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1. (WO2019008172) TARGET-ENRICHED MULTIPLEXED PARALLEL ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSMENT OF TUMOR BIOMARKERS
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TARGET-ENRICHED MULTIPLEXED PARALLEL ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSMENT OF TUMOR

BIOMARKERS

Field of the Invention

The invention is in the field of biology, medicine and chemistry, more in particular in the field of molecular biology and more in particular in the field of molecular diagnostics.

Background of the Invention

The identification of tumor biomarkers has been an important advance in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of cancers. Various methods of detecting tumor biomarkers are known in the art; however, additional methods are still needed, in particular methods that allow for detection of tumor biomarkers non-invasively, such as in a plasma sample (liquid biopsy). The identification of hereditary (germline) mutations in patients with cancer or high risk individuals suspected of cancer-predisposing syndrome is a useful clinical tool that enables early medical intervention, prophylactic surgery and close monitoring. These germline mutations can be identified in an individual's healthy tissue (such as buccal swab or lymphocytes).

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been implemented in the development of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). In 2008, two independent groups demonstrated that NIPT of trisomy 21 could be achieved using next generation massively parallel shotgun sequencing (MPSS) (Chiu, . W. et a/.(2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20458-20463;

Fan, H.C. et a/.(2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:16266-162710). Large-scale clinical studies using NGS for NIPT have been described (Palomaki, G.E. et al. (2011) Genet. Med. 13:913-920;

Ehrich, M. et al. (2011) Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 204:205el-ll; Chen, E.Z. et al. (2011) PLoS One 6:e21791; Sehnert, A.J. et al. (2011) Clin. Chem. 57:1042-1049; Palomaki, G.E. et al. (2012); Genet.

Med. 14:296-305; Bianchi, D.W. et al. (2012) Obstet. Gynecol. 119:890-901; Zimmerman, B. et al.

(2012) Prenat. Diag. 32:1233-1241; Nicolaides, K.H. et al. (2013) Prenat. Diagn. 33:575-579;

Sparks, A.B. et al. (2012) Prenat. Diagn. 32:3-9).

Initial NIPT approaches used massively parallel shotgun sequencing (MPSS) NGS methodologies (see e.g., US Patent No. 7,888,017; US Patent No. 8,008,018; US Patent No. 8,195,415; US Patent No. 8,296,076; US Patent No. 8,682,594; US Patent Publication 20110201507; US Patent Publication 20120270739). Thus, these approaches are whole genome-based. More recently, targeted-based NGS approaches for NIPT, in which only specific sequences of interest are sequenced, have been developed. For example, a targeted NIPT approach using TArget Capture Sequences (TACS) for identifying fetal chromosomal abnormalities using a maternal blood sample has been described (PCT Publication WO 2016/189388; US Patent Publication 2016/0340733; Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855.). Such targeted approaches require significantly less sequencing than the MPSS approaches, since sequencing is only performed on specific loci on the target sequence of interest rather than across the whole genome.

Additional methodologies for NGS-based approaches are still needed, in particular approaches that can target specific sequences of interest, such as for example tumor biomarkers, thereby greatly reducing the amount of sequencing needed as compared to whole genome-based approaches, as well as increasing the read-depth of regions of interest, thus enabling detection of low signal to noise ratio regions. In particular, additional methodologies are still needed that allow for genetic aberrations present in diminutive amounts in a sample to be reliably detected, such as for example in the early detection of cancer.

Summary of the Invention

This invention provides improved methods for enriching targeted genomic regions of interest to be analyzed by multiplexed parallel sequencing, wherein the enriched sequences are tumor biomarker sequences and the DNA sample used in the method is from a subject having or suspected of having a tumor. Accordingly, the methods allow for detection of tumor biomarkers in a variety of biological samples, including liquid samples, such as plasma samples (liquid biopsy), thereby providing non-invasive means for tumor detection and monitoring. The methods of the invention utilize a pool of TArget Capture Sequences (TACS) designed such that the sequences within the pool have features that optimize the efficiency, specificity and accuracy of genetic assessment of tumor biomarkers. The methods of the invention can be used, for example, in cancer diagnosis, cancer screening, cancer treatment regimen selection and/or cancer therapy monitoring.

Accordingly, in one aspect, the invention pertains to a method of detecting one or more tumor biomarkers in a DNA sample from a subject having or suspected of having a tumor, the method comprising:

(a) preparing a sequencing library from the DNA sample;

(b) hybridizing the sequencing library to a pool of double-stranded TArget Capture Sequences (TACS) that bind to one or more tumor biomarker sequences of interest, wherein:

(i) each member sequence within the pool of TACS is between 100-500 base pairs in length, each member sequence having a 5' end and a 3' end;

(ii) preferably each member sequence binds to the tumor biomarker sequence of interest at least 50 base pairs away, on both the 5' end and the 3' end, from regions harboring Copy Number Variations (CNVs), Segmental duplications or repetitive DNA elements; and

(iii) the GC content of the pool of TACS is between 19% and 80%, as determined by calculating the GC content of each member within the pool of TACS;

(c) isolating members of the sequencing library that bind to the pool of TACS to obtain an enriched library;

(d) amplifying and sequencing the enriched library; and

(e) performing statistical analysis on the enriched library sequences, optionally utilizing only fragments of a specific size range, to thereby detect the tumor biomarker(s) in the DNA sample.

In one embodiment, the pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families, wherein each member of a TACS family binds to the same tumor biomarker sequence of interest but with different start and/or stop positions on the sequence with respect to a reference coordinate system (i.e., binding of TACS family members to the target sequence is staggered) to thereby enrich for target sequences of interest, followed by massive parallel sequencing and statistical analysis of the enriched population. The use of families of TACS with the TACS pool that bind to each target sequence of interest, as compared to use of a single TACS within the TACS pool that binds to each target sequence of interest, significantly increases enrichment for the target sequences of interest, as evidenced by a greater than 50% average increase in read-depth for the family of TACS versus a single TACS. Herein, the mutations detected or biomarkers detected may be due to somatic mutation or may be hereditary, i.e already present in the germ line.

Accordingly, in one embodiment, the pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families directed to different tumor biomarker sequences of interest, wherein each TACS family comprises a plurality of member sequences, wherein each member sequence binds to the same tumor

biomarker sequence of interest but has different start and/or stop positions with respect to a reference coordinate system for the genomic sequence of interest.

In certain embodiments, each TACS family comprises at least 3 member sequences or at least 5 member sequences. Alternative numbers of member sequences in each TACS family are described herein. In one embodiment, the pool of TACS comprises at least 50 different TACS families. Alternative numbers of different TACS families within the pool of TACS are described herein. In certain embodiments, the start and/or stop positions for the member sequences within a TACS family, with respect to a reference coordinate system for the genomic sequence of interest, are staggered by at least 3 base pairs or at least 5 base pairs or by at least 10 base pairs. Alternative lengths (sizes) for the number of base pairs within the stagger are described herein.

In one embodiment, each member sequence within the pool of TACS is at least 160 base pairs in length. In certain embodiments, the GC content of the pool of TACS is between 19% and 80% or is between 19% and 46%. Alternative % ranges for the GC content of the pool of TACS are described herein.

In one embodiment, the pool of TACS is fixed to a solid support. For example, in one embodiment, the TACS are biotinylated and are bound to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads.

In one embodiment, amplification of the enriched library is performed in the presence of blocking sequences that inhibit amplification of wild-type sequences.

In one embodiment, members of the sequencing library that bind to the pool of TACS are partially complementary to the TACS.

In one embodiment, the statistical analysis comprises a segmentation algorithm, for example, likelihood-based segmentation, segmentation using small overlapping windows, segmentation using parallel pairwise testing, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the statistical analysis comprises a score-based classification system. In one embodiment, sequencing of the enriched library provides a read-depth for the genomic sequences of interest and read-depths for reference loci and the statistical analysis comprises applying an algorithm that tests sequentially the read-depth of the loci of from the genomic sequences of interest against the read-depth of the reference loci, the algorithm comprising steps for: (a) removal of inadequately sequenced loci; (b) GC-content bias alleviation; and (c) genetic status determination. In one embodiment, GC-content bias is alleviated by grouping together loci of matching GC content. In one embodiment, sequencing of the enriched library provides the number and size of sequenced

fragments for TACS-specific coordinates and the statistical analysis comprises applying an algorithm that tests sequentially the fragment-size proportion for the genomic sequence of interest against the fragment-size proportion of the reference loci, the algorithm comprising steps for: (a) removal of fragment-size outliers; (b) fragment-size proportion calculation; and (c) genetic status determination.

In one embodiment, the DNA sample comprises cell free tumor DNA (cftDNA). In various embodiments, the DNA sample is selected from a group comprising of a plasma sample, a urine sample, a sputum sample, a cerebrospinal fluid sample, an ascites sample and a pleural effusion sample from subject having or suspected of having a tumor. In one embodiment, the DNA sample is from a tissue sample from a subject having or suspected of having a tumor.

In one embodiment, the pool of TACS binds to a plurality of tumor biomarker sequences of interest selected from a group comprising ABL, AKT, AKT1, ALK, APC, A , ARAF, ATM, BAP1, BARD1, BCL, BMPR1A, BRAF, BRCA, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CDKN, CHEK2, CTNNB1, DDB2, DDR2, DICERl, EGFR, EPCAM, ErbB, ErcC, ESR1, FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FBXW7, FGFR, FLT, FLT3, FOXA1, FOXL2, GATA3, GNA11, GNAQ, GNAS, GREM1, HOX, HOXB13, HRAS, IDH1, JAK, JAK2, KEAP1, KIT, KRAS, MAP2Ks, MAP3Ks, MET, MLH1, MPL, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MTOR, MUTYH, NBN, NPM1, NRAS, NTRK1, PALB2, PDGFRs, PI3KCS, PMS2, POLD1, POLE, POLH, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D, RAF1, RBI, RET, RUNX1, SLX4, SMAD, SMAD4, SMARCA4, SPOP, STAT, STK11, TP53, VHL, XPA and XPC, and combinations thereof.

In another embodiment, the pool of TACS binds to a plurality of tumor biomarker sequences of interest selected from a group comprising , AKT1, ALK, APC, AR, ARAF, ATM, BAP1, BARD1, BMPR1A, BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CDK4, CDKN2A (pl4ARF), CDKN2A (pl6INK4a), CHEK2, CTNNB1, DDB2, DDR2, DICERl, EGFR, EPCAM, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ESR1, FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FLT3, FOXA1, FOXL2, GATA3, GNA11, GNAQ, GNAS, GREM1, HOXB13, IDH1, IDH2, JAK2, KEAP1, KIT, KRAS, MAP2K1, MAP3K1, MEN1, MET, MLH1, MPL, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MTOR, MUTYH, MYC, MYCN, NBN, NPM1, NRAS, NTRK1, PALB2, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PMS2, POLD1, POLE, POLH, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D, RAF1, RBI, RET, ROS1, RUNX1, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SLX4, SMAD4, SMARCA4, SPOP, STAT, STK11, TMPRSS2, TP53, VHL, XPA, XPC and combinations thereof.

In one embodiment, the pool of TACS binds to a plurality of tumor biomarker sequences of interest selected from a group comprising EGFR_6240, KRAS_521, EGFR_6225, NRAS_578,

NRAS_580, PIK3CA_763, EGFR_13553, EGFR_18430, BRAF_476, KIT_1314, NRAS_584, EGFR_12378, and combinations thereof.

In another embodiment, the pool of TACS binds to a plurality of tumor biomarker sequences of interest selected from a group comprising COSM6240 (EGFR_6240), COSM521 (KRAS_521), COSM6225 (EGFR_6225), COSM578 (NRAS_578), COSM580 (NRAS_580), COSM763 (PIK3CA_763), COSM13553 (EGFR_13553), COSM18430 (EGFR_18430), COSM476 (BRAF_476), COSM1314 (KIT_1314), COSM584 (NRAS_584), COSM12378 (EGFR_12378), and combinations thereof, wherein the identifiers refer to the COSMIC database ID number of the biomarker.

In one embodiment, the method further comprises making a diagnosis of the subject based on detection of at least one tumor biomarker sequence. In another embodiment, the method further comprises selecting a therapeutic regimen for the subject based on detection of at least one tumor biomarker sequence. In yet another embodiment, the method further comprises monitoring treatment efficacy of a therapeutic regimen in the subject based on detection of at least one tumor biomarker sequence.

In another aspect, kits for performing the methods of the invention are also encompassed.

Brief Description of the Figures

The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.

Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of multiplexed parallel analysis of targeted genomic regions for non-invasive prenatal testing using TArget Capture Sequences (TACS).

Figure 2 is a listing of exemplary chromosomal regions for amplifying TACS that bind to for example chromosomes 13, 18, 21 or X. A more extensive list is shown in Table 1 below.

Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of TACS-based enrichment of a sequence of interest (bold line) using a single TACS (left) versus TACS-based enrichment using a family of TACS (right).

Figures 4A-4B are graphs showing enrichment using families of TACS versus a single TACS, as illustrated by increase in the average read-depth. Figure 4A shows loci enriched using a family of TACS (red dots) as compared to loci enriched using a single TACS (blue dots), with different target sequences shown on the x-axis and the fold change in read-depth shown on the y-axis. Figure 4B is a bar graph illustrating the average fold-increase in read-depth (54.7%) using a family of TACS (right) versus a single TACS (left).

Figure 5 shows bar graphs illustrating detection of known genetic mutations that are tumor biomarkers in certified reference material harboring the mutations. Two replicates of the reference material are shown. The line illustrates the expected minor allele frequency (MAF) for each of the assessed tumor loads. The bars (x-axis) illustrate the detected MAF (y-axis) for the indicated genetic mutations in the certified reference material.

Figure 6 shows bar graphs illustrating detection of tumor biomarkers in cancer patient samples. Results are shown for two patients, one harboring mutation PIK3CA E545K (top bars) and one harboring mutation TP53 K139 (bottom bars). Both tumor tissue samples ("Tissue Rep. 1" and "Tissue Rep. 2") and plasma samples ("Plasma") are shown. The y-axis shows % variant allele frequency (VAF) detected in the samples.

Figure 7 is a bar graph showing the observed pattern of somatic SNVs in breast cancer, as found in the COSMIC database. The x-axis shows a single base mutation observed in cancer in the context of its neighboring sequences. For example A[C>A]T describes the mutation of Cytosine (C ) to Adenine (A) where the upstream sequence is Adenine and the downstream sequence is Thymine. The y-axis shows the frequency of occurrence of this mutation in breast cancer.

Figure 8 is a bar graph showing results of a simulations study where simulated sequencing data includes mutational motifs. The data were subjected to mutational motif detection. The bars indicate the average estimated frequency of the known mutational breast cancer motifs computed from a data set of 10000 simulations. Results illustrate that detection of mutational motifs is possible using the developed algorithm.

Figure 9 is a dot plot graph showing results of a fragments-based test for detecting increased numbers of smaller-size fragments in a mixed sample. An abnormal, aneuploid sample,

with an estimated fetal fraction of 2.8%, was correctly detected using this method. The black dots are individual samples. The x-axis shows the sample index. The y-axis shows the score result of the fragments-size based method. A score result greater than the threshold shown by the grey line indicates a deviation from the expected size of fragments illustrating the presence of aneuploidy.

Figure 10 is a listing of exemplary chromosomal regions for amplifying TACS that bind to exemplary, non-limiting tumor biomarker genes.

Table 1 shows exemplary and preferred TACS positions.

Chr. Start Stop GC Gene Chr. Start Stop GC Gene chr1 11169250 11169491 0 .434 MTOR chrl7 378 80017 378 ί 30264 0. 528 ERBB2 chr1 11169262 11169509 0 .419 MTOR chrl7 378 80031 378 ί 30255 0. 524 ERBB2 chr1 11169280 11169519 0 .400 MTOR chrl7 378 80061 378 ί 30274 0. 505 ERBB2 chr1 11169299 11169548 0 .392 MTOR chrl7 378 80069 378 ί 30274 0. 500 ERBB2 chr1 11174376 11174632 0 .541 MTOR chrl7 378 80955 378 £ 31196 0. 595 ERBB2 chr1 11174392 11174632 0 .535 MTOR chrl7 378 80969 378 £ 31216 0. 589 ERBB2 chr1 11174392 11174691 0 .527 MTOR chrl7 378 80974 378 £ 31216 0. 593 ERBB2 chr1 11174468 11174698 0 .515 MTOR chrl7 378 80983 378 £ 31227 0. 592 ERBB2 chr1 11184541 11184796 0 .504 MTOR chrl7 378 81166 378 £ 31380 0. 609 ERBB2 chr1 11184563 11184812 0 .504 MTOR chrl7 378 81201 378 £ 31450 0. 584 ERBB2 chr1 11184564 11184816 0 .502 MTOR chrl7 378 81273 378 £ 31520 0. 573 ERBB2 chr1 11187992 11188236 0 .535 MTOR chrl7 378 81304 378 £ 31521 0. 573 ERBB2 chr1 11188010 11188249 0 .521 MTOR chrl7 378 81453 378 £ 31652 0. 595 ERBB2 chr1 11188018 11188257 0 .513 MTOR chrl7 378 81465 378 £ 31668 0. 598 ERBB2 chr1 11188029 11188274 0 .492 MTOR chrl7 378 81510 378 £ 31737 0. 601 ERBB2 chr1 17345194 17345459 0 .316 SDHB chrl7 378 81598 378 £ 31798 0. 632 ERBB2 chr1 17349096 17349342 0 .543 SDHB chrl7 41196311 41196511 0. 393 BRCA1 chr1 17350413 17350563 0 .497 SDHB chrl7 41197220 41197464 0. 429 BRCA1 chr1 17350566 17350779 0 .430 SDHB chrl7 41197314 41197566 0. 419 BRCA1 chr1 17354089 17354304 0 .463 SDHB chrl7 41197571 41197819 0. 550 BRCA1 chr1 17355058 17355208 0 .417 SDHB chrl7 41199637 41199729 0. 559 BRCA1 chr1 17359477 17359689 0 .427 SDHB chrl7 41201055 41201304 0. 476 BRCA1 chr1 17371214 17371394 0 .470 SDHB chrl7 41202997 41203243 0. 449 BRCA1 chr1 17380408 17380619 0 .670 SDHB chrl7 41209041 41209195 0. 445 BRCA1 chr1 43814917 43815186 0 .633 MPL chrl7 41215338 41215577 0. 433 BRCA1 chr1 45795001 45795250 0 .536 MUTYH chrl7 41215806 41216045 0. 375 BRCA1 chr1 45796024 45796223 0 .530 MUTYH chrl7 41219623 41219726 0. 337 BRCA1 chr1 45796871 45797092 0 .536 MUTYH chrl7 41222828 41223088 0. 402 BRCA1 chr1 45797060 45797289 0 .648 MUTYH chrl7 41222835 41223088 0. 406 BRCA1 chr1 45797289 45797529 0 .635 MUTYH chrl7 41222885 41223141 0. 444 BRCA1

chr1 45797602 45797802 0.577 MUTYH chrl 7 41223090 41223269 0.494 BRCA1 chrl 45797819 45798019 0. 622 MUTYH chrl 7 41256181 41256358 0. 315 BRCA1 chr1 45797986 45798270 BRCA1

0. 593 MUTYH chrl 7 41256830 41257034 0. 376 chrl 45798204 45798404 0. 602 MUTYH chr17 41256884 41257140 0. 339 BRCA1 chrl 45798364 45798564 0. 547 MUTYH chrl 7 41258410 41258681 0. 324 BRCA1 chrl 45798532 45798732 0. 557 MUTYH chrl 7 41267593 41267807 0. 371 BRCA1 chrl 45798672 45798872 0. 567 MUTYH chrl 7 41267602 41267807 0. 369 BR A1 chrl 45798867 45799097 0. 628 MUTYH chrl 7 41267603 41267794 0. 354 BRCA1 chrl 45799150 45799357 0. 582 MUTYH chrl 7 41267603 41267834 0. 371 BRCA1 chrl 45800062 45800304 0. 539 MUTYH chrl 7 41267630 41267779 0. 353 BRCA1 chrl 115252133 115252352 0. 445 NRAS chrl 7 41267645 41267836 0. 391 BRCA1 chrl 115252133 115252354 0. 441 NRAS chrl 7 41275961 41276197 0. 312 BRCA1 chrl 115252138 115252350 0. 446 NRAS chrl7 46805588 46805837 0. 672 HOXB13 chrl 115252142 115252350 0. 450 NRAS chrl 7 47696239 47696485 0. 453 SPOP chrl 115256347 115256588 0. 409 NRAS chrl 7 47696300 47696545 0. 455 SPOP chrl 115256398 115256647 0. 448 NRAS chrl 7 47696324 47696565 0. 442 SPOP chrl 115256410 115256649 0. 458 NRAS chrl 7 47696359 47696607 0. 422 SPOP chrl 115256442 115256691 0. 440 NRAS chr17 47696424 47696669 0. 415 SPOP chrl 115256467 115256726 0. 442 NRAS chrl 7 47696450 47696669 0. 405 SPOP chrl 115256470 115256715 0. 451 NRAS chrl 7 47696450 47696689 0. 413 SPOP chrl 115258538 115258778 0. .440 NRAS chrl 7 47696486 47696715 0. .387 SPOP chrl 115258570 115258813 0. .463 NRAS chrl 7 56769976 56770175 0. .590 RAD51C chrl 115258607 115258846 0. .492 NRAS ch l 7 56772289 56772542 0. .421 RAD51C chrl 115258659 115258901 0. .444 NRAS chrl 7 56773994 56774243 0. .404 RAD51C chrl 156268500 156268651 0. .454 VHLL chrl 7 56730436 56780723 0. .345 RAD51C chrl 156269007 156269221 0. .493 VHLL chrl 7 56787247 56787446 0. .365 RAD51C chrl 156846129 156846362 0. .641 NTRK1 chr17 56787285 56787460 0. .341 RAD51C chrl 156846129 156846377 0. .643 NTRK1 chrl 7 56798102 56798172 0. .352 RAD51C chrl 156846130 156846362 0. .639 NTRK1 chrl 7 56801331 56801553 0. .390 RAD51C chrl 156848889 156849132 0 .611 NTRK1 chr17 56809830 56810049 0 .382 RAD51C chrl 156848911 156849153 0 .617 NTRK1 chrl 7 56811478 56811716 0 .385 RAD51C chrl 156848921 156849168 0 .613 NTRK1 chr17 59756779 59756979 0 .313 BRIP1 chrl 156848925 156849168 0 .611 NTRK1 chrl 7 59759726 59759955 0 .252 BRIP1 chrl 161284168 161284376 0 .598 SDHC chrl 7 59760615 59760854 0 .308 BRIP1 chrl 161293229 161293429 0 .343 SDHC chrl 7 59760809 59761044 0 .335 BRIP1 chrl 161298181 161298414 0 .436 SDHC chrl7 59761001 59761201 0 .353 BRIP1 chrl 161333007 161333261 0 .447 SDHC chrl 7 59761265 59761494 0 .413 BRIP1 chrl 161333275 161333550 0 .391 SDHC chrl 7 59761395 59761636 0 .343 BRIP1 chrl 161333589 161883868 0 .439 SDHC chrl 7 59763229 59763449 0 .357 BRIP1 chrl 161333890 161334157 0 .392 SDHC chrl 7 59763460 59763660 0 .338 BRIP1 chrl 161334206 161334492 0 .394 SDHC chrl7 59770816 59771046 0 .307 BRIP1 chrl 162748235 162748450 0 .440 DDR2 chrl 7 59793106 59793349 0 .316 BRIP1 chrl 162748273 162748512 0 .442 DDR2 chrl 7 59793137 59793367 0 .338 BRIP1 chrl 162748316 162748557 0 .450 DDR2 chr17 59820379 59820551 0 .393 BRIP1 chrl 162748370 162748580 0 .483 DDR2 chrl 7 59821796 59821945 0 .373 BRIP1 chrlO 8111358 8111588 0 .506 GATA3 chr17 59853687 59853887 0 .353 BRIP1 chrlO 8111468 8111707 0.529 GATA3 Chrl7 59357537 59857737 0 888 BRIP1 chrlO 8115737 8115986 0 .572 GATA3 chrl7 59353201 59858428 0 .355 BRIP1 chrlO 8115741 8115988 0 .569 GATA3 chrl7 59361553 59861773 0 .326 BRIP1 chrlO 8115783 8115988 0 .612 GATA3 chrl7 59870956 59871190 0 .345 BRIP1 chrlO 8115789 8115988 0 .620 GATA3 chrl7 59876405 59876605 0 .388 BRIP1 chrlO 43595933 43596179 0 .623 RET chrl7 59876622 59876822 0 .284 BRIP1 chrlO 43597765 43598054 0 .614 RET chrl7 59878569 59878769 0 .413 BRIP1 chrlO 43600476 43600682 0 .686 RET chrl7 59878611 59878844 0 .397 BRIP1 chrlO 43601846 43602088 0 .633 RET chrl7 59835313 59886038 0 .439 BRIP1 chrlO 43604444 43604706 0 .620 RET chrl7 59336053 59886268 0 .346 BRIP1 chrlO 43606653 43606911 0 .595 RET chrl7 59924485 59924714 0 .348 BRIP1 chrlO 43607465 43607728 0 .659 RET chrl7 59926478 59926707 0 .348 BRIP1 chrlO 43608226 43608455 0 .596 RET chrl7 59934381 59934581 0 .383 BRIP1 chrlO 43608980 43609217 0 .626 RET chrl7 59937155 59937392 0 .374 BRIP1 chrlO 43609917 43610183 0 .625 RET chrl7 59938714 59938914 0 .333 BRIP1 chrlO 43611943 43612187 0 .522 RET chrl7 599 0627 59940827 0 .577 BRIP1 chrlO 43613689 43613933 0 s s s RET chrl7 59940844 59941054 0 .592 BRIP1 chrlO 43614921 43615150 0. .687 RET chrlS 48556368 48556604 0. .692 SMAD4 chrlO 43615517 43615759 0. .563 RET chrlS 48556363 48556608 0. .689 3MAD4 chrlO 43617287 43617531 0. .457 RET chr18 48556413 48556612 0. .680 3MAD4 chrlO 43619092 43619322 0. .584 RET chrl8 48556414 48556616 0. .675 3MAD4 chrlO 43620303 43620509 0. .551 RET chrl8 48573249 48573492 0. .328 3MAD4 chrlO 43623746 43624029 0. .493 RET chrl8 48573500 48573738 0. .364 SMAD4 chrlO 43624152 43624439 0. .490 RET chrl8 48575147 48575346 0. .340 SMAD4 chrlO 43624946 43625222 0. .433 RET chrl8 48575524 48575724 0. .294 SMAD4 chrlO 50686414 50686655 0. .368 ERCC6 chr18 48581203 48581433 0. .455 SMAD4 chrlO 88635669 88635923 0. .333 BMPR1A chrlS 48581249 48581498 0. .428 SMAD4 chrlO 33649829 88650073 0. .334 BMPR1A chrlS 48534399 43584599 0. .443 SMAD4 chrlO 88659444 88659644 0. .363 BMPR1A chrlS 48534673 48584893 0. .439 3MAD4 chrlO 88677042 88677242 0. .388 BMPR1A chrl8 48536106 48586306 0. .308 3MAD4 chrlO 89622844 89623045 0. .594 KLLN chrl8 48591791 48592035 0. .408 3MAD4 chrlO 89624131 89624370 0. .492 PTEN chrl8 48593378 48593608 0. .407 SMAD4 chrlO 89624178 89624422 0. .465 PTEN chrl8 48602902 48603166 0. .430 SMAD4 chrlO 89624198 89624444 0. .445 PTEN chrl8 48602922 48603132 0. .445 SMAD4 chrlO 89624214 89624463 0. .436 PTEN chrl8 48603000 48603249 0. .424 SMAD4 chrlO 89685273 89685522 0. .304 PTEN chrlS 48603132 48603332 0. .289 SMAD4 chrlO 89692746 89692946 0. 398 PTEN chrlS 48604566 48604815 0. 488 SMAD4 chrlO 89692746 89692977 0. 392 PTEN chrlS 48604617 48604861 0. 490 3MAD4 chrlO 89692746 89692999 0. 402 PTEN chr18 48604640 48604881 0. 492 3MAD4 chrlO 89692763 89693015 0. 403 PTEN chrl8 48604711 48604957 0. 421 3MAD4 chrlO 89692787 89692999 0. 413 PTEN chrl8 48605303 48605503 0. 294 3MAD4 chrlO 89711788 89712024 0. 380 PTEN chrl8 48605551 48605798 0. 351 SMAD4 chrlO 89711798 89712045 0. 367 PTEN chrl8 48605981 48606181 0. 318 SMAD4 chrlO 89711867 89712069 0. 399 PTEN chrl8 48606203 48606477 0. 349 SMAD4 chrlO 89711880 89712129 0. 348 PTEN chr18 48606469 48606712 0. 357 SMAD4 chrlO 89717531 89717770 0. 404 PTEN chrlS 48607311 48607586 0. 326 SMAD4 chrlO 39717558 89717802 0.403 PTEN chrlS 48607633 48607926 0.412 3MAD4 chrlO 89717558 89717831 0 .394 PTEN chrlS 43603009 48608208 0 .375 8MAD4 chrlO 89717571 89717820 0 .400 PTEN chrlS 43608225 48608485 0 .363 SMAD4 chrlO 89717602 89717831 0 .413 PTEN chrl8 43608754 48608904 0 .450 SMAD4 chrlO 89717603 89717769 0 .455 PTEN chrl8 48609535 48609685 0 .470 SMAD4 chrlO 89717627 89717872 0 .362 PTEN chrl8 48609670 48609869 0 .355 SMAD4 chrlO 89720757 89720967 0 .336 PTEN chrl8 48610653 48610803 0 .358 SMAD4 chrlO 89720757 89721005 0 .329 PTEN chrl 8 48610833 48611078 0 .488 SMAD4 chrlO 89720767 89720968 0 . 7 PTEN chrlS 48611097 48611339 0 .490 SMAD4 chrlO 39720775 89721018 0 .324 PTEN chrlS 43611405 48611605 0. .353 3MAD4 chrlO 89726371 89726571 0 .239 PTEN chrl 9 1206543 1206797 0. .643 3TK11 chrlO 89726794 89727038 0 .310 PTEN chrl9 1206613 1206843 0. .553 STK11 chrlO 89727021 89727240 0 .282 PTEN chrl9 1206770 1207017 0. .560 STK11 chrlO 89727261 89727519 0 .317 PTEN chrl9 1206962 1207206 0. .596 STK11 chrlO 89727756 89727916 0 .404 PTEN chrl9 1218302 1218502 0. .532 STK11 chrlO 89727978 89728203 0 .389 PTEN chrl9 1219161 1219399 0. .653 STK11 chrlO 89728310 89728512 0 .389 PTEN chrl9 1220251 1220492 0. .632 STK11 chrlO 89729027 89729257 0 .251 PTEN chrl 9 1220276 1220492 0. .636 STK11 chrlO 39729816 89729967 0. .336 PTEN chrl 9 1220475 1220701 0. .705 3TK11 chrlO 89730284 89730433 0. .307 PTEN chrl 9 1220502 1220701 0. .715 3TK11 chrlO 89731453 89731610 0. .329 PTEN chrl9 1220681 1220938 0. .647 STK11 c.hrll 22644366 22644570 0. .273 FANCF chrl9 1220681 1220941 0. .643 STK11 chrll 22644511 22644731 0. .344 FANCF chrl9 1221151 1221351 0. .582 STK11 chrll 22644738 22644938 0. .318 FANCF chrl9 1221821 1222071 0. .685 STK11 chrll 22645645 22645808 0. .348 FANCF chrl9 1222984 1223224 0. .643 STK11 chrll 22645808 22646060 0. .352 FANCF chrl 9 1226453 1226708 0. .715 STK11 chrll 22646058 22646268 0. .322 FANCF chrl 9 1226464 1226754 0. .704 STK11 chrll 22646388 22646588 0. .532 FANCF chrl 9 1226465 1226707 0. 716 3TK11 chrll 22646657 22646927 0. .598 FANCF chrl 9 1223261 1228461 0. 547 3TK11 chrll 22646959 22647229 0. .657 FANCF chrl9 3114798 3115046 0. 683 GNA11 chrll 22647378 22647578 0. .478 FANCF chrl9 3114798 3115049 0. 683 GNA11 chrll 47236728 47236949 0. .635 DDB2 chrl9 3114839 3115040 0. 688 GNA11 chrll 47237804 47238058 0. .537 DDB2 chrl9 3114841 3115040 0. 685 GNA11 chrll 47238291 47238491 0. .483 DDB2 chrl9 3118772 3118996 0. 622 GNA11 chrll 47254333 47254547 0. .470 DDB2 chrl 9 3118795 3119044 0. 620 GNA11 chrll 47256241 47256494 0. 547 DDB2 chrl 9 3118818 3119047 0. 613 GNA11 chrll 47256782 47257010 0. 594 DDB2 chrl 9 3113363 3119109 0. 636 GNA11 chrll 47259397 47259552 0. 468 DDB2 chrl 9 10600276 10600491 0. 583 KEAPl chrll 47259555 47259796 0. 492 DDB2 chrl9 10600284 10600528 0. 592 KEAP1 chrll 47260567 47260808 0. 483 DDB2 chrl9 10600284 10600532 0. 594 KEAPl chr11 61197603 61197830 0. 588 SDHAF2 chrl9 10602242 10602441 0. 645 KEAPl chrll 61205114 61205296 0. 481 SDHAF2 chrl9 10602423 10602671 0. 691 KEAPl chrll 61205433 61205588 0. 404 SDHAF2 chrl9 10602539 10602747 0. 632 KEAPl chrll 61213390 61213639 0. 488 SDHAF2 chrl 9 10602539 10602753 0. 628 KEAPl chrl 1 61213676 61213931 0. 508 SDHAF2 chrl 9 10602653 10602854 0. 609 KEAPl chrll 61213967 61214232 0. 462 SDHAF2 chrl 9 10610056 10610289 0. 585 KEAPl chrll 64570946 64571196 0..478 MEN1 Chrl9 10610069 10610306 0..576 KEAP1 chrll 64571178 64571436 0. .544 MEN1 chrl9 10610081 10610306 0. .580 KEAP1 chrll 64571465 64571704 0. .546 MEN1 chrl9 10610083 10610306 0. .580 KEAP1 chrll 64571732 64571978 0. .567 MEN1 chrl9 11094768 11095038 0. .697 SMARCA4 chrll 64572483 64572713 0. .619 MEN1 chrl9 11095950 11096150 0. .592 SMARCA4 chrll 64573013 64573278 0. .602 MEN1 chrl9 11096820 11097078 0. .625 SMARCA4 chrll 64573641 64573871 0. .593 MEN1 chrl9 11097475 11097685 0. .645 SMARCA4 chrll 64574483 64574728 0. .602 MEN1 chrl9 11098265 11098553 0. .706 SMARCA4 chrll 64575094 64575345 0. .544 MEN1 chrl9 11098298 11098538 0. .726 SMARCA4 chrll 64575352 64575623 0. .614 MEN1 chrl9 11098376 11098606 0. .732 SMARCA4 chrll 64577138 64577410 0. .634 MEN1 chrl9 11099901 11100111 0. .607 SMARCA4 chrll 64577437 64577683 0. .700 MEN1 chrl9 11101757 11101957 0. .612 SMARCA4 chrll 64577902 64578171 0. .681 MEN1 chrl9 11105466 11105666 0. .522 SMARCA4 chrll 94150558 94150800 0. .362 MRE11A chrl9 11106694 11106939 0. .557 SMARCA4 chrll 94151042 94151242 0. .373 MRE11A chrl9 11107143 11107352 0. .476 SMARCA4 chrll 94151616 94151816 0. .537 MRE11A chrl9 11113645 11113845 0. .592 SMARCA4 chrll 94151903 94152103 0. .343 MRE11A chrl9 11113855 11114055 0. .493 SMARCA4 chrll 94152190 94152390 0. .333 MRE11A chrl9 11118483 11118683 0. .587 SMARCA4 chrll 94153182 94153395 0. .308 MRE11A chrl9 11120977 11121177 0. .557 SMARCA4 chrll 94168979 94169178 0. .335 MRE11A chrl9 11123551 11123751 0. .592 SMARCA4 chrll 94170337 94170576 0. .300 MRE11A chrl9 11129571 11129781 0. .555 SMARCA4 chrll 94178876 94179116 0. .386 MRE11A chrl9 11130134 11130372 0. .619 SMARCA4 chrll 94180384 94180615 0. .500 MRE11A chrl9 11130167 11130367 0. .612 SMARCA4 chrll 94189360 94189588 0. .323 MRE11A chrl9 11130245 11130468 0. .585 SMARCA4 chrll 94192639 94192838 0. .370 MRE11A chrl9 11130248 11130473 0. .584 SMARCA4 chrll 94193992 94194257 0. .301 MRE11A chrl9 11132367 11132587 0. .611 SMARCA4 chrll 94197223 94197451 0. .349 MRE11A chrl9 11132607 11132807 0. .622 SMARCA4 chrll 94200864 94201064 0. .363 MRE11A chrl9 11134126 11134326 0. .557 SMARCA4 chrll 94203635 94203874 0. .404 MRE11A chrl9 11134905 11135105 0. .617 SMARCA4 chrll 94204708 94204908 0. .368 MRE11A chrl9 11135986 11136186 0. .602 SMARCA4 chrll 94209357 94209557 0. .348 MRE11A chrl9 11136874 11137104 0. .610 SMARCA4 chrll 94211862 94212106 0. .359 MRE11A chrl9 11138402 11138674 0. .502 SMARCA4 chrll 94212728 94212928 0. .378 MRE11A chrl9 11138598 11138818 0. .597 SMARCA4 chrll 94219015 94219215 0. .348 MRE11A chrl9 11141332 11141532 0. .637 SMARCA4 chrll 94219225 94219425 0. .264 MRE11A chrl9 11141549 11141749 0. .627 SMARCA4 chrll 94223880 94224120 0. .344 MRE11A chrl9 11143924 11144134 0. .621 SMARCA4 chrll 94223898 94224142 0. .327 MRE11A chrl9 11144041 11144262 0. .617 SMARCA4 chrll 94225885 94226125 0. .394 MRE11A chrl9 11144868 11145108 0. .618 SMARCA4 chrll 108093593 108093813 0. .615 ATM chrl9 11145552 11145823 0. .654 SMARCA4 chrll 108093873 108094073 0. .617 ATM chrl9 11151919 11152129 0. .616 SMARCA4 chrll 108098331 108098581 0. .335 ATM chrl9 11151919 11152189 0. .627 SMARCA4 chrll 108098372 108098572 0. .333 ATM chrl9 11152171 11152371 0. .572 SMARCA4 chrll 108098382 108098631 0. .316 ATM chrl9 11168890 11169140 0. .625 SMARCA4 chrll 108098397 108098626 0. .309 ATM chrl9 11169359 11169619 0. .644 SMARCA4 chrll 108098399 108098628 0. .304 ATM chrl9 11170610 11170850 0. .668 SMARCA4 chrll 108099818 108100062 0. .327 ATM chrl9 11172452 11172706 0. .498 SMARCA4 chrll 108106395 108106596 0.356 ATM Chrl9 11172557 11172757 0.423 3MARCA4 chrll 108114723 108115004 0. 333 ATM chrl9 11172753 11172953 0. 493 SMARCA4 chrll 108114777 108115004 0. 329 ATM chrl9 45854611 45854370 0. 581 ERCC2 chrll 108115492 108115736 0. 351 ATM chrl9 45! 554917 45855123 0. 589 ERCC2 chrll 108117690 108117930 0. 324 ATM chrl9 45! 555406 45855649 0. 656 ERCC2 chrll 108119692 108119907 0. 343 ATM chrl9 45! 555711 45855931 0. 611 ERCC2 chrll 108119737 108119952 0. 361 ATM chrl 9 45i 555908 45856123 0. 611 ER C2 chrll 108121367 108121602 0. 377 ATM chrl9 45i 555910 45856123 0. 612 ERCC2 chrll 108121609 108121764 0. 359 ATM chrl9 45i 555914 45856123 0. 610 ERCC2 chrll 108122506 108122706 0. 363 ATM chrl9 45855943 45856167 0. 609 ERCC2 chrll 108122716 108122936 0. 317 ATM chrl9 45i 355959 45856169 0. 607 ERCC2 chrll 108123498 108123718 0. 321 ATM chrl9 45i 356222 45856442 0. 652 ERCC2 chrll 108124529 108124729 0. 393 ATM chrl9 45i 357893 45858113 0. 597 ERCC2 chrll 108126954 108127154 0. 363 ATM chrl 9 45860528 45860730 0. 635 ERCC2 chrll 108128041 108128241 0. 294 ATM chrl9 45! 360797 45861007 0. 635 ERCC2 chrll 108129523 108129756 0. 316 ATM chrl9 45! 364772 45864905 0. 575 ERCC2 chrll 108137908 108138102 0. 374 ATM chrl9 45! 366937 45867137 0. 706 ERCC2 chrll 108139112 108139322 0. 374 ATM chrl9 45! 367119 45867343 0. 724 ERCC2 chrll 108139329 108139529 0. 338 ATM chrl9 45! 367124 45867373 0. 716 ERCC2 chrll 108141794 108142040 0. 324 ATM chrl9 45! 367329 45867584 0. 684 ERCC2 chrll 108142019 108142263 0. .359 ATM chrl 9 45867491 45867711 0. .656 ERCC2 chrll 108143141 108143341 0. .323 ATM chrl9 45! 367506 45867746 0. .660 ERCC2 chrll 108143328 108143577 n . .336 ATM chrl9 45! 367566 45867806 0. .618 ERCC2 chrll 108150264 108150498 o . .328 ATM chrl9 45! 368096 45868344 0. .635 ERCC2 chrll 108151721 108151951 0. .364 ATM chrl 9 45 368149 45868349 0. .637 ER C2 chrll 108153427 108153675 0. .285 ATM chrl9 45 368154 45868396 0. .626 ERCC2 chrll 108153471 108153632 n , .284 ATM chrl9 45 368287 45868486 0. .600 ERCC2 chrll 108153471 108153677 0 .275 ATM chrl9 45 371736 45871991 0. .524 ERCC2 chrll 108153505 108153680 0 .267 ATM chrl9 45 872064 45872264 0 .582 ERCC2 chrll 108153510 108153680 0 .269 ATM chrl9 45 872211 45872411 0 .562 ERCC2 chrll 108154843 108155094 0 .282 ATM chrl9 45 873397 45873585 0 .661 ERCC2 chrll 108154858 108155070 0 .291 ATM chrl 9 45 873421 45873651 0 .675 ERCC2 chrll 108154954 108155155 0 .396 ATM chrl9 45 873436 45873665 0 .687 ERCC2 chrll 108154962 108155211 o .388 ATM chrl9 45 873632 45873861 0 .700 ERCC2 chrll 108157899 108158161 0 .354 ATM chrl9 45 873636 45873901 0 .684 ERCC2 chrll 108158376 108158580 0 .337 ATM chrl 9 45 873726 45873936 0 .645 ERCC2 chrll 108159642 108159842 0 .343 ATM chrl9 45916987 45917191 0 .571 ERCC1 chrll 108160273 108160473 0 .299 ATM chrl9 45918047 45918240 0 .619 ERCC1 chrll 108163344 108163589 0 .378 ATM chrl 9 45918047 45918243 0 .619 ERCC1 chrll 108164044 108164225 0 .324 ATM chrl9 45918048 45918243 0 .622 ERCC1 chrll 108164078 108164281 0 .314 ATM chrl9 45918053 45918243 0 .628 ERCC1 chrll 108165595 108165795 0 .358 ATM chrl9 45918060 45918235 0 .625 ERCC1 chrll 108167798 108168039 0 .269 ATM chrl 9 45 922222 45922436 0 .567 ER C1 chrll 108167811 108168065 0 .267 ATM chrl9 45923506 45923678 0 .607 ERCC1 chrll 108170423 108170622 0 .380 ATM chrl9 45924445 45924632 0 .638 ERCC1 chrll 108172321 108172561 0 .340 ATM chrl9 45926611 45926815 0 .615 ERCC1 chrll 10i3173513 10i3173723 0..351 ATM Chrl9 50902097 50902336 0..650 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3173723 10i 3173923 0. .313 ATM chrl9 50902458 50902658 0. .582 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3175366 10i 3175566 0. .398 ATM chrl9 50904960 50905171 0. .656 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3178629 10i 3178814 0. .360 ATM chrl9 50905153 50905392 0. .671 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3179595 10i 3179834 0. .375 ATM chrl9 50905436 50905665 0. .683 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3180801 10i 3181050 0. .320 ATM chrl9 50905615 50905913 0. .659 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3180821 10i 3181050 0. .322 ATM chrl9 50905899 50906137 0. .665 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3180821 10i 3181066 0. .313 ATM chrl9 50906253 50906464 0. .679 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3180871 10i 3181071 0. .333 ATM chrl9 50906723 50906971 0. .622 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3183026 10i 3183226 0. .333 ATM chrl9 50906755 50906971 0. .613 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3186520 10i 3186768 0. .357 ATM chrl9 50909485 50909773 0. .640 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3186672 10i 3186911 0. .404 ATM chrl9 50910320 50910533 0. .631 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3188080 10i 3188262 0. .399 ATM chrl9 50910334 50910578 0. .629 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3190668 10i 3190878 0. .313 ATM chrl9 50910376 50910627 0. .631 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3191937 10i 3192186 0. .392 ATM chrl9 50912042 50912281 0. .617 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3195999 10i 3196199 0. .413 ATM chrl9 50912288 50912520 0. .635 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3196116 10i 3196316 0. .388 ATM chrl9 50912795 50913010 0. .667 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3196772 10i 3196944 0. .422 ATM chrl9 50916709 50916950 0. .640 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3198304 10i 3198504 0. .398 ATM chrl9 50916970 50917221 0. .623 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3199732 10i 3199932 0. .373 ATM chrl9 50917955 50918169 0. .628 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3200863 10i 3201105 0. .374 ATM chrl9 50917960 50918169 0. .624 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3201993 10i 3202237 0. .318 ATM chrl9 50918653 50918824 0. .640 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3202461 10i 3202678 0. .330 ATM chrl9 50919033 50919269 0. .692 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3202483 10i 3202676 0. .309 ATM chrl9 50919496 50919745 0. .684 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3202496 10i 3202676 0. .298 ATM chrl9 50919683 50919957 0. .691 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3202530 10i 3202730 0. .308 ATM chrl9 50919685 50919957 0. .689 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3203403 10i 3203613 0. .336 ATM chrl9 50919770 50920048 0. .699 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3203427 10i 3203679 0. .344 ATM chrl9 50919821 50920050 0. .691 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3203480 10i 3203724 0. .339 ATM chrl9 50921104 50921313 0. .576 P0LD1 chrll 10i 3203524 10i 3203768 0. .339 ATM chr2 29443543 29443787 0. .539 ALK chrll 10i 3203540 10i 3203784 0. .347 ATM chr2 29443549 29443783 0. .545 ALK chrll 10i 3204436 10i 3204676 0. .407 ATM chr2 29443555 29443789 0. .540 ALK chrll 10i 3205641 10i 3205841 0. .368 ATM chr2 29443585 29443816 0. .500 ALK chrll 10i 3206452 10i 3206651 0. .400 ATM chr2 29445100 29445340 0. .552 ALK chrll 10i 3213868 10i 3214068 0. .393 ATM chr2 29445107 29445340 0. .556 ALK chrll 10i 3216481 10i 3216700 0. .355 ATM chr2 29445121 29445350 0. .570 ALK chrll 10i 3217894 10i 3218094 0. .328 ATM chr2 29445121 29445367 0. .571 ALK chrll 10i 3224395 10i 3224595 0. .403 ATM chr2 47600500 47600700 0. .323 EPCAM chrll 10i 3225445 10i 3225655 0. .346 ATM chr2 47600912 47601112 0. .473 EPCAM chrll 10i 3235722 10i 3235932 0. .365 ATM chr2 47601122 47601322 0. .383 EPCAM chrll 10i 3235932 10i 3236132 0. .383 ATM chr2 47602199 47602445 0. .328 EPCAM chrll 10i 3235986 10i 3236232 0. .433 ATM chr2 47604131 47604282 0. .342 EPCAM chrll 10i 3236004 10i 3236249 0. .431 ATM chr2 47605987 47606187 0. .249 EPCAM chrll 10i 3236050 10i 3236290 0. .415 ATM chr2 47606812 47606991 0. .361 EPCAM chrll 10i 3236051 10i 3236251 0. .438 ATM chr2 47612268 47612488 0. .398 EPCAM chrll 10i 3236071 10i 3236273 0. .438 ATM chr2 47613710 47613910 0. .343 EPCAM chrll 108238313 108238513 0.373 ATM chr2 47630105 47630305 0.652 MSH2 chrl 1 111957513 111957759 0 .591 DHD chr2 47630152 47630400 0 .643 ΜΞΗ2 chrll 111959529 111959746 0 .486 SDHD chr2 47630268 47630467 0 .615 MSH2 chrl 1 111965449 111965740 0 .414 SDHD chr2 47630315 47630515 0 .667 MSH2 chrll 111965464 111965754 0 .416 SDHD chr2 47630316 47630530 0 .647 MSH2 chrl 2 25378488 25378688 0 .353 KRAS chr2 47630384 47630615 0 .690 MSH2 chrl 2 25378503 25378751 0 .341 KRAS chr2 47630425 47630625 0 .706 MSH2 chrl2 25378546 25378778 0 .352 KRAS chr2 47635539 47635709 0 .339 MSH2 chrl2 25378554 25378783 0 .343 KRAS chr2 47637342 47637582 0 .456 MSH2 chrl2 25380153 25380359 0 .411 KRAS chr2 47637389 47637594 0 .442 MSH2 chrl 2 25380166 25380337 0 .407 KRAS chr2 47639447 47639662 0 .310 MSH2 chrl 2 25380167 25380326 0 .406 KRAS chr2 47641283 476 1487 0 .327 MSH2 chrl2 25380167 25330359 0 .420 KRAS chr2 47643346 47643546 0 .393 MSH2 chrl2 25398080 25398329 0 .360 KRAS chr2 47656945 47657096 0 .338 MSH2 chrl2 25398145 25398394 0 .348 KRAS chr2 47672586 47672786 0 .299 MSH2 chrl 2 25398153 25398397 0 .351 KRAS chr2 47690076 47690276 0 .303 MSH2 chrl 2 25398159 25398408 0 .356 KRAS chr2 47693747 47693947 0 .348 MSH2 chrl2 25398186 25393433 0. .347 KRAS chr2 47698159 47693397 0. .326 MSH2 chrl2 56478765 56478994 0. .552 ERBB3 chr2 47702121 47702341 0. .394 MSH2 chrl2 56478781 56479029 0. .558 ERBB3 chr2 47702174 47702413 0. .388 MSH2 chrl2 56478784 56479029 0. .561 ERBB3 chr2 47703453 47703653 0. .428 MSH2 chrl 2 56478807 56479047 0. .560 ERBB3 chr2 47703663 47703863 0. .363 MSH2 chrl2 56481 33 56431774 0. .541 ERBB3 chr2 47705399 47705630 0. .397 ΜΞΗ2 chrl2 56481559 56481798 0. .521 ERBB3 chr2 47707788 47708018 0. .424 MSH2 chrl2 56481594 56481833 0. .546 ERBB3 chr2 47709903 47710113 0. .327 MSH2 chrl2 56481628 56481942 0. .530 ERBB3 chr2 47710107 47710336 0. .287 MSH2 chrl 2 56481740 56481979 0. .517 ERBB3 chr2 48010393 48010592 0. .725 MSH6 chrl2 56481773 56482020 0. 476 ERBB3 chr2 48010420 48010619 0. 740 MSH6 chrl2 56481807 56482048 0. 467 ERBB3 chr2 48010573 43010824 0. 690 MSH6 chrl2 56482218 56482457 0. 513 ERBB3 chr2 48010575 48010781 0. 725 MSH6 chrl2 56482252 56482491 0. 496 ERBB3 chr2 48017953 48018200 0. 419 MSH6 chrl 2 56482278 56482521 0. 504 ERBB3 chr2 48018205 48018415 0. 431 MSH6 chrl2 56482331 56482580 0. 528 ERBB3 chr2 48023040 48023272 0. 455 MSH6 chrl2 56486559 56436791 0. 502 ERBB3 chr2 48023105 43023304 0. 430 MSH6 chrl2 56486561 56486791 0. 502 ERBB3 chr2 48025749 43025949 0. 428 MSH6 chrl2 56486566 56486813 0. 508 ERBB3 chr2 48025933 48026201 0. 476 MSH6 chrl 2 56486569 56486818 0. 508 ERBB3 chr2 48026177 48026376 0. 460 MSH6 chrl 2 56490766 56491006 0. 523 ERBB3 chr2 48026340 48026558 0. 457 MSH6 chrl2 56490766 56491013 0. 520 ERBB3 chr2 48026511 43026711 0. 453 MSH6 chrl2 56490773 56491013 0. 519 ERBB3 chr2 48026765 43026965 0. 333 MSH6 chrl2 56490777 56491011 0. 523 ERBB3 chr2 48027019 48027219 0. 438 MSH6 chrl 2 56491580 56491801 0. 554 ERBB3 chr2 48027273 48027473 0. 438 MSH6 chrl 2 56491592 56491801 0. 557 ERBB3 chr2 48027527 48027727 0. 398 MSH6 chrl2 56491596 56491799 0. 559 ERBB3 chr2 43027746 43023017 0. 426 ΜΞΗ6 chrl2 56491596 56491801 0. 553 ERBB3 chr2 48028124 43028364 0. 415 MSH6 chrl2 58141882 58142151 0. 396 CDK4 chr2 48030536 48030736 0. 433 MSH6 chrl2 58142160 58142391 0.474 CDK4 chr2 48030729 48031003 0.371 MSH6 chrl2 58142983 58143287 0 .570 CDK4 chr2 48031952 48032152 0 .443 MSH6 chrl2 58142985 58143287 0 .568 CDK4 chr2 48032026 48032237 0 .420 MSH6 chrl2 58144413 58144686 0 .478 CDK4 chr2 48032772 48032971 0 .315 MSH6 chrl2 58144452 58144687 0 .479 CDK4 chr2 48033358 48033554 0 .365 MSH6 chrl2 58144692 58144932 0 .490 ODK4 chr2 48033416 48033655 0 .367 MSH6 chrl2 58144696 58144939 0 .492 CDK4 chr2 43033581 48033782 0 .401 MSH6 chrl2 58144957 58145214 0 .523 CDK4 chr2 48034024 48034264 0 .307 MSH6 chrl2 58145023 58145294 0 .515 CDK4 chr2 58386432 58386632 0 .333 FANCL chrl2 58145309 58145580 0 .544 CDK4 chr2 58386777 58386929 0 .307 FANCL chrl2 58145326 58145580 0 .541 CDK4 chr2 58387189 58387389 0 .338 FANCL chrl2 58145924 58146140 0 .673 CDK4 chr2 58388496 58388732 0 .346 FANCL chrl2 133200375 133200607 0 .541 POLE chr2 53339905 58390169 0 .328 FANCL chrl2 133200794 133201005 0 .604 POLE chr2 53390005 58390214 0 .352 FANCL chrl2 133200978 133201217 0 .608 POLE chr2 58390571 58390773 0 .379 FANCL chrl2 133201185 133201425 0 .610 POLE chr2 58392779 58392979 0 .398 FANCL chrl2 133201428 133201670 0 .654 POLE chr2 58431158 58431358 0 .363 FANCL chrl2 133202187 133202429 0 .621 POLE chr2 58448972 58449172 0 .323 FANCL chrl2 133202217 133202436 0 .605 POLE chr2 58453736 58453936 0 .308 FANCL chrl2 133202217 133202437 0. .606 POLE chr2 53456824 58457044 0. .285 FANCL chrl2 133202218 133202437 0. .605 POLE chr2 58459138 58459342 0. .351 FANCL chrl2 133202355 133202555 0. .622 POLE chr2 58468279 58468479 0. .592 FANCL chrl2 133202648 133202868 0. .606 POLE chr2 128014784 128015047 0. .394 ERCC3 chrl2 133208842 133209042 0. .517 POLE chr2 128015087 128015289 0. .522 ERCC3 chrl2 13320 059 133209259 0. .577 POLE chr2 128016793 128017023 0. .541 ERCC3 chrl2 133209191 133209391 0. .647 POLE chr2 128018729 128018934 0. .476 ERCC3 chrl2 133210529 133210806 0. .590 POLE chr2 123028846 128029046 0. .493 ERCC3 chrl2 133212413 133212654 0. .438 POLE chr2 128030334 128030534 0. .488 ERCC3 chrl2 133214538 133214738 0. .557 POLE chr2 128036695 128036895 0. .413 ERCC3 chrl2 133215637 133215885 0. .582 POLE chr2 128037952 128038168 0. .535 ERCC3 chrl2 133218204 133218451 0. .597 POLE chr2 128044271 128044501 0. .580 ERCC3 chrl2 133218707 133218953 0. .579 POLE chr2 128044494 128044693 0. .500 ERCC3 chrl2 133219069 133219298 0. 574 POLE chr2 128046183 128046383 0. 502 ERCC3 chrl2 133219399 133219599 0. 617 POLE chr2 123046840 128047040 0. 468 ERCC3 chrl2 133219778 133220012 0. 591 POLE chr2 128047177 128047377 0. 522 ERCC3 chrl2 133219996 133220226 0. 606 POLE chr2 128047669 128047869 0. 448 ERCC3 chrl2 133220308 133220545 0. 571 POLE chr2 128050206 128050419 0. 514 ERCC3 chrl2 133225529 133225773 0. 612 POLE chr2 128051102 128051343 0. 566 ERCC3 chrl2 133225887 133226117 0. 645 POLE chr2 128051633 128051852 0. 655 ERCC3 chrl2 133226161 133226408 0. 613 POLE chr2 123051746 128051946 0. 577 ERCC3 chrl2 133233672 133233909 0. 550 POLE chr2 209112977 209113230 0. 394 IDH1 chrl2 133233774 133234003 0. 557 POLE chr2 209113091 209113340 0. 444 IDH1 chrl2 133234350 133234550 0. 458 POLE chr2 212288833 212289075 0. 366 ERBB4 chrl2 133235953 133236173 0. 534 POLE chr2 212288836 212289075 0. 367 ERBB4 chrl2 133237539 133237827 0. 543 POLE chr2 212288849 212289089 0. 378 ERBB4 chrl2 133237547 133237781 0. 519 POLE chr2 212288867 212289111 0. 376 ERBB4 chrl2 133238036 133238236 0..468 POLE chr2 212483732 212483976 0..327 ERBB4 chrl2 133240495 133240681 0. .545 POLE chr2 212483745 212483975 0. .338 ERBB4 chrl2 133241011 133241211 0. .587 POLE chr2 212483745 212483989 0. .343 ERBB4 chrl2 133241805 133242034 0. .600 POLE chr2 212483745 212483992 0. .347 ERBB4 chrl2 133244016 133244246 0. .563 POLE chr2 212529983 212530215 0. .468 ERBB4 chrl2 133244860 133245070 0. .578 POLE chr2 212529983 212530219 0. .468 ERBB4 chrl2 133245148 133245397 0. .616 POLE chr2 212530006 212530255 0. .444 ERBB4 chrl2 133245378 133245623 0. .537 POLE chr2 212530049 212530293 0. .420 ERBB4 chrl2 133248734 133248981 0. .556 POLE chr2 212587102 212587341 0. .379 ERBB4 chrl2 133249169 133249404 0. .568 POLE chr2 212587102 212587342 0. .378 ERBB4 chrl2 133249662 133249902 0. .539 POLE chr2 212587104 212587343 0. .379 ERBB4 chrl2 133250240 133250445 0. .549 POLE chr2 215591713 215591913 0. .348 BARD1 chrl2 133250282 133250482 0. .517 POLE chr2 215592049 215592249 0. .313 BARD1 chrl2 133251897 133252126 0. .600 POLE chr2 215592385 215592585 0. .318 BARD1 chrl2 133252231 133252480 0. .512 POLE chr2 215592721 215592921 0. .284 BARD1 chrl2 133252591 133252826 0. .470 POLE chr2 215593393 215593593 0. .458 BARD1 chrl2 133253058 133253290 0. .502 POLE chr2 215593464 215593712 0. .482 BARD1 chrl2 133253869 133254099 0. .429 POLE chr2 215595070 215595319 0. .348 BARD1 chrl2 133254080 133254312 0. .502 POLE chr2 215609774 215610018 0. .331 BARD1 chrl2 133256057 133256299 0. .494 POLE chr2 215610357 215610557 0. .368 BARD1 chrl2 133256546 133256806 0. .441 POLE chr2 215617201 215617402 0. .322 BARD1 chrl2 133256751 133257006 0. .469 POLE chr2 215617244 215617478 0. .315 BARD1 chrl2 133257134 133257364 0. .429 POLE chr2 215632137 215632347 0. .398 BARD1 chrl2 133257609 133257851 0. .523 POLE chr2 215632347 215632547 0. .299 BARD1 chrl3 28592527 28592791 0. .434 FLT3 chr2 215633841 215634041 0. .348 BARD1 chrl3 32889625 32889857 0. .631 BRCA2 chr2 215645283 215645483 0. .418 BARD1 chrl3 32889901 32890111 0. .583 BRCA2 chr2 215645568 215645768 0. .398 BARD1 chrl3 32890514 32890741 0. .346 BRCA2 chr2 215645789 215646022 0. .385 BARD1 chrl3 32893139 32893383 0. .339 BRCA2 chr2 215645997 215646196 0. .405 BARD1 chrl3 32900135 32900368 0. .252 BRCA2 chr2 215646018 215646167 0. .413 BARD1 chrl3 32900239 32900484 0. .305 BRCA2 chr2 215656994 215657164 0. .421 BARD1 chrl3 32900514 32900762 0. .373 BRCA2 chr2 215661815 215662059 0. .355 BARD1 chrl3 32903445 32903674 0. .278 BRCA2 chr2 215674040 215674299 0. .662 BARD1 chrl3 32904938 32905182 0. .343 BRCA2 chr2 215674057 215674299 0. .671 BARD1 chrl3 32905002 32905201 0. .315 BRCA2 chr2 215674060 215674299 0. .675 BARD1 chrl3 32905048 32905165 0. .339 BRCA2 chr2 215674115 215674321 0. .681 BARD1 chrl3 32905048 32905168 0. .347 BRCA2 chr20 57484302 57484538 0. .439 GNAS chrl3 32905048 32905170 0. .341 BRCA2 chr21 36252718 36252963 0. .427 RUNX1 chrl3 32905049 32905165 0. .342 BRCA2 chr21 36252753 36253001 0. .454 RUNX1 chrl3 32906224 32906468 0. .302 BRCA2 chr21 36252796 36253037 0. .471 RUNX1 chrl3 32906406 32906650 0. .310 BRCA2 chr21 36252819 36253063 0. .469 RUNX1 chrl3 32906408 32906628 0. .317 BRCA2 chr22 29092793 29093014 0. .383 CHEK2 chrl3 32906426 32906673 0. .306 BRCA2 chr22 29095766 29095985 0. .468 CHEK2 chrl3 32906464 32906663 0. .305 BRCA2 chr22 29099378 29099614 0. .354 CHEK2 chrl3 32906520 32906768 0. .317 BRCA2 chr22 29105946 29106126 0. .243 CHEK2 chr!3 32906575 32906818 0. .361 BRCA2 chr22 29105988 29106140 0. .288 CHEK2 chrl3 32906606 32906846 0..378 BRCA2 chr22 29107796 29107996 0..373 CHEK2 chrl3 32906668 32906912 0. .388 BRCA2 chr22 29115374 29115613 0. .292 CHEK2 chrl3 32906748 32906987 0. .388 BRCA2 chr22 29120968 29121207 0. .358 CHEK2 chrl3 32906815 32907062 0. .363 BRCA2 chr22 29121185 29121429 0. .376 CHEK2 chrl3 32906856 32907103 0. .367 BRCA2 chr22 29130538 29130762 0. .556 CHEK2 chrl3 32906893 32907106 0. .383 BRCA2 chr22 29130552 29130805 0. .508 CHEK2 chrl3 32906938 32907183 0. .378 BRCA2 chr22 29137634 29137834 0. .547 CHEK2 chrl3 32907059 32907264 0. .374 BRCA2 chr3 10070202 10070402 0. .383 FANCD2 chrl3 32907059 32907307 0. .378 BRCA2 chr3 10074431 10074641 0. .303 FANCD2 chrl3 32907288 32907533 0. .350 BRCA2 chr3 10076444 10076673 0. .430 FANCD2 chrl3 32910416 32910655 0. .354 BRCA2 chr3 10076732 10076932 0. .323 FANCD2 chrl3 32910596 32910835 0. .388 BRCA2 chr3 10077981 10078130 0. .313 FANCD2 chrl3 32910778 32911027 0. .340 BRCA2 chr3 10080961 10081110 0. .367 FANCD2 chrl3 32910967 32911215 0. .317 BRCA2 chr3 10081391 10081592 0. .510 FANCD2 chrl3 32910988 32911187 0. .335 BRCA2 chr3 10083255 10083471 0. .433 FANCD2 chrl3 32911008 32911252 0. .331 BRCA2 chr3 10116194 10116415 0. .405 FANCD2 chrl3 32911035 32911252 0. .321 BRCA2 chr3 10119764 10119916 0. .523 FANCD2 chrl3 32911045 32911295 0. .331 BRCA2 chr3 10122693 10122903 0. .422 FANCD2 chrl3 32911167 32911415 0. .341 BRCA2 chr3 10122903 10123103 0. .378 FANCD2 chrl3 32911340 32911588 0. .333 BRCA2 chr3 10123144 10123344 0. .358 FANCD2 chrl3 32911594 32911838 0. .322 BRCA2 chr3 10127494 10127703 0. .433 FANCD2 chrl3 32911841 32912085 0. .384 BRCA2 chr3 10128659 10128873 0. .414 FANCD2 chrl3 32912080 32912319 0. .342 BRCA2 chr3 10130055 10130255 0. .448 FANCD2 chrl3 32912267 32912511 0. .265 BRCA2 chr3 10130418 10130618 0. .398 FANCD2 chrl3 32912502 32912746 0. .331 BRCA2 chr3 10131860 10132052 0. .461 FANCD2 chrl3 32912749 32912986 0. .307 BRCA2 chr3 10133776 10133976 0. .418 FANCD2 chrl3 32912979 32913218 0. .404 BRCA2 chr3 10134833 10135033 0. .448 FANCD2 chrl3 32913217 32913460 0. .336 BRCA2 chr3 10135971 10136220 0. .484 FANCD2 chrl3 32913444 32913691 0. .323 BRCA2 chr3 10136796 10137016 0. .425 FANCD2 chrl3 32913682 32913927 0. .321 BRCA2 chr3 10137928 10138128 0. .398 FANCD2 chrl3 32913944 32914192 0. .329 BRCA2 chr3 10140403 10140603 0. .448 FANCD2 chrl3 32914208 32914455 0. .347 BRCA2 chr3 10140685 10140895 0. .322 FANCD2 chrl3 32914462 32914709 0. .343 BRCA2 chr3 10183302 10183451 0. .653 VHL chrl3 32914691 32914936 0. .329 BRCA2 chr3 10183681 10183874 0. .706 VHL chrl3 32914776 32915021 0. .333 BRCA2 chr3 10188234 10188438 0. .390 VHL chrl3 32914895 32915115 0. .326 BRCA2 chr3 10191445 10191700 0. .484 VHL chrl3 32914896 32915115 0. .327 BRCA2 chr3 10191721 10191932 0. .392 VHL chrl3 32914906 32915155 0. .328 BRCA2 chr3 10192245 10192450 0. .350 VHL chrl3 32915087 32915334 0. .355 BRCA2 chr3 12645599 12645838 0. .504 RAF1 chrl3 32915144 32915384 0. .357 BRCA2 chr3 12645599 12645843 0. .502 RAF1 chrl3 32918540 32918787 0. .258 BRCA2 chr3 12645599 12645844 0. .500 RAF1 chrl3 32920834 32921033 0. .295 BRCA2 chr3 12645603 12645844 0. .504 RAF1 chrl3 32928970 32929189 0. .345 BRCA2 chr3 14186692 14186898 0. .319 XPC chrl3 32928972 32929201 0. .357 BRCA2 chr3 14186863 14187104 0. .521 XPC chrl3 32928992 32929236 0. .351 BRCA2 chr3 14187085 14187334 0. .532 XPC chr!3 32928996 32929196 0. .358 BRCA2 chr3 14187312 14187552 0. .589 XPC chrl3 32928996 32929208 0.357 BRCA2 chr3 14187523 14187722 0.570 XPC chrl3 32929176 32929423 0. 339 BRCA2 chr3 14188679 14188879 0. 552 XPC chr13 32929177 32929426 0. 344 BRCA2 chr3 14189299 14189509 0. 583 XPC chrl3 32929220 32929467 0. 323 BRCA2 chr3 14189991 14190191 0. 597 XPC chrl3 32929274 32929479 0. 335 BRCA2 chr3 14190286 14190496 0. 578 XPC chr13 32929297 32929498 0. 322 BRCA2 chr3 14193741 14194025 0. 596 XPC chrl3 32930589 32930789 0. 448 BRCA2 chr3 14197850 14198050 0. 483 XPC chrl3 32931650 32931879 0. 257 BRCA2 chr3 14199573 14199352 0. 543 XPC chr13 32931817 32932017 0. 318 BRCA2 chr3 14199862 14200062 0. 582 XPC chrl3 32932034 32932234 0. 313 BRCA2 chr3 14200146 14200394 0. 522 XPC chrl3 32936641 32936885 0. 334 BRCA2 chr3 14206322 14206437 0. 434 XPC chr13 32937319 32937563 0. 384 BRCA2 chr3 14206933 14207089 0. 522 XPC chrl3 32937529 32937773 0. 376 BRCA2 chr3 14208699 14208911 0. 474 XPC chr13 32944444 32944633 0. 359 BRCA2 chr3 14209663 14209363 0. 517 XPC chr13 32945080 32945249 0. 359 BRCA2 chr3 14211839 14212049 0. 384 XPC chrl3 32950820 32951019 0. 440 BRCA2 chr3 14214355 14214600 0. 476 XPC chr13 32953333 32953533 0. 348 BRCA2 chr3 14220004 14220204 0. 682 XPC chrl3 32953442 32953686 0. 363 BRCA2 chr3 37034589 37034809 0. 570 EPM2AIP1 chrl3 32953840 32954084 0. 327 BRCA2 chr3 37034790 37035063 0. 544 EPM2AIP1 chrl3 32954054 32954299 0. .346 BRCA2 chr3 37035069 37035306 0. .622 MLHI chrl3 32954054 32954300 0. .344 BRCA2 chr3 37038000 37038200 0. .368 MLH1 chrl3 32968741 32968971 37042645

0. .359 BRCA2 chr3 37042434 0. .354 MLH1 chrl3 32968820 32969069 0. .384 BR A2 chr3 37045773 37045973 0. .418 MLH1 chrl3 32970989 32971236 0. .379 BRCA2 chr3 37048411 37048645 0. .353 MLH1 chrl3 32971106 32971335 0. .348 BRCA2 chr3 37050230 37050436 0. .377 MLH1 chrl3 32972257 32972489 0 .373 BRCA2 chr3 37053207 37053427 0 .335 MLHI chrl3 32972463 32972703 0 .390 BRCA2 chr3 37053528 37053730 0 .340 MLH1 chrl3 32972600 32972845 0 .378 BRCA2 chr3 37055893 37056093 0 .373 MLH1 chrl3 32972664 32972864 0 .418 BRCA2 chr3 37058865 37059114 0 .424 MLH1 chrl3 32972671 32972922 0 .397 BRCA2 chr3 37061804 37062039 0 .542 MLH1 chrl3 32972708 32972954 0 .389 BRCA2 chr3 37067171 37067392 0 . 00 MLH1 chrl3 32973392 32973641 0 .336 BRCA2 chr3 37067236 37067492 0 .514 MLH1 chrl3 32973613 32973807 0 .267 BRCA2 chr3 37070194 37070394 0 .408 MLH1 chrl3 43916668 48916868 0 .318 RBI chr3 37070355 37070605 0 .462 MLH1 chrl3 48919151 48919351 0 .284 RBI chr3 37081625 37081777 0 .438 MLH1 chrl3 48921945 48922145 0 .308 RBI chr3 37083681 37083889 0 .354 MLH1 chrl3 43923001 48923221 0 .253 RBI chr3 37088877 37089113 0 .468 MLH1 chrl3 48936897 48937117 0 .330 RBI chr3 37088933 37089152 0 .473 MLH1 chr13 48939068 48939268 0 .318 RBI chr3 37089899 37090099 0 .468 MLH1 chrl3 43941560 48941760 0 .313 RBI chr3 37090327 37090527 0 .428 MLH1 chrl3 48947429 48947629 0 .323 RBI chr3 37091892 37092087 0 .480 MLH1 chr13 48951017 48951237 0 .348 RBI chr3 37091894 37092142 0 .466 MLH1 chrl3 43954364 48954564 0 .323 RBI chr3 41265974 41266223 0 .464 CTNNB1 chr13 48955326 48955526 0 .303 RBI chr3 41266013 41266252 0 .488 CTNNB1 chr13 48955536 48955736 0 .338 RBI chr3 41266021 41266268 0 .476 CTNNBl chr13 49027033 49027233 0 .333 RBI chr3 41266036 41266265 0 .474 CTNNB1 chrl3 49030212 49030472 0..364 RBI chr3 52435062 52435320 0..583 BAP1 chrl3 49033792 49033992 0. .428 RBI chr3 52435350 52435631 0. .543 BAP1 chrl3 49037854 49038084 0. .299 RBI chr3 52435934 52436211 0. .561 BAP1 chrl3 49039190 49039390 0. .378 RBI chr3 52436217 52436465 0. .647 BAP1 chrl3 49039267 49039467 0. .383 RBI chr3 52436552 52436790 0. .552 BAP1 chrl3 49047356 49047616 0. .287 RBI chr3 52436807 52437063 0. .572 BAP1 chrl3 49050783 49050983 0. .373 RBI chr3 52437127 52437370 0. .574 BAP1 chrl3 49051484 49051724 0. .299 RBI chr3 52437447 52437693 0. .599 BAP1 chrl3 49054133 49054333 0. .413 RBI chr3 52437754 52437978 0. .556 BAP1 chrl3 49054700 49054910 0. .251 RBI chr3 52438443 52438682 0. .575 BAP1 chrl3 49055078 49055278 0. .323 RBI chr3 52439130 52439357 0. .583 BAP1 chrl3 49055456 49055656 0. .343 RBI chr3 52439752 52440014 0. .544 BAP1 chrl3 49055834 49056034 0. .254 RBI chr3 52440273 52440505 0. .618 BAP1 chrl3 103498123 103498440 0. .629 ERCC5 chr3 52440695 52440946 0. .552 BAP1 chrl3 103498155 103498432 0. .640 ERCC5 chr3 52441181 52441475 0. .576 BAP1 chrl3 103498190 103498390 0. .642 ERCC5 chr3 52441983 52442230 0. .532 BAP1 chrl3 103498192 103498440 0. .631 ERCC5 chr3 52442460 52442693 0. .500 BAP1 chrl3 103498192 103498453 0. .626 ERCC5 chr3 52443505 52443740 0. .602 BAP1 chrl3 103498470 103498701 0. .608 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5374171 13 E 5374400 0. .400 PIK3CB chrl3 103498494 103498713 0. .618 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5374183 13 E 5374428 0. .386 PIK3CB chrl3 103498494 103498717 0. .621 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5374197 13 E 5374427 0. .398 PIK3CB chrl3 103498574 103498757 0. .641 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5374204 13 E 5374443 0. .408 PIK3CB chrl3 103504312 103504529 0. .349 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5409848 13 E 5410087 0. .375 PIK3CB chrl3 103504364 103504578 0. .372 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5409848 13 E 5410097 0. .380 PIK3CB chrl3 103506028 103506230 0. .409 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5409872 13 E 5410116 0. .380 PIK3CB chrl3 103506526 103506726 0. .463 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5409872 13 E 5410118 0. .385 PIK3CB chrl3 103508374 103508544 0. .275 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5417690 13 E 5417920 0. .390 PIK3CB chrl3 103510603 103510803 0. .393 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5417690 13 E 5417924 0. .383 PIK3CB chrl3 103513836 103514056 0. .407 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5417696 13 E 5417915 0. .391 PIK3CB chrl3 103514321 103514572 0. .433 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5417697 13 E 5417916 0. .395 PIK3CB chrl3 103514574 103514792 0. .534 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5665132 13 E 5665361 0. .600 FOXL2 chrl3 103514801 103515020 0. .482 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5665147 13 E 5665396 0. .600 FOXL2 chrl3 103515021 103515221 0. .428 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5665151 13 E 5665396 0. .602 FOXL2 chrl3 103515235 103515435 0. .433 ERCC5 chr3 13 E 5665170 13 E 5665409 0. .613 FOXL2 chrl3 103517984 103518184 0. .478 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5916725 17 E 5916970 0. .362 PIK3CA chrl3 103518194 103518404 0. .412 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5916766 17 E 5917010 0. .351 PIK3CA chrl3 103518516 103518726 0. .370 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5916782 17 E 5917028 0. .356 PIK3CA chrl3 103519057 103519257 0. .368 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5916822 17 E 5917068 0. .336 PIK3CA chrl3 103520541 103520748 0. .370 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5917417 17 E 5917566 0. .320 PIK3CA chrl3 103524493 103524693 0. .413 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5917417 17 E 5917618 0. .347 PIK3CA chrl3 103524585 103524802 0. .445 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5917420 17 E 5917590 0. .345 PIK3CA chrl3 103525496 103525696 0. .368 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5917420 17 E 5917604 0. .351 PIK3CA chrl3 103527656 103527856 0. .408 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5921331 17 E 5921578 0. .367 PIK3CA chrl3 103527863 103528063 0. .408 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5921339 17 E 5921585 0. .372 PIK3CA chrl3 103528070 103528300 0. .437 ERCC5 chr3 17 E 5921347 17 E 5921596 0. .368 PIK3CA chrl4 38060515 38060750 0. .589 FOXA1 chr3 17 E 5921364 17 E 5921608 0. .351 PIK3CA chrl4 38060564 38060810 0..591 FOXA1 chr3 17E5927888 75928114 0..339 PIK3CA chrl4 38060574 38060818 0. .592 FOXA1 chr3 17E 5927898 7 5928114 0. .346 PIK3CA chrl4 38060586 38060833 0. .601 FOXA1 chr3 17E 5927910 7 5928144 0. .323 PIK3CA chrl4 45605103 45605333 0. .558 FANCM chr3 17E 5927974 7 5928182 0. .354 PIK3CA chrl4 45605305 45605553 0. .610 FANCM chr3 17E 5935873 7 5936102 0. .313 PIK3CA chrl4 45605573 45605799 0. .511 FANCM chr3 17E 5935930 7 5936133 0. .353 PIK3CA chrl4 45606233 45606433 0. .398 FANCM chr3 17E 5935944 7 5936197 0. .335 PIK3CA chrl4 45618024 45618224 0. .363 FANCM chr3 17E 5935995 7 5936197 0. .365 PIK3CA chrl4 45620541 45620741 0. .333 FANCM chr3 17E 5936030 7 5936279 0. .320 PIK3CA chrl4 45623034 45623234 0. .348 FANCM chr3 17E 5951914 7 5952159 0. .382 PIK3CA chrl4 45628297 45628497 0. .408 FANCM chr3 17E 5951915 7 5952140 0. .385 PIK3CA chrl4 45633510 45633710 0. .373 FANCM chr3 17E 5951921 7 5952140 0. .386 PIK3CA chrl4 45633720 45633920 0. .383 FANCM chr3 17E 5951921 7 5952159 0. .381 PIK3CA chrl4 45636166 45636386 0. .376 FANCM chr3 17E 5951948 7 5952109 0. .389 PIK3CA chrl4 45639788 45640013 0. .341 FANCM chr3 17E 5952004 7 5952152 0. .389 PIK3CA chrl4 45642242 45642442 0. .403 FANCM chr3 17E 5952010 7 5952109 0. .390 PIK3CA chrl4 45644281 45644486 0. .340 FANCM chr3 17E 5952109 7 5952152 0. .386 PIK3CA chrl4 45644653 45644863 0. .313 FANCM chr4 55151865 55152127 0. .513 PDGFRA chrl4 45644862 45645099 0. .382 FANCM chr4 55593487 55593733 0. .389 KIT chrl4 45645143 45645342 0. .350 FANCM chr4 55593505 55593749 0. .400 KIT chrl4 45645413 45645613 0. .378 FANCM chr4 55593514 55593765 0. .397 KIT chrl4 45645666 45645955 0. .331 FANCM chr4 55593530 55593778 0. .390 KIT chrl4 45645983 45646183 0. .303 FANCM chr4 55594116 55594365 0. .416 KIT chrl4 45650718 45650970 0. .332 FANCM chr4 55594125 55594365 0. .411 KIT chrl4 45650772 45650971 0. .320 FANCM chr4 55594139 55594380 0. .401 KIT chrl4 45652886 45653086 0. .338 FANCM chr4 55594139 55594385 0. .401 KIT chrl4 45654389 45654589 0. .303 FANCM chr4 55599168 55599408 0. .365 KIT chrl4 45656912 45657134 0. .269 FANCM chr4 55599173 55599417 0. .367 KIT chrl4 45658004 45658204 0. .333 FANCM chr4 55599207 55599435 0. .384 KIT chrl4 45658183 45658427 0. .371 FANCM chr4 55602645 55602892 0. .423 KIT chrl4 45658417 45658644 0. .368 FANCM chr4 55602657 55602888 0. .422 KIT chrl4 45665608 45665811 0. .348 FANCM chr4 55602657 55602892 0. .424 KIT chrl4 45667934 45668145 0. .358 FANCM chr4 153244069 153244316 0. .464 FBX 7 chrl4 45668983 45669204 0. .320 FANCM chr4 153244075 153244315 0. .465 FBX 7 chrl4 45669474 45669678 0. .346 FANCM chr4 153244085 153244324 0. .454 FBX 7 chrl4 95557315 95557515 0. .313 DICERl chr4 153244106 153244353 0. .427 FBX 7 chrl4 95557526 95557726 0. .463 DICERl chr4 153245291 153245531 0. .398 FBX 7 chrl4 95559982 95560182 0. .542 DICERl chr4 153245297 153245541 0. .400 FBX 7 chrl4 95560204 95560434 0. .494 DICERl chr4 153245312 153245560 0. .406 FBX 7 chrl4 95560444 95560644 0. .398 DICERl chr4 153245328 153245572 0. .396 FBX 7 chrl4 95562161 95562361 0. .368 DICERl chr4 153247109 153247353 0. .433 FBX 7 chrl4 95562361 95562592 0. .530 DICERl chr4 153247122 153247369 0. .448 FBX 7 chrl4 95562601 95562801 0. .438 DICERl chr4 153247150 153247399 0. .456 FBX 7 chrl4 95562666 95562891 0. .398 DICERl chr4 153249264 153249512 0. .414 FBX 7 chrl4 95566129 95566335 0. .406 DICERl chr4 153249285 153249525 0. .419 FBX 7 chrl4 95569682 95569882 0. .468 DICERl chr4 153249290 153249529 0. .417 FBX 7 chrl4 95569994 95570194 0..403 DICERl chr4 153249303 153249551 0..414 FBX 7 chrl4 95570228 95570428 0. .418 DICERl chr4 153250763 153251006 0. .340 FBX 7 chrl4 95571340 95571540 0. .488 DICERl chr4 153250791 153251017 0. .348 FBX 7 chrl4 95571974 95572174 0. .348 DICERl chr4 153250791 153251031 0. .349 FBX 7 chrl4 95572314 95572514 0. .428 DICERl chr4 153250808 153251047 0. .342 FBX 7 chrl4 95572524 95572764 0. .249 DICERl chr4 153251774 153252018 0. .380 FBX 7 chrl4 95573959 95574159 0. .338 DICERl chr4 153251789 153252028 0. .388 FBX 7 chrl4 95574168 95574368 0. .348 DICERl chr4 153251792 153252040 0. .382 FBX 7 chrl4 95574657 95574857 0. .443 DICERl chr4 153251832 153252071 0. .379 FBX 7 chrl4 95577599 95577799 0. .433 DICERl chr4 153258843 153259092 0. .356 FBX 7 chrl4 95578391 95578591 0. .358 DICERl chr4 153258850 153259097 0. .355 FBX 7 chrl4 95579340 95579540 0. .358 DICERl chr4 153258888 153259137 0. .344 FBX 7 chrl4 95581926 95582126 0. .433 DICERl chr4 153258953 153259199 0. .368 FBX 7 chrl4 95582756 95582956 0. .358 DICERl chr4 153268077 153268219 0. .517 FBX 7 chrl4 95582966 95583166 0. .348 DICERl chr4 153268078 153268219 0. .514 FBX 7 chrl4 95583900 95584100 0. .378 DICERl chr4 153268079 153268219 0. .518 FBX 7 chrl4 95590532 95590732 0. .358 DICERl chr5 56161075 56161306 0. .328 MAP3K1 chrl4 95590767 95590967 0. .393 DICERl chr5 56161096 56161325 0. .330 MAP3K1 chrl4 95592822 95593064 0. .305 DICERl chr5 56161113 56161321 0. .349 MAP3K1 chrl4 95595734 95595934 0. .358 DICERl chr5 56161178 56161386 0. .321 MAP3K1 chrl4 95596337 95596537 0. .343 DICERl chr5 56161545 56161787 0. .346 MAP3K1 chrl4 95598778 95598978 0. .383 DICERl chr5 56161548 56161797 0. .348 MAP3K1 chrl4 95598988 95599188 0. .308 DICERl chr5 56161563 56161807 0. .355 MAP3K1 chrl4 95599591 95599801 0. .436 DICERl chr5 56161577 56161806 0. .365 MAP3K1 chrl4 95623722 95623973 0. .750 DICERl chr5 56180437 56180676 0. .363 MAP3K1 chrl4 105246388 105246637 0. .596 AKT1 chr5 56180457 56180659 0. .389 MAP3K1 chrl4 105246483 105246730 0. .617 AKT1 chr5 56180502 56180707 0. .369 MAP3K1 chrl4 105246501 105246707 0. .633 AKT1 chr5 56181614 56181861 0. .335 MAP3K1 chrl4 105246501 105246745 0. .633 AKT1 chr5 56181627 56181876 0. .332 MAP3K1 chrl5 32968921 32969121 0. .303 GREM1 chr5 56181632 56181871 0. .338 MAP3K1 chrl5 32976883 32977083 0. .393 GREM1 chr5 56181648 56181887 0. .346 MAP3K1 chrl5 32984845 32985055 0. .469 GREM1 chr5 56183135 56183374 0. .429 MAP3K1 chrl5 32988826 32989036 0. .370 SCG5 chr5 56183138 56183347 0. .429 MAP3K1 chrl5 33000769 33000969 0. .512 GREM1 chr5 56183138 56183361 0. .429 MAP3K1 chrl5 33022952 33023162 0. .654 GREM1 chr5 56183176 56183375 0. .455 MAP3K1 chrl5 33022952 33023205 0. .638 GREM1 chr5 112043137 112043364 0. .649 APC chrl5 33023018 33023279 0. .626 GREM1 chr5 112043137 112043365 0. .651 APC chrl5 33023148 33023435 0. .521 GREM1 chr5 112043186 112043431 0. .663 APC chrl5 33023151 33023435 0. .519 GREM1 chr5 112043190 112043431 0. .661 APC chrl5 33023205 33023450 0. .504 GREM1 chr5 112043201 112043471 0. .672 APC chrl5 33023686 33023886 0. .517 GREM1 chr5 112043206 112043428 0. .668 APC chrl5 33024084 33024294 0. .464 GREM1 chr5 112073451 112073699 0. .639 APC chrl5 33024482 33024682 0. .398 GREM1 chr5 112073948 112074148 0. .488 APC chrl5 33026472 33026672 0. .299 GREM1 chr5 112090491 112090691 0. .373 APC chrl5 66727327 66727566 0. .546 MAP2K1 chr5 112102006 112102208 0. .330 APC chr!5 66727339 66727587 0. .550 MAP2K1 chr5 112102893 112103093 0. .433 APC chrl5 66727339 66727588 0.548 MAP2K1 chr5 112111368 112111578 0.289 APC chrlS 66727359 66727593 0 .542 MAP2K1 chr5 112116375 112116639 0 .340 APC chrlS 66729024 66729277 0 .496 MAP2K1 chr5 112128134 112128341 0 .332 APC chrl5 66729065 66729264 0 .515 MAP2K1 chr5 112128152 112128420 0 .309 APC chrl5 66774016 66774220 0 .527 MAP2K1 chr5 112136780 112137014 0 .404 APC chrl5 66774016 66774260 0 .510 MAP2K1 chr5 112151086 112151286 0 .368 APC chr15 66774048 66774260 0 .516 MAP2K1 chr5 112154610 112154859 0 .424 APC chrl5 66774052 66774260 0 .517 MAP2K1 chr5 112154826 112155071 0 .504 APC chrl5 66777305 66777541 0 .591 MAP2K1 chr5 112157485 112157695 0 .341 APC chrl5 66777336 66777568 0 .597 MAP2K1 chr5 112162781 112162991 0 .379 APC chr15 66777336 66777570 0 .600 MAP2K1 chr5 112163441 112163655 0 .288 APC chr15 66777338 66777568 0 .597 MAP2K1 chr5 112163452 112163681 0 .309 APC chrl5 89787224 89787484 0 .651 FANCI chr5 112164471 112164655 0 .319 APC chrl5 89790756 89790956 0 .368 FANCI chr5 112170600 112170800 0 .393 APC chrl5 89801818 89802048 0 .403 FANCI chr5 112170810 112171010 0 .289 APC chrlS 89303854 89804054 0 .403 FANCI chr5 112173249 112173449 0 .333 APC chrlS 39804662 89304884 0 .372 FANCI chr5 112173471 112173712 0 .405 APC chrl5 89804949 89805159 0 .365 FANCI chr5 112173688 112173932 0 .404 APC chrl5 89806635 89806874 0 .371 FANCI chr5 112173840 112174071 0 .466 APC chrl5 89807040 89807240 0 .403 FANCI chr5 112174070 112174313 0 .361 APC chr15 39307671 89307391 0. .344 FANCI chr5 112174297 112174537 0. .353 APC chrl5 89811673 89311922 0. .364 FANCI chr5 112174544 112174783 0. .392 APC chrl5 89817473 89817702 0. .370 FANCI chr5 112174788 112175027 0. .400 APC chrl5 89819937 89820137 0. .418 FANCI chr5 112174985 112175185 0. .378 APC chr15 89821824 89822080 0. .358 FANCI chr5 112175164 112175405 0. .459 APC chr15 39824311 89324511 0. .333 FANCI chr5 112175413 112175652 0. .471 APC chrl5 89824830 89825066 0. .359 FANCI chr5 112175519 112175768 0. .460 APC chrl5 89828191 89828429 0. .439 FANCI chr5 112175523 112175780 0. .461 APC chrl5 89833373 89833592 0. .368 FANCI chr5 112175853 112176053 0. .333 APC chrlS 89834739 89834949 0. 365 FANCI chr5 112175867 112176116 0. 330 APC chrlS 39835684 89335936 0. 336 FANCI chr5 112175900 112176040 0. 326 APC chrl5 89836099 89836321 0. 327 FANCI chr5 112176145 112176391 0. 449 APC chrl5 89837021 89837221 0. 358 FANCI chr5 112176384 112176633 0. 412 APC chrlS 89838207 89838356 0. 480 FANCI chr5 112176631 112176875 0. 322 APC chrl 5 39343116 89343345 0. 417 FANCI chr5 112176860 112177104 0. 396 APC chrl5 89843449 89343649 0. 403 FANCI chr5 112176995 112177234 0. 400 APC chrl5 89844490 89844700 0. 455 FANCI chr5 112177404 112177650 0. 385 APC chrlS 89846965 89847165 0. 388 FANCI chr5 112177589 112177789 0. 408 APC chrlS 89848390 89848629 0. 479 FANCI chr5 112177796 112178080 0. 389 APC chr15 39848727 89343927 0. 478 FANCI chr5 112178130 112178379 0. 456 APC chrl5 89849176 89349396 0. 439 FANCI chr5 112178293 112178573 0. 391 APC chrl5 89850578 89850778 0. 403 FANCI chr5 112178510 112178755 0. 407 APC chrlS 89850795 89850995 0. 438 FANCI chr5 112178763 112179036 0. 449 APC chrlS 89857735 89857935 0. 398 FAN I chr5 112179030 112179324 0. 330 APC chrlS 39858460 89358694 0. 498 FANCI ch 5 112179325 112179525 0. 423 APC chr!5 89859420 89859663 0. 430 FANCI ch 5 112179582 112179827 0. 472 APC chrl5 89859773 89859973 0..517 FANCI chr5 112180193 112180393 0..338 ARC chrl5 89859992 89860192 0. .443 FANCI chr5 112181061 112181261 0. .398 ARC chrl5 89860258 89860477 0. .359 FANCI chr5 112181929 112182129 0. .313 ARC chrl5 90631785 90632007 0. .570 IDH2 chr5 131892606 131892857 0. .718 RAD50 chrl5 90631814 90632043 0. .548 IDH2 chr5 131892983 131893197 0. .474 RAD50 chrl5 90631843 90632054 0. .519 IDH2 chr5 131892984 131893223 0. .463 RAD50 chr16 3631168 3631388 0. .443 SLX4 chr5 131893020 131893223 0. .466 RAD50 chr16 3632424 3632665 0. .645 SLX4 chr5 131893049 131893292 0. .492 RAD50 chr16 3632693 3632893 0. .597 SLX4 chr5 131894808 131895037 0. .252 RAD50 chr16 3633083 3633283 0. .582 SLX4 chr5 131911382 131911618 0. .376 RAD50 chr16 3633339 3633565 0. .590 SLX4 chr5 131915004 131915223 0. .382 RAD50 chr16 3634696 3634896 0. .502 SLX4 chr5 131915567 131915717 0. .364 RAD50 chr16 3639002 3639202 0. .617 SLX4 chr5 131923251 131923500 0. .312 RAD50 chr16 3639197 3639423 0. .652 SLX4 chr5 131923517 131923757 0. .328 RAD50 chr16 3639505 3639754 0. .632 SLX4 chr5 131924402 131924651 0. .364 RAD50 chr16 3639692 3639932 0. .639 SLX4 chr5 131925323 131925552 0. .343 RAD50 chr16 3639911 3640159 0. .530 SLX4 chr5 131926850 131927094 0. .363 RAD50 chr16 3640185 3640409 0. .498 SLX4 chr5 131927570 131927750 0. .354 RAD50 chr16 3640478 3640721 0. .607 SLX4 chr5 131930491 131930738 0. .323 RAD50 chr16 3640760 3641047 0. .660 SLX4 chr5 131931278 131931508 0. .442 RAD50 chr16 3641072 3641272 0. .468 SLX4 chr5 131939061 131939291 0. .377 RAD50 chr16 3642628 3642858 0. .597 SLX4 chr5 131939553 131939789 0. .350 RAD50 chr16 3644537 3644773 0. .608 SLX4 chr5 131940409 131940654 0. .346 RAD50 chr16 3645495 3645705 0. .673 SLX4 chr5 131944351 131944557 0. .261 RAD50 chr16 3646003 3646244 0. .698 SLX4 chr5 131944387 131944597 0. .251 RAD50 chr16 3646031 3646244 0. .720 SLX4 chr5 131944873 131945090 0. .271 RAD50 chr16 3646124 3646405 0. .699 SLX4 chr5 131951603 131951803 0. .323 RAD50 chr16 3646149 3646391 0. .712 SLX4 chr5 131951820 131952020 0. .294 RAD50 chr16 3646157 3646403 0. .704 SLX4 chr5 131953730 131953966 0. .333 RAD50 chr16 3647312 3647583 0. .610 SLX4 chr5 131972864 131973090 0. .454 RAD50 chr16 3647601 3647800 0. .540 SLX4 chr5 131973728 131973957 0. .443 RAD50 chr16 3647864 3648074 0. .578 SLX4 chr5 131976168 131976417 0. .520 RAD50 chr16 3650971 3651251 0. .530 SLX4 chr5 131977815 131978052 0. .378 RAD50 chr16 3652058 3652258 0. .557 SLX4 chr5 131978075 131978308 0. .372 RAD50 chr16 3656390 3656622 0. .506 SLX4 chr5 131978265 131978518 0. .417 RAD50 chr16 3656642 3656842 0. .443 SLX4 chr5 131978882 131979101 0. .486 RAD50 chr16 3658480 3658725 0. .528 SLX4 chr5 170837389 170837646 0. .318 NPM1 chr16 3658510 3658671 0. .562 SLX4 chr5 170837423 170837672 0. .316 NPM1 chr16 3658784 3659014 0. .455 SLX4 chr6 35419950 35420204 0. .710 FANCE chr16 3659560 3659760 0. .438 SLX4 chr6 35420484 35420712 0. .677 FANCE chr16 14013935 14014175 0. .651 ERCC4 chr6 35423523 35423753 0. .610 FANCE chr16 14013966 14014166 0. .662 ERCC4 chr6 35423747 35423980 0. .568 FANCE chr16 14013970 14014170 0. .662 ERCC4 chr6 35423937 35424160 0. .500 FANCE chr16 14013971 14014170 0. .665 ERCC4 chr6 35425325 35425579 0. .541 FANCE chr16 14015823 14016023 0. .373 ERCC4 chr6 35425576 35425862 0. .516 FANCE chr16 14016033 14016243 0. .355 ERCC4 chr6 35425990 35426190 0. .602 FANCE chr16 14020466 14020710 0..351 ERCC4 chr6 35427014 35427214 0..443 FANCE chr16 14021912 14022151 0. .338 ERCC4 chr6 35427343 35427543 0. .552 FANCE chr16 14024532 14024732 0. .373 ERCC4 chr6 35428293 35428492 0. .560 FANCE chr16 14025949 14026157 0. .344 ERCC4 chr6 35433986 35434203 0. .550 FANCE chr16 14027949 14028149 0. .348 ERCC4 chr6 35434173 35434385 0. .493 FANCE chr16 14028984 14029224 0. .415 ERCC4 chr6 43544117 43544321 0. .459 POLH chr16 14029445 14029685 0. .452 ERCC4 chr6 43550014 43550163 0. .420 POLH chr16 14031514 14031714 0. .373 ERCC4 chr6 43550754 43550953 0. .415 POLH chr16 14038575 14038734 0. .494 ERCC4 chr6 43554978 43555223 0. .476 POLH chr16 14041470 14041670 0. .468 ERCC4 chr6 43565476 43565625 0. .467 POLH chr16 14041655 14041919 0. .509 ERCC4 chr6 43568621 43568821 0. .448 POLH chr16 14041900 14042126 0. .498 ERCC4 chr6 43571533 43571733 0. .423 POLH chr16 14042120 14042369 0. .404 ERCC4 chr6 43572382 43572582 0. .433 POLH chr16 14042584 14042854 0. .424 ERCC4 chr6 43572829 43573058 0. .374 POLH chr16 14042844 14043078 0. .336 ERCC4 chr6 43578220 43578420 0. .507 POLH chr16 14042902 14043146 0. .347 ERCC4 chr6 43581333 43581514 0. .407 POLH chr16 14043430 14043679 0. .284 ERCC4 chr6 43581613 43581843 0. .433 POLH chr16 14044214 14044436 0. .332 ERCC4 chr6 43581852 43582085 0. .517 POLH chr16 14045149 14045380 0. .276 ERCC4 chr6 43582072 43582231 0. .475 POLH chr16 14045389 14045634 0. .427 ERCC4 chr6 43587356 43587593 0. .361 POLH chr16 14045727 14045927 0. .328 ERCC4 chr6 43587578 43587778 0. .393 POLH chr16 14046154 14046384 0. .303 ERCC4 chr6 43587842 43588084 0. .444 POLH chr16 23614570 23614827 0. .310 PALB2 chr6 152265305 152265551 0. .555 ESR1 chr16 23614836 23615076 0. .407 PALB2 chr6 152265322 152265569 0. .556 ESR1 chr16 23619110 23619349 0. .479 PALB2 chr6 152265335 152265582 0. .548 ESR1 chr16 23625213 23625413 0. .398 PALB2 chr6 152265349 152265597 0. .562 ESR1 chr16 23632741 23632891 0. .391 PALB2 chr6 152332663 152332910 0. .444 ESR1 chr16 23634215 23634415 0. .393 PALB2 chr6 152332707 152332937 0. .463 ESR1 chr16 23635260 23635465 0. .374 PALB2 chr6 152332732 152332961 0. .483 ESR1 chr16 23637513 23637713 0. .458 PALB2 chr6 152415449 152415694 0. .553 ESR1 chr16 23640440 23640682 0. .370 PALB2 chr6 152415449 152415729 0. .555 ESR1 chr16 23640927 23641175 0. .470 PALB2 chr6 152415452 152415694 0. .556 ESR1 chr16 23641292 23641502 0. .431 PALB2 chr6 152415469 152415763 0. .542 ESR1 chr16 23641570 23641813 0. .385 PALB2 chr6 152419792 152420036 0. .576 ESR1 chr16 23646217 23646416 0. .470 PALB2 chr6 152419822 152420047 0. .575 ESR1 chr16 23646250 23646449 0. .460 PALB2 chr6 152419877 152420111 0. .591 ESR1 chr16 23646427 23646636 0. .390 PALB2 chr7 6029374 6029583 0. .367 PMS2 chr16 23646623 23646823 0. .403 PALB2 chr7 6035119 6035348 0. .387 PMS2 chr16 23646780 23647008 0. .345 PALB2 chr7 6036912 6037112 0. .378 PMS2 chr16 23646984 23647228 0. .400 PALB2 chr7 6038718 6039008 0. .430 PMS2 chr16 23647144 23647434 0. .385 PALB2 chr7 55241468 55241710 0. .564 EGFR chr16 23647358 23647558 0. .483 PALB2 chr7 55241542 55241789 0. .565 EGFR chr16 23647369 23647610 0. .467 PALB2 chr7 55241576 55241746 0. .526 EGFR chr16 23649127 23649357 0. .355 PALB2 chr7 55241613 55241853 0. .531 EGFR chr16 23649265 23649465 0. .358 PALB2 chr7 55242269 55242500 0. .509 EGFR chr16 23652430 23652650 0. .692 PALB2 chr7 55242271 55242505 0. .506 EGFR chrl6 23652647 23652337 0.647 PALB2 chr7 55242272 55242520 0.506 EGFR chrlo 68772169 63772389 0 .679 CDH1 chr7 55242280 55242532 0 .506 EGFR chr16 68835529 68835729 0 .463 CDH1 chr7 55242319 55242558 0 .496 EGFR chr16 68835564 68835767 0 .485 CDH1 chr7 55242332 55242584 0 .490 EGFR chr16 68842243 68842453 0 .469 CDH1 chr7 55248852 55249080 0 .585 EGFR chr16 63342518 68842718 0 .423 CDH1 chr7 55248896 55249120 0 .622 EGFR chr16 68844017 63344227 0 .512 CDH1 chr7 55248933 55249182 0 .600 EGFR chr16 68845519 68845719 0 .483 CDH1 chr7 55248937 55249187 0 .598 EGFR chr16 68845706 68845945 0 .517 CDH1 chr7 55248961 55249208 0 .597 EGFR chr16 68845947 68846147 0 .502 CDH1 chr7 55259335 55259571 0 .523 EGFR chr16 63346157 63346377 0 .416 CDH1 chr7 55259337 55259586 0 .532 EGFR chr16 68847216 63347450 0 .477 CDH1 chr7 55259356 55259602 0 .534 EGFR chr16 68849385 68849585 0 .488 CDH1 chr7 55259368 55259570 0 .537 EGFR chr16 68849423 68849649 0 .529 CDH1 chr7 55259391 55259640 0 .544 EGFR chr16 68853169 68853348 0 .522 CDH1 chr7 116411722 116411963 0 .417 MET chrl 6 68855861 63356061 0 .453 CDH1 chr7 116411832 116412076 0 .424 MET chr16 68856071 63356271 0 .483 CDH1 chr7 116411854 116412102 0 .410 MET chrl 6 68856802 68857067 0 .560 CDH1 chr7 116411942 116412183 0 .347 MET chrl 6 68857287 68857494 0 .481 CDH1 chr7 140453006 140453257 0 .381 BRAF chrl 6 68862023 68862255 0 .511 CDH1 chr7 140453042 140453283 0 .364 BRAF chrl 6 68863473 63363683 0. .488 CDH1 chr7 140453060 140453259 0. .335 BRAF chrl 6 68867121 63867366 0. .483 CDH1 chr7 140453085 140453319 0. .336 BRAF chrl 6 68867369 68867599 0. .476 CDH1 chr7 140453086 140453335 0. .340 BRAF chrl 6 89804046 89804215 0. .553 FANCA chr7 140453105 140453353 0. .329 BRAF chrl 6 89804303 89804513 0. .592 FANCA chr7 140481224 140481471 0. .355 BRAF chrl 6 89804648 89304858 0. .635 FANCA chr7 140481234 140481475 0. .360 BRAF chrl 6 89804928 89805172 0. .596 FANCA chr7 140481251 140481496 0. .358 BRAF chrl 6 89805241 89805441 0. .498 FANCA chr7 140481263 140481507 0. .363 BRAF chrl 6 89805462 89805662 0. .612 FANCA chr8 90947700 90947947 0. .319 NBN chrl 6 89805672 89805892 0. 548 FANCA chr8 90949123 90949343 0. 326 NBN chrl 6 39806299 89306509 0. 502 FANCA chr3 90955446 90955690 0. 351 NBN chrl 6 89807188 89807437 0. 364 FANCA chr3 90958290 90958510 0. 321 NBN chrl 6 89809197 89809432 0. 542 FANCA chr8 90959971 90960119 0. 329 NBN chrl 6 89811314 89811494 0. 646 FANCA chr8 90965407 90965703 0. 347 NBN chrl 6 39312889 89813109 0. 557 FANCA chr8 90965709 90965960 0. 333 NBN chrl 6 89813161 89313385 0. 551 FANCA chr3 90967522 90967722 0. 388 NBN chrl 6 89814966 89815166 0. 587 FANCA chr3 90967762 90967962 0. 299 NBN chrl 6 89816227 89816392 0. 608 FANCA chr8 90970951 90971177 0. 414 NBN chrl 6 89818546 89818699 0. 416 FANCA chr8 90976592 90976816 0. 324 NBN chrl 6 39325033 89825256 0. 563 FANCA chr8 90976592 90976817 0. 323 NBN chrl 6 89825068 89325276 0. 545 FANCA chr3 90982598 90982805 0. 385 NBN chrl 6 89828413 89828604 0. 396 FANCA chr3 90983304 90983514 0. 308 NBN chrl 6 89831297 89831493 0. 533 FANCA chr8 90990344 90990544 0. 318 NBN chr16 89833531 89833695 0. 358 FANCA chr8 90992886 90993086 0. 323 NBN chrl 6 39336321 89336521 0. 617 FANCA chr8 90993103 90993303 0. 234 NBN chrl 6 89836550 89336790 0. 598 FANCA chr3 90993522 90993742 0. 321 NBN chr 16 89i 336823 89i 337062 0..604 FANCA chr8 90994780 90995004 0..347 NBN chr 16 89i 336842 89i 337075 0. .615 FANCA chr8 90996593 90996859 0. .678 NBN chr 16 89i 336876 89i 337138 0. .635 FANCA chr9 5073651 5073873 0. .354 JAK2 chr 16 89i 336882 89i 337082 0. .627 FANCA chr9 21968200 21968432 0. .545 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 336894 89i 337156 0. .627 FANCA chr9 21970919 21971216 0. .721 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 338040 89i 338261 0. .514 FANCA chr9 21970920 21971216 0. .721 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 339593 89i 339838 0. .573 FANCA chr9 21973486 21973718 0. .365 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 342062 89i 342262 0. .498 FANCA chr9 21974363 21974602 0. .500 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 345140 89i 345350 0. .483 FANCA chr9 21994083 21994336 0. .654 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 345256 89i 345456 0. .527 FANCA chr9 21994085 21994334 0. .656 CDKN2A chr 16 89i 346317 89i 346557 0. .498 FANCA chr9 35073773 35074045 0. .432 FANCG chr 16 89i 349141 89i 349341 0. .502 FANCA chr9 35074052 35074258 0. .517 FANCG chr 16 89i 349323 89i 349591 0. .554 FANCA chr9 35074248 35074484 0. .565 FANCG chr 16 89i 357774 89i 358016 0. .560 FANCA chr9 35074847 35075072 0. .535 FANCG chr 16 89i 358250 89i 358450 0. .567 FANCA chr9 35075125 35075335 0. .493 FANCG chr 16 89i 358752 89i 358951 0. .555 FANCA chr9 35075354 35075564 0. .531 FANCG chr 16 89i 362215 89i 362425 0. .512 FANCA chr9 35075451 35075651 0. .562 FANCG chr 16 89i 365452 89i 365652 0. .532 FANCA chr9 35075668 35075868 0. .587 FANCG chr 16 89i 365648 89i 365886 0. .498 FANCA chr9 35075897 35076097 0. .557 FANCG chr 16 89i 365874 89i 366074 0. .408 FANCA chr9 35076388 35076632 0. .494 FANCG chr 16 89i 369678 89i 369909 0. .461 FANCA chr9 35076699 35076959 0. .529 FANCG chr 16 89i 371619 89i 371819 0. .522 FANCA chr9 35076908 35077108 0. .537 FANCG chr 16 89i 374567 89i 374718 0. .375 FANCA chr9 35077204 35077404 0. .517 FANCG chr 16 89i 377021 89i 377274 0. .382 FANCA chr9 35078145 35078385 0. .593 FANCG chr 16 89i 377278 89i 377525 0. .520 FANCA chr9 35078512 35078712 0. .522 FANCG chr 16 89i 380876 89i 381036 0. .342 FANCA chr9 35079068 35079268 0. .587 FANCG chr 16 89i 382268 89i 382508 0. .564 FANCA chr9 35079437 35079667 0. .671 FANCG chrl7 7572710 7572941 0. .547 TP53 chr9 35079767 35079970 0. .667 FANCG chrl7 7572841 7573094 0. .524 TP53 chr9 35079828 35080069 0. .702 FANCG chrl7 7573785 7574015 0. .571 TP53 chr9 35079839 35080069 0. .706 FANCG chrl7 7573785 7574050 0. .583 TP53 chr9 35079923 35080159 0. .667 FANCG chrl7 7573803 7574050 0. .593 TP53 chr9 80336120 80336372 0. .478 GNAQ chrl7 7573811 7574017 0. .580 TP53 chr9 80336121 80336372 0. .476 GNAQ chrl7 7576734 7576934 0. .468 TP53 chr9 80336223 80336472 0. .500 GNAQ chrl7 7576933 7577155 0. .552 TP53 chr9 80336253 80336500 0. .484 GNAQ chrl7 7576951 7577151 0. .557 TP53 chr9 80336259 80336500 0. .483 GNAQ chrl7 7576970 7577197 0. .548 TP53 chr9 80409367 80409598 0. .353 GNAQ chrl7 7576998 7577191 0. .552 TP53 chr9 80409379 80409628 0. .352 GNAQ chrl7 7576998 7577241 0. .529 TP53 chr9 97863312 97863512 0. .572 FANCC chrl7 7576998 7577242 0. .531 TP53 chr9 97863840 97864111 0. .548 FANCC chrl7 7577014 7577263 0. .532 TP53 chr9 97869338 97869594 0. .595 FANCC chrl7 7577304 7577572 0. .565 TP53 chr9 97872619 97872829 0. .308 FANCC chrl7 7577329 7577570 0. .574 TP53 chr9 97872955 97873165 0. .398 FANCC chrl7 7577329 7577576 0. .569 TP53 chr9 97873179 97873409 0. .494 FANCC chrl7 7577346 7577570 0. .596 TP53 chr9 97873711 97873957 0. .587 FANCC chrl7 7577346 7577576 0. .589 TP53 chr9 97876827 97877027 0. .517 FANCC

chrl7 7577371 7577620 0..564 TP53 chr9 97879613 97879852 0..404 FANCC chrl7 7577398 7577598 0. .572 TP53 chr9 97 887262 97 887462 0. .403 FANCC chrl7 7578196 7578426 0. .563 TP53 chr9 97 888682 97 888882 0. .423 FANCC chrl7 7578263 7578502 0. .629 TP53 chr9 97 897551 97 897761 0. .417 FANCC chrl7 7578283 7578494 0. .637 TP53 chr9 97 897761 97 897961 0. .313 FANCC chrl7 7578298 7578566 0. .617 TP53 chr9 97912208 97912455 0. .456 FANCC chrl7 7578299 7578502 0. .642 TP53 chr9 97933298 97933498 0. .363 FANCC chrl7 7578363 7578562 0. .615 TP53 chr9 97934219 97934419 0. .333 FANCC chrl7 7578363 7578598 0. .597 TP53 chr9 98 002823 98 003043 0. .321 FANCC chrl7 7579266 7579515 0. .624 TP53 chr9 98 009694 98 009940 0. .328 FANCC chrl7 7579311 7579460 0. .620 TP53 chr9 98 011375 98 011575 0. .418 FANCC chrl7 7579326 7579526 0. .627 TP53 chr9 98 011585 98 011785 0. .433 FANCC chrl7 7579332 7579550 0. .616 TP53 chr9 98 079868 98 080148 0. .669 FANCC chrl7 7579817 7579987 0. .556 TP53 chr9 100437190 100437390 0. .428 XPA chrl7 7590681 7590919 0. .573 TP53 chr9 100437359 100437558 0. .475 XPA chrl7 33426833 33427064 0. .474 RAD51D chr9 100437525 100437765 0. .299 XPA chrl7 33427044 33427283 0. .500 RAD51D chr9 100437793 100437993 0. .383 XPA chrl7 33427269 33427513 0. .437 RAD51D chr9 100444474 100444677 0. .397 XPA chrl7 33427477 33427725 0. .518 RAD51D chr9 100447108 100447308 0. .348 XPA chrl7 33427706 33427935 0. .504 RAD51D chr9 100449321 100449540 0. .309 XPA chrl7 33427916 33428162 0. .498 RAD51D chr9 100451744 100451944 0. .323 XPA chrl7 33428100 33428345 0. .577 RAD51D chr9 100455831 100456031 0. .328 XPA chrl7 33430196 33430419 0. .567 RAD51D chr9 100459275 100459499 0. .720 XPA chrl7 33430401 33430620 0. .573 RAD51D chr9 100459396 100459601 0. .728 XPA chrl7 33433344 33433506 0. .564 RAD51D chr9 100459482 100459691 0. .724 XPA chrl7 33433897 33434133 0. .489 RAD51D chr9 100459482 100459695 0. .720 XPA chrl7 33434295 33434532 0. .500 RAD51D chr9 100459482 100459721 0. .721 XPA chrl7 33445499 33445672 0. .586 RAD51D chrX 14 861796 14 861980 0. .416 FANCB chrl7 33446550 33446780 0. .662 RAD51D chrX 14 861961 14 862165 0. .322 FANCB chrl7 37868175 37868423 0. .606 ERBB2 chrX 14 862588 14 862788 0. .368 FANCB chrl7 37868177 37868424 0. .605 ERBB2 chrX 14 862805 14 863005 0. .294 FANCB chrl7 37868184 37868432 0. .614 ERBB2 chrX 14 862977 14 863177 0. .358 FANCB chrl7 37868192 37868432 0. .622 ERBB2 chrX 14 863227 14 863447 0. .403 FANCB chrl7 41226314 41226567 0. .433 BRCA1 chrX 14 868691 14 868896 0. .306 FANCB chrl7 41228463 41228682 0. .368 BRCA1 chrX 14 871130 14 871330 0. .313 FANCB chrl7 41231290 41231560 0. .432 BRCA1 chrX 14 875743 14 875993 0. .307 FANCB chrl7 41234185 41234455 0. .435 BRCA1 chrX 14 877225 14 877425 0. .313 FANCB chrl7 41234392 41234631 0. .438 BRCA1 chrX 14 877435 14 877635 0. .274 FANCB chrl7 41242906 41243146 0. .444 BRCA1 chrX 14 882681 14 882881 0. .393 FANCB chrl7 41243450 41243690 0. .411 BRCA1 chrX 14 882885 14 883085 0. .328 FANCB chrl7 41243675 41243921 0. .397 BRCA1 chrX 14 883089 14 883289 0. .383 FANCB chrl7 41243914 41244153 0. .433 BRCA1 chrX 14 883275 14 883501 0. .291 FANCB chrl7 41244048 41244300 0. .368 BRCA1 chrX 14 883493 14 883735 0. .350 FANCB chrl7 41244075 41244265 0. .366 BRCA1 chrX 14 887070 14 887270 0. .323 FANCB chrl7 41244473 41244712 0. .371 BRCA1 chrX 14 890941 14 891170 0. .578 FANCB chrl7 41244534 41244778 0. .376 BRCA1 chrX 47426013 47426262 0. .636 ARAF chrl7 41244766 41245013 0..387 BRCA1 chrX 47426015 47426263 0..635 ARAF chrl7 41245011 41245240 0. .409 BRCA1 chrX 47426016 47426262 0. .640 ARAF chrl7 41245209 41245462 0. .374 BRCA1 chrX 47426063 47426266 0. .627 ARAF chrl7 41245347 41245586 0. .404 BRCA1 chrX 66765925 66766173 0. .635 AR chrl7 41245598 41245827 0. .370 BRCA1 chrX 66765934 66766173 0. .638 AR chrl7 41245825 41246064 0. .375 BRCA1 chrX 66766002 66766226 0. .671 AR chrl7 41246061 41246310 0. .376 BRCA1 chrX 66766013 66766226 0. .682 AR chrl7 41246304 41246553 0. .416 BRCA1 chrX 66931238 66931486 0. .522 AR chrl7 41246534 41246786 0. .423 BRCA1 chrX 66931245 66931461 0. .525 AR chrl7 41246546 41246786 0. .427 BRCA1 chrX 66931245 66931492 0. .524 AR chrl7 41246595 41246842 0. .419 BRCA1 chrX 66931246 66931484 0. .523 AR chrl7 41246643 41246890 0. .403 BRCA1 chrX 66937264 66937498 0. .536 AR chrl7 41246709 41246956 0. .379 BRCA1 chrX 66937327 66937559 0. .532 AR chrl7 41246794 41247027 0. .338 BRCA1 chrX 66937327 66937576 0. .524 AR chrl7 41247801 41248006 0. .403 BRCA1 chrX 66943491 66943695 0. .468 AR chrl7 41249211 41249311 0. .356 BRCA1 chrX 66943494 66943696 0. .473 AR chrl7 41251673 41251893 0. .380 BRCA1 chrX 66943515 66943684 0. .476 AR chrl7 41251732 41251945 0. .397 BRCA1 chrX 66943534 66943689 0. .474 AR

Detailed Description

The invention pertains to a method for analyzing tumor biomarker sequences that involves hybridization-based enrichment of selected target regions across the human genome in a multiplexed panel assay, followed by quantification, coupled with a novel bioinformatics and mathematical analysis pipeline. An overview of the method is shown schematically in Figure 1.

In-solution hybridization enrichment has been used in the past to enrich specific regions of interest prior to sequencing (see e.g., Meyer, M and Kirchner, M. (2010) Cold Spring Harb. Protoc. 2010(6):pdbprot5448; Liao, G.J. et al. (2012) PLoS One 7:e38154; Maricic, T. et al. (2010) PLoS One 5:el4004; Tewhey, . et a/.(2009) Genome Biol. 10:R116; Tsangaras, K. et al. (2014) PLoS One 9:el09101; PCT Publication WO 2016/189388; US Patent Publication 2016/0340733; Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855). However, for the methods of the invention, the target sequences (referred to as TArget Capture Sequences, or TACS) used to enrich for specific regions of interest have been optimized for maximum efficiency, specificity and accuracy and, furthermore, in certain embodiments are used in families of TACS, comprising a plurality of members that bind to the same tumor biomarker sequence but with differing start and/or stop positions, such that enrichment of the tumor biomarker sequences of interest is significantly improved compared to use of a single TACS binding to the genomic sequence. An example of a configuration of such families of TACS is illustrated schematically in Figure 3, showing that the different start and/or stop positions of the members of the TACS family when bound to the genomic sequence of interest results in a staggered binding pattern for the family members.

The use of families of TACS with the TACS pool that bind to each target sequence of interest, as compared to use of a single TACS within the TACS pool that binds to each target sequence of interest, significantly increases enrichment for the target sequences of interest, as evidenced by a greater than 50% average increase in read-depth for the family of TACS versus a single TACS. Comparison of use of a family of TACS versus a single TACS, and the significantly improved read-depth that was observed, is described in detail in Example 5.

Tumor Biomarker Detection

The methods and kits of the disclosure are used in the analysis of tumor biomarkers in biological samples. As described in detail in Examples 6-9, the methods of the invention can used for the detection of large panels of tumor biomarkers at tumor loads as low as 0.1% and can detect tumor biomarkers in both tumor tissue and in liquid biopsy samples from tumor patients. Accordingly, in one aspect, the invention pertains to a method of detecting one or more tumor biomarkers in a DNA sample from a subject having or suspected of having a tumor, the method comprising:

(a) preparing a sequencing library from the DNA sample;

(b) hybridizing the sequencing library to a pool of double-stranded TArget Capture Sequences (TACS) that bind to one or more tumor biomarker sequences of interest, wherein:

(i) each member sequence within the pool of TACS is between 100-500 base pairs in length, each member sequence having a 5' end and a 3' end;

(ii) preferably each member sequence binds to the tumor biomarker sequence of interest at least 50 base pairs away, on both the 5' end and the 3' end, from regions harboring Copy Number Variations (CNVs), Segmental duplications or repetitive DNA elements; and

(iii) the GC content of the pool of TACS is between 19% and 80%, as determined by calculating the GC content of each member within the pool of TACS;

(c) isolating members of the sequencing library that bind to the pool of TACS to obtain an enriched library;

(d) amplifying and sequencing the enriched library; and

(e) performing statistical analysis on the enriched library sequences, optionally utilizing only fragments of a specific size range, to thereby detect the tumor biomarker(s) in the DNA sample.

In one embodiment, the pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families, wherein each member of a TACS family binds to the same tumor biomarker sequence of interest but with different start and/or stop positions on the sequence with respect to a reference coordinate system (i.e., binding of TACS family members to the target sequence is staggered) to thereby enrich for target sequences of interest, followed by massive parallel sequencing and statistical analysis of the enriched population. Typically, the reference coordinate system that is used for analyzing human genomic DNA is the human reference genome built hgl9, which is publically available in the art, although other versions may be used. Alternatively, the reference coordinate system can be an artificially created genome based on built hgl9 that contains only the genomic sequences of interest. Exemplary non-limiting examples of start/stop positions for TACS that bind to chromosome 13, 18, 21, X or Y are shown in Figure 2. Exemplary non-limiting examples of start/stop positions for TACS that bind to NRAS on chromosome 1, PI3KCA on chromosome 3, EGFR on chromosome 7 or KRAS on chromosome 12 (as non-limiting examples of tumor biomarkers) are shown in Figure 10.

Accordingly, in another aspect, the invention pertains to a method of detecting one or more tumor biomarkers in a DNA sample from a subject having or suspected of having a tumor, the method comprising:

(a) preparing a sequencing library from the DNA sample;

(b) hybridizing the sequencing library to a pool of double-stranded TArget Capture Sequences (TACS) that bind to one or more tumor biomarker sequences of interest, wherein the pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families, wherein each member of a TACS family binds to the same tumor biomarker sequence of interest but with different start and/or stop positions on the sequence with respect to a reference coordinate system, and further wherein:

(i) each member sequence within the pool of TACS is between 100-500 base pairs in length, each member sequence having a 5' end and a 3' end;

(ii) preferably each member sequence binds to the tumor biomarker sequence of interest at least 50 base pairs away, on both the 5' end and the 3' end, from regions harboring

Copy Number Variations (CNVs), Segmental duplications or repetitive DNA elements; and

(iii) the GC content of the pool of TACS is between 19% and 80%, as determined by calculating the GC content of each member within the pool of TACS;

(c) isolating members of the sequencing library that bind to the pool of TACS to obtain an enriched library;

(d) amplifying and sequencing the enriched library; and

(e) performing statistical analysis on the enriched library sequences, optionally utilizing only fragments of a specific size range, to thereby detect the tumor biomarker(s) in the DNA sample.

The TACS-enrichment based method of the disclosure can be used in the detection of a wide variety of genetic abnormalities. In one embodiment, the genetic abnormality is a chromosomal aneuploidy (such as a trisomy, a partial trisomy or a monosomy). In other embodiments, the genomic abnormality is a structural abnormality, including but not limited to copy number changes including microdeletions and microduplications, insertions, translocations, inversions and small-size mutations including point mutations and mutational signatures. In another embodiment, the genetic abnormality is a chromosomal mosaicism.

Further aspects and features of the methods of the disclosure are described in the subsections below.

TArget Capture Sequence Design

As used herein, the term "TArget Capture Sequences" or "TACS" refers to short DNA sequences that are complementary to the region(s) of interest on a genomic sequence(s) of interest (e.g., chromosome(s) of interest) and which are used as "bait" to capture and enrich the region of interest from a large library of sequences, such as a whole genomic sequencing library prepared from a biological sample. In addition to the features of the families of TACS described above (e.g., staggered binding to the genomic sequence of interest), a pool of TACS is used for enrichment wherein the sequences within the pool have been optimized with regard to: (i) the length of the sequences; (ii) the distribution of the TACS across the region(s) of interest; and (iii) the GC content of the TACS. The number of sequences within the TACS pool (pool size) has also been optimized.

It has been discovered that TACS having a length of 100-500 base pairs are optimal to maximize enrichment efficiency. In various other embodiments, each sequence within the pool of TACS is between 150-260 base pairs, 100-200 base pairs, 200-260 base pairs, 100-350 bp in

length, or 100-500 bp in length. In preferred embodiments, the length of the TACS within the pool is at least 250 base pairs, or is 250 base pairs or is 260 base pairs or is 280 base pairs. It will be appreciated by the ordinarily skilled artisan that a slight variation in TACS size typically can be used without altering the results (e.g., the addition or deletion of a few base pairs on either end of the TACS); accordingly, the base pair lengths given herein are to be considered "about" or "approximate", allowing for some slight variation (e.g., 1-5%) in length. Thus, for example, a length of "250 base pairs" is intended to refer to "about 250 base pairs" or "approximately 250 base pairs", such that, for example, 248 or 252 base pairs is also encompassed.

The distribution of the TACS across each region or chromosome of interest has been optimized to avoid, if applicable, high copy repeats, low copy repeats and copy number variants, while at the same time also being able to target informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in order to enable both aneuploidy, or structural copy number change detection, and fraction of interest estimation. Accordingly, each sequence within the TACS pool is designed such that the 5' end and the 3' end are each at least 50 base pairs away from regions in the genome that are known to harbor one or more of the following genomic elements: Copy Number Variations (CNVs), Segmental duplications and/or repetitive DNA elements (such as transposable elements or tandem repeat areas). In various other embodiments, each sequence within the TACS pool is designed such that the 5' end and the 3' end are each at least 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400 or 500 base pairs away from regions in the genome that are known to harbor one or more of the aforementioned elements.

The term "Copy Number Variations" is a term of art that refers to a form of structural variation in the human genome in which there can be alterations in the DNA of the genome in different individuals that can result in a fewer or greater than normal number of a section(s) of the genome in certain individuals. CNVs correspond to relatively large regions of the genome that may be deleted (e.g., a section that normally is A-B-C-D can be A-B-D) or may be duplicated (e.g., a section that normally is A-B-C-D can be A-B-C-C-D). CNVs account for roughly 13% of the human genome, with each variation ranging in size from about 1 kilobase to several megabases in size.

The term "Segmental duplications" (also known as "low-copy repeats") is also a term of art that refers to blocks of DNA that range from about 1 to 400 kilobases in length that occur at more than one site within the genome and typically share a high level (greater than 90%) of sequence identity. Segmental duplications are reviewed in, for example, Eichler. E.E. (2001) Trends Genet. 17:661-669.

The term "repetitive DNA elements" (also known as "repeat DNA" or "repeated DNA") is also a term of art that refers to patterns of DNA that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome. The term "repetitive DNA element" encompasses terminal repeats, tandem repeats and interspersed repeats, including transposable elements. Repetitive DNA elements in NGS is discussed further in, for example, Todd, J. et al. (2012) Nature Reviews Genet. 13:36-46.

The TACS are designed with specific GC content characteristics in order to minimize data GC bias and to allow a custom and innovative data analysis pipeline. It has been determined that TACS with a GC content of 19-80% achieve optimal enrichment and perform best with cell free DNA. Within the pool of TACS, different sequences can have different % GC content, although to be selected for inclusion with the pool, the % GC content of each sequence is chosen as between 19-80%, as determined by calculating the GC content of each member within each family of TACS. That is, every member within each family of TACS has a % GC content within the given percentage range (e.g., between 19-80% GC content).

In some instances, the pool of TACS (i.e., each member within each family of TACS) may be chosen so as to define a different % GC content range, deemed to be more suitable for the assessment of specific genetic abnormalities. Non-limiting examples of various % GC content ranges, can be between 19% and 80%, or between 19% and 79%, or between 19% and 78%, or between 19% and 77%, or between 19% and 76%, or between 19% and 75%, or between 19% and 74%, or between 19% and 73%, or between 19% and 72%, or between 19% and 71%, or between 19% and 70%, or between 19% and 69%, or between 19% and 68%, or between 19% and 67%, or between 19% and 66%, or between 19% and 65%, or between 19% and 64%, or between 19% and 63%, or between 19% and 62%, or between 19% and 61%, or between 19% and 60%, or between 19% and 59%, or between 19% and 58%, or between 19% and 57%, or between 19% and 56%, or between 19% and 55%, or between 19% and 54%, or between 19% and 53%, or between 19% and 52%, or between 19% and 51%, or between 19% and 50%, or between 19% and 49%, or between 19% and 48%, or between 19% and 47%, or between 19% and 46%, or between 19% and 45%, or between 19% and 44%, or between 19% and 43%, or between 19% and 42%, or between 19% and 41%, or between 19% and 40%.

As described in further detail below with respect to one embodiment of the data analysis, following amplification and sequencing of the enriched sequences, the test loci and reference loci can then be "matched" or grouped together according to their % GC content (e.g., test loci with a % GC content of 40% is matched with reference loci with a % GC content of 40%). It is appreciated that the % GC content matching procedure may allow slight variation in the allowed matched % GC range. A non-limiting instance, and with reference to the previously described example in text, a test locus with % GC content of 40% could be matched with reference loci of % GC ranging from 39-41%, thereby encompassing the test locus % GC within a suitable range.

To prepare a pool of TACS having the optimized criteria set forth above with respect to size, placement within the human genome and % GC content, both manual and computerized analysis methods known in the art can be applied to the analysis of the human reference genome. In one embodiment, a semi-automatic method is implemented where regions are firstly manually designed based on the human reference genome build 19 (hgl9) ensuring that, if applicable, the aforementioned repetitive regions are avoided and subsequently are curated for GC-content using software that computes the % GC-content of each region based on its coordinates on the human reference genome build 19 (hgl9). In another embodiment, custom-built software is used to analyses the human reference genome in order to identify suitable TACS regions that fulfill certain criteria, such as but not limited to, % GC content, proximity to repetitive regions and/or proximity to other TACS.

The number of TACS in the pool has been carefully examined and adjusted to achieve the best balance between result robustness and assay cost/throughput. The pool typically contains at least 800 or more TACS, but can include more, such as 1500 or more TACS, 2000 or more TACS or 2500 or more TACS or 3500 or more TACS or 5000 or more TACS. It has been found that an optimal number of TACS in the pool is 5000. It will be appreciated by the ordinarily skilled artisan that a slight variation in pool size typically can be used without altering the results (e.g., the addition or removal of a small number of TACS); accordingly, the number sizes of the pool given herein are to be considered "about" or "approximate", allowing for some slight variation (e.g., 1-5%) in size. Thus, for example, a pool size of "1600 sequences" is intended to refer to "about 1600 sequences" or "approximately 1600 sequences", such that, for example, 1590 or 1610 sequences is also encompassed.

In view of the foregoing, in another aspect, the invention provides a method for preparing a pool of TACS for use in the method of the invention for detecting risk of a chromosomal and/or other genetic abnormality, wherein the method for preparing the pool of TACS comprises: selecting regions in one or more chromosomes of interest having the criteria set forth above (e.g., at least 50 base pairs away on either end from the aforementioned repetitive sequences and a GC content of between 19% and 80%, as determined by calculating the GC content of each member within each family of TACS), preparing primers that amplify sequences that hybridize to the

selected regions, and amplifying the sequences, wherein each sequence is 100-500 base pairs in length.

For use in the methods of the disclosure, the pool of TACS typically is fixed to a solid support, such as beads (such as magnetic beads) or a column. In one embodiment, the pool of TACS are labeled with biotin and are bound to magnetic beads coated with a biotin-binding substance, such as streptavidin or avidin, to thereby fix the pool of TACS to a solid support. Other suitable binding systems for fixing the pool of TACS to a solid support (such as beads or column) are known to the skilled artisan and readily available in the art. When magnetic beads are used as the solid support, sequences that bind to the TACS affixed to the beads can be separated magnetically from those sequences that do not bind to the TACS.

Families of TACS

In one embodiment, the pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families directed to different tumor biomarker sequences of interest. Each TACS family comprises a plurality of members that bind to the same tumor biomarker sequence of interest but having different start and/or stop positions with respect to a reference coordinate system for the genomic sequence of interest. Typically, the reference coordinate system that is used for analyzing human genomic DNA is the human reference genome built hgl9, which is publically available in the art, but other coordinate systems may also be used. Alternatively, the reference coordinate system can be an artificially created genome based on publically available coordinate systems, such as for example built hgl9 of the human genome, that contains only the genomic sequences of interest. Exemplary non-limiting examples of start/stop positions for TACS that bind to chromosome 13, 18, 21, X or Y are shown in Figure 2.

Each TACS family comprises at least 2 members that bind to the same genomic sequence of interest. In various embodiments, each TACS family comprises at least 2 member sequences, or at least 3 member sequences, or at least 4 member sequences, or at least 5 member sequences, or at least 6 member sequences, or at least 7 member sequences, or at least 8 member sequence, or at least 9 member sequences, or at least 10 member sequences. In various embodiments, each TACS family comprises 2 member sequences, or 3 member sequences, or 4 member sequences, or 5 member sequences, or 6 member sequences, or 7 member sequences, or 8 member sequences, or 9 member sequences, or 10 member sequences. In various embodiments, the plurality of TACS families comprises different families having different numbers of member sequences. For example, a pool of TACS can comprise one TACS family that comprises 3 member

sequences, another TACS family that comprises 4 member sequences, and yet another TACS family that comprises 5 member sequences, and the like. In one embodiment, a TACS family comprises 3-5 member sequences. In another embodiment, the TACS family comprises 4 member sequences.

The pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families. Thus, a pool of TACS comprises at least 2 TACS families. In various embodiments, a pool of TACS comprises at least 3 different TACS families, or at least 5 different TACS families, or at least 10 different TACS families, or at least 50 different TACS families, or at least 100 different TACS families, or at least 500 different TACS families, or at least 1000 different TACS families, or at least 2000 TACS families, or at least 4000 TACS families, or at least 5000 TACS families.

Each member within a family of TACS binds to the same genomic region of interest but with different start and/or stop positions, with respect to a reference coordinate system for the genomic sequence of interest, such that the binding pattern of the members of the TACS family is staggered (for example see Figure 3). In various embodiments, the start and/or stop positions are staggered by at least 3 base pairs, or at least 4 base pairs, or at least 5 base pairs, or at least 6 base pairs, or at least 7 base pairs, or at least 8 base pairs, or at least 9 base pairs, or at least 10 base pairs, or at least 15 base pairs, or at least 20 base pairs, or at least 25 base pairs. Typically, the start and/or stop positions are staggered by 5-10 base pairs. In one embodiment, the start and/or stop positions are staggered by 5 base pairs. In another embodiment, the start and/or stop positions are staggered by 10 base pairs.

Sample Collection and Preparation

The methods of the invention can be used with a variety of biological samples. Essentially any biological sample containing DNA, and in particular cell-free DNA (cfDNA), can be used as the sample in the methods, allowing for genetic analysis of the DNA therein. For example, a peripheral whole blood sample can be obtained from a subject and plasma can be obtained from the whole blood sample by standard methods. Total cell free DNA can then be extracted from the sample using standard techniques, non-limiting examples of which include a Qiasymphony protocol (Qiagen) suitable for cell free DNA isolation or any other manual or automated extraction method suitable for cell free DNA isolation.

For tumor biomarker detection, the sample is a biological sample obtained from a patient having or suspected of having a tumor. In one embodiment, the DNA sample comprises cell free tumor DNA (cftDNA). In one embodiment, the oncology sample is a sample of tissue (e.g., from a tumor biopsy). In another embodiment the sample is a patient's urine, sputum,ascites, cerebrospinal fluid or pleural effusion. In another embodiment, the oncology sample is a patient plasma sample, prepared from patient peripheral blood. Thus, the sample can be a liquid biopsy sample that is obtained non-invasively from a patient's blood sample, thereby potentially allowing for early detection of cancer prior to development of a detectable or palpable tumor, or can be from a tissue that has or is suspected of having cancer. In another embodiment, the oncology sample is a patient's healthy tissue such as buffy coat, prepared from patient peripheral blood, or buccal swab or healthy tissue adjacent to the tumor or another source of healthy cells. Thus, the healthy cells can provide a source of DNA that allows for detection of germline mutations and comparison with tumor DNA.

For the biological sample preparation, typically cells are lysed and DNA is extracted using standard techniques known in the art, a non-limiting example of which is the Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue protocol. In another embodiment, cell free DNA is isolated from plasma using standard techniques, a non-limiting example of which is the Qiasymphony (Qiagen) protocol.

Following isolation, the cell free DNA of the sample is used for sequencing library construction to make the sample compatible with a downstream sequencing technology, such as Next Generation Sequencing. Typically this involves ligation of adapters onto the ends of the cell free DNA fragments, followed by amplification. Sequencing library preparation kits are commercially available. A non-limiting exemplary protocol for sequencing library preparation is described in detail in Example 1. In another embodiment, nuclear DNA (a non-limiting example of which is DNA extracted from tissue of buffy coat) is fragmented using standard techniques. A non-limiting example of DNA fragmentation is sonication. Fragmented nuclear DNA is then subjected to the same downstream procedures for cell free DNA described in this paragraph.

Enrichment by TACS Hybridization

The region(s) of interest on the chromosome(s) of interest (e.g., tumor biomarker sequences) is enriched by hybridizing the pool of TACS to the sequencing library, followed by isolation of those sequences within the sequencing library that bind to the TACS. To facilitate isolation of the desired, enriched sequences, typically the TACS sequences are modified in such a way that sequences that hybridize to the TACS can be separated from sequences that do not

hybridize to the TACS. Typically, this is achieved by fixing the TACS to a solid support. This allows for physical separation of those sequences that bind the TACS from those sequences that do not bind the TACS. For example, each sequence within the pool of TACS can be labeled with biotin and the pool can then be bound to beads coated with a biotin-binding substance, such as streptavidin or avidin. In a preferred embodiment, the TACS are labeled with biotin and bound to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. The ordinarily skilled artisan will appreciate, however, that other affinity binding systems are known in the art and can be used instead of biotin-streptavidin/avidin. For example, an antibody-based system can be used in which the TACS are labeled with an antigen and then bound to antibody-coated beads. Moreover, the TACS can incorporate on one end a sequence tag and can be bound to a solid support via a complementary sequence on the solid support that hybridizes to the sequence tag. Furthermore in addition to magnetic beads, other types of solid supports can be used, such as polymer beads and the like.

In certain embodiments, the members of the sequencing library that bind to the pool of TACS are fully complementary to the TACS. In other embodiments, the members of the sequencing library that bind to the pool of TACS are partially complementary to the TACS. For example, in certain circumstances it may be desirable to utilize and analyze data that are from DNA fragments that are products of the enrichment process but that do not necessarily belong to the genomic regions of interest (i.e. such DNA fragments could bind to the TACS because of part homologies (partial complementarity) with the TACS and when sequenced would produce very low coverage throughout the genome in non-TACS coordinates).

Following enrichment of the sequence(s) of interest using the TACS, thereby forming an enriched library, the members of the enriched library are eluted from the solid support and are amplified and sequenced using standard methods known in the art. Next Generation Sequencing is typically used, although other sequencing technologies can also be employed, which provides very accurate counting in addition to sequence information. To detect genetic abnormalities, such as but not limited to, aneuploidies or structural copy number changes requires very accurate counting and NGS is a type of technology that enables very accurate counting. Accordingly, for the detection of genetic abnormalities, such as but not limited to, aneuploidies or structural copy number changes, other accurate counting methods, such as digital PC and microarrays can also be used instead of NGS. Non-limiting exemplary protocols for amplification and sequencing of the enriched library are described in detail in Example 3.

Data Analysis

The information obtained from the sequencing of the enriched library can be analyzed using an innovative biomathematical/biostatistical data analysis pipeline. Details of an exemplary analysis using this pipeline are described in depth in Example 4, and in further detail below. Alternative data analysis approaches for different purposes are also provided herein. For example, data analysis approaches for analyzing oncology samples are described in detail in Example 6-9 and in the oncology section below.

The analysis pipeline described in Example 4 exploits the characteristics of the TACS, and the high-efficiency of the target capture enables efficient detection of aneuploidies or structural copy number changes, as well as other types of genetic abnormalities. In the analysis, first the sample's sequenced DNA fragments are aligned to the human reference genome. QC metrics are used to inspect the aligned sample's properties and decide whether the sample is suitable to undergo classification. These QC metrics can include, but are not limited to, analysis of the enrichment patterns of the loci of interest, such as for example the overall sequencing depth of the sample, the on-target sequencing output of the sample, TACS performance, GC bias expectation, fraction of interest quantification. For determining the risk of a chromosomal abnormality in the DNA of the sample, an innovative algorithm is applied. The steps of the algorithm include, but are not limited to, removal of inadequately sequenced loci, read-depth and fragment-size information extraction at TACS-specific coordinates, genetic (GC-content) bias alleviation and ploidy status classification.

Ploidy status determination can be achieved using one or more statistical methods, non-limiting examples of which include a t-test method, a bootstrap method, a permutation test and/or a binomial test of proportions and/or segmentation-based methods and/or combinations thereof. It will be appreciated by the ordinarily skilled artisan that the selection and application of tests to be included in ploidy status determination is based on the number of data points available. As such, the suitability of each test is determined by various factors such as, but not limited to, the number of TACS utilized and the respective application for GC bias alleviation, if applicable. Thus, the aforementioned methods are to be taken as examples of the types of statistical analysis that may be employed and are not the only methods suitable for the determination of ploidy status. Typically, the statistical method results in a score value for the mixed sample and risk of the chromosomal abnormality in the DNA is detected when the score value for the mixed sample is above a reference threshold value.

In particular, one aspect of the statistical analysis involves quantifying and alleviating GC-content bias. In addition to the challenge of detecting small signal changes in DNA in the mixed

sample, and/or other components of DNA of interest part of a mixed sample (for example, but not limited to, additional or less genetic material from certain chromosomal regions), the sequencing process itself introduces certain biases that can obscure signal detection. One such bias is the preferential sequencing/amplification of genetic regions based on their GC-content. As such, certain detection methods, such as but not limited to, read-depth based methods, need to account for such bias when examining sequencing data. Thus, the bias in the data needs to be quantified and, subsequently, suitable methods are applied to account for it such that genetic context dependencies cannot affect any statistical methods that may be used to quantify genetic abnormality risk.

For example, one method of quantifying the GC-content bias is to use a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) technique on the sequencing data. Each targeted locus may be defined by its sequencing read-depth output and its' GC-content. A line of best fit through these two variables, for a large set of loci, provides an estimate of the expected sequencing read-depth given the GC-content. Once this GC-bias quantification step is completed, the next step is to use this information to account for possible biases in the data. One method is to normalize the read-depth of all loci by their expected read-depth (based on each locus' GC-content). In principle, this unlinks the read-depth data from their genetic context and makes all data comparable. As such, data that are retrieved from different GC-content regions, such as for example, but not limited, to different chromosomes, can now be used in subsequent statistical tests for detection of any abnormalities. Thus, using the LOESS procedure, the GC bias is unlinked from the data prior to statistical testing. In one embodiment, the statistical analysis of the enriched library sequences comprises alleviating GC bias using a LOESS procedure.

In an alternative embodiment, the GC-content bias is quantified and alleviated by grouping together loci of similar (matching) GC-content. Thus, conceptually this method for alleviating GC-content bias comprises of three steps, as follows:

1) identification and calculation of GC-content in the TACS;

2) alleviation/accounting of GC-content bias using various matching/grouping procedures of the TACS; and

3) calculation of risk of any genetic abnormalities that may be present in the fetus utilizing statistical and mathematical methods on datasets produced from step 2.

For the t-test method, the dataset is split into two groups; the test loci and the reference loci. For each group, subsets of groups are created where loci are categorized according to their GC-rnntpnt as illustratpri in a nnn-limitinp pxamnlp in thp samnlp Tahlp 1 hplnw

able 1

It is appreciated by the ordinarily skilled artisan that subgroup creation may involve encompassing a range of appropriate GC-content and/or a subset of loci that are defined by a given GC-content and/or GC-content range. Accordingly, the % GC content given in the non-limiting example of Table 1 are to be considered "about" or "approximate", allowing for some slight variation (e.g., 1- 2%). Thus, for example, a % GC content of "40%" is intended to refer to "about 40%" or "approximately 40%", such that, for example, "39%-41%" GC-content loci may also be encompassed if deemed appropriate.

Hence, when referring to a particular GC-content it is understood that the reference and test loci subgroups may comprise of any number of loci related to a particular % GC content and/or range.

Subsequently, for each GC-content subgroup, a representative read-depth is calculated. A number of methods may be utilized to choose this such as, but not limited to, the mean, median or mode of each set. Thus, two vectors of representative read-depth are created where one corresponds to the reference loci and the other to the test loci (e.g., Xm, Ym). In one embodiment, the two vectors may be tested against each other to identify significant differences in read-depth. In another embodiment, the difference of the two vectors may be used to assess if there are significant discrepancies between the test and reference loci. The sample is attributed the score of the test.

For statistical analysis using a bootstrap approach, the dataset is split into two groups, the test loci and the reference loci. The GC-content of each locus is then calculated. Then the following procedure is performed:

A random locus is selected from the reference loci; its read-depth and GC-content are recorded. Subsequently, a random locus from the test loci is selected, with the only condition being that its' GC-content is similar to that of the reference locus. Its read-depth is recorded. It is appreciated by the ordinarily skilled artisan that GC-content similarity may encompass a range of suitable GC-content. As such, referral to a specific % GC content may be considered as "approximate" or "proximal" or "within a suitable range" (e.g., l%-2%) encompassing the specific % GC content under investigation. Thus, a reference-test locus pair of similar GC-content is created. The difference of the reference-test pair is recorded, say El. The loci are then replaced to their respective groups. This process is repeated until a bootstrap sample of the same size as the number of test TACS present is created. A representative read-depth of the bootstrap sample is estimated, say E_mu, and recorded. A number of methods may be utilized to do so, such as but not limited to, the mean, mode or median value of the vector, and/or multiples thereof.

The process described above is repeated as many times as necessary and a distribution of E_mu is created. The sample is then attributed a score that corresponds to a percentile of this distribution.

For statistical analysis using a permutation test, the dataset is sorted firstly into two groups, the test-loci and the reference loci. For each group, subsets of groups are created, where loci are categorized according to their GC-content similarity (see columns 2 and 3 of the non- limiting sample Table 2 below). The number of loci present in each test subgroup is also recorded. The loci of the test group are utilized to calculate an estimate of the test-group's read-depth, say Yobs. A representative number from each GC-content subgroup may be selected to do so. Any number of methods may be used to provide a read-depth estimate, such as but not limited to, the mean, median or mode of the chosen loci.

Table 2

A distribution to test Yobs is then built utilizing loci irrespective of their test or reference status as follows. The test and reference loci of each GC-content subgroup (see last column of sample Table 2) are combined to allow for calculation of a new read-depth estimate. From each merged subgroup a number of loci are chosen at random, where this number is upper-bounded by the number of test-loci utilized in the original calculation of Yobs (e.g., for GC content 40%, and in the context of the non-limiting sample Table 2, this number of loci may be in the range [l,ny40]). The new read-depth estimate is calculated from all the chosen loci. The procedure is iterated as many times as necessary in order to build a distribution of observed means. A sample is then attributed a score that corresponds to the position of Yobs in this distribution using a suitable transformation that accounts for the moments of the built distribution. As with the already described methods, it is appreciated that slight variation in % GC content is allowed (e.g., l%-2%), if deemed appropriate. Hence, reference to a specific GC-content could be taken as "about" or "approximate", so that for example when referring to a 40% GC-content, loci that are "approximately" or "about" 40% (e.g., 39%-41%) may be utilized in the method.

For statistical analysis using a binomial test of proportions, fragment-sizes aligned to

TACS-specific genomic coordinates are used. There is evidence from the literature that specific types of cancer can be characterized by and/or associated with fragments in the plasma having a smaller size than the expected size of fragments originating from healthy tissues (Jiang et al, (2015), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), ppE1317-E1325). The same hypothesis holds true for fragments originating from the placenta/fetus. Specifically, it has been shown that fragments of cell free genetic material originating from the placenta tend to be smaller in length when compared to other cell free genetic material (Chan, K.C. (2004) Clin. Chem. 50:88-92). Hence, the statistic of interest is whether the proportion of small-size fragments aligned to a TACS-specific test-region deviates significantly from what is expected when comparing it to the respective proportion of other TACS-specific reference-regions, as this would indicate fetal genetic abnormalities.

Thus, fragment-sizes are assigned into two groups. Sizes related to the test loci are assigned to one group and fragment-sizes related to the reference loci are assigned to the other group. Subsequently, in each group, fragment sizes are distributed into two subgroups, whereby small-size fragments are assigned into one subgroup and all remaining fragments are designated to the remaining subgroup. The last step computes the proportion of small-sized fragments in each group and uses these quantities in a binomial test of proportions. The score of the test is attributed to the sample under investigation.

The final result of a sample may be given by combining one or more scores derived from the different statistical methods, non-limiting examples of which are given in Example 4.

For statistical analysis using segmentation methods, the read-depth and sequence composition of non-overlapping genomic regions of interest of fixed-size is obtained. On the obtained dataset, GC-content read-depth bias alleviation may be performed, but is not limited to, using a local polynomial fitting method in order to estimate the expected read-depth of regions based on their GC content. The expected value, dependent on GC-content, is then used to normalize regions using suitable methods known to those skilled in the art. The normalized dataset is subsequently processed using one or more segmentation-based classification routines. To do so the algorithms process consecutive data points to detect the presence of read-depth deviations which manifest in the form of a "jump/drop" from their surrounding data points. Depending on the segmentation routine used, data points are given a score which is used towards assigning membership into segments of similar performing read-depths. For example, consecutive data points with score values within a suitable range may be classified as one segment, whereas consecutive data points with score values which exceed the set thresholds may be assigned to a different segment.

Kits of the Invention

In another aspect, the invention provides kits for carrying out the methods of the disclosure. In one embodiment, the kit comprises a container consisting of the pool of TACS and instructions for performing the method. In one embodiment, the TACS are provided in a form that allows them to be bound to a solid support, such as biotinylated TACS. In another embodiment, the TACS are provided together with a solid support, such as biotinylated TACS provided together with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads.

In one embodiment, the kit comprises a container comprising the pool of TACS and instructions for performing the method, wherein the pool of TACS comprises a plurality of TACS families, wherein each TACS family comprises a plurality of member sequences, wherein each member sequence binds to the same genomic sequence of interest (e.g., tumor biomarker sequence of interest) but has different start and/or stop positions with respect to a reference coordinate system for the genomic sequence of interest, and further wherein:

(i) each member sequence within each TACS family is between 100-500 base pairs in length, each member sequence having a 5' end and a 3' end;

(ii) preferably each member sequence binds to the same genomic sequence of intprpst and if annlirahlp at Ipast SO hasp nairs awav nn hnth thp pnd and thp 3' pnd from

regions harboring Copy Number Variations (CNVs), Segmental duplications or repetitive DNA elements; and

(iii) the GC content of the pool of TACS is between 19% and 80%, as determined by calculating the GC content of each member within each family of TACS.

Furthermore, any of the various features described herein with respect to the design and structure of the TACS can be incorporated into the TACS that are included in the kit.

In various other embodiments, the kit can comprise additional components for carrying out other aspects of the method. For example, in addition to the pool of TACS, the kit can comprise one or more of the following (i) one or more components for isolating cell free DNA or nucleated DNA from a biological sample (e.g., as described in Example 1);

(ii) one or more components for preparing the sequencing library (e.g., primers, adapters, buffers, linkers, restriction enzymes, ligation enzymes, polymerase enzymes and the like as described in detail in Example 1); (iii) one or more components for amplifying and/or sequencing the enriched library (e.g., as described in Example 3); and/or (iv) software for performing statistical analysis (e.g., as described in Examples 4 and 6-11).

Oncology Uses

In various embodiments, the TACS-based enrichment method of the disclosure can be used for a variety of purposes in the oncology field. As described in detail in Examples 6-9, the method allows for detection of tumor biomarkers (including cancer related-germline mutations) in biological samples. The method can be applied to the analysis of essentially any known tumor biomarker. An extensive catalogue of known cancer-associated mutations is known in the art, referred to as COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer), described in, for example, Forbes, S.A. et al. (2016) Curr. Protocol Hum. Genetic 91:10.11.1-10.11.37; Forbes, S.A. et al. (2017) Nucl. Acids Res. 45:D777-D783; and Prior et al. (2012) Cancer Res. 72:2457-2467. The COSMIC database is publically available at www.cancer.sanger.ac.uk. The database includes oncogenes that have been associated with cancers, any of which can be analyzed using the method of the disclosure. In addition to the COSMIC catalogue, other compilations of tumor biomarker mutations have been described in the art, non limiting examples of which include the ENCODE Project, which describes mutations in the regulatory sites of oncogenes (see e.g., Shar, N.A. et al. (2016) Mol. Cane. 15:76) and ClinVar, a National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database for genomic variations associated with human health. The ClinVar database is publicly available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar.

The methods of the invention can be used to simultaneously analyze a large panel of tumor biomarkers in a single biological sample. For example, in various embodiments, the pool of TACS used in the method detects at least 5, or at least 10, or at least 15, or at least 20, or at least 25, or at least 30, or at least 35, or at least 40, or at least 45 or at least 50 different tumor biomarkers.

For detection of tumor biomarkers, TACS are designed based on the design criteria described herein and the known sequences of tumor biomarker genes and genetic mutations therein associated with cancer. In one embodiment, a plurality of TACS families used in the method bind to a plurality of tumor biomarker sequences of interest selected from the group comprising of ABL, AKT, AKT1, ALK, APC, A , ARAF, ATM, BAP1, BARD1, BCL, BMPR1A, BRAF, BRCA, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CDKN, CHEK2, CTNNB1, DDB2, DDR2, DICERl, EGFR, EPCAM, ErbB, ErcC, ESR1, FANCA , FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FBXW7, FGFR, FLT, FLT3, FOXA1, FOXL2, GATA3, GNA11, GNAQ, GNAS, GREM1, HOX, HOXB13, HRAS, IDH1, JAK, JAK2, KEAP1, KIT, KRAS, MAP2Ks, MAP3Ks, MET, MLH1, MPL, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MTOR, MUTYH, NBN, NPM1, NRAS, NTRK1, PALB2, PDGFRs, PI3KCs, PMS2, POLD1, POLE, POLH, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D, RAF1, RBI, RET, RUNX1, SLX4, SMAD, SMAD4, SMARCA4, SPOP, STAT, STK11, TP53, VHL, XPA and XPC, and combinations thereof.

In one embodiment, the plurality of TACS families used in the method bind to a plurality of tumor biomarker sequences of interest selected from the group consisting of, but not limited to, EGFR_6240, KRAS_521, EGFR_6225, NRAS_578, NRAS_580, PIK3CA_763, EGFR_13553, EGFR_18430, BRAF_476, KIT_1314, NRAS_584, EGFR_12378, and combinations thereof.

Representative, exemplary and non-limiting examples of chromosomal start and stop positions for amplifying TACS that bind to exemplary, non-limiting tumor biomarker genes are shown in Figure 10, for NRAS on chromosome 1, for PI3KCA on chromosome 3, for EGFR on chromosome 7 and for KRAS on chromosome 12. Alternative suitable chromosomal start and stop positions, for these oncogenes and/or for other oncogenes, for amplifying TACS are readily identifiable by one of ordinary skill in the art based on the teachings herein.

In one embodiment of the method, following sequencing of the library preparation and enrichment for the sequences of interest through TACS hybridization, the subsequent step of amplifying the enriched library is performed in the presence of blocking sequences that inhibit

amplification of wild-type sequences. Thus, amplification is biased toward amplification of the mutant tumor biomarker sequences.

The pool of TACS and families of TACS used in the method of detecting tumor biomarkers can include any of the design features described herein with respect to the design of the TACS. For example, in various embodiments, each TACS family comprises at least 2, at least 3, at least 4 or at least 5 different member sequences. In one embodiment, each TACS family comprises 4 different member sequences. In various embodiments, the start and/or stop positions for the member sequences within a TACS family, with respect to a reference coordinate system for the genomic sequence of interest, are staggered by at least 5 base pairs, or at least 10 base pairs, or by 5-10 base pairs. In various embodiments, the pool of TACS comprises at least 5, or at least 10 or at least 50 or at least 100 different TACS families, or more.

Suitable statistical analysis approaches for use with oncology samples and detection of tumor biomarkers are described further in Examples 6-9.

The method for detecting tumor biomarkers can be used in a variety of different clinical circumstances in the oncology field. For example, the method can be used for making an initial cancer diagnosis in a subject suspected of having cancer. Accordingly in one embodiment, the method further comprises making a diagnosis of the subject based on detection of at least one tumor biomarker sequence.

Additionally, the method can be used to select an appropriate treatment regimen for a patient diagnosed with cancer, wherein the treatment regimen is designed to be effective against a tumor having the tumor biomarkers detected in the patient's tumor (i.e., known in the art as personalized medicine). Accordingly, in another embodiment, the method further comprises selecting a therapeutic regimen for the subject based on detection of at least one tumor biomarker sequence.

Still further, the method can be used to monitor the efficacy of a therapeutic regiment, wherein changes in tumor biomarker detection are used as an indicator of treatment efficacy. Accordingly, in another embodiment, the method further comprises monitoring treatment efficacy of a therapeutic regimen in the subject based on detection of at least one tumor biomarker sequence.

Moreover, the method can be used to detect relapse and minimal residual disease (M D), wherein detection of at least one tumor biomarker are used as an indicator of remaining tumor cells in a patient after treatment or tumor recurrence. Accordingly in another embodiment, the mpthnri furthpr informs nf MRD and riispasp rplansp

Also, the method can be used to detect cancer-related germline (hereditary) mutations in patients with cancer or individuals suspected of a cancer pre-disposing syndrome wherein detection of at least one germline mutation is used as an indicator for having a cancer predisposing syndrome. Accordingly, in another embodiment, the method further comprises diagnosing a patient or an individual with a hereditary cancer pre-disposing syndrome that can inform the clinician to allow for early medical intervention, treatment selection and close monitoring.

Fragment-Based Analysis

In another aspect, the invention pertains to fragment based analysis of samples, described further in Example 9. There is evidence from the literature that specific types of cancer can be characterized by and/or associated with fragments in the plasma having a smaller size than the expected size of fragments originating from healthy tissues (Jiang et al, (2015), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), ppE1317-E1325). The same hypothesis holds true for fragments originating from the placenta/fetus. Specifically, placenta derived fragments are generally of smaller size when compared to fragments originating from maternal tissues/cells. Accordingly, a fragment size-based test was developed and assessed, demonstrating its ability to identify samples harboring chromosomal abnormalities.

Thus, the fragments-based detection may be used to detect abnormalities in mixed samples with low signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., as is the case in detection of cancer).

Accordingly, in one embodiment, a fragments-based test is utilized to detect the presence of somatic copy number aberrations in a sample from a patient suspected of having cancer. For example, a binomial test of proportions, as described Example 4 and Example 9, can be used for the detection of increased presence of nucleic acid material originating from non-healthy tissue (e.g., tumor tissue) based on fragment size. In particular, under the null hypothesis that the distribution of fragment sizes originating from both healthy and cancerous cells is the same, a binomial test for proportions (as described in Example 4 and Example 9) using continuity correction can be utilized to quantify any evidence against it.

EXAMPLES

The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which should not be construed as further limiting. The contents of all references, appendices, Genbank entries, patents and published patent applications cited throughout this application are expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Example 1: Sample Collection and Library Preparation

The general methodology for the TACS-based multiplexed parallel analysis approach for genetic assessment is shown schematically in Figure 1. In this example, methods for collecting and processing a maternal plasma sample (containing maternal and fetal DNA), followed by sequencing library preparation for use in the methodology of Figure 1 are described. The DNA sample and library preparation described herein can similarly be used with DNA samples from tumors for tumor biomarker detection (see Example 6-9).

Sample collection

Plasma samples were obtained anonymously from pregnant women after the 10th week of gestation. Protocols used for collecting samples for our study were approved by the Cyprus National Bioethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Sample extraction

Cell Free DNA was extracted from 2-4ml plasma from each individual using a manual or automated extraction method suitable for cell free DNA isolation such as for example, but not limited to, Qiasymphony protocol suitable for cell free fetal DNA isolation (Qiagen) (Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855).

Sequencing library preparation

Extracted DNA from maternal plasma samples was used for sequencing library construction. Standard library preparation methods were used with the following modifications. A negative control extraction library was prepared separately to monitor any contamination introduced during the experiment. During this step, 5' and 3' overhangs were filled-in, by adding 12 units of T4 polymerase (NEB) while 5' phosphates were attached using 40 units of T4 polynucleotide kinase (NEB) in a ΙΟΟμΙ reaction and subsequent incubation at 25° C for 15 minutes and then 12° C for 15 minutes. Reaction products were purified using the MinElute kit (Qiagen). Subsequently, adaptors P5 and P7 (see adaptor preparation) were ligated at 1:10 dilution to both ends of the DNA using 5 units of T4 DNA ligase (NEB) in a 40μΙ reaction for 20 minutes at room temperature, followed by purification using the MinElute kit (Qiagen). Nicks were removed in a fill-in reaction with 16 units of Bst polymerase (NEB) in a 40 μΙ reaction with subsequent incubation at 65°C for 25 minutes and then 12°C for 20 minutes. Products were purified using the MinElute kit (Qiagen). Library amplification was performed using a Fusion polymerase (Herculase II Fusion DNA polymerase (Agilent Technologies) or Pfusion High Fidelity Polymerase (NEB)) in 50 μΙ reactions and with the following cycling conditions, 95°C for 3 minutes; followed by 10 cycles at 95°C for 30 seconds, 60°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 30 seconds and finally 72°C for 3 minutes (Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855). The final library products were purified using the MinElute Purification Kit (Qiagen) and measured by spectrophotometry.

Adaptor preparation

Hybridization mixtures for adapter P5 and P7 were prepared separately and incubated for 10 seconds at 95° C followed by a ramp from 95° C to 12° C at a rate of 0.1° C /second. P5 and P7 reactions were combined to obtain a ready-to-use adapter mix (100 μΜ of each adapter). Hybridization mixtures were prepared as follows: P5 reaction mixture contained adaptor P5_F (500 μΜ) at a final concentration of 200 μΜ, adaptor P5+P7_ (500 μΜ) at a final concentration of 200 μΜ with IX oligo hybridization buffer. In addition, P7 reaction mixture contained adaptor P7_F (500 μΜ) at a final concentration of 200 μΜ, adapter P5+P7_R(500 μΜ) at a final concentration of 200 μΜ with IX oligo hybridization buffer (Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855.). Sequences were as follows, wherein * = a phosphorothioate bond (PTO) (Integrated DNA Technologies):

adaptor P5_F:

A*C*A*C*TCTTTCCCTACACGACGCTCTTCCG*A*T*C*T (SEQ ID NO: XX)

adaptor P7_F:

G*T*G*A*CTGGAGTTCAGACGTGTGCTCTTCCG*A*T*C*T (SEQ ID NO: YY),

adaptor_P5+P7_R:

A*G*A*T*CGGAA*G*A*G*C (SEQ ID NO: 11).

Example 2: TArget Capture Sequences (TACS) Design and Preparation

This example describes preparation of custom TACS for the detection of whole or partial chromosomal abnormalities for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, Y or any other chromosome, as well as other genetic abnormalities, such as but not limited to, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, translocations, inversions, insertions, and other point or small size mutations. The genomic target-loci used for TACS design were selected based on their GC content and their distance from repetitive elements (minimum 50 bp away). TACS size can be variable. In one embodiment of the method the TACS range from 100-500 bp in size and are generated through a PCR-based approach as described below. The TACS were prepared by simplex polymerase chain reaction using standard Taq polymerase, primers designed to amplify the target-loci, and normal DNA used as template. The chromosomal regions used to design primers to amplify suitable loci on chromosomes 13, 18, 21 and X, to thereby prepare the pool of TACS for analysis of chromosomes 13, 18, 21 and X, are shown in Figure 2.

All custom TACS were generated using the following cycling conditions: 95°C for 3 minutes; 40 cycles at 95°C for 15 seconds, 60°C for 15 seconds, 72°C for 12 seconds; and 72°C for 12 seconds, followed by verification via agarose gel electrophoresis and purification using standard PCR clean up kits such as the Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) or the NucleoSpin 96 PCR clean-up (Mackerey Nagel) or the Agencourt AMPure XP for PCR Purification (Beckman Coulter). Concentration was measured by Nanodrop (Thermo Scientific).

Example 3: TACS Hybridization and Amplification

This example describes the steps schematically illustrated in Figure 1 of target capture by hybridization using TACS, followed by quantitation of captured sequences by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS).

TACS Biotinvlation

TACS were prepared for hybridization, as previously described (Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855), starting with blunt ending with the Quick Blunting Kit (NEB) and incubation at room temperature for 30 minutes. Reaction products were subsequently

purified using the MinElute kit (Qiagen) and were ligated with a biotin adaptor using the Quick Ligation Kit (NEB) in a 40μΙ reaction at T for 15 minutes. The reaction products were purified with the MinElute kit (Qiagen) and were denatured into single stranded DNA prior to immobilization on streptavidin coated magnetic beads (Invitrogen).

TACS Hybridization

Amplified libraries were mixed with blocking oligos (Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855) (200 μΜ), 5μg of Cot-1 DNA (Invitrogen), 50 μg of Salmon Sperm DNA (Invitrogen), Agilent hybridization buffer 2x, Agilent blocking agent 10X, and were heated at 95°C for 3 minutes to denature the DNA strands. Denaturation was followed by 30 minute incubation at 37°C to block repetitive elements and adaptor sequences. The resulting mixture was then added to the biotinylated TACS. All samples were incubated in a rotating incubator for 12- 48 hours at 66°C. After incubation, the beads were washed as described previously and DNA was eluted by heating (Koumbaris, G. et al. (2016) Clinical chemistry, 62(6), pp.848-855). Eluted products were amplified using outer-bound adaptor primers. Enriched amplified products were pooled equimolarly and sequenced on a suitable platform.

If appropriate, amplification may be biased toward amplification of specific/desired sequences. In one embodiment of the method, this is performed when amplification is performed in the presence of sequences that hybridize to the undesired sequence of interest, and as such block the action of the polymerase enzyme during the process. Hence, the action of the amplification enzyme is directed toward the sequence of interest during the process.

Example 4: Bioinformatics Sample Analysis

This example describes representative statistical analysis approaches for use in the methodology illustrated in Figure 1 ("analysis pipeline" in Figure 1).

Human Genome Alignment

For each sample, the bioinformatic pipeline routine described below was applied in order to align the sample's sequenced DNA fragments to the human reference genome. Targeted paired-end read fragments obtained from NGS results were processed to remove adaptor

sequences and poor quality reads (Q-score<25) using the cutadapt software (Martin, M. et al. (2011) EMB.netJournal 17.1). The quality of the raw and/or processed reads as well as any descriptive statistics which aid in the assessment of quality check of the sample's sequencing output were obtained using the FastQC software (Babraham Institute (2015) FastQC) and/or other custom-built software. Processed reads which were at least 25 bases long were aligned to the human reference genome built hgl9 (UCSC Genome Bioinformatics) using the Burrows-Wheel Alignment algorithm (Li, H. and Durbin, R. (2009) Bioinformatics 25:1754-1760) but other algorithms known to those skilled in the art may be used as well. If relevant, duplicate reads were removed post-alignment. Where applicable, sequencing output pertaining to the same sample but processed on separate sequencing lanes, was merged to a single sequencing output file. The removal of duplicates and merging procedures were performed using the Picard tools software suite (Broad Institute (2015) Picard) and/or the Sambamba tools software suite (Tarasov, Artem, et al. "Sambamba: fast processing of NGS alignment formats." Bioinformatics 31.12 (2015): 2032-2034.). A realignment procedure, using tools known to those in the art, may also be performed.

The above software analysis resulted in a final aligned version of a sequenced sample against the human reference genome and all subsequent steps were based on this aligned version. Information in terms of Short Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) at loci of interest was obtained using bcftools from the SAMtools software suite (Li, H. et al. (2009) Bioinformatics 25:2078-2079) and/or other software known to those skilled in the art. The read-depth per base, at loci of interest, was obtained using the mpileup option of the SAMtools software suite, from here on referred to as the mpileup file. Information pertaining to the size of the aligned fragments was obtained using the view option of the SAMtools software suite, from here on referred to as the fragment-sizes file and/or other software known to those skilled in the art.

The mpileup file and the fragment-sizes file were processed using custom-build application programming interfaces (APIs) written in the Python and R programming languages (Python Software Foundation (2015) Python; The R Foundation (2015) The R Project for Statistical Computing). The APIs were used to determine the ploidy state of chromosomes of interest, and/or other genetic abnormalities in regions of interest across the human genome, using a series of steps (collectively henceforth referred to as the "algorithm") and to also collect further descriptive statistics to be used as quality check metrics, such as but not limited to fetal fraction and/or fraction of interest quantification (collectively henceforth referred to as the "QC metrics").The APIs can also be used for the assessment of genetic abnormalities from data

generated when applying the described method in cases of multiple gestation pregnancies, as well as other genetic abnormalities such as, but not limited to, microdeletions, microduplications, copy number variations, translocations, inversions, insertions, point mutations and mutational signatures.

QC Metrics

QC metrics were used to inspect an aligned sample's properties and decide whether the sample was suitable to undergo classification. These metrics were, but are not limited to:

(a) The enrichment of a sample. The patterns of enrichment are indicative of whether a sample has had adequate enrichment across loci of interest in a particular sequencing experiment

(herein referred to as a "run"). To assess this, various metrics are assessed, non-limiting examples of which are:

(i) overall sample on-target read depth,

(ii) sample on-target sequencing output with respect to total mapped reads,

(iii) individual TACS performance in terms of achieved read-depth,

(iv) kurtosis and skewness of individual TACS enrichment,

(v) kurtosis and skewness moments that arise from all TACS,

(vi) fragment size distribution,

(vii) percentage of duplication,

(viii) percentage of paired reads and,

(ix) percentage of aligned reads,

if applicable.

The above checks are also taken into consideration with regards to GC-bias enrichment. Samples that fail to meet one or more of the criteria given above are flagged for further inspection, prior to classification.

(b) A sample's fetal fraction or fraction of interest. Samples with an estimated fetal fraction, or fraction of interest, that is below a specific threshold are not classified. Furthermore, if applicable the fraction of interest may be calculated using more than one method and concordance of results between estimation methods may be used as an additional QC prior to classification.

The Algorithm

The algorithm is a collection of data processing, mathematical and statistical model routines arranged as a series of steps. The algorithm's steps aim in deciding the relative ploidy state of a chromosome of interest with respect to all other chromosomes of the sequenced sample and is used for the detection of whole or partial chromosomal abnormalities for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, Y or any other chromosome, as well as other genetic abnormalities such as, but not limited to, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and other point or small size mutations. As such the algorithm can be used, but is not limited to, the detection of whole or partial chromosomal abnormalities for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X,Y or any other chromosome, as well as other genetic abnormalities such as, but not limited to, microdeletions, microduplications, copy number variations, translocations, inversions, insertions, point mutations and other mutational signatures. The algorithm carries out, but is not limited to, two types of assessments, one pertaining to the read-depth information of each sample and the other to the distribution of fragment-sizes, across TACS-specific regions. One or more statistical tests may be associated with each type of assessment, non-limiting examples of which are given in the statistical methods described herein.

In the case of read-depth associated tests, the algorithm compares sequentially the read-depth of loci from each chromosome of interest (herein referred to as the test chromosome) against the read-depth of all other loci (herein referred to as the reference loci) to classify its ploidy state. For each sample, these steps were, but are not limited to:

(a) Removal of inadequately sequenced loci. The read-depth of each locus was retrieved. Loci that have not achieved a minimum number of reads, were considered as inadequately enriched and were removed prior to subsequent steps.

(b) Genetic (GC-content) bias alleviation. The sequencing procedure may introduce discrepancies in read-depth across the loci of interest depending on their GC content. To account for such bias, a novel sequence-matching approach that increases both sensitivity and specificity to detect chromosomal aneuploidies was employed. The GC content of each locus on the test chromosome was identified and similar genetic loci were grouped together to form genetically matched groups. The procedure was repeated for the reference loci. Then, genetically matched groups from the test chromosome were conditionally paired with their genetically matched group counterparts on the reference chromosome(s). The groups may have any number of members.

The conditionally matched groups were then used to assess the ploidy status of test chromosomes.

(c) Genetic abnormality determination. Ploidy status determination, or other genetic abnormalities of interest such as but not limited to microdeletions, microduplications, copy number variations, translocations, inversions, insertions, point mutations and other mutational signatures was achieved using a single statistical method and/or a weighted score approach on the result from the following, but not limited to, statistical methods:

Statistical Method 1: The differences in read-depth of the conditionally paired groups were tested for statistical significance using the t-test formula:

&— μ

s/Vn

where t is the result of the t-test, £ is the average of the differences of the conditionally paired groups, μ is the expected read-depth and is set to a value that represents insignificant read-depth differences between the two groups, s the standard deviation of the differences of the conditionally paired groups and n the length of the vector of the conditionally paired differences. The magnitude of the t-score was then used to identify evidence, if any, against the null hypothesis of same ploidy between reference and test chromosomes. Specifically, t>=cl (where cl is a predefined threshold belonging to the set of all positive numbers) shows evidence against the null hypothesis of no difference.

Statistical Method 2: Bivariate nonparametric bootstrap. The bootstrap method depends on the relationship between the random variables X (read-depth of reference loci) and Y (read-depth of test loci). Here, the read depth of baits on the reference group (random variable denoted by X) were treated as the independent covariate. The first step of the iterative procedure involved random sampling with replacement (bootstrapping) of the read-depths of loci on the reference chromosomes, i.e. (xl,gl),...,(xn,gn), where the parameter g is known and denotes the GC-content of the chosen bait. Then, for each randomly selected reference bait (xi,gi), a corresponding read depth was generated for a genetically matched locus i.e., (yl,gl),...,(yn,gn). Thus, the bivariate data (xl,yl), (x2,y2),...,(xn,yn) was arrived at, which was conditionally matched on their GC-content (parameter gi). The differences between the read depths of the genetically matched bootstrapped values xi and yi were used to compute the statistic of interest in each iteration. In nnp pmhnriimpnt this statistical mpasurp ran hp hut is nnt limitpri tn thp mnrip mpan nr mpriian of the recorded differences, and/or multiples thereof. The procedure was repeated as necessary to build up the distribution of the statistic of interest from these differences. The sample was assigned a score that corresponds to a specific percentile of the built distribution (e.g. 5th percentile). Under the null hypothesis the ploidy between chromosomes in the reference and test groups is not different. As such, samples whose score for a particular chromosome, was greater than a predefined threshold, say c2, were classified as statistically unlikely to have the same ploidy. Other statistical measures may be employed.

Statistical Method 3: Stratified permutation test. The statistic of interest is the read-depth estimate of the test chromosome, denoted by†obs, which is calculated using all loci of the test chromosome's genetically matched groups as follows:


where y,y is the read-depth of locus /' part of the genetically matched group j (i.e., loci belonging to a specific group based on their GC-content), Nj is the number of test loci part of the genetically matched group j and T the number of genetically matched groups.

Subsequently, a null distribution to test†obs was built. To do so, for each group j, the test and reference loci were combined (exchangeability under the null hypothesis), and each group j was sampled randomly up to Nj times without replacement (stratified permutation). This created a vector of values, say yi, and from this the vector's average value, say y,,was calculated. The procedure was repeated as necessary to build the null distribution. Finally fobs, was studentised against the null distribution using the formula:

Yobs —

where anda^ are the first and square root of the second moment of all permutedyj statistic values. Samples whoseZYobs was greater than a predefined threshold, say c3, were statistically less likely to have the same ploidy in the reference and test groups.

In the case of fragment-size associated tests, the algorithm computes the proportion of small-size fragments found in test-loci and compares it with the respective proportion in reference-loci as described in Statistical Method 4 below.

Statistical Method 4: Fragment Size Proportions. For each sample the number and size of fragments aligned onto the human reference genome at the corresponding TACS coordinates, is extracted. The data is subsequently filtered so as to remove fragment-sizes considered statistical outliers using the median outlier detection method. Specifically, outliers are defined as those fragments whose size is above or below the thresholds, Fthr, set by equation:


where Fmeciian is the median fragment-size of all fragments of a sample, X is a variable that can take values from the set of R +, and IQR is the interquartile range of fragment sizes. Thereafter, a binomial test of proportions is carried out to test for supporting evidence against the null hypothesis, HO, where this is defined as:

HO: The proportion of small fragments of the test-region is not different from the proportion of small-fragments of the reference region.

In various embodiments of the invention, small fragments are defined as those fragments whose size is less than or equal to a subset of Z +, that is upper-bounded by 160bp. If the set of all TACS are defined as T, then the test region can be any proper subset S which defines the region under investigation, and the reference region is the relative complement of S in T. For example, in one embodiment of the invention, the set S is defined by all TACS-captured sequences of chromosome 21 and thus the reference set is defined by all TACS-captured fragments on the reference chromosomes, and/or other reference loci

The alternative hypothesis, HI, is defined as:

HI: The proportion of small fragments of the test-region is not equal to the proportion of test fragments of the reference region.

As such, and taking into account continuity correction, the following score is computed (Brown et. al, Harrel):


(F + 0.5)

V

(Ntest + 1)

_ (Fref + 0.5)

Pref (Nref + l)

F is the number of small-size fragments on the test-region, re^the number of small size fragments on the reference region, Ntestthe number of all fragments on the test region and Nrefthe number of all fragments on the reference region.

For each sample, the algorithm tests sequentially the proportion of fragment sizes of regions under investigation (for example, but not limited to, chromosome 21, chromosome 18, chromosome 13 or other (sub)chromosomal regions of interest) against reference regions; those not under investigation at the time of testing. For each sample a score is assigned for each test. Scores above a set-threshold, say c4, provide evidence against the null hypothesis.

Weighted Score method 1: In one embodiment of the method, a weighted score was attributed to each sample s, computed as a weighted sum of all statistical methods using the formula:

VS(R, ) = z1max{Rs, Fs} + (1—
Ρς}

where Rs is the run-specific corrected score arising from a weighted contribution of each read-depth related statistical method for sample s and is defined as:

_ _ (∑i WiSis - Rr)

s —

and the run-specific median value calculated from the vector of all unadjusted read-depth related weighted scores that arise from a single sequencing run, and ar is a multiple of the standard deviation of R scores calculated from a reference set of 100 euploid samples. The terms max{Rs, Fs )and min{Rs, Fs] denote the maximum and minimum values of the bracketed set, respectively.

Fs is the run-specific corrected score arising from the fragment-size related statistical method and is defined as:

Fs =

where Wtest is as defined earlier, Rf is the run specific median calculated from the vector of all unadjusted fragment-related statistical scores that arise from a single sequencing run, and is a multiple of the standard deviation of F scores calculated from a reference set of 100 euploid samples.

A unique classification score of less than a predefined value indicates that there is no evidence from the observed data that a sample has a significant risk of aneuploidy.

Weighted Score method 2: In another embodiment of the method, the weighted score arising from the statistical methods described above was used to assign each sample a unique genetic abnormality risk score using the formula:


where R is the weighted score result, w;the weight assigned to method j, t;the observed score resulting from method j, andc; the threshold of method j.

A unique classification score of less than a predefined value indicates that there is no evidence from the observed data that a sample has a significant risk of aneuploidy.

Since all read depths from baits in the reference group were assumed to be generated from the same population, and in order to have a universal threshold, run-specific adjustments were also employed to alleviate run-specific biases.

The aforementioned method(s), are also suitable for the detection of other genetic abnormalities, such as but not limited to, subchromosomal abnormalities. A non-limiting example is the contiguous partial loss of chromosomal material leading to a state of microdeletion, or the contiguous partial gain of chromosomal material leading to a state of microduplication. A known genetic locus subject to both such abnormalities is 7qll.23. In one embodiment of statistical method 1, synthetic plasma samples of 5%, 10% and 20% fetal material were tested for increased risk of microdeletion and/or microduplication states for the genetic locus 7qll.23.

For point mutations various binomial tests are carried out that take into consideration the fetal fraction estimate of the sample, f, the read-depth of the minor allele, r, and the total read-depth of the sequenced base, n. Two frequent, yet non-limiting examples involve assessment of the risk when the genetic abnormality is a recessive point mutation or a dominant point mutation.

In the non-limiting example of a recessive point mutation the null hypothesis tested is that both the mother and the fetus are heterozygous (minor allele frequency is 0.5) against the alternative in which the fetus is homozygous (minor allele frequency is 0.5-f/2). A small p-value from the corresponding likelihood ratio test would indicate evidence against the null. In the non-limiting example of a dominant point mutation the null hypothesis tested is that the mother and fetus are homozygous at the given position against the alternative in which only the fetus is heterozygous for the given position. A small p-value from the corresponding likelihood ratio test would indicate evidence against the null.

In addition to the above, fetal sex determination methods were also developed, with non-limiting examples given below. In one embodiment of the invention, fetal sex was assigned to a sample using a Poisson test using the formula:

'rf r„ < fc J = e

:=0

where


and f is the fetal fraction estimate of the sample, B is the number of target sequences on chromosome Y, μ is the read-depth of the sample and k is the sum of reads obtained from all targets B. The null hypothesis of the Poisson test was that the sample is male. A value of Pr(ry) less than a threshold cy was considered as enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis, i.e. the sample is not male. If any of the terms for computing Pr(ry) were unavailable, then the sample's sex was classified as NA (not available).

In another embodiment of the invention, fetal sex was assigned using the average read-depth of target sequences on chromosome Y. If the average read-depth of the target-sequences was over a predefined threshold, where such threshold may be defined using other sample-specific characteristics such as read-depth and fetal-fraction estimate, the fetal sex was classified as male. If the average read-depth was below such threshold then the sample was classified as female.

Fetal Fraction Estimation/Fraction of Interest Estimation

Several methods have been developed to estimate fetal fraction that can be applied to singleton and/or to multiple gestation pregnancies. As such, and dependent on the type of pregnancy, the fetal fraction estimate can be obtained from either method or as a weighted estimate from a subset and/or all developed methods. Some non-limiting examples are given below.

In one embodiment, a machine learning technique has been developed based on Bayesian inference to compute the posterior distribution of fetal DNA fraction using allelic counts at

heterozygous loci in maternal plasma of singleton pregnancies. Three possible informative combinations of maternal/fetal genotypes were utilized within the model to identify those fetal DNA fraction values that get most of the support from the observed data.

Let / denote the fetal DNA fraction. If the mother is heterozygous at a given genomic locus, the fetal genotype can be either heterozygous or homozygous resulting in expected minor allele frequencies at 0.5 and 0.5-//2, respectively. If the mother is homozygous and the fetus is heterozygous then the expected minor allele frequency will be f/2. A Markov chain Monte Carlo method (a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm) (The Foundation (2015) The R Project for Statistical Computing) was used with either a non-informative or an informative prior (i.e. incorporate additional information such as gestational age, maternal weight etc.) to obtain a sequence of random samples from the posterior probability distribution of fetal DNA fraction that is based on a finite mixture model.

In another embodiment, the fetal fraction estimate is computed only from the fetus-specific minor allele frequency (MAF) cluster, i.e. the cluster formed when the mother is homozygous and the fetus is heterozygous for a given genomic locus. It is assumed that the mean value of the fetal fraction estimate is normally distributed as N(2x, ¾), where x is the mean of the fetus-specific MAF, and σ is the standard deviation of the fetus-specific MAF. The fetal fraction estimate is then obtained from percentiles of the computed distribution, N(2x, ¾).

For multiple gestation pregnancies, non-limiting examples of which include monozygotic and dizygotic twin pregnancies, triplet pregnancies and various egg and/or sperm donor cases, the fetal fraction can be estimated using information obtained from heterozygous genetic loci whose MAF value is less than a threshold, say Mthresh, and derived from potential fetus-specific SNPs. The ordinarily skilled artisan will appreciate that fetus specific SNPs can originate from any fetus, or from any possible combination of the fetuses or from all the fetuses of the gestation. As such, an algorithm that estimates the fetal fraction of the fetus with the smallest contribution to the total fetal content, by taking into account the combinatorial contribution of each fetus to the MAF values that define fetus-specific SNPs, and also allows for inhomogeneous contribution of fetal material to the total fetal content of plasma derived material has been developed. To this effect, a two-step approach is employed by the algorithm.

In one embodiment of the algorithm, the multiple gestation pregnancy under consideration is a dizygotic twin pregnancy. As a first step, the algorithmic implementation of the model utilizes all informative SNPs and allows for inhomogeneous fetal contribution that can be explained with a fold-difference in fetal fraction estimates of a set threshold, say cf. Specifically, if fl and f2 represent the fetal fractions of fetus one and fetus two, and fl <= f2, then the assumption is that f2 <= cf fl, with cf being a positive real number greater than or equal to 1. Under this assumption, the observed data D, defined as counts of the alternate and reference alleles at informative SNP loci, are believed to be generated from a mixture distribution of three Binomials (defined by parameters, fl/2, f2/2 and (fl+f2)/2), with the posterior distribution p(fl,f2 | D) being proportional to the observational model which can be written as p(fl | f2,D) p(f2 | D). The posterior distribution p(fl,f2 | D) is sampled with an MCMC Metropolis-Hastings algorithm using a uniform prior. The empirical quantile approach is performed on the generated data array to infer the fetal fractions.

As a second step, the algorithm runs a model-based clustering algorithm (Finite Gaussian mixture modeling fitted via EM algorithm; -package: mclust) to identify whether there exists a separate outlier SNP cluster which is believed to be centered around fl/2. Existence of such a cluster with a mean invalidating the cf >= f2/fl assumption, leads to estimation of fl using only SNPs part of the identified cluster.

The methods described above are suited to the determination of the fraction of any component of interest part of a mixed sample. As such, the methods are not to be understood as applicable only to the application of fetal fraction estimation and can be applied to the estimation of any component of interest part of a mixed sample, as outlined in Example 6.

Example 5: Target Enrichment Using Families of TACS

In this example, a family of TACS, containing a plurality of members that all bind to the same target sequence of interest, was used for enrichment, compared to use of a single TACS binding to a target sequence of interest. Each member of the family of TACS bound to the same target sequence of interest but had different start/stop coordinates with respect to a reference coordinate system for that target sequence (e.g., the human reference genome, built hgl9). Thus, when aligned to the target sequence, the family of TACS exhibit a staggered binding pattern, as illustrated in Figure 3. Typically, the members of a TACS family were staggered approximately 5-10 base pairs.

A family of TACS containing four members (i.e., four sequences that bound to the same target sequence but having different start and/or stop positions such that the binding of the

members to the target sequence was staggered) was prepared. Single TACS hybridization was also prepared as a control. The TACS were fixed to a solid support by labelling with biotin and binding to magnetic beads coated with a biotin-binding substance (e.g., streptavidin or avidin) as described in Example 3. The family of TACS and single TACS were then hybridized to a sequence library, bound sequences were eluted and amplified, and these enriched amplified products were then pooled equimolarly and sequenced on a suitable sequencing platform, as described in Example 3.

The enriched sequences from the family of TACS sample and the single TACS sample were analyzed for read-depth. The results are shown in Figures 4A and 4B. As shown in Figure 4A, target sequences of interest enriched using the family of four TACS (red dots) exhibited a fold-change in read-depth when compared to control sequences that were subjected to enrichment using only a single TACS (blue dots). Fold-change was assessed by normalizing the read-depth of each locus by the average read-depth of a sample, wherein the average read-depth was calculated from all loci enriched with a single TACS. As shown in Figure 4B, an overall 54.7% average increase in read-depth was observed using the family of four TACS.

This example demonstrates that use of a family of TACS, as compared to a single TACS, results in significantly improved enrichment of a target sequence of interest resulting in significantly improved read-depth of that sequence.

Example 6: Tumor Biomarker Detection in Reference Material

In this example, the TACS methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, was used for the detection of tumor biomarkers in certified reference material known to harbor particular genetic mutations that are tumor biomarkers. For detection of the tumor biomarker sequences of interest, families of TACS, as described in Example 5, were used.

A sample of certified reference material harboring known tumor-associated genetic mutations was commercially obtained and samples were prepared to simulate tumor loads of 0.1%, 1.0% and 5.0%.

The samples were subjected to the TACS methodology illustrated in Figure 1 using families of TACS that bound to the following tumor-associated genetic mutations: EGFR_6240, K AS_521, EGFR 6225, NRAS 578, NRAS 580, PIK3CA 763, EGFR 13553, EGFR 18430.

Following amplification and sequence of the TACS-enriched products, data analysis was performed as follows. Sequencing products were processed to remove adaptor sequences and poor quality reads. Reads whose length was at least 25 bases long post adaptor-removal were aligned to either:

(a) the human reference genome built hgl9, or

(b) an artificially created genome based on built hgl9 which contains only sequences of interest.

If relevant, duplicate reads were removed post-alignment. Where applicable, sequencing output pertaining to the same sample but processed on separate sequencing lanes was merged to a single sequencing output file. Local realignment of the data, using tools known in the art, may also be performed. The above software analysis provided a final aligned version of a sequenced sample against the reference genome, defined here as the final BAM file, where information can be extracted from it in terms of Short Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) and other genetic variations with respect to a reference sequence at loci of interest, read-depth per base and the size of aligned fragments. Various available tools known to those skilled in the art, such as but not limited to bcftools, which is part of the samtools software suite, or varDict can be used to collect SNP information from the final BAM file. Such information concerns the sequence and number of times each variant is present in a sequenced sample was detected and was used to

(a) infer the presence of a genetic mutation, and

(b) to estimate the tumor load using the fetal-fraction estimation/fraction of interest estimation method described in Example 4.

In addition to the detection of the genetic mutation, statistical confidence was ascribed to a detected mutation using the estimated tumor load of the sample and the read-depth of each of the detected variants at a given position using binomial statistics. More than one test may be employed from which one can compute the probability of obtaining the sequenced information, or obtain a 95% confidence interval which describes a range of possible read-depths for the genetic mutation, or whether the obtained proportion of reads which can be ascribed to the genetic mutation is consistent with what would be expected at the given tumor load. A suitable binomial test of proportions is described in Example 4 (in the context of classification of chromosomal abnormalities).

The results are shown in Figure 5. The line illustrates the expected minor allele frequency (MAF) for each percent (%) tumor load. The bars (x-axis) illustrate the detected MAF (y-axis) for each sample for the indicated genetic mutations. Two technical replicates are shown for the reference material.

The data demonstrates that the TACS methodology successfully detected the tumor-associated genetic mutations EGF _6240, KRAS_521, EGFR_6225, NRAS_578, NRAS_580, PIK3CA_763, EGFR_13553 and EGFR_18430 at the expected tumor loads of 1.0% and 5.0%. Mutations EGFR_6240, NRAS_578, PIK3CA_763, EGFR_13553 and EFGR_18430 were also successfully detected at 0.1% tumor load.

Accordingly, this example demonstrates the successful detection of a large panel of different tumor biomarkers using the TACS methodology at tumor loads as low as 0.1%.

Example 7: Tumor Biomarker Detection in Patient Samples

In this example, the TACS methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, was used for the detection of tumor biomarkers in tumor tissue and blood plasma samples from untreated cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis. For detection of the tumor biomarker sequences of interest, families of TACS, as described in Example 5, were used.

Matched pairs of peripheral blood and tumor tissue samples from untreated cancer patients were used to further validate the performance of the TACS methodology for tumor biomarker detection for a patient harboring mutation PIK3CA E545K (Patient 1) and for a patient harboring mutation TP53 K139 (Patient 2). The results are shown in Figure 6.

As shown in Figure 6, application of the TACS methodology to a tissue sample obtained from Patient 1 harboring mutation PIK3CA E545K (top bars) provided a variant allele frequency (VAF) percentage (i.e., the percentage that the genetic mutation is present instead of the normal allele) of ~62%. Plasma obtained from peripheral blood of Patient 1 was processed according to the method described in Example 1 and provided a 6.05 % VAF. Similarly, application of the TACS methodology to samples obtained from Patient 2 harboring mutation TP53 K139 (bottom bars) provided a VAF of ~60% for tumor tissue and a VAF of 4.88 % for plasma obtained from a peripheral blood sample.

Accordingly, this example demonstrates the successful detection of tumor biomarkers in cancer patient samples, in both tumor tissue samples and plasma samples, thereby

demonstrating the suitability of the TACS methodology for tissue biopsy and for non-invasive tumor biomarker detection using liquid biopsy.

Example 8: Detection of Mutational Profiles

Given the ability of the TACS methodology illustrated in Figure 1 to detect a number of somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs), these can be examined in the context of motifs, also referred to as mutational profiles. Most somatic mutations in tumors can be considered as passengers and may not be associated with pathogenesis if examined individually. Nonetheless, examining the profile of detected mutations as a whole can be useful in determining and/or detecting a pathogenesis-associated mutational profile. Various algorithms have been developed to decompose known mutational motifs operative in many cancer types. Alternatively, other metrics utilizing specific characteristics such as the type of mutations detected in the context of their neighboring bases can be utilized to this effect. The developed algorithms can infer the most likely scenario(s) that explain the observed data. Decomposition of the number and types of known mutational patterns/signatures that have, most likely, generated the observed mutational profile has been achieved using, but not limited to, the Lawson-Hanson non-negative least squares algorithm.

Figure 7 shows the observed pattern of somatic SNVs for breast cancer using data downloaded from the COSMIC database. The x-axis shows a single base mutation observed in cancer in the context of its neighboring sequences. For example A[C>A]T describes the mutation of Cytosine (C ) to Adenine (A) where the upstream sequence is Adenine and the downstream sequence is Thymine. The y-axis shows the frequency of occurrence of this mutation in breast cancer.

Figure 8 illustrates the results of a simulations study where mutational profiles were randomly generated by sampling a subset of SNVs each time, from data available in the COSMIC database, thereby simulating individuals. The simulated data were then subjected to the decomposition algorithms described above in order to detect the likely underlying mutational motifs. The bars indicate the average estimated frequency of the known mutational breast signatures computed from a data set of 10000 simulations. The developed algorithm shows evidence of detection of the mutational profiles, thereby demonstrating that detection of mutational profiles, or motifs, is possible using the developed algorithms.

Example 9: Fragment Size Based Tests

There is evidence from the literature that specific types of cancer can be characterized by and/or associated with fragments in the plasma having a smaller size than the expected size of fragments originating from healthy tissues (Jiang et al, (2015), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), ppE1317-E1325). Thus, a fragments-size based test can be utilized to detect the presence of somatic copy number variations in individuals suspected of having cancer. To this effect, a binomial test of proportions, as described Example 4, can be used for the detection of increased presence of nucleic acid material originating from non-healthy tissue (e.g., tumor tissue) based on fragment size. In particular, under the null hypothesis that the distribution of fragment sizes originating from both healthy and non-healthy cells (for example, but not limited to cancerous cells) is the same, a binomial test for proportions (as described in Example 4) using continuity correction can be utilized to quantify any evidence against it.

The same hypothesis holds true for fragments originating from the placenta/fetus. Specifically, placenta derived fragments are generally of smaller size when compared to fragments originating from maternal tissues/cells. Accordingly, assessment of the fragment size-based test was performed using maternal plasma samples (i.e., mixed samples where cell free DNA is of maternal and fetal origin). The size of fragments that have aligned to TACS-enriched regions can be obtained from the aligned data. Subsequently, the proportion of fragments under a specific threshold from a test region is compared respective proportion of fragments from a reference region for evidence against the null hypothesis HO,

HO: The proportion of small fragments of the test-region is not different from the proportion of small-fragments of the reference region.

Figure 9 shows results when applying the fragment sizes method to the mixed sample containing maternal and fetal DNA. The black dots are individual samples. The x-axis shows the sample index. The y-axis shows the score result of the fragments-based method. A score result greater than the one indicated by the threshold, illustrated as a grey line, indicates a deviation from the expected size of fragments illustrating the presence of aneuploidy. The results demonstrate that an aneuploid sample, having an estimated fetal fraction equal to 2.8%, was correctly identified, illustrating that fragments-based detection may be used to detect abnormalities in mixed samples with low signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., as is the case in detection of ranrprV

Accordingly, this example demonstrates the successful ability of the fragments-based detection method in detecting genetic abnormalities in mixed samples with low signal-to-noise ratios, thereby demonstrating the suitability of the fragments-based test for analysis of either cancer samples for oncology purposes or maternal samples for NIPT.

Since small-sized fragments are associated with fragments from non-healthy tissues (Jiang et al, (2015), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), ppE1317-E1325) they can also be leveraged for the detection of small-sized mutations, such as point mutations and mutational signatures. For example, one may only use small-sized fragments in Variant Allele Frequency estimation as described in examples 6-9, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio.

Example 10: Use of the method for tissue biopsies

Five FFPE samples from Breast carcinoma and 13 tissue samples (fresh/frozen and FFPE) from lung adenocarcinoma were subjected to the method and the mutational status was successfully detected. The data are presented below.

Breast Carcinoma:


TP53 c.415A>T p.K139* COSM44678 60.63

Lung adenocarcinoma:


For the lung cancer data, results were compared with data obtained for the same tissue samples with an independent method. For the genomic regions covered by both methods we observed 100% concordance.