanism" as used herein may refer to a process performed by either software or hardware (or firmware), which process receives and compares the impedance of the desired tissue (before, during, and/or after the delivery of pulse of energy) with a present value, preferably current, and adjusts the pulse of energy delivered to achieve the preset value. A feedback mechanism may be performed by an analog closed loop circuit.

[0049] "Fragment" may mean a polypeptide fragment of an antibody that is function, i.e., can bind to desired target and have the same intended effect as a full length antibody. A fragment of an antibody may be 100% identical to the full length except missing at least one amino acid from the N and/or C terminal, in each case with or without signal peptides and/or a methionine at position 1. Fragments may comprise 20% or more, 25% or more, 30% or more, 35% or more, 40% or more, 45% or more, 50% or more, 55% or more, 60% or more, 65% or more, 70% or more, 75% or more, 80% or more, 85% or more, 90% or more, 91% or more, 92% or more, 93% or more, 94% or more, 95% or more, 96% or more, 97% or more, 98% or more, 99% or more percent of the length of the particular full length antibody, excluding any heterologous signal peptide added. The fragment may comprise a fragment of a polypeptide that is 95% or more, 96% or more, 97% or more, 98% or more or 99% or more identical to the antibody and additionally comprise an N terminal methionine or heterologous signal peptide which is not included when calculating percent identity. Fragments may further comprise an N terminal methionine and/or a signal peptide such as an

immunoglobulin signal peptide, for example an IgE or IgG signal peptide. The N terminal methionine and/or signal peptide may be linked to a fragment of an antibody.

[0050] A fragment of a nucleic acid sequence that encodes an antibody may be 100% identical to the full length except missing at least one nucleotide from the 5' and/or 3' end, in each case with or without sequences encoding signal peptides and/or a methionine at position 1. Fragments may comprise 20% or more, 25% or more, 30% or more, 35% or more, 40% or more, 45% or more, 50% or more, 55% or more, 60% or more, 65% or more, 70% or more, 75% or more, 80% or more, 85% or more, 90% or more, 91% or more, 92% or more, 93% or more, 94% or more, 95% or more, 96% or more, 97% or more, 98% or more, 99% or more percent of the length of the particular full length coding sequence, excluding any

heterologous signal peptide added. The fragment may comprise a fragment that encode a polypeptide that is 95% or more, 96% or more, 97% or more, 98% or more or 99% or more identical to the antibody and additionally optionally comprise sequence encoding an N terminal methionine or heterologous signal peptide which is not included when calculating percent identity. Fragments may further comprise coding sequences for an N terminal methionine and/or a signal peptide such as an immunoglobulin signal peptide, for example an IgE or IgG signal peptide. The coding sequence encoding the N terminal methionine and/or signal peptide may be linked to a fragment of coding sequence.

[0051] "Genetic construct" as used herein refers to the DNA or RNA molecules that comprise a nucleotide sequence which encodes a protein, such as an antibody. The genetic construct may also refer to a DNA molecule from which an RNA molecule is transcribed. The coding sequence includes initiation and termination signals operably linked to regulatory elements including a promoter and polyadenylation signal capable of directing expression in the cells of the individual to whom the nucleic acid molecule is administered. As used herein, the term "expressible form" refers to gene constructs that contain the necessary regulatory elements operable linked to a coding sequence that encodes a protein such that when present in the cell of the individual, the coding sequence will be expressed. In one embodiment the genetic construct comprises an RNA sequence transcribed from a DNA sequence described herein. For example, in one embodiment, the genetic construct comprises an RNA molecule transcribed from a DNA molecule comprising a sequence encoding an antibody of the invention, a variant thereof or a fragment thereof.

[0052] "Identical" or "identity" as used herein in the context of two or more nucleic acids or polypeptide sequences, may mean that the sequences have a specified percentage of residues that are the same over a specified region. The percentage may be calculated by optimally aligning the two sequences, comparing the two sequences over the specified region, determining the number of positions at which the identical residue occurs in both sequences to yield the number of matched positions, dividing the number of matched positions by the total number of positions in the specified region, and multiplying the result by 100 to yield the percentage of sequence identity. In cases where the two sequences are of different lengths or the alignment produces one or more staggered ends and the specified region of comparison includes only a single sequence, the residues of single sequence are included in the denominator but not the numerator of the calculation. When comparing DNA and RNA, thymine (T) and uracil (U) may be considered equivalent. Identity may be performed manually or by using a computer sequence algorithm such as BLAST or BLAST 2.0.

[0053] "Impedance" as used herein may be used when discussing the feedback mechanism and can be converted to a current value according to Ohm's law, thus enabling comparisons with the preset current.

[0054] "Immune response" as used herein may mean the activation of a host's immune system, e.g., that of a mammal, in response to the introduction of one or more nucleic acids and/or peptides. The immune response can be in the form of a cellular or humoral response, or both.

[0055] "Nucleic acid" or "oligonucleotide" or "polynucleotide" as used herein may mean at least two nucleotides covalently linked together. The depiction of a single strand also defines the sequence of the complementary strand. Thus, a nucleic acid also encompasses the complementary strand of a depicted single strand. Many variants of a nucleic acid may be used for the same purpose as a given nucleic acid. Thus, a nucleic acid also encompasses substantially identical nucleic acids and complements thereof. A single strand provides a probe that may hybridize to a target sequence under stringent hybridization conditions. Thus, a nucleic acid also encompasses a probe that hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions.

[0056] Nucleic acids may be single stranded or double stranded, or may contain portions of both double stranded and single stranded sequence. The nucleic acid may be DNA, both genomic and cDNA, RNA, or a hybrid, where the nucleic acid may contain combinations of deoxyribo- and ribo-nucleotides, and combinations of bases including uracil, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, inosine, xanthine hypoxanthine, isocytosine and isoguanine. Nucleic acids may be obtained by chemical synthesis methods or by recombinant methods.

[0057] "Operably linked" as used herein may mean that expression of a gene is under the control of a promoter with which it is spatially connected. A promoter may be positioned 5' (upstream) or 3' (downstream) of a gene under its control. The distance between the promoter and a gene may be approximately the same as the distance between that promoter and the gene it controls in the gene from which the promoter is derived. As is known in the art, variation in this distance may be accommodated without loss of promoter function.

[0058] A "peptide," "protein," or "polypeptide" as used herein can mean a linked sequence of amino acids and can be natural, synthetic, or a modification or combination of natural and synthetic.

[0059] "Promoter" as used herein may mean a synthetic or naturally-derived molecule which is capable of conferring, activating or enhancing expression of a nucleic acid in a cell. A promoter may comprise one or more specific transcriptional regulatory sequences to further enhance expression and/or to alter the spatial expression and/or temporal expression of same. A promoter may also comprise distal enhancer or repressor elements, which can be located as much as several thousand base pairs from the start site of transcription. A promoter may be derived from sources including viral, bacterial, fungal, plants, insects, and animals. A promoter may regulate the expression of a gene component constitutively, or differentially with respect to cell, the tissue or organ in which expression occurs or, with respect to the developmental stage at which expression occurs, or in response to external stimuli such as physiological stresses, pathogens, metal ions, or inducing agents. Representative examples of promoters include the bacteriophage T7 promoter, bacteriophage T3 promoter, SP6 promoter, lac operator-promoter, tac promoter, SV40 late promoter, SV40 early promoter, RSV-LTR promoter, CMV IE promoter, SV40 early promoter or SV 40 late promoter and the CMV IE promoter.

[0060] "Signal peptide" and "leader sequence" are used interchangeably herein and refer to an amino acid sequence that can be linked at the amino terminus of a protein set forth herein. Signal peptides/leader sequences typically direct localization of a protein. Signal peptides/leader sequences used herein preferably facilitate secretion of the protein from the cell in which it is produced. Signal peptides/leader sequences are often cleaved from the remainder of the protein, often referred to as the mature protein, upon secretion from the cell. Signal peptides/leader sequences are linked at the N terminus of the protein.

[0061] "Stringent hybridization conditions" as used herein may mean conditions under which a first nucleic acid sequence (e.g., probe) will hybridize to a second nucleic acid sequence (e.g., target), such as in a complex mixture of nucleic acids. Stringent conditions are sequence dependent and will be different in different circumstances. Stringent conditions may be selected to be about 5-10°C lower than the thermal melting point (Tm) for the specific sequence at a defined ionic strength pH. The Tm may be the temperature (under defined ionic strength, pH, and nucleic concentration) at which 50% of the probes complementary to the target hybridize to the target sequence at equilibrium (as the target sequences are present in excess, at Tm, 50% of the probes are occupied at equilibrium). Stringent conditions may be those in which the salt concentration is less than about 1.0 M sodium ion, such as about 0.01-1.0 M sodium ion concentration (or other salts) at pH 7.0 to 8.3 and the temperature is at least about 30°C for short probes (e.g., about 10-50 nucleotides) and at least about 60°C for long probes (e.g., greater than about 50 nucleotides). Stringent conditions may also be achieved with the addition of destabilizing agents such as formamide. For selective or specific hybridization, a positive signal may be at least 2 to 10 times background hybridization.

Exemplary stringent hybridization conditions include the following: 50% formamide, 5x SSC, and 1% SDS, incubating at 42°C, or, 5x SSC, 1% SDS, incubating at 65°C, with wash in 0.2x SSC, and 0.1% SDS at 65°C.

[0062] "Subject" and "patient" as used herein interchangeably refers to any vertebrate, including, but not limited to, a mammal (e.g., cow, pig, camel, llama, horse, goat, rabbit, sheep, hamsters, guinea pig, cat, dog, rat, and mouse, a non-human primate (for example, a monkey, such as a cynomolgous or rhesus monkey, chimpanzee, etc) and a human). In some

embodiments, the subject may be a human or a non-human. The subject or patient may be undergoing other forms of treatment.

[0063] "Substantially complementary" as used herein may mean that a first sequence is at least 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 81 %, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91 %, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to the complement of a second sequence over a region of 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100 or more nucleotides or amino acids, or that the two sequences hybridize under stringent hybridization conditions.

[0064] "Substantially identical" as used herein may mean that a first and second sequence are at least 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%,or 99% over a region of 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1 100 or more nucleotides or amino acids, or with respect to nucleic acids, if the first sequence is substantially complementary to the complement of the second sequence.

[0065] "Synthetic antibody" as used herein refers to an antibody that is encoded by the recombinant nucleic acid sequence described herein and is generated in a subject.

[0066] "Treatment" or "treating," as used herein can mean protecting of a subject from a disease through means of preventing, suppressing, repressing, or completely eliminating the disease. Preventing the disease involves administering a vaccine of the present invention to a subject prior to onset of the disease. Suppressing the disease involves administering a vaccine of the present invention to a subject after induction of the disease but before its clinical appearance. Repressing the disease involves administering a vaccine of the present invention to a subject after clinical appearance of the disease.

[0067] "Variant" used herein with respect to a nucleic acid may mean (i) a portion or fragment of a referenced nucleotide sequence; (ii) the complement of a referenced nucleotide sequence or portion thereof; (iii) a nucleic acid that is substantially identical to a referenced nucleic acid or the complement thereof; or (iv) a nucleic acid that hybridizes under stringent conditions to the referenced nucleic acid, complement thereof, or a sequences substantially identical thereto.

[0068] "Variant" with respect to a peptide or polypeptide that differs in amino acid sequence by the insertion, deletion, or conservative substitution of amino acids, but retain at least one biological activity. Variant may also mean a protein with an amino acid sequence that is substantially identical to a referenced protein with an amino acid sequence that retains at least one biological activity. A conservative substitution of an amino acid, i.e., replacing an amino acid with a different amino acid of similar properties (e.g., hydrophilicity, degree and distribution of charged regions) is recognized in the art as typically involving a minor change. These minor changes can be identified, in part, by considering the hydropathic index of amino acids, as understood in the art. Kyte et al, J. Mol. Biol. 157: 105-132 (1982). The hydropathic index of an amino acid is based on a consideration of its hydrophobicity and charge. It is known in the art that amino acids of similar hydropathic indexes can be substituted and still retain protein function. In one aspect, amino acids having hydropathic indexes of ±2 are substituted. The hydrophilicity of amino acids can also be used to reveal substitutions that would result in proteins retaining biological function. A consideration of the hydrophilicity of amino acids in the context of a peptide permits calculation of the greatest local average hydrophilicity of that peptide, a useful measure that has been reported to correlate well with antigenicity and immunogenicity. U.S. Patent No. 4,554, 101 , incorporated fully herein by reference. Substitution of amino acids having similar hydrophilicity values can result in peptides retaining biological activity, for example immunogenicity, as is understood in the art. Substitutions may be performed with amino acids having hydrophilicity values within ±2 of each other. Both the hyrophobicity index and the hydrophilicity value of amino acids are influenced by the particular side chain of that amino acid. Consistent with that observation, amino acid substitutions that are compatible with biological function are understood to depend on the relative similarity of the amino acids, and particularly the side chains of those amino acids, as revealed by the hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, charge, size, and other properties.

[0069] A variant may be a nucleic acid sequence that is substantially identical over the full length of the full gene sequence or a fragment thereof. The nucleic acid sequence may be at least 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical over the full length of the gene sequence or a fragment thereof. A variant may be an amino acid sequence that is substantially identical over the full length of the amino acid sequence or fragment thereof. The amino acid sequence may be at least 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% identical over the full length of the amino acid sequence or a fragment thereof.

[0070] "Vector" as used herein may mean a nucleic acid sequence containing an origin of replication. A vector may be a plasmid, bacteriophage, bacterial artificial chromosome or

yeast artificial chromosome. A vector may be a DNA or RNA vector. A vector may be either a self-replicating extrachromosomal vector or a vector which integrates into a host genome.

[0071] For the recitation of numeric ranges herein, each intervening number there between with the same degree of precision is explicitly contemplated. For example, for the range of 6-9, the numbers 7 and 8 are contemplated in addition to 6 and 9, and for the range 6.0-7.0, the number 6.0, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, and 7.0 are explicitly contemplated.

2. Composition

[0072] The invention is based, in part, on the generation of novel sequences for use for producing monoclonal or bispecific antibodies in mammalian cells. In one embodiment, the sequences are for delivery in DNA or RNA vectors including bacterial, yeast, as well as viral vectors. The present invention relates to a composition comprising a recombinant nucleic acid sequence encoding an antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The composition, when administered to a subject in need thereof, can result in the generation of a synthetic antibody in the subject. The synthetic antibody can bind a target molecule (i.e., an antigen) present in the subject. Such binding can neutralize the antigen, block recognition of the antigen by another molecule, for example, a protein or nucleic acid, and elicit or induce an immune response to the antigen.

[0073] In one embodiment, the composition comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a synthetic antibody. In one embodiment, the composition comprises a nucleic acid molecule comprising a first nucleotide sequence encoding a first synthetic antibody and a second nucleotide sequence encoding a second synthetic antibody. In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a cleavage domain.

[0074] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding an anti-PcrV antibody (DMAb-aPcrV). In one embodiment, the nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPcrV comprises codon optimized nucleic acid sequences encoding a variable VH or VL regions of a DMAb-aPcrV. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VH region of a DMAb-aPcrV encodes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VL region of a DMAb-aPcrV encodes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 4. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VH region of a DMAb-aPcrV encodes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 12. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VL region of a DMAb-aPcrV encodes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 16.

[0075] In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding an anti-PcrV antibody encodes a variable VH region as set forth in SEQ ID NO:2 and a variable VL region as set forth in SEQ ID NO:4. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding an anti-PcrV antibody encodes a variable VH region as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 12 and a variable VL region as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 16. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding an anti-PcrV antibody encodes an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10 and SEQ ID NO: 14.

[0076] In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VH region of a DMAb-aPcrV comprises a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: l . In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VL region of a DMAb-aPcrV comprises a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 3. In one embodiment, the nucleotide sequence encoding the variable VH region of a DMAb-aPcrV comprises a nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 11. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a variable VL region of a DMAb-aPcrV comprises a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 15.

[0077] In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPcrV comprises a variable VH sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 and a variable VL sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO:3. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPcrV comprises a variable VH sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 11 and a variable VL sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 15. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPcrV comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9 and SEQ ID NO: 13.

[0078] In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a DMAb-aPcrV is operably linked to a sequence encoding a leader sequence. In various embodiments, SEQ ID NO: l, SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO: 13, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 15 and SEQ ID NO: 16 operably linked to a leader sequence are as set forth in SEQ ID NO:26, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:28, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:30, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:34, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:36, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:38, SEQ ID NO:39, SEQ ID NO:40, and SEQ ID NO:41, respectively.

[0079] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding an anti-Psl antibody (DMAb-aPsl). In one embodiment, the nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPsl comprises codon optimized nucleic acid sequences encoding the variable VH and VL regions of DMAb-aPsl. In one embodiment, the nucleotide sequence

encoding DMAb-aPsl comprises codon optimized nucleic acid sequences encoding the variable VH and VL regions of DMAb-aPsl. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPsl encodes an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO:20. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-aPsl comprises a nucleotide sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 19.

[0080] In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a DMAb-aPsl is operably linked to a sequence encoding a leader sequence. In various embodiments, SEQ ID NO: 19 and SEQ ID NO:20 operably linked to a leader sequence are as set forth in SEQ ID NO:44 and SEQ ID NO: 45 respectively.

[0081] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding a bispecific antibody. In one embodiment, a bispecific antibody is an anti-PcrV and anti-Psl bispecific antibody (DMAb-BiSPA). In one embodiment, the nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-BiSPA comprises codon optimized nucleic acid sequences encoding the variable VH and VL regions of DMAb-BiSPA. In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-BiSPA encodes an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 18 and SEQ ID NO:22. In one embodiment, the nucleotide sequence encoding DMAb-BiSPA comprises a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 17 and SEQ ID NO:21.

[0082] In one embodiment, a nucleotide sequence encoding a bispecific antibody is operably linked to a sequence encoding a leader sequence. In various embodiments, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:21, and SEQ ID NO:22 operably linked to a leader sequence are as set forth in SEQ ID NO:42, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:46 and SEQ ID NO: 47 respectively.

[0083] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule comprises an RNA molecule comprising a ribonucleotide sequence. In one embodiment, the RNA molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:20, from SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:39; SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:45 and SEQ ID NO:47. In one embodiment, the RNA molecule comprises a transcript generated from a DNA molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO:20, from SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:39;

SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:45 and SEQ ID NO:47. In one embodiment, the RNA molecule comprises a transcript generated from a DNA molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: l, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 13, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 19, from SEQ ID NO:21, SEQ ID NO:26, SEQ ID NO:28, SEQ ID NO:30, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:34, SEQ ID NO:36, SEQ ID NO:38; SEQ ID NO:40, SEQ ID NO:42, SEQ ID NO:44 and SEQ ID NO:46.

[0084] The composition of the invention can treat, prevent and/or protect against any disease, disorder, or condition associated with a bacterial activity. In certain embodiments, the composition can treat, prevent, and or/protect against bacterial infection. In certain embodiments, the composition can treat, prevent, and or/protect against bacterial biofilm formation. In certain embodiments, the composition can treat, prevent, and or/protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In certain embodiments, the composition can treat, prevent, and or/protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. In certain embodiments, the composition can treat, prevent, and or/protect against sepsis.

[0085] The synthetic antibody can treat, prevent, and/or protect against disease in the subject administered the composition. The synthetic antibody by binding the antigen can treat, prevent, and/or protect against disease in the subject administered the composition. The synthetic antibody can promote survival of the disease in the subject administered the composition. In one embodiment, the synthetic antibody can provide increased survival of the disease in the subject over the expected survival of a subject having the disease who has not been administered the synthetic antibody. In various embodiments, the synthetic antibody can provide at least about a 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or a 100% increase in survival of the disease in subjects administered the composition over the expected survival in the absence of the composition. In one embodiment, the synthetic antibody can provide increased protection against the disease in the subject over the expected protection of a subject who has not been administered the synthetic antibody. In various embodiments, the synthetic antibody can protect against disease in at least about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 100% of subjects administered the composition over the expected protection in the absence of the composition.

[0086] The composition can result in the generation of the synthetic antibody in the subject within at least about 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 11 hours, 12 hours, 13 hours, 14 hours, 15 hours, 20 hours, 25 hours, 30 hours, 35 hours, 40 hours, 45 hours, 50 hours, or 60 hours of administration of the composition to the subject. The composition can result in generation of the synthetic antibody in the subject within at least about 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, or 10 days of administration of the composition to the subject. The composition can result in generation of the synthetic antibody in the subject within about 1 hour to about 6 days, about 1 hour to about 5 days, about 1 hour to about 4 days, about 1 hour to about 3 days, about 1 hour to about 2 days, about 1 hour to about 1 day, about 1 hour to about 72 hours, about 1 hour to about 60 hours, about 1 hour to about 48 hours, about 1 hour to about 36 hours, about 1 hour to about 24 hours, about 1 hour to about 12 hours, or about 1 hour to about 6 hours of administration of the composition to the subject.

[0087] The composition, when administered to the subject in need thereof, can result in the generation of the synthetic antibody in the subject more quickly than the generation of an endogenous antibody in a subject who is administered an antigen to induce a humoral immune response. The composition can result in the generation of the synthetic antibody at least about 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, or 10 days before the generation of the endogenous antibody in the subject who was administered an antigen to induce a humoral immune response.

[0088] The composition of the present invention can have features required of effective compositions such as being safe so that the composition does not cause illness or death; being protective against illness; and providing ease of administration, few side effects, biological stability and low cost per dose.

a. Bispecific Antibodies

[0089] As described elsewhere herein, the composition can comprise a recombinant nucleic acid sequence. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can encode a bispecific antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The antibody is described in more detail below. The invention provides novel bispecific antibodies comprising a first antigen-binding site that specifically binds to a first target and a second antigen-binding site that specifically binds to a second target, with particularly advantageous properties such as producibility, stability, binding affinity, biological activity, specific targeting of certain T cells, targeting efficiency and reduced toxicity. In some instances, there are bispecific antibodies, wherein the bispecific antibody binds to the first target with high affinity and to the second target with low affinity. In other instances, there are bispecific antibodies, wherein the bispecific antibody binds to the first target with low affinity and to the second target with high affinity. In other instances, there are bispecific antibodies, wherein the bispecific antibody binds to the first target with a desired affinity and to the second target with a desired affinity.

[0090] In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody is a bivalent antibody comprising a) a first light chain and a first heavy chain of an antibody specifically binding to a first antigen, and b) a second light chain and a second heavy chain of an antibody specifically binding to a second antigen.

[0091] A bispecific antibody molecule according to the invention may have two binding sites of any desired specificity. In some embodiments one of the binding sites is capable of binding a tumor associated antigen. In some embodiments the binding site included in the Fab fragment is a binding site specific for a tumor associated surface antigen. In some embodiments the binding site included in the single chain Fv fragment is a binding site specific for a tumor associated antigen such as a tumor associated surface antigen.

[0092] The term "tumor associated surface antigen" as used herein refers to an antigen that is or can be presented on a surface that is located on or within tumor cells. These antigens can be presented on the cell surface with an extracellular part, which is often combined with a transmembrane and cytoplasmic part of the molecule. These antigens can in some embodiments be presented only by tumor cells and not by normal, i.e. non-tumor cells.

Tumor antigens can be exclusively expressed on tumor cells or may represent a tumor specific mutation compared to non-tumor cells. In such an embodiment a respective antigen may be referred to as a tumor-specific antigen. Some antigens are presented by both tumor cells and non-tumor cells, which may be referred to as tumor-associated antigens. These tumor-associated antigens can be overexpressed on tumor cells when compared to non-tumor cells or are accessible for antibody binding in tumor cells due to the less compact structure of the tumor tissue compared to non-tumor tissue. In some embodiments the tumor associated surface antigen is located on the vasculature of a tumor.

[0093] Illustrative examples of a tumor associated surface antigen are CD 10, CD 19, CD20, CD22, CD33, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3, CD135), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4, melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan), Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Her2neu, Her3, IGFR, CD 133, IL3R, fibroblast activating protein (FAP), CDCP1, Derlinl, Tenascin, frizzled 1-10, the vascular antigens VEGFR2 (KDR/FLKl), VEGFR3 (FLT4, CD309), PDGFR-. alpha. (CD140a), PDGFR-.beta.

(CD140b) Endoglin, CLEC14, Teml-8, and Tie2. Further examples may include A33,

CAMPATH-1 (CDw52), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Carboanhydrase IX (MN/CA IX), CD21, CD25, CD30, CD34, CD37, CD44v6, CD45, CD133, de2-7 EGFR, EGFRvIII, EpCAM, Ep-CAM, Folate-binding protein, G250, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3, CD135), c-Kit (CD117), CSF1R (CD115), HLA-DR, IGFR, IL-2 receptor, IL3R, MCSP (Melanoma-associated cell surface chondroitin sulphate proteoglycane), Muc-1, Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), and TAG-72. Examples of antigens expressed on the extracellular matrix of tumors are tenascin and the fibroblast activating protein (FAP).

[0094] In some embodiments, one of the binding sites of an antibody molecule according to the invention is able to bind a T-cell specific receptor molecule and/or a natural killer cell (NK cell) specific receptor molecule. A T-cell specific receptor is the so called "T-cell receptor" (TCRs), which allows a T cell to bind to and, if additional signals are present, to be activated by and respond to an epitope/antigen presented by another cell called the antigen-presenting cell or APC. The T cell receptor is known to resemble a Fab fragment of a naturally occurring immunoglobulin. It is generally monovalent, encompassing .alpha.- and .beta. -chains, in some embodiments it encompasses .gamma. -chains and .delta. -chains (supra). Accordingly, in some embodiments the TCR is TCR (alpha/beta) and in some embodiments it is TCR (gamma/delta). The T cell receptor forms a complex with the CD3 T-Cell co-receptor. CD3 is a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains. In mammals, the complex contains a CD3. gamma, chain, a CD36 chain, and two CD3E chains. These chains associate with a molecule known as the T cell receptor (TCR) and the .zeta.-chain to generate an activation signal in T lymphocytes. Hence, in some embodiments a T-cell specific receptor is the CD3 T-Cell co-receptor. In some embodiments a T-cell specific receptor is CD28, a protein that is also expressed on T cells. CD28 can provide co-stimulatory signals, which are required for T cell activation. CD28 plays important roles in T-cell proliferation and survival, cytokine production, and T-helper type-2 development. Yet a further example of a T-cell specific receptor is CD134, also termed Ox40. CD134/OX40 is being expressed after 24 to 72 hours following activation and can be taken to define a secondary costimulatory molecule. Another example of a T-cell receptor is 4-1 BB capable of binding to 4-1 BB-Ligand on antigen presenting cells (APCs), whereby a costimulatory signal for the T cell is generated. Another example of a receptor predominantly found on T-cells is CD5, which is also found on B cells at low levels. A further example of a receptor modifying T cell functions is CD95, also known as the Fas receptor, which mediates

apoptotic signaling by Fas-ligand expressed on the surface of other cells. CD95 has been reported to modulate TCR/CD3 -driven signaling pathways in resting T lymphocytes.

[0095] An example of a NK cell specific receptor molecule is CD 16, a low affinity Fc receptor and NKG2D. An example of a receptor molecule that is present on the surface of both T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is CD2 and further members of the CD2-superfamily. CD2 is able to act as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells.

[0096] In some embodiments the first binding site of the antibody molecule binds a tumor associated surface antigen and the second binding site binds a T cell specific receptor molecule and/or a natural killer (NK) cell specific receptor molecule. In some embodiments the first binding site of the antibody molecule binds one of A33, CAMPATH-1 (CDw52), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Carboanhydrase IX (MN/CA IX), CD 10, CD 19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD25, CD30, CD33, CD34, CD37, CD44v6, CD45, CD133, CDCP1, Her3, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4, melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan), CLEC14, Derlinl, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), de2-7 EGFR, EGFRvIII, EpCAM, Endoglin, Ep-CAM, Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), Folate-binding protein, G250, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3, CD135), c-Kit (CD117), CSFIR (CD115), frizzled 1-10, Her2/neu, HLA-DR, IGFR, IL-2 receptor, IL3R, MCSP (Melanoma-associated cell surface chondroitin sulphate proteoglycane), Muc-1, Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), TAG-72, Tenascin, Teml-8, Tie2 and VEGFR2 (KDR/FLKl), VEGFR3 (FLT4, CD309), PDGFR-. alpha. (CD140a), PDGFR-.beta. (CD140b), and the second binding site binds a T cell specific receptor molecule and/or a natural killer (NK) cell specific receptor molecule. In some embodiments the first binding site of the antibody molecule binds a tumor associated surface antigen and the second binding site binds one of CD3, the T cell receptor (TCR), CD28, CD16, NKG2D, Ox40, 4-1BB, CD2, CD5 and CD95.

[0097] In some embodiments the first binding site of the antibody molecule binds a T cell specific receptor molecule and/or a natural killer (NK) cell specific receptor molecule and the second binding site binds a tumor associated surface antigen. In some embodiments the first binding site of the antibody binds a T cell specific receptor molecule and/or a natural killer (NK) cell specific receptor molecule and the second binding site binds one of A33,

CAMPATH-1 (CDw52), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Carboanhydrase IX (MN/CA IX), CD10, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD25, CD30, CD33, CD34, CD37, CD44v6, CD45, CD133, CDCP1, Her3, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4, melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan), CLEC14, Derlinl, Epidermal growth factor receptor

(EGFR), de2-7 EGFR, EGFRvIII, EpCAM, Endoglin, Ep-CAM, Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), Folate-binding protein, G250, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT-3, CD 135), frizzled 1-10, Her2/neu, HLA-DR, IGFR, IL-2 receptor, IL3R, MCSP (Melanoma-associated cell surface chondroitin sulphate proteoglycane), Muc-1, Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), TAG-72, Tenascin, Teml-8, Tie2 and VEGFR. In some embodiments the first binding site of the antibody binds one of CD3, the T cell receptor (TCR), CD28, CD16, NKG2D, Ox40, 4-1BB, CD2, CD5 and CD95, and the second binding site binds a tumor associated surface antigen.

[0098] In one embodiment, the bispecific antibody of the invention targets CD 19 and CD3, HER3 and EGFR, TNF and IL-17, IL-la and ΙΙ β, IL-4 and IL-13, HER2 and HER3, GP100 and CD3, ANG2 and VEGFA, CD 19 and CD32B, TNF and IL17A, IL-17A and IL17E, CD30 and CD16A, CD 19 and CD3, CEA and CD3, HER2 and CD3, CD 123 and CD3, GPA33 and CD3, EGRF and CD3, PSMA and CD3, CD28 and NG2, CD28 and CD20, EpCAM and CD3 or MET and EGFR, among others.

b. Recombinant Nucleic Acid Sequence

[0099] As described above, the composition can comprise a recombinant nucleic acid sequence. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can encode the antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The antibody is described in more detail below.

[00100] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can be a heterologous nucleic acid sequence. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can include at least one heterologous nucleic acid sequence or one or more heterologous nucleic acid sequences.

[00101] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can be an optimized nucleic acid sequence. Such optimization can increase or alter the immunogenicity of the antibody. Optimization can also improve transcription and/or translation. Optimization can include one or more of the following: low GC content leader sequence to increase transcription; mRNA stability and codon optimization; addition of a kozak sequence (e.g., GCCACC) for increased translation; addition of an immunoglobulin (Ig) leader sequence encoding a signal peptide; and eliminating to the extent possible cis-acting sequence motifs (i.e., internal TATA boxes). c. Recombinant Nucleic Acid Sequence Construct

[00102] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can include one or more recombinant nucleic acid sequence constructs. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more components, which are described in more detail below.

[00103] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include a heterologous nucleic acid sequence that encodes a heavy chain polypeptide, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include a heterologous nucleic acid sequence that encodes a light chain polypeptide, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can also include a heterologous nucleic acid sequence that encodes a protease or peptidase cleavage site. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can also include a heterologous nucleic acid sequence that encodes an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). An IRES may be either a viral IRES or an eukaryotic IRES. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more leader sequences, in which each leader sequence encodes a signal peptide.

[00104] In one embodiment, a signal peptide comprises an amino acid sequence of MDWTWRILFLVAAATGTHA (SEQ ID NO:24). In one embodiment, a signal peptide comprises an amino acid sequence of MVLQTQVFISLLLWISGAYG (SEQ ID NO:25). Exemplary nucleotide sequences encoding antibodies of the invention operably linked to a sequence encoding a signal peptide include, but are not limited to, nucleotide sequences as set forth in SEQ ID NO:26 through SEQ ID NO:47.

[00105] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more promoters, one or more introns, one or more transcription termination regions, one or more initiation codons, one or more termination or stop codons, and/or one or more

polyadenylation signals. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can also include one or more linker or tag sequences. The tag sequence can encode a hemagglutinin (HA) tag.

(1) Heavy Chain Polypeptide

[00106] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid encoding the heavy chain polypeptide, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The heavy chain polypeptide can include a variable heavy chain (VH) region and/or at least one constant heavy chain (CH) region. The at least one constant heavy chain region can include a constant heavy chain region 1 (CHI), a constant heavy chain region 2 (CH2), and a constant heavy chain region 3 (CH3), and/or a hinge region.

[00107] In some embodiments, the heavy chain polypeptide can include a VH region and a CHI region. In other embodiments, the heavy chain polypeptide can include a VH region, a CHI region, a hinge region, a CH2 region, and a CH3 region.

[00108] The heavy chain polypeptide can include a complementarity determining region ("CDR") set. The CDR set can contain three hypervariable regions of the VH region.

Proceeding from N-terminus of the heavy chain polypeptide, these CDRs are denoted "CDRl," "CDR2," and "CDR3," respectively. CDRl, CDR2, and CDR3 of the heavy chain polypeptide can contribute to binding or recognition of the antigen.

(2) Light Chain Polypeptide

[00109] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The light chain polypeptide can include a variable light chain (VL) region and/or a constant light chain (CL) region.

[00110] The light chain polypeptide can include a complementarity determining region ("CDR") set. The CDR set can contain three hypervariable regions of the VL region.

Proceeding from N-terminus of the light chain polypeptide, these CDRs are denoted "CDRl," "CDR2," and "CDR3," respectively. CDRl, CDR2, and CDR3 of the light chain polypeptide can contribute to binding or recognition of the antigen.

(3) Protease Cleavage Site

[00111] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the protease cleavage site. The protease cleavage site can be recognized by a protease or peptidase. The protease can be an endopeptidase or endoprotease, for example, but not limited to, furin, elastase, HtrA, calpain, trypsin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and pepsin. The protease can be furin. In other embodiments, the protease can be a serine protease, a threonine protease, cysteine protease, aspartate protease, metalloprotease, glutamic acid protease, or any protease that cleaves an internal peptide bond (i.e., does not cleave the N-terminal or C-terminal peptide bond).

[00112] The protease cleavage site can include one or more amino acid sequences that promote or increase the efficiency of cleavage. The one or more amino acid sequences can promote or increase the efficiency of forming or generating discrete polypeptides. The one or more amino acids sequences can include a 2A peptide sequence.

(4) Linker Sequence

[00113] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more linker sequences. The linker sequence can spatially separate or link the one or more components described herein. In other embodiments, the linker sequence can encode an amino acid sequence that spatially separates or links two or more polypeptides.

(5) Promoter

[00114] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more promoters. The one or more promoters may be any promoter that is capable of driving gene expression and regulating gene expression. Such a promoter is a cis-acting sequence element required for transcription via a DNA dependent RNA polymerase. Selection of the promoter used to direct gene expression depends on the particular application. The promoter may be positioned about the same distance from the transcription start in the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct as it is from the transcription start site in its natural setting. However, variation in this distance may be accommodated without loss of promoter function.

[00115] The promoter may be operably linked to the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and/or light chain polypeptide. The promoter may be a promoter shown effective for expression in eukaryotic cells. The promoter operably linked to the coding sequence may be a CMV promoter, a promoter from simian virus 40 (SV40), such as SV40 early promoter and SV40 later promoter, a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter such as the bovine

immunodeficiency virus (BIV) long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, a Moloney virus promoter, an avian leukosis virus (ALV) promoter, a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter such as the CMV immediate early promoter, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) promoter, or a Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) promoter. The promoter may also be a promoter from a human gene such as human actin, human myosin, human hemoglobin, human muscle creatine, human polyhedrin, or human metalothionein.

[00116] The promoter can be a constitutive promoter or an inducible promoter, which initiates transcription only when the host cell is exposed to some particular external stimulus. In the case of a multicellular organism, the promoter can also be specific to a particular tissue or organ or stage of development. The promoter may also be a tissue specific promoter, such as a muscle or skin specific promoter, natural or synthetic. Examples of such promoters are described in US patent application publication no. US20040175727, the contents of which are incorporated herein in its entirety.

[00117] The promoter can be associated with an enhancer. The enhancer can be located upstream of the coding sequence. The enhancer may be human actin, human myosin, human hemoglobin, human muscle creatine or a viral enhancer such as one from CMV, FMDV, RSV or EBV. Polynucleotide function enhances are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,593,972, 5,962,428, and W094/016737, the contents of each are fully incorporated by reference.

(6) Intron

[00118] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more introns. Each intron can include functional splice donor and acceptor sites. The intron can include an enhancer of splicing. The intron can include one or more signals required for efficient splicing.

(7) Transcription Termination Region

[00119] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more transcription termination regions. The transcription termination region can be downstream of the coding sequence to provide for efficient termination. The transcription termination region can be obtained from the same gene as the promoter described above or can be obtained from one or more different genes.

(8) Initiation Codon

[00120] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more initiation codons. The initiation codon can be located upstream of the coding sequence. The initiation codon can be in frame with the coding sequence. The initiation codon can be associated with one or more signals required for efficient translation initiation, for example, but not limited to, a ribosome binding site.

(9) Termination Codon

[00121] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more termination or stop codons. The termination codon can be downstream of the coding sequence. The termination codon can be in frame with the coding sequence. The termination codon can be associated with one or more signals required for efficient translation termination.

(10) Polyadenylation Signal

[00122] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more polyadenylation signals. The polyadenylation signal can include one or more signals required for efficient polyadenylation of the transcript. The polyadenylation signal can be positioned downstream of the coding sequence. The polyadenylation signal may be a SV40

polyadenylation signal, LTR polyadenylation signal, bovine growth hormone (bGH) polyadenylation signal, human growth hormone (hGH) polyadenylation signal, or human β-globin polyadenylation signal. The SV40 polyadenylation signal may be a polyadenylation signal from a pCEP4 plasmid (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA).

(11) Leader Sequence

[00123] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more leader sequences. The leader sequence can encode a signal peptide. The signal peptide can be an immunoglobulin (Ig) signal peptide, for example, but not limited to, an IgG signal peptide and a IgE signal peptide.

d. Arrangement of the Recombinant Nucleic Acid Sequence Construct

[00124] As described above, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence can include one or more recombinant nucleic acid sequence constructs, in which each recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more components. The one or more components are described in detail above. The one or more components, when included in the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct, can be arranged in any order relative to one another. In some embodiments, the one or more components can be arranged in the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct as described below.

(1) Arrangement 1

[00125] In one arrangement, a first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and a second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

[00126] The first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can be placed in a vector. The second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can be placed in a second or separate vector. Placement of the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct into the vector is described in more detail below.

[00127] The first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can also include the promoter, intron, transcription termination region, initiation codon, termination codon, and/or polyadenylation signal. The first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can further include the leader sequence, in which the leader sequence is located upstream (or 5') of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide. Accordingly, the signal peptide encoded by the leader sequence can be linked by a peptide bond to the heavy chain polypeptide.

[00128] The second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can also include the promoter, initiation codon, termination codon, and polyadenylation signal. The second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can further include the leader sequence, in which the leader sequence is located upstream (or 5') of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide. Accordingly, the signal peptide encoded by the leader sequence can be linked by a peptide bond to the light chain polypeptide.

[00129] Accordingly, one example of arrangement 1 can include the first vector (and thus first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the heavy chain polypeptide that includes VH and CHI, and the second vector (and thus second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the light chain polypeptide that includes VL and CL. A second example of arrangement 1 can include the first vector (and thus first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the heavy chain polypeptide that includes VH, CHI, hinge region, CH2, and CH3, and the second vector (and thus second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the light chain polypeptide that includes VL and CL.

(2) Arrangement 2

[00130] In a second arrangement, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide. The heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide can be positioned upstream (or 5') of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

Alternatively, the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide can be positioned upstream (or 5') of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide.

[00131] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can be placed in the vector as described in more detail below.

[00132] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the protease cleavage site and/or the linker sequence. If included in the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct, the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the protease cleavage site can be positioned between the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide. Accordingly, the protease cleavage site allows for separation of the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide into distinct polypeptides upon expression. In other embodiments, if the linker sequence is included in the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct, then the linker sequence can be positioned between the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

[00133] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can also include the promoter, intron, transcription termination region, initiation codon, termination codon, and/or polyadenylation signal. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one or more promoters. The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include two promoters such that one promoter can be associated with the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the second promoter can be associated with the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide. In still other embodiments, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include one promoter that is associated with the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

[00134] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can further include two leader sequences, in which a first leader sequence is located upstream (or 5') of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and a second leader sequence is located upstream (or 5') of the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide. Accordingly, a first signal peptide encoded by the first leader sequence can be linked by a peptide bond to the heavy chain polypeptide and a second signal peptide encoded by the second leader sequence can be linked by a peptide bond to the light chain polypeptide.

[00135] Accordingly, one example of arrangement 2 can include the vector (and thus recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the heavy chain polypeptide that includes VH and CHI, and the light chain polypeptide that includes VL and CL, in which the linker sequence is positioned between the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

[00136] A second example of arrangement of 2 can include the vector (and thus recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the heavy chain polypeptide that includes VH and CHI, and the light chain polypeptide that includes VL and CL, in which the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the protease cleavage site is positioned between the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

[00137] A third example of arrangement 2 can include the vector (and thus recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the heavy chain polypeptide that includes VH, CHI, hinge region, CH2, and CH3, and the light chain polypeptide that includes VL and CL, in which the linker sequence is positioned between the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

[00138] A forth example of arrangement of 2 can include the vector (and thus recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct) encoding the heavy chain polypeptide that includes VH, CHI, hinge region, CH2, and CH3, and the light chain polypeptide that includes VL and CL, in which the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the protease cleavage site is positioned between the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide.

e. Expression from the Recombinant Nucleic Acid Sequence Construct

[00139] As described above, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can include, amongst the one or more components, the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the heavy chain polypeptide and/or the heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding the light chain polypeptide. Accordingly, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can facilitate expression of the heavy chain polypeptide and/or the light chain polypeptide.

[00140] When arrangement 1 as described above is utilized, the first recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can facilitate the expression of the heavy chain polypeptide and the second recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can facilitate expression of the light chain polypeptide. When arrangement 2 as described above is utilized, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct can facilitate the expression of the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide.

[00141] Upon expression, for example, but not limited to, in a cell, organism, or mammal, the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide can assemble into the synthetic antibody. In particular, the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide can interact with one another such that assembly results in the synthetic antibody being capable of binding the antigen. In other embodiments, the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide can interact with one another such that assembly results in the synthetic antibody being more immunogenic as compared to an antibody not assembled as described herein. In still other embodiments, the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide can interact with one another such that assembly results in the synthetic antibody being capable of eliciting or inducing an immune response against the antigen.

[00142] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct may also comprise a sequence encoding a leader sequence. The leader sequence may be 5' of the coding sequence. In one embodiment, the N-terminal leader comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 24 and SEQ ID NO:25. Exemplary nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the invention operably linked to a leader sequence are set forth in SEQ ID NO:26 through SEQ ID NO:47.

f. Vector

[00143] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct described above can be placed in one or more vectors. The one or more vectors can contain an origin of replication. The one or more vectors can be a plasmid, bacteriophage, bacterial artificial chromosome or yeast artificial chromosome. The one or more vectors can be either a self-replication extra chromosomal vector, or a vector which integrates into a host genome.

[00144] Vectors include, but are not limited to, plasmids, expression vectors, recombinant viruses, any form of recombinant "naked DNA" vector, and the like. A "vector" comprises a nucleic acid which can infect, transfect, transiently or permanently transduce a cell. It will be recognized that a vector can be a naked nucleic acid, or a nucleic acid complexed with protein or lipid. The vector optionally comprises viral or bacterial nucleic acids and/or proteins, and/or membranes (e.g., a cell membrane, a viral lipid envelope, etc.). Vectors include, but are not limited to replicons (e.g., RNA replicons, bacteriophages) to which fragments of DNA may be attached and become replicated. Vectors thus include, but are not limited to RNA, autonomous self-replicating circular or linear DNA or RNA (e.g., plasmids, viruses, and the like, see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,217,879), and include both the expression and non-expression plasmids. In some embodiments, the vector includes linear DNA, enzymatic DNA or synthetic DNA. Where a recombinant microorganism or cell culture is described as hosting an "expression vector" this includes both extra-chromosomal circular and linear DNA and DNA that has been incorporated into the host chromosome(s). Where a vector is being

maintained by a host cell, the vector may either be stably replicated by the cells during mitosis as an autonomous structure, or is incorporated within the host's genome.

[00145] The one or more vectors can be a heterologous expression construct, which is generally a plasmid that is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell. Once the expression vector is inside the cell, the heavy chain polypeptide and/or light chain polypeptide that are encoded by the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct is produced by the cellular-transcription and translation machinery ribosomal complexes. The one or more vectors can express large amounts of stable messenger RNA, and therefore proteins.

(1) Expression Vector

[00146] The one or more vectors can be a circular plasmid or a linear nucleic acid. The circular plasmid and linear nucleic acid are capable of directing expression of a particular nucleotide sequence in an appropriate subject cell. The one or more vectors comprising the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct may be chimeric, meaning that at least one of its components is heterologous with respect to at least one of its other components.

(2) Plasmid

[00147] The one or more vectors can be a plasmid. The plasmid may be useful for transfecting cells with the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct. The plasmid may be useful for introducing the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct into the subject. The plasmid may also comprise a regulatory sequence, which may be well suited for gene expression in a cell into which the plasmid is administered.

[00148] The plasmid may also comprise a mammalian origin of replication in order to maintain the plasmid extrachromosomally and produce multiple copies of the plasmid in a cell. The plasmid may be pVAX, pCEP4 or pREP4 from Invitrogen (San Diego, CA), which may comprise the Epstein Barr virus origin of replication and nuclear antigen EBNA-1 coding region, which may produce high copy episomal replication without integration. The backbone of the plasmid may be pAV0242. The plasmid may be a replication defective adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) plasmid.

[00149] The plasmid may be pSE420 (Invitrogen, San Diego, Calif), which may be used for protein production in Escherichia coli (E.coli). The plasmid may also be p YES2

(Invitrogen, San Diego, Calif), which may be used for protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of yeast. The plasmid may also be of the MAXBAC™ complete baculovirus expression system (Invitrogen, San Diego, Calif), which may be used for protein production in insect cells. The plasmid may also be pcDNAI or pcDNA3 (Invitrogen, San

Diego, Calif.), which may be used for protein production in mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

(3) RNA vectors

[00150] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid molecule of the invention comprises an RNA molecule encoding an antibody of the invention. In one embodiment, the RNA molecule comprises a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO: 20, from SEQ ID NO: 22, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:39; SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:45 and SEQ ID NO:47. In one embodiment, the RNA molecule comprises a transcript generated from a DNA molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 12, SEQ ID NO : 14, SEQ ID NO : 16, SEQ ID NO : 18, SEQ ID NO : 20, from SEQ ID NO : 22, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:39; SEQ ID NO:41, SEQ ID NO:43, SEQ ID NO:45 and SEQ ID NO:47. In one embodiment, the RNA molecule comprises a transcript generated from a DNA molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 13, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 19, from SEQ ID NO:21, SEQ ID NO:26, SEQ ID NO:28, SEQ ID NO:30, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:34, SEQ ID NO:36, SEQ ID NO:38; SEQ ID NO:40, SEQ ID NO:42, SEQ ID NO:44 and SEQ ID NO:46. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the invention provides an RNA molecule encoding one or more antibody of the invention. The RNA may be plus-stranded. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the RNA molecule can be translated by cells without needing any intervening replication steps such as reverse transcription. A RNA molecule useful with the invention may have a 5' cap (e.g., a 7-methylguanosine). This cap can enhance in vivo translation of the RNA. The 5' nucleotide of a RNA molecule useful with the invention may have a 5' triphosphate group. In a capped RNA this may be linked to a 7-methylguanosine via a 5'-to-5' bridge. A RNA molecule may have a 3' poly-A tail. It may also include a poly-A polymerase recognition sequence (e.g. AAUAAA) near its 3' end. A RNA molecule useful with the invention may be single-stranded.

(4) Circular and Linear Vector

[00151] The one or more vectors may be circular plasmid, which may transform a target cell by integration into the cellular genome or exist extrachromosomally (e.g., autonomous replicating plasmid with an origin of replication). The vector can be pVAX, pcDNA3.0, or provax, or any other expression vector capable of expressing the heavy chain polypeptide and/or light chain polypeptide encoded by the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct.

[00152] Also provided herein is a linear nucleic acid, or linear expression cassette ("LEC"), that is capable of being efficiently delivered to a subject via electroporation and expressing the heavy chain polypeptide and/or light chain polypeptide encoded by the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct. The LEC may be any linear DNA devoid of any phosphate backbone. The LEC may not contain any antibiotic resistance genes and/or a phosphate backbone. The LEC may not contain other nucleic acid sequences unrelated to the desired gene expression.

[00153] The LEC may be derived from any plasmid capable of being linearized. The plasmid may be capable of expressing the heavy chain polypeptide and/or light chain polypeptide encoded by the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct. The plasmid can be pNP (Puerto Rico/34) or pM2 (New Caledonia/99). The plasmid may be WLV009, pVAX, pcDNA3.0, or provax, or any other expression vector capable of expressing the heavy chain polypeptide and/or light chain polypeptide encoded by the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct.

[00154] The LEC can be pcrM2. The LEC can be pcrNP. pcrNP and pcrMR can be derived from pNP (Puerto Rico/34) and pM2 (New Caledonia/99), respectively.

(5) Viral Vectors

[00155] In one embodiment, viral vectors are provided herein which are capable of delivering a nucleic acid of the invention to a cell. The expression vector may be provided to a cell in the form of a viral vector. Viral vector technology is well known in the art and is described, for example, in Sambrook et al. (2001), and in Ausubel et al. (1997), and in other virology and molecular biology manuals. Viruses, which are useful as vectors include, but are not limited to, retroviruses, adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, herpes viruses, and lentiviruses. In general, a suitable vector contains an origin of replication functional in at least one organism, a promoter sequence, convenient restriction endonuclease sites, and one or more selectable markers. (See, e.g., WO 01/96584; WO 01/29058; and U.S. Pat. No.

6,326,193. Viral vectors, and especially retroviral vectors, have become the most widely used method for inserting genes into mammalian, e.g., human cells. Other viral vectors can be

derived from lentivirus, poxviruses, herpes simplex virus I, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses, and the like. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,350,674 and 5,585,362.

(6) Method of Preparing the Vector

[00156] Provided herein is a method for preparing the one or more vectors in which the recombinant nucleic acid sequence construct has been placed. After the final subcloning step, the vector can be used to inoculate a cell culture in a large scale fermentation tank, using known methods in the art.

[00157] In other embodiments, after the final subcloning step, the vector can be used with one or more electroporation (EP) devices. The EP devices are described below in more detail.

[00158] The one or more vectors can be formulated or manufactured using a combination of known devices and techniques, but preferably they are manufactured using a plasmid manufacturing technique that is described in a licensed, co-pending U.S. provisional application U.S. Serial No. 60/939,792, which was filed on May 23, 2007. In some examples, the DNA plasmids described herein can be formulated at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 mg/mL. The manufacturing techniques also include or incorporate various devices and protocols that are commonly known to those of ordinary skill in the art, in addition to those described in U.S. Serial No. 60/939792, including those described in a licensed patent, US Patent No. 7,238,522, which issued on July 3, 2007. The above-referenced application and patent, US Serial No. 60/939,792 and US Patent No. 7,238,522, respectively, are hereby incorporated in their entirety.

3. Antibody

[00159] As described above, the recombinant nucleic acid sequence can encode the antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The antibody can bind or react with the antigen, which is described in more detail below.

[00160] The antibody may comprise a heavy chain and a light chain complementarity determining region ("CDR") set, respectively interposed between a heavy chain and a light chain framework ("FR") set which provide support to the CDRs and define the spatial relationship of the CDRs relative to each other. The CDR set may contain three hypervariable regions of a heavy or light chain V region. Proceeding from the N-terminus of a heavy or light chain, these regions are denoted as "CDR1," "CDR2," and "CDR3," respectively. An antigen-binding site, therefore, may include six CDRs, comprising the CDR set from each of a heavy and a light chain V region.

[00161] The proteolytic enzyme papain preferentially cleaves IgG molecules to yield several fragments, two of which (the F(ab) fragments) each comprise a covalent heterodimer that includes an intact antigen-binding site. The enzyme pepsin is able to cleave IgG molecules to provide several fragments, including the F(ab')2 fragment, which comprises both antigen-binding sites. Accordingly, the antibody can be the Fab or F(ab')2. The Fab can include the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide. The heavy chain polypeptide of the Fab can include the VH region and the CHI region. The light chain of the Fab can include the VL region and CL region.

[00162] The antibody can be an immunoglobulin (Ig). The Ig can be, for example, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE, and IgG. The immunoglobulin can include the heavy chain polypeptide and the light chain polypeptide. The heavy chain polypeptide of the immunoglobulin can include a VH region, a CHI region, a hinge region, a CH2 region, and a CH3 region. The light chain polypeptide of the immunoglobulin can include a VL region and CL region.

[00163] The antibody can be a polyclonal or monoclonal antibody. The antibody can be a chimeric antibody, a single chain antibody, an affinity matured antibody, a human antibody, a humanized antibody, or a fully human antibody. The humanized antibody can be an antibody from a non-human species that binds the desired antigen having one or more

complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from the non-human species and framework regions from a human immunoglobulin molecule.

[00164] The antibody can be a bispecific antibody as described below in more detail. The antibody can be a bifunctional antibody as also described below in more detail.

[00165] As described above, the antibody can be generated in the subject upon

administration of the composition to the subject. The antibody may have a half-life within the subject. In some embodiments, the antibody may be modified to extend or shorten its half-life within the subject. Such modifications are described below in more detail.

[00166] The antibody can be defucosylated as described in more detail below.

[00167] The antibody may be modified to reduce or prevent antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease associated with the antigen as described in more detail below.

a. Bispecific Antibody

[00168] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can encode a bispecific antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The bispecific antibody can bind or react with two antigens, for example, two of the antigens described below in more detail. The bispecific antibody can be comprised of fragments of two of the antibodies

described herein, thereby allowing the bispecific antibody to bind or react with two desired target molecules, which may include the antigen, which is described below in more detail, a ligand, including a ligand for a receptor, a receptor, including a ligand-binding site on the receptor, a ligand-receptor complex, and a marker.

b. Bifunctional Antibody

[00169] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can encode a bifunctional antibody, a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. The bifunctional antibody can bind or react with the antigen described below. The bifunctional antibody can also be modified to impart an additional functionality to the antibody beyond recognition of and binding to the antigen. Such a modification can include, but is not limited to, coupling to factor H or a fragment thereof. Factor H is a soluble regulator of complement activation and thus, may contribute to an immune response via complement-mediated lysis (CML).

c. Extension of Antibody Half-Life

[00170] As described above, the antibody may be modified to extend or shorten the half-life of the antibody in the subject. The modification may extend or shorten the half-life of the antibody in the serum of the subject.

[00171] The modification may be present in a constant region of the antibody. The modification may be one or more amino acid substitutions in a constant region of the antibody that extend the half-life of the antibody as compared to a half-life of an antibody not containing the one or more amino acid substitutions. The modification may be one or more amino acid substitutions in the CH2 domain of the antibody that extend the half-life of the antibody as compared to a half-life of an antibody not containing the one or more amino acid substitutions.

[00172] In some embodiments, the one or more amino acid substitutions in the constant region may include replacing a methionine residue in the constant region with a tyrosine residue, a serine residue in the constant region with a threonine residue, a threonine residue in the constant region with a glutamate residue, or any combination thereof, thereby extending the half-life of the antibody.

[00173] In other embodiments, the one or more amino acid substitutions in the constant region may include replacing a methionine residue in the CH2 domain with a tyrosine residue, a serine residue in the CH2 domain with a threonine residue, a threonine residue in the CH2 domain with a glutamate residue, or any combination thereof, thereby extending the half-life of the antibody.

d. Defucosylation

[00174] The recombinant nucleic acid sequence can encode an antibody that is not fucosylated (i.e., a defucosylated antibody or a non-fucosylated antibody), a fragment thereof, a variant thereof, or a combination thereof. Fucosylation includes the addition of the sugar fucose to a molecule, for example, the attachment of fucose to N-glycans, O-glycans and glycolipids. Accordingly, in a defucosylated antibody, fucose is not attached to the carbohydrate chains of the constant region. In turn, this lack of fucosylation may improve FcyRIIIa binding and antibody directed cellular cytotoxic (ADCC) activity by the antibody as compared to the fucosylated antibody. Therefore, in some embodiments, the non-fucosylated antibody may exhibit increased ADCC activity as compared to the fucosylated antibody.

[00175] The antibody may be modified so as to prevent or inhibit fucosylation of the antibody. In some embodiments, such a modified antibody may exhibit increased ADCC activity as compared to the unmodified antibody. The modification may be in the heavy chain, light chain, or a combination thereof. The modification may be one or more amino acid substitutions in the heavy chain, one or more amino acid substitutions in the light chain, or a combination thereof.

e. Reduced ADE Response

[00176] The antibody may be modified to reduce or prevent antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease associated with the antigen, but still neutralize the antigen.

[00177] In some embodiments, the antibody may be modified to include one or more amino acid substitutions that reduce or prevent binding of the antibody to FcyRla. The one or more amino acid substitutions may be in the constant region of the antibody. The one or more amino acid substitutions may include replacing a leucine residue with an alanine residue in the constant region of the antibody, i.e., also known herein as LA, LA mutation or LA substitution. The one or more amino acid substitutions may include replacing two leucine residues, each with an alanine residue, in the constant region of the antibody and also known herein as LALA, LALA mutation, or LALA substitution. The presence of the LALA substitutions may prevent or block the antibody from binding to FcyRla, and thus, the modified antibody does not enhance or cause ADE of disease associated with the antigen, but still neutralizes the antigen.

4. Antigen

[00178] The synthetic antibody is directed to the antigen or fragment or variant thereof. The antigen can be a nucleic acid sequence, an amino acid sequence, a polysaccharide or a combination thereof. The nucleic acid sequence can be DNA, RNA, cDNA, a variant thereof, a fragment thereof, or a combination thereof. The amino acid sequence can be a protein, a peptide, a variant thereof, a fragment thereof, or a combination thereof. The polysaccharide can be a nucleic acid encoded polysaccharide.

[00179] The antigen can be from a bacterium. The antigen can be associated with bacterial infection. In one embodiment, the antigen can be a bacterial virulence factor.

[00180] In one embodiment, a synthetic antibody of the invention targets two or more antigens. In one embodiment, at least one antigen of a bispecific antibody is selected from the antigens described herein. In one embodiment, the two or more antigens are selected from the antigens described herein.

a. Bacterial Antigens

[00181] The bacterial antigen can be a bacterial antigen or fragment or variant thereof. The bacterium can be from any one of the following phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Aquificae, Bacteroidetes, Caldiserica, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Chrysiogenetes, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, Dictyoglomi, Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Nitrospira, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, Tenericutes,

Thermodesulfobacteria, Thermotogae, and Verrucomicrobia.

[00182] The bacterium can be a gram positive bacterium or a gram negative bacterium. The bacterium can be an aerobic bacterium or an anerobic bacterium. The bacterium can be an autotrophic bacterium or a heterotrophic bacterium. The bacterium can be a mesophile, a neutrophile, an extremophile, an acidophile, an alkaliphile, a thermophile, a psychrophile, an halophile, or an osmophile.

[00183] The bacterium can be an anthrax bacterium, an antibiotic resistant bacterium, a disease causing bacterium, a food poisoning bacterium, an infectious bacterium, Salmonella bacterium, Staphylococcus bacterium, Streptococcus bacterium, or tetanus bacterium. The bacterium can be a mycobacteria, Clostridium tetani, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or Clostridium difficile. The bacterium can be Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

(a) Pseudomonas aeruginosa Antigens

[00184] The bacterial antigen may be a Pseudomonas aeruginosa antigen, or fragment thereof, or variant thereof. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa antigen can be from a virulence factor. Virulence factors associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa include, but are not limited to structural components, enzymes and toxins. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor can be one of exopolysaccharide, Adhesin, lipopolysaccharide, Pyocyanin, Exotoxin A, Exotoxin S, Cytotoxin, Elastase, Alkaline protease, Phospholipase C, Rhamnolipid, and components of a bacterial secretion system.

[00185] In one embodiment, an antigen is an extracellular polysaccharide (e.g. Alginate, Pel and Psl). In one embodiment, an antigen is one of polysaccharide synthesis locus (psl), a gene contained therein (e.g. pslA, pslB, pslC, pslD, pslE, pslF, pslG, pslH, psll, pslJ, pslK, pslL, pslM, pslN and pslO), a protein or enzyme encoded therein (e.g. a glycosyl transferase, phosphomannose isomerase/GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase, a transporter, a hydrolase, a polymerase, an acetylase, a dehydrogenase and a topoisomerase) or a product produced therefrom (e.g. Psl exopolysaccharide, referred to as "Psl").

[00186] In one embodiment, an antigen is a component of a bacterial secretion system. Six different classes of secretion systems (types I through VI) have been described in bacteria, five of which (types I, II, II, V and VI) are found in gram negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In one embodiment, an antigen is one of a gene (e.g. an apr or has gene) or protein (e.g. AprD, AprE, AprF, HasD, HasE, HasF and HasR) or a secreted protein (e.g. AprA, AprX and HasAp) of a type I secretion system. In one embodiment, an antigen is one of a gene (e.g. xcpA/pilD, xphA, xqhA, xcpP to Q and xcpR to Z) or protein (e.g. GspC to M, GspAB, GspN, GspO, GspS, XcpT to XcpX, FppA, ) or a secreted protein (e.g. LasB, LasA, PlcH, PlcN, PlcB, CbpD, ToxA, PmpA, PrpL, LipA, LipC, PhoA, PsAP, LapA) of a type II secretion system. In one embodiment, an antigen is one of a gene (e.g. a psc, per, pop or exs gene) or protein (e.g. PscC, PscE to PscF, PscJ, PscN, PscP, PscW, PopB, PopD, PcrH and PcrV ) or a secreted protein (e.g. ExoS, ExoT, ExoU and ExoY) of a type III secretion system. In one embodiment, an antigen is a regulator of a type III secretion system (e.g. ExsA and ExsC). In one embodiment, an antigen is one of a gene (e.g. estA) or protein (e.g. EstA, CupB3, CupB5 and LepB) or a secreted protein (e.g. EstA, LepA, and CupB5) of a type V secretion system. In one embodiment, an antigen is one of a gene (e.g. a HSI-I, HSI-II and HSI-III gene) or protein (e.g. Fhal, ClpVl, a VgrG protein or a Hep protein) or a secreted protein (e.g. Hcpl) of a type VI secretion system.

5. Excipients and Other Components of the Composition

[00187] The composition may further comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. The pharmaceutically acceptable excipient can be functional molecules such as vehicles, carriers, or diluents. The pharmaceutically acceptable excipient can be a transfection facilitating agent, which can include surface active agents, such as immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMS), Freunds incomplete adjuvant, LPS analog including monophosphoryl lipid A, muramyl peptides, quinone analogs, vesicles such as squalene and squalene, hyaluronic acid, lipids, liposomes, calcium ions, viral proteins, polyanions, poly cations, or nanoparticles, or other known transfection facilitating agents.

[00188] The transfection facilitating agent is a polyanion, poly cation, including poly-L-glutamate (LGS), or lipid. The transfection facilitating agent is poly-L-glutamate, and the poly-L-glutamate may be present in the composition at a concentration less than 6 mg/ml. The transfection facilitating agent may also include surface active agents such as immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMS), Freunds incomplete adjuvant, LPS analog including monophosphoryl lipid A, muramyl peptides, quinone analogs and vesicles such as squalene and squalene, and hyaluronic acid may also be used administered in conjunction with the composition. The composition may also include a transfection facilitating agent such as lipids, liposomes, including lecithin liposomes or other liposomes known in the art, as a DNA-liposome mixture (see for example W09324640), calcium ions, viral proteins, polyanions, poly cations, or nanoparticles, or other known transfection facilitating agents. The transfection facilitating agent is a polyanion, poly cation, including poly-L-glutamate (LGS), or lipid. Concentration of the transfection agent in the vaccine is less than 4 mg/ml, less than 2 mg/ml, less than 1 mg/ml, less than 0.750 mg/ml, less than 0.500 mg/ml, less than 0.250 mg/ml, less than 0.100 mg/ml, less than 0.050 mg/ml, or less than 0.010 mg/ml.

[00189] The composition may further comprise a genetic facilitator agent as described in U.S. Serial No. 021,579 filed April 1, 1994, which is fully incorporated by reference.

[00190] The composition may comprise DNA at quantities of from about 1 nanogram to 100 milligrams; about 1 microgram to about 10 milligrams; or preferably about 0.1 microgram to about 10 milligrams; or more preferably about 1 milligram to about 2 milligram. In some preferred embodiments, composition according to the present invention comprises about 5 nanogram to about 1000 micrograms of DNA. In some preferred embodiments, composition can contain about 10 nanograms to about 800 micrograms of DNA. In some preferred embodiments, the composition can contain about 0.1 to about 500

micrograms of DNA. In some preferred embodiments, the composition can contain about 1 to about 350 micrograms of DNA. In some preferred embodiments, the composition can contain about 25 to about 250 micrograms, from about 100 to about 200 microgram, from about 1 nanogram to 100 milligrams; from about 1 microgram to about 10 milligrams; from about 0.1 microgram to about 10 milligrams; from about 1 milligram to about 2 milligram, from about 5 nanogram to about 1000 micrograms, from about 10 nanograms to about 800 micrograms, from about 0.1 to about 500 micrograms, from about 1 to about 350 micrograms, from about 25 to about 250 micrograms, from about 100 to about 200 microgram of DNA.

[00191] The composition can be formulated according to the mode of administration to be used. An injectable pharmaceutical composition can be sterile, pyrogen free and particulate free. An isotonic formulation or solution can be used. Additives for isotonicity can include sodium chloride, dextrose, mannitol, sorbitol, and lactose. The composition can comprise a vasoconstriction agent. The isotonic solutions can include phosphate buffered saline. The composition can further comprise stabilizers including gelatin and albumin. The stabilizers can allow the formulation to be stable at room or ambient temperature for extended periods of time, including LGS or polycations or polyanions.

6. Method of Generating the Synthetic Antibody

[00192] The present invention also relates a method of generating the synthetic antibody. The method can include administering the composition to the subject in need thereof by using the method of delivery described in more detail below. Accordingly, the synthetic antibody is generated in the subject or in vivo upon administration of the composition to the subject.

[00193] The method can also include introducing the composition into one or more cells, and therefore, the synthetic antibody can be generated or produced in the one or more cells. The method can further include introducing the composition into one or more tissues, for example, but not limited to, skin and muscle, and therefore, the synthetic antibody can be generated or produced in the one or more tissues.

7. Method of Identifying or Screening for the Antibody

[00194] The present invention further relates to a method of identifying or screening for the antibody described above, which is reactive to or binds the antigen described above. The method of identifying or screening for the antibody can use the antigen in methodologies known in those skilled in art to identify or screen for the antibody. Such methodologies can include, but are not limited to, selection of the antibody from a library (e.g., phage display) and immunization of an animal followed by isolation and/or purification of the antibody.

8. Method of Delivery of the Composition

[00195] The present invention also relates to a method of delivering the composition to the subject in need thereof. The method of delivery can include, administering the composition to the subject. Administration can include, but is not limited to, DNA injection with and without in vivo electroporation, liposome mediated delivery, and nanoparticle facilitated delivery.

[00196] The mammal receiving delivery of the composition may be human, primate, non-human primate, cow, cattle, sheep, goat, antelope, bison, water buffalo, bison, bovids, deer, hedgehogs, elephants, llama, alpaca, mice, rats, and chicken.

[00197] The composition may be administered by different routes including orally, parenterally, sublingually, trans dermally, rectally, transmucosally, topically, via inhalation, via buccal administration, intrapleurally, intravenous, intraarterial, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intranasal intrathecal, and intraarticular or combinations thereof. For veterinary use, the composition may be administered as a suitably acceptable formulation in accordance with normal veterinary practice. The veterinarian can readily determine the dosing regimen and route of administration that is most appropriate for a particular animal. The composition may be administered by traditional syringes, needleless injection devices, "microprojectile bombardment gone guns", or other physical methods such as electroporation ("EP"), "hydrodynamic method", or ultrasound.

a. Electroporation

[00198] Administration of the composition via electroporation may be accomplished using electroporation devices that can be configured to deliver to a desired tissue of a mammal, a pulse of energy effective to cause reversible pores to form in cell membranes, and preferable the pulse of energy is a constant current similar to a preset current input by a user. The electroporation device may comprise an electroporation component and an electrode assembly or handle assembly. The electroporation component may include and incorporate one or more of the various elements of the electroporation devices, including: controller, current waveform generator, impedance tester, waveform logger, input element, status reporting element, communication port, memory component, power source, and power switch. The electroporation may be accomplished using an in vivo electroporation device, for example CELLECTRA EP system (Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting, PA) or Elgen

electroporator (Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting, PA) to facilitate transfection of cells by the plasmid.

[00199] The electroporation component may function as one element of the electroporation devices, and the other elements are separate elements (or components) in communication with the electroporation component. The electroporation component may function as more than one element of the electroporation devices, which may be in communication with still other elements of the electroporation devices separate from the electroporation component. The elements of the electroporation devices existing as parts of one electromechanical or mechanical device may not limited as the elements can function as one device or as separate elements in communication with one another. The electroporation component may be capable of delivering the pulse of energy that produces the constant current in the desired tissue, and includes a feedback mechanism. The electrode assembly may include an electrode array having a plurality of electrodes in a spatial arrangement, wherein the electrode assembly receives the pulse of energy from the electroporation component and delivers same to the desired tissue through the electrodes. At least one of the plurality of electrodes is neutral during delivery of the pulse of energy and measures impedance in the desired tissue and communicates the impedance to the electroporation component. The feedback mechanism may receive the measured impedance and can adjust the pulse of energy delivered by the electroporation component to maintain the constant current.

[00200] A plurality of electrodes may deliver the pulse of energy in a decentralized partem. The plurality of electrodes may deliver the pulse of energy in the decentralized partem through the control of the electrodes under a programmed sequence, and the programmed sequence is input by a user to the electroporation component. The programmed sequence may comprise a plurality of pulses delivered in sequence, wherein each pulse of the plurality of pulses is delivered by at least two active electrodes with one neutral electrode that measures impedance, and wherein a subsequent pulse of the plurality of pulses is delivered by a different one of at least two active electrodes with one neutral electrode that measures impedance.

[00201] The feedback mechanism may be performed by either hardware or software. The feedback mechanism may be performed by an analog closed-loop circuit. The feedback occurs every 50 μβ, 20 μβ, 10 or 1 μβ, but is preferably a real-time feedback or instantaneous (i.e., substantially instantaneous as determined by available techniques for determining response time). The neutral electrode may measure the impedance in the desired tissue and communicates the impedance to the feedback mechanism, and the feedback

mechanism responds to the impedance and adjusts the pulse of energy to maintain the constant current at a value similar to the preset current. The feedback mechanism may maintain the constant current continuously and instantaneously during the delivery of the pulse of energy.

[00202] Examples of electroporation devices and electroporation methods that may facilitate delivery of the composition of the present invention, include those described in U.S. Patent No. 7,245,963 by Draghia-Akli, et al, U.S. Patent Pub. 2005/0052630 submitted by Smith, et al, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Other electroporation devices and electroporation methods that may be used for facilitating delivery of the composition include those provided in co-pending and co-owned U.S. Patent Application, Serial No. 11/874072, filed October 17, 2007, which claims the benefit under 35 USC 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Applications Ser. Nos. 60/852,149, filed October 17, 2006, and 60/978,982, filed October 10, 2007, all of which are hereby incorporated in their entirety.

[00203] U.S. Patent No. 7,245,963 by Draghia-Akli, et al. describes modular electrode systems and their use for facilitating the introduction of a biomolecule into cells of a selected tissue in a body or plant. The modular electrode systems may comprise a plurality of needle electrodes; a hypodermic needle; an electrical connector that provides a conductive link from a programmable constant-current pulse controller to the plurality of needle electrodes; and a power source. An operator can grasp the plurality of needle electrodes that are mounted on a support structure and firmly insert them into the selected tissue in a body or plant. The biomolecules are then delivered via the hypodermic needle into the selected tissue. The programmable constant-current pulse controller is activated and constant-current electrical pulse is applied to the plurality of needle electrodes. The applied constant-current electrical pulse facilitates the introduction of the biomolecule into the cell between the plurality of electrodes. The entire content of U.S. Patent No. 7,245,963 is hereby incorporated by reference.

[00204] U.S. Patent Pub. 2005/0052630 submitted by Smith, et al. describes an

electroporation device which may be used to effectively facilitate the introduction of a biomolecule into cells of a selected tissue in a body or plant. The electroporation device comprises an electro-kinetic device ("EKD device") whose operation is specified by software or firmware. The EKD device produces a series of programmable constant-current pulse patterns between electrodes in an array based on user control and input of the pulse parameters, and allows the storage and acquisition of current waveform data. The

electroporation device also comprises a replaceable electrode disk having an array of needle electrodes, a central injection channel for an injection needle, and a removable guide disk. The entire content of U.S. Patent Pub. 2005/0052630 is hereby incorporated by reference.

[00205] The electrode arrays and methods described in U.S. Patent No. 7,245,963 and U.S. Patent Pub. 2005/0052630 may be adapted for deep penetration into not only tissues such as muscle, but also other tissues or organs. Because of the configuration of the electrode array, the injection needle (to deliver the biomolecule of choice) is also inserted completely into the target organ, and the injection is administered perpendicular to the target issue, in the area that is pre-delineated by the electrodes The electrodes described in U.S. Patent No. 7,245,963 and U.S. Patent Pub. 2005/005263 are preferably 20 mm long and 21 gauge.

[00206] Additionally, contemplated in some embodiments that incorporate electroporation devices and uses thereof, there are electroporation devices that are those described in the following patents: US Patent 5,273,525 issued December 28, 1993, US Patents 6,110,161 issued August 29, 2000, 6,261,281 issued July 17, 2001, and 6,958,060 issued October 25, 2005, and US patent 6,939,862 issued September 6, 2005. Furthermore, patents covering subject matter provided in US patent 6,697,669 issued February 24, 2004, which concerns delivery of DNA using any of a variety of devices, and US patent 7,328,064 issued February 5, 2008, drawn to method of injecting DNA are contemplated herein. The above-patents are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

9. Method of Treatment

[00207] Also provided herein is a method of treating, protecting against, and/or preventing disease in a subject in need thereof by generating the synthetic antibody in the subject. The method can include administering the composition to the subject. Administration of the composition to the subject can be done using the method of delivery described above.

[00208] In certain embodiments, the invention provides a method of treating protecting against, and/or preventing a bacterial infection. In one embodiment, the method treats, protects against, and/or prevents formation of a bacterial biofilm. In one embodiment, the method treats, protects against, and/or prevents Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection or biofilm formation. In one embodiment, the method treats, protects against, and/or prevents

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of a wound.

[00209] Upon generation of the synthetic antibody in the subject, the synthetic antibody can bind to or react with the antigen. Such binding can neutralize the antigen, block recognition of the antigen by another molecule, for example, a protein or nucleic acid, and elicit or induce an immune response to the antigen, thereby treating, protecting against, and/or preventing the disease associated with the antigen in the subject.

[00210] The composition dose can be between 1 μg to 10 mg active component/kg body weight/time, and can be 20 μg to 10 mg component/kg body weight/time. The composition can be administered every 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, or 31 days. The number of composition doses for effective treatment can be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10.

10. Use in Combination with Antibiotics

[00211] The present invention also provides a method of treating, protecting against, and/or preventing disease in a subject in need thereof by administering a combination of the synthetic antibody and a therapeutic antibiotic agent.

[00212] The synthetic antibody and an antibiotic agent may be administered using any suitable method such that a combination of the synthetic antibody and antibiotic agent are both present in the subject. In one embodiment, the method may comprise administration of a first composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention by any of the methods described in detail above and administration of a second composition comprising an antibiotic agent less than 1 , less than 2, less than 3, less than 4, less than 5, less than 6, less than 7, less than 8, less than 9 or less than 10 days following administration of the synthetic antibody. In one embodiment, the method may comprise administration of a first composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention by any of the methods described in detail above and administration of a second composition comprising an antibiotic agent more than 1, more than 2, more than 3, more than 4, more than 5, more than 6, more than 7, more than 8, more than 9 or more than 10 days following administration of the synthetic antibody. In one embodiment, the method may comprise administration of a first composition comprising an antibiotic agent and administration of a second composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention by any of the methods described in detail above less than 1 , less than 2, less than 3, less than 4, less than 5, less than 6, less than 7, less than 8, less than 9 or less than 10 days following administration of the antibiotic agent. In one embodiment, the method may comprise administration of a first composition comprising an antibiotic agent and administration of a second composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention by any of the methods described in detail above more than 1 , more than 2, more than 3, more than 4, more than 5, more than 6, more than 7, more than 8, more than 9 or more than 10 days following administration of the antibiotic agent. In one embodiment, the method may

comprise administration of a first composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention by any of the methods described in detail above and a second composition comprising an antibiotic agent concurrently. In one embodiment, the method may comprise administration of a first composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention by any of the methods described in detail above and a second composition comprising an antibiotic agent concurrently. In one embodiment, the method may comprise administration of a single composition comprising a synthetic antibody of the invention and an antibiotic agent.

[00213] Non-limiting examples of antibiotics that can be used in combination with the synthetic antibody of the invention include aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin), quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin), cephalosporins (e.g., ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone, cefpirome, ceftobiprole), antipseudomonal penicillins:

carboxypenicillins (e.g., carbenicillin and ticarcillin) and ureidopenicillins (e.g., mezlocillin, azlocillin, and piperacillin), carbapenems (e.g., meropenem, imipenem, doripenem), polymyxins (e.g., polymyxin B and colistin) and monobactams (e.g., aztreonam).

[00214] The present invention has multiple aspects, illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.

11. Examples

[00215] The present invention is further illustrated in the following Examples. It should be understood that these Examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only. From the above discussion and these Examples, one skilled in the art can ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention, and without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions. Thus, various modifications of the invention in addition to those shown and described herein will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Example 1 : An engineered bispecific. DNA-encoded IgG antibody (DMAb) protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a lethal pneumonia challenge model

[00216] The studies presented herein describe the development and analysis of synthetic DMAbs encoding a monospecific anti-PcrV IgG (DMAb-aPcrV) and clinical candidate bispecific antibody ABC123 (DMAb-BiSPA) for in vivo production and activity. DMAb

production in vivo can rapidly produce functional and protective titers for both constructs. These DMAbs can persist and have similar potency to bioprocess produced mAbs, along with comparable prevention of P. aeruginosa colonisation of major organs.

[00217] In the current study, it is demonstrated that mAbs against P. aeruginosa can be encoded in synthetic DNA vectors, DMAbs, and produced in vivo by skeletal muscle. The ti-Pseudomonas DMAbs bound effectively to therapeutic targets and were protective in a mouse model of lethal pneumonia caused by an aggressive P. aeruginosa strain. A single dose of DMAb is transiently expressed for 3-4 months and protection against lethal infection is comparable to treatment of mice with purified IgG. This is a considerable advance for long-term mAb administration as DMAbs can be continuously expressed from muscle until the plasmid is eventually lost. In addition to routine administration, another foreseeable advantage for anti-P. aeruginosa DMAbs would be for high-risk patients with recurring infections related to chronic illnesses or implanted devices, where DMAbs may reduce the need for extended antibiotic regimens. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that DMAbs can also function synergistically with a commonly used antibiotic, meropenem. The synergistic effect of DMAb and antibiotic combination suggests that this strategy could have potential in reducing antibiotic treatment regimens, thereby reducing the length of antibiotic exposure in patients. This adjunctive activity is equivalent to that observed with protein IgG in previous studies (DiGiandomenico et al, 2014, Sci Transl Med 6, 262ral55). Taken together, these results suggest that DNA delivery of full length IgG mAbs is a promising platform strategy for prevention of serious bacterial infections and possibly for other therapeutic indications. All bioprocessed anti-Pseudomonal IgG mAbs (anti-Psl, anti-PcrV, and ABC 123) have been shown to be protective against P. aeruginosa clinical isolates derived from diverse serotypes, multiple type 3 secretion phenotypes (cytotoxic vs. invasive strain; ExoU+, ExoS-; ExoU-, ExoS+, respectively), and multiple infection sites (DiGiandomenico et al., 2012, J Exp Med 209, 1273-1287; Warrener et al, 2014, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58, 4384-4391;

DiGiandomenico et al, 2014, Sci Transl Med 6, 262ral55; Thaden et al, 2016, J Infect Dis 213, 640-648; Zegans er al, 2016, JAMA Ophthalmol 134, 383-389).

[00218] The Material and Methods are now described

[00219] Cell lines and bacteria

[00220] Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell

lines were and were maintained in mycoplasmia-free conditions. Routine testing was performed at the University of Pennsylvania. All cells were maintained at a low passage number. P. aeruginosa keratitis clinical isolate 6077 (PA 6077), a cytotoxic (ExoU+) strain, was used for all infection experiments.

[00221] DMAb construction and expression

[00222] The sequences of the single specificity anti-P. aeruginosa PcrV protein (clone V2L2MD) (Warrener et al, 2014, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58, 4384-4391) and engineered bispecific anti- P. aeruginosa (dual specificity for PcrV and Psl, clone ABC 123) (DiGiandomenico et al, 2014, Sci Transl Med 6, 262ral55) were obtained. The nucleotide sequence for each human IgGl heavy and IgK light chains were codon optimized for both mouse and human biases to enhance expression in mammalian cells (Graf et al, 2004, Methods Mol Med 94, 197-210; Demi et al, 2001, J Virol 75, 10991-11001). Sequences were also RNA optimized for improved mRNA stability and efficient translation on the ribosome (Schneider et al., 1997, J Virol 71, 4892-4903; Andre et al, 1997, J Virol 72, 1497-1503, leading to increase protein yield (Fath et al., 2011, PLoS One 6, el7596). The optimized heavy and light chain genes were then inserted into the pGXOOOl DNA expression vector, under the control of a human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) promoter and bovine growth hormone (BGH) polyA.

[00223] Both genes were encoded in cis, separated by a furin cleavage site and P2A peptide. The result was two plasmids: DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA. HEK 293T cells were transfected with DMAb DNA using GeneJammer (Agilent, Wilmington, DE) transfection reagent. Cell supernatants and cell lysates were harvested 48 hours post-transfection and assayed for human IgG production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot.

[00224] Mouse muscle tissue immunofluorescence

[00225] BALB/c mice were injected with 100 μg of DMAb by IM injection in the TA muscle followed by IM-EP. Tissue was harvested 3 days post-injection, fixed in 4% Neutral-buffered Formalin (BBC Biochemical, Washington State) and immersed in 30% (w/v) sucrose (Sigma, MO) in D.I. water. Tissues were then embedded into O.C.T. compound (Sakura Finetek, CA) and snap-frozen. Frozen tissue blocks were sectioned to a thickness of 18um. Muscle sectioned were incubated with Blocking-Buffer (0.3% (v/v) Triton-X (Sigma), 2% (v/v) donkey serum in PBS) for 30min, covered with Parafilm. Goat anti-human IgG-Fc fragment antibody (A-80-104A, Bethyl, Texas) was diluted 1 : 100 in incubation buffer (1% (w/v) BSA (Sigma), 2% (v/v) donkey serum, 0.3% (v/v) Triton-X (Sigma) and 0.025% (v/v) lg/ml Sodium Azide (Sigma) in PBS). 50 μΐ of staining solution was added to each section and incubated for 2hrs. Sections were washed 5min in lxPBS three times. Donkey anti-goat IgG AF488 (abl50129, Abeam, USA) was diluted 1 :200 in incubation buffer and 50 μΐ was added to each section. Section were washed after lhr incubation and mounted with DAPI-Fluoromount (SouthernBiotech, AL) and covered.

[00226] In vivo expression of DMAb constructs was imaged with a BX51 Fluorescent microscope (Olympus) equipped with Retiga3000 monochromatic camera (Qlmaging).

[00227] Human IgG quantification by ELISA and by anti-cytotoxic activity

[00228] Ninety-six well, high-binding immunosorbent plates were coated with 10μg/mL purified anti-human IgG-Fc and incubated overnight at 4°C. The following day, plates were washed and blocked at room temperature for at least 1 hour with PBS containing 10% FBS. Samples were serially diluted two-fold and transferred to the blocked plate and incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Purified human IgGK was used as a standard. Following incubation, samples were probed with an anti -human IgGK antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase at a 1 :20 000 dilution. Plates were developed using o-Phenylenediamine dihydrochloride substrate and stopped with 2N H2SO4. A BioTek Synergy2 plate reader was used to read the plates at OD450nm. Alternatively, human IgG from serum was quantified as described above with the exception of using an anti-idiotype mAb (0.05 μg/well suspended in 0.2M sodium bicarbonate buffer, pH 9.4) specific for V2L2MD or ABC 123 as the capture reagent. Purified V2L2MD or ABC 123 was used as a standard.

[00229] DMAb was also quantified from serum using 384-well black MaxiSorp plates (coated with 10μg/mL Goat anti -Human IgG (H+L). Plates were washed and blocked for 1-2 hours at room temperature with Blocker Casein in PBS. After blocking, a standard containing ABC123 or V2L2MD was serially diluted 1 :2 across the plate, while serum samples were diluted 1 :20, 1 :40, 1 :80 and 1 : 160. Plates containing the samples were then incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. After washing, plates were probed with Donkey anti-Human IgG-HRP at a 1 :4000 dilution and incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. After washing, the immune reaction was developed by adding SuperSignal ELISA Pico Reagent and fluorescence was read on the Perkin Elmer Envision.

[00230] DMAb was also quantified from serum based on anti-cytotoxic activity mediated by DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA that measures the protection of A549 cells from the cytotoxic effects of PA 6077. The activity of mouse serum was compared to a standard curve of naive mouse serum spiked with V2L2MD IgG.

[00231] Binding ELISA

[00232] Ninety-six well plates immunosorbent plates were coated overnight with

Pseudomonas PcrV protein at 0.5 μg/mL. The following day, serum samples from DMAb-administered animals were serially diluted two-fold and then transferred to the blocked plate. Samples were probed with an anti -human IgG H+L antibody conjugated to HRP at a dilution of 1 :5000 and developed with OPD substrate.

[00233] Western blot

[00234] The cell lysates from DMAb-transfected cells were collected in cell lysis buffer. Samples were centrifuged at 20 000 rpm and the supernatant containing the protein fraction was collected. The samples were quantified using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay and 10μg total lysate was loaded on a 4-12 % Bis-Tris SDS-PAGE gel. The gel was transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane using the iBlot2 system. The membrane was blocked in 5% powdered skim milk + 0.5% Tween-20 and then probed using a donkey anti -human H+L antibody conjugated to HRP. Bands were developed using a chemiluminescent system and visualized on film.

[00235] Mice

[00236] Female, six to eight week old B6.Cg-FoxnlnuJ and BALB/c mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and housed in the animal facilities at the University of Pennsylvania or Medlmmune, AstraZeneca. All animal protocols were approved by the institutional University of Pennsylvania and Medlmmune IACUC committees, following guidelines from ALAAC. Further IACUC oversight was provided by The Animal Care and Use Review Office (ACURO). Animals received an intramuscular (IM) pre-injection of hyaluronidase (400U/mL, Sigma Aldrich) 30 minutes-1 hour before IM injection of 100μg-300μg DMAb-aPcrV or DMAb-BiSPA in the TA or quad muscles, followed by electroporation (IM-EP). Serum levels of DMAbs were monitored following administration.

[00237] Lethal pneumonia challenge

[00238] BALB/c mice (n=8/group) received 100 μg or 300 μg of DMAb-aPcrV or DMAb-BiSPA by IM-EP at day -5 before challenge. The unrelated dengue virus DMAb-DVSF3 20 was included as a control. A fourth group of animals received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of purified protein IgG ABC123 (2mg/kg) on day -1 before challenge. On day 0, animals received an intranasal challenge of 9.75e5-1.0e6 colony forming units (CFU) of the aggressive, anti-microbial resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 6077. Animals were monitored for 6 days following intranasal challenge for survival as described in16. Briefly, animals were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine followed by intranasal administration of the bacterial inoculum contained in 0.05ml. For organ burden analyses, lungs, spleens and livers were harvested from DMAb-treated animals 24 hours post-infection followed by homogenizing and plating of Luria agar plates for enumeration of bacterial CFU. IL-Ιβ, IL-6 and KC/GRO were quantified from the supernatant of lung homogenates using a multiplex kit (Meso Scale Diagnostics) according to the manufactures instructions. For DMAb and meropenem (MEM) combination experiments, MEM was administered subcutaneously 4 hours after infection.

[00239] Histopathology

[00240] Lungs were harvested at 48 hours post-infection and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for a minimum of 48 hours. Fixed tissues were then routinely processed and embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 3 μιτι thickness, and stained with Gill's hematoxylin and eosin for histologic evaluation by a pathologist blinded to the experimental conditions.

[00241] Statistics

[00242] All statistical analyses were peformed using GraphPad Prism 6.0 software or SPSS. Sample size calculations for two independent proportions were calculated with alpha 0.05 and power 0.90. A minimum of n=5 mice was calculated to be needed in order to ensure adequate power. Student's T-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculations, were performed where necessary. Survival data was represented by a Kaplan-Meier survival curve and significance was calculated using a log-rank test and one-way ANOVA with correction for multiple comparisons. The data was considered significant if p<0.05. The lines in all graphs represent the mean value and error bars represent the standard deviation. No samples or animals were excluded from the analysis. Randomization was not performed for

the animal studies. Samples and animals were not blinded before performing each experiment.

[00243] The results of the Experiments are now described

[00244] Design and in vitro expression of anti-P. aeruginosa DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs)

[00245] Two anti-P. aeruginosa mAb genes to be re-encoded for optimal expression into a DNA expression vector system based on their previously described potent protective in vivo activity against lethal P. aeruginosa infection. The human immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgGl) heavy and light chain sequences (Fab and Fc portions) were nucleotide and amino acid sequence optimized taking into consideration both human and mouse codon bias and encoded as a single, polycistronic unit in the pGXOOOl DNA plasmid backbone, resulting in two constructs: DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA (Figure 1A). The heavy and light chain are expressed as a single mRNA transcript and then cleaved post-translationally at a porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A) cleavage site. A furin cleavage site (RGRKRRS; SEQ ID NO:23) was also included to ensure complete removal of the P2A from the final in vivo produced antibody.

[00246] The ability for each construct to express full length human IgGl antibody was assessed following in vitro transfection of HEK293T cells. The DMAb-transfected cells and supernatants were harvested after 48 hours and a total IgG ELISA was performed on the cell lysates and in the medium, which verified DMAb IgG production and secretion (Figure IB, panels i and ii). A Western blot was also performed to confirm that both antibody heavy and light chains were expressed. The heavy chain for the bispecific DMAb runs at a higher molecular weight as it encodes two variable region specificities (Figure 1C). pGXOOOl DNA vector was included as a negative control and purified anti-PcrV IgGl as a positive control.

[00247] Expression of anti-P. aeruginosa DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA in mice

[00248] Following confirmation of in vitro expression, expression of DNA-delivered DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA in mice was examined. To confirm DMAb expression in mouse muscle, anti-P. aeruginosa DMAb-aPcrV (100 μg), DMAb-BiSPA (100 μg), control DMAb-DVSF3 (100 μg), or control pGXOOOl empty vector (100 μg), were administered to BALB/c mice by intramuscular injection (IM) in the tibialis anterior (TA), followed by intramuscular electroporation (IM-EP). Muscle tissue was harvested 3 days post-injection and sections were probed with a goat anti-human IgG Fc antibody followed by detection with a donkey anti-goat IgG conjugated to AF488 (Figure 2). Following confirmation of expression in vivo, further experiments were performed to assay DMAb levels in systemic circulation. Human IgGl induces an anti-antibody response in immunocompetent mice, since it is recognized as non-self by the murine immune system. Therefore, expression was evaluated in immunocompromised B6.Cg-Foxnlnu/J athymic mice (nude) that lack T cells and have nonfunctional B cells. Anti-P. aeruginosa DMAb-aPcrV (100 μg) or DMAb-BiSPA (100 μg) was administered to nude mice (n=5/group) IM in the TA or quadriceps (quad) muscles, followed by IM-EP. Serum was collected to monitor long-term human IgGl expression in circulation. Expression of both DMAbs was observed for 100-120 days post-administration, supporting the hypothesis that these novel DNA-delivered mAbs can be produced in skeletal muscle in significant amounts detectable in systemic circulation, with expression for several weeks (Figure 3A and Figure 3D).

[00249] Next, DMAb expression was evaluated in immunocompetent BALB/c mice as they are commonly used as a model for P. aeruginosa infection. Mice (n=10/group) were administered 100μg and 300μg doses (3 injection sites x 100 μg) of DMAb-aPcrV or DMAb-BiSPA by IM-EP. Peak DMAb expression levels were observed at day 7 following injection and were 7.1-17.1 μg/ml and 2.9-7.2 μg /ml at the 100 μg dose and 31.2 -49.7 μg/mL and 3.2-12.7 μg/mL at the 300 μg dose for DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA, respectively (Figure 3B and Figure 3E). Human IgGl DMAb expression in BALB/c mice was eliminated by the mouse immune system by Day 14 (Figure 4A and Figure 4B). For comparison, a mouse IgG2a DMAb was also designed. This demonstrated long-term expression >100 days in immune competent BALB/c mice, demonstrating long expression of DMAbs without elimination by the immune system (Figure 4C.) To confirm the target antigen specificity of DMAbs, the day 7 post-administration serum was also assayed and confirmed for binding to recombinant PcrV protein by ELISA (Figure 3C and Figure 3F).

[00250] Evaluation of DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA in a lethal pneumonia model

[00251] The in vitro and in vivo expression studies indicated that DMAbs form full, human IgGl antibodies that bind to recombinant PcrV protein. To address the functional activity of in vivo DNA-delivered DMAbs, protection against the highly pathogenic and cytotoxic P. aeruginosa strain, 6077 (PA 6077) was evaluated, using a lethal mouse pneumonia infection model. Mice were injected five days before PA 6077 challenge with DMAb-aPcrV (300 μg), DMAb-BiSPA (300 ug), or an unrelated control DMAb-DVSF3 (300 μg) that targets dengue virus (Flingaiet al, 2015, Sci Rep 5, 12616). A positive control group was also included in which mice received protein ABC 123 IgG (2 mg/kg) one day before challenge. Randomly selected animals from DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA treated animals were euthanized to

monitor DMAb expression levels in serum at the time of challenge as well as to evaluate the potency of the expressed DMAbs. As indicated in Figure 5A, both monospecific DMAb-aPcrV and bispecific DMAb-BiSPA exhibited median titers of approximately 16 and 8 μg/ml, respectively, when quantifying total human IgG from serum. The potency of in vivo expressed DMAb-aPcrV and DMAb-BiSPA was evaluated by quantifying antibody expression based on the anti-cytotoxic activity from serum. No difference was observed in the quantification methods, indicating that in vivo expressed monospecific and bispecific DMAb-IgGs are fully functional and equivalent in activity in comparison to bioprocessed IgG (Figure 5A). The remaining animals in each group were then challenged with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa by intranasal inoculation followed by monitoring of survival for 6 days post-infection (144 hours). Animals receiving the control DMAb-DVSF3 succumbed to infection within 24-55 hours. In contrast, approximately 94% of animals (15/16) that received either DMAb-aPcrV or DMAb-BiSPA survived challenge (Figure 5B, p<0.0001 in comparison with DMAb-DVSF3). As expected, positive control animals receiving ABC 123 IgG (2mg/kg) all survived challenge. In addition, treatment of mice with DMAb-BiSPA at 10(^g (1 site x 10(^g), 20(^g (2 sites x 10(^g), or 30(^g (3 sites x 10(^g) followed by infection with P. aeruginosa, yielded concentration-dependent survival (Figure 5C). These results were consistent with the quantification of expressed DMAb-BiSPA in serum from these animals, in which the serum protein concentration of DMAb-BiSPA decreased with decreasing amounts of electroporated DNA (Figure 5D).

[00252] The ability of mti-Pseudomonas DMAbs to reduce the bacterial burden in the lungs and to prevent systemic bacterial dissemination was analyzed. Lungs, spleen, and kidneys were assayed 24 hours post-challenge with P. aeruginosa followed by quantification of colony forming units (CFUs) in each tissue. A significant reduction in CFU lung burden was observed with DMAb-BiSPA but not DMAb-aPcrV -treated animals (Figure 6A).

Importantly, bacterial burden in the lungs of DMAb-BiSPA -treated animals were similar to the lung burden observed from mice treated with protein ABC123 IgG and both anti-Pseudomonas DMAbs reduced dissemination of bacteria to the spleen and kidneys when compared to the control DMAb-DVSF3 (Figure 6A). In addition, DMAb-aPcrV, DMAb-BiSPA, and ABC 123 IgG were effective in preventing pulmonary edema in infected animals, as measured by lung weight, compared to control DMAb-DVSF3 treated mice (Figure 6B). Consistent with these results, proinflammatory cytokines IL-Ιβ and IL-6 as well as the chemokine KC/GRO (Figure 6C) were also reduced in mti-Pseudomonas DMAb-treated and

protein IgG-treated mice vs. the control DMAb-DVSF3. Serum IgG levels were compared between uninfected animals and infected animals 24 hours post-PA 6077 challenge (Figure 6D). Taken together, this data suggests that DNA-delivered mAbs produced in vivo in skeletal muscle mediate protective activity and exhibit similar potency to exogenously produced IgG mAbs.

[00253] Lung histopathology following challenge

[00254] Histopathology of lungs harvested at 48 hours post-infection demonstrated a marked alveolitis in DMAb-DVSF3-treated animals with infiltrates of neutrophils and macrophages within alveolar and perivascular spaces, along with areas of hemorrhage and alveolar necrosis. In contrast, and consistent with the reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from lung supernatants described above, there was a clear reduction in inflammation with mild populations of primarily neutrophils and fewer macrophages in DMAb-BiSPA treated animals with similar changes seen as well as in the DMAb-aPcrV and control ABC123 IgG groups (Figure 7).

[00255] DMAb combination with antibiotics

[00256] Broad-spectrum carbapenem family antibiotics such as meropenem (MEM) are administered when a Gram negative or P. aeruginosa infection is suspected. Further last-resort antibiotic regimens, such as colistin, are associated with high toxicity in humans (Falagas et al., 2005, BMC Infect Dis 5, 1 ; Lim et al, 2010, Pharmacotherapy 30, 1279-1291) and there is the potential for the bacterium to acquire further anti-microbial resistance (Hirsch and Tarn, 2010, Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 10, 441-451; Lister et al, 2009, Clin Microbiol Rev 22, 582-610; Breidenstein et al, 2011, Trends Microbiol 19, 419-426). Therefore alternative and adjunctive strategies to reduce these risks would be highly advantageous. The potential application of DMAb-BiSPA treatment was evaluated in combination with MEM. For these experiments, a subtherapeutic dose of MEM (2.3 mg/kg) was used to simulate the inadequate drug exposure encountered in patients infected with a resistant bacterium, and a subtherapeutic dose of DMAb-BiSPA (100 μg, identified in Figure 5C). Combining these subtherapeutic dosages resulted in 67% survival compared with 10% in animals that received DMAb-BiSPA alone (p=0.026, Figure 8.) Control mice that received MEM alone or the DMAb-DVSF3 did not survive lethal challenge. Taken together, this expands the application of DMAb treatment as either a standalone treatment or in combination with existing antibiotic regimens. Furthermore, this data supports the hypothesis that DMAb administration functions similarly to purified IgG mAbs and can mediate

enhanced protective activity when combined with standard of care antibiotic treatment regimens.

[00257] The field of mAb engineering is evolving dynamically and DMAb delivery offers an additional strategy to help transport biologically functional mAbs rapidly in vivo. In addition to obvious clinical benefits, in vivo expression of non-traditional bispecific mAb isoforms, as presented here, emphasizes the versatility of muscle to be engaged as protein production factories. Importantly, DMAb expression is transient, with similar efficacy to other therapeutic deliveries. It may be possible to develop an inducible system that will eliminate the DNA plasmid when it is no longer needed. Alternatively, DMAb DNA can potentially be re-administered indefinitely as there are no associated anti-vector responses, allowing for long term therapy through repeat administration (Hirao et al, 2010, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 18, 1568-1576; Williams, 2013, Vaccines 1, 225-249; Schmaljohn et al, 2014, Virus research 187, 91-96). DMAb delivery represents a significant advancement not only for mAb therapy and DNA-delivery technology, but also for novel pathogen-specific treatment approaches to enhance host immunity.

[00258] Recently delivery of DNA-encoded antibodies that target Her2 in a mouse model of human breast cancer carcinoma has been reported (Kim et al., 2016, Cancer Gene Ther 23, 341-347). This study demonstrated anti -tumor efficacy comparable to protein IgG, further supporting the concept that a gene-encoded mAb can have functionality. This is the first demonstration of DNA-encoded mAb (DMAb) delivery that is protective against a bacterial target and the first delivery of an engineered IgG isoform. Early studies with DNA plasmid-encoded antibodies demonstrated feasibility but exhibited low IgG expression in serum (Tjelle et al, 2004, Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 9, 328-336; Perez et al, 2004, Genet Vaccines Ther 2, 2). The protective efficacy of DMAbs targeting viral infections has previously been studies, showing rapid protection against chikungunya (Muthumani et al, 2016, J Infect Dis 214, 369-378) and dengue virus (DENV) infections (Flingai et al, 2005, Sci Rep 5, 12616). The DMAb targeting DENV also did not promote antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. These two infectious disease models did not require high serum IgG levels, however optimized DMAb formulations to increase expression levels are desirable so as to provide extended coverage after a single DMAb administration. Towards this end, serum DMAb expression levels were optimized for use against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Figure 9). This work included the inclusion of

hyaluronidase into the formulation regimen, which allowed for greater IgG expression from the treated muscle.

[00259] Although further study is required for translation to humans, DMAbs are a step towards enabling routine delivery of mAb, with the potential for increasing accessibility to diverse communities worldwide. Dose translation in larger animals and humans will be important to address in future studies, particularly understanding DNA dose-limitations during DMAb administration. This includes investigating different delivery and formulation optimizations that will enhance DNA expression in vivo. One strategy may be to employ other extracellular matrix enzymes to facilitate DNA entry into muscle cells 37. Further study in non-human primates may help to understand the threshold for DNA dosage and impact on pharmacokinetic levels. Additional studies evaluating the glycosylation patterns of human IgG DMAbs produced in muscle would be beneficial to compare with bioprocessed protein IgG, however in the context of the current study there was no difference in functionality between DMAb and its protein IgG counterpart.

[00260] In conclusion, the work described herein could be of tremendous significance for the treatment of AMR infections, particularly against ESKAPE pathogens that are refractory to many broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. DMAbs are versatile and can deliver monospecific IgGs against multiple antigenic targets as well as encode novel bispecific IgGs. The sustained serum mAb trough levels produced by a single dose of DMAb are consistent with functionality and protective levels afforded by bioprocessed protein IgG in vivo. The rapid development of this platform and prolonged transient expression from muscle are favourable in comparison with protein IgG mAb regimens as it could enable less frequent mAb administration. Furthermore, DMAbs are temperature stable allowing for transport, long-term storage, and administration to broader populations. These attractive features combined with the safety profile of DNA delivery in humans, support further DMAb studies in larger animal models as a pathogen-specific approach to targeting infectious diseases and other potential therapeutic targets.

[00261] Table 1 : Sequence Descriptions

amino acid sequence of pGX9309: V2L2M D light chain

nucleotide sequence of pGX9214: Pseudo-V2L2MD; DMAb-aPcrV

amino acid sequence of pGX9214: Pseudo-V2L2M D; DMAb-aPcrV

nucleotide sequence of pGX9247: V2L2 with Rhesus Fc in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV amino acid sequence of pGX9247: V2L2 with Rhesus Fc in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV

nucleotide sequence of pGX9248: Pseudo-V2L2MD rbFc; DMAb-aPcrV amino acid sequence of pGX9248: Pseudo-V2L2M D rbFc; DMAb-aPcrV nucleotide sequence of pGX9257 heavy chain: Pseudo-V2L2M D in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV

amino acid sequence of pGX9257 heavy chain : Pseudo-V2L2MD in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV

nucleotide sequence of pGX9258: Psuedo-V2L2MD-YTE only in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV

amino acid sequence of pGX9258: Psuedo-V2L2M D-YTE only in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV

nucleotide sequence of pGX9257 light chain : Pseudo-V2L2M D in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV

amino acid sequence of pGX9257 light chain: Pseudo-V2L2M D in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV

nucleotide sequence of pGX9213: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4-V2L2M D/Psl0096); DMAb-BiSPA

amino acid sequence of pGX9213: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4-V2L2M D/Psl0096); DMAb-BiSPA

nucleotide sequence of pGX9215: Pseudo-Psl0096; DMAb-aPsl

amino acid sequence of pGX9215: Pseudo-Psl0096; DMAb-aPsl

nucleotide sequence of pGX9259: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4-V2L2M D/Psl0096)-YTE only pGXOOOl; DMAb-BiSPA

amino acid sequence of pGX9259: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4-V2L2M D/Psl0096)-YTE only pGXOOOl; DMAb-BiSPA

furin cleavage sequence

amino acid sequence of a heavy chain leader sequence

amino acid sequence of a light chain leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9308: V2L2MD heavy chain operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

amino acid sequence of pGX9308: V2L2M D heavy chain operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9309: V2L2MD light chain operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

amino acid sequence of pGX9309: V2L2M D light chain operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9214: Pseudo-V2L2MD; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

amino acid sequence of pGX9214: Pseudo-V2L2M D; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9247: V2L2 with Rhesus Fc in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

amino acid sequence of pGX9247: V2L2 with Rhesus Fc in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9248: Pseudo-V2L2MD rbFc; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

amino acid sequence of pGX9248: Pseudo-V2L2M D rbFc; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9257 heavy chain: Pseudo-V2L2M D in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

amino acid sequence of pGX9257 heavy chain : Pseudo-V2L2MD in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9258: Psuedo-V2L2MD-YTE only in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence amino acid sequence of pGX9258: Psuedo-V2L2M D-YTE only in pGXOOOl; DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

nucleotide sequence of pGX9257 light chain : Pseudo-V2L2M D in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

41 amino acid sequence of pGX9257 light chain: Pseudo-V2L2M D in pGX0003 (sCMV-light chain, hCMV-heavy chain); DMAb-aPcrV operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

42 nucleotide sequence of pGX9213: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4- V2L2M D/Psl0096); DMAb-BiSPA operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

43 amino acid sequence of pGX9213: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4- V2L2M D/Psl0096); DMAb-BiSPA operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

44 nucleotide sequence of pGX9215: Pseudo-Psl0096; DMAb-aPsl operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

45 amino acid sequence of pGX9215: Pseudo-Psl0096; DMAb-aPsl operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

46 nucleotide sequence of pGX9259: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4- V2L2M D/Psl0096)-YTE only pGXOOOl; DMAb-BiSPA operably linked to a sequence encoding an IgE leader sequence

47 amino acid sequence of pGX9259: Bispecific Pseudomonas (Bis4- V2L2M D/Psl0096)-YTE only pGXOOOl; DMAb-BiSPA operably linked to an IgE leader sequence

[00262] It is understood that the foregoing detailed description and accompanying examples are merely illustrative and are not to be taken as limitations upon the scope of the invention, which is defined solely by the appended claims and their equivalents.

[00263] Various changes and modifications to the disclosed embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications, including without limitation those relating to the chemical structures, substituents, derivatives, intermediates, syntheses, compositions, formulations, or methods of use of the invention, may be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof.