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1. (WO2019006085) V2X COMMUNICATIONS USING MULTIPLE RADIO ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES (MULTI-RAT)
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V2X COMMUNICATIONS USING MULTIPLE RADIO ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES (MULTI-RAT)

PRIORITY CLAIM

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to United States

Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 62/527,608, filed June 30, 2017, and entitled "V2X COMMUNICATIONS USING MULTIPLE RADIO ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES (MULTI-RAT)." The above-identified provisional ap plication is incorporated herein by reference in its enti ety .

TECHNICAL FIELD

100021 Aspects pertain to radio access networks (RA s). Some aspects relate to veh i cle-t o-every thing (V2X) communications in various radio access technologies (RATs), including cellular local rea networks and wireless local area networks (WLA s), including Third Generation Partnership Project Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) netw orks and LTE advanced (LTE-A) networks, as well as 4th generation (4G ) netw orks and 5th generation (5G) netw orks. Some aspects relate to multi-RAT, multi-link V2X communications. Some aspects relate to V2X multi-radio convergence.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The use of 3 GPP LTE sy stems (including both LTE and LTE-A sy stems) has increased due to both an increase in the ty p es of devices such as user equipment (UEs) using netw ork resources as well as the amount of data and bandw idth being used by various app lications, such as video streaming, operating on these U Es. For example, the grow th of netw ork use by Internet of Things (loT) U s, which include machine ty pe communication (MTC) devices such as sensors and may use m ach i n e- 1 o-m ach i n e (M 2M)

communications, as well as the burgeoning V2X communications, has severely strained netw ork resources and increased communication comp lexity .

V2X communications of a variety of different applications from a user equipment (UE) are to coordinate with various technologies, as well as among potentially rapidly moving vehicles.

[0004] Connected cars are becoming an important part of connected life of the users. With autonomous driving and IoT on the horizon, V2X through the connectivity in the car, among vehicles, between vehicles and the infrastructure as well as sensors and the "things" surrounding the cars becomes more desirable. At the same time, meeting the stringent

requirements of autonomous driving and seamless connectivity on the go for V2X app lications as ell as within the car and IoT applications remains challenging. Currently , various wireless technologies, including, IEEE 802. l i p. Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), Wireless Access Vehicular Environment (WAVE), Cellular, etc., attempt to address the V2X network requirement s .

BRIEF DES CRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

100051 In the figures, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, like numerals may describe similar comp onents in different views. Like numerals having different letter suffixes may represent different instances of similar components. Aspects are illustrated by way of example, and not limitation, in the following figures of the accompany ing draw ings.

[0006] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment using multi-RAT, multi-link connectivity according to some aspects described herein.

100071 FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary depiction of a communication network according to some aspects described herein.

100081 FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment using multi-RAT, multi-link connectivity according to some aspects described herein .

100091 FIG . 4 illustrates an exemplary method of tracking link quality according to some aspects described herein.

[0010] FIG. 5 illustrates an exemplary method for identify ing and improving a high priority multi-radio communication link according to some asp ects described herein.

[0011] FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary method for wireless communication according to some aspects described herein.

[0012] FIG. 7 illustrates an exemp lary method of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RAT with respect to a multi-radio

communication link according to some asp ects described herein.

[0013] FIG. 8 illustrates an exemplary method of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RAT with respect to a multi-radio

communication link according to some asp ects described herein .

[0014] FIG. 9 illustrates an exemp lary method of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RA T with respect to a multi-radio

communication link according to some aspects described herein.

[0015] FIG 10 illustrates an exemplary method of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RAT w ith respect to a multi-radio

communication link according to some aspects described herein.

[0016] FIG. I 1 illustrates an exemp lary internal configuration of a vehicular terminal device according to some asp ects described herein.

[0017] FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary placing of multip le communication sy stems and radar sy stems link according to some aspects described herein.

[0018] FIG. 13, FIG. 14, and FIG. 15 illustrate different exemplary configurations of front end and antenna sy stems according to some aspects described herein.

[0019] FIG. 16 illustrates an exemplary internal configuration of a radio communication sy stem of the vehicular terminal device of F IG. 1 1 according to some aspects described herein.

[0020] FIG. 1 7 illustrates exemplary transceivers using multiple radio communication technologies in the vehicular terminal device of FIG. 16 according to some asp ects described herein.

[0021] FIG. 1 8, FIG. 19, and FIG. 20 illustrate exemp lary coding techniques, which may be performed by the multi-link coder of FIG. 17 according to some aspects described herein.

[0022] FIG. 21 illustrates exemplary multi-link encoding performed by the multi-link coder of FIG. 17 at various levels within a 3 GPP protocol stack according to some aspects described herein.

[0023] FIG. 22 illustrates exemplary multi-link decoding p erformed by the multi-link coder of FIG. 17 at various levels within a 3 GPP protocol stack according to some aspects described herein .

100241 FIG. 23 illustrates various inputs to the multi-link coder of F IG.

17 according to some aspects described herein.

100251 FIG. 24 and FIG. 25 illustrate exemp lary methods for multi-link coding ithin a V2X communication env ironment according to some aspects described herein.

100261 FIG. 26 illustrates an exemp lary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity for V2I/V2N links based on 3 GPP carrier aggregation and dual connectivity based frameworks according to some aspects described herein.

100271 FIG. 27 illustrates an exemplary communication flow within the V2X communication environment of FIG. 26 according to some aspects described herein.

[0028] FIG. 28 illustrates an exemplary method for communication within the V2X environment of FIG. 26 according to some asp ects described herein.

[0029] FIG. 29 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity based on V2N/V2I assisted V2V communications according to some asp ects described herein .

100301 FIG. 30 illustrates an exemp lary communication flow within the V2X communication environment of FIG. 29 according to some asp ects described herein.

100311 FIG. 31 illustrates an exemp lary method for communication within the V2X environment of FIG. 29 according to some aspects described herein.

[0032] FIG. 32 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity based on V2V assisted V2I/V2 link according to some asp ects described herein.

[0033] FIG. 33 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-radio, multi-hop V2X links using V2I/V2N and V2V communication links according to some as ects described herein .

100341 FIG. 34 illustrates an exemp lary V2X communication environment with multi-radio, multi-link V2V communications according to some aspects described herein.

[0035] FIG. 35 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-radio, multi-link mesh backhaul according to some aspects described herein.

100361 FIG. 36 illustrates an exemp lary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity based on multiple-input-multip le-output (M IMO) medications according to some aspects described herein.

100371 FIG. 37 illustrates an exemp lary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity enabled via mobile edge comp ute (M EC) according to some aspects described herein.

[0038] FIG. 38 illustrates an exemplary communication flow of communications associated with radio resource management for multi-link connectivity w ithin a V2X communication environment according to some asp ects described herein.

1003 1 FIG. 39 illustrates exemplary graphs of a utility function for network traffic with different quality of service requirements w ithin a V2X communication environment according to some asp ects described herein.

100401 F IG. 40 illustrates exemplary WAVE and Ι .ΤΈ protocol stacks in a V2X device using separate V2X convergence functions according to some aspects described herein.

[0041] FIG. 41 illustrates exemplary WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in a V2X device using a common V2X convergence layer according to some aspects described herein,

[0042] FIG. 42 illustrates exemplar}^ convergence of communication radios of a handheld device and a vehicular terminal device according to some aspects described herein.

[0043] FIG. 43 illustrates a flow diagram of example operations for convergence of communication radios of a handheld device and a vehicular terminal device according to some aspects described herein.

100441 FIG. 44 illustrates an exemplary software defined networking

(SDN) V2X controller using a V2X convergence layer in a vehicular terminal device according to some aspects described herein.

1004 1 FIG 45 illustrates exemplary WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in a V2X device using a common V2X convergence function and proximity -based serv ices (ProSe) in the LTE protocol stack according to some aspects described herein.

100461 FIG. 46 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and a roadside unit (RSU) to exchange network and measurement information according to some aspects described herein.

[0047] FIG. 47 illustrates a flow diagram of example operations for adjusting channel access parameters based on convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and an RSU according to some aspects described herein.

[0048] FIG. 48 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and an RSU to exchange credentials information according to some aspects described herein.

100491 FIG. 49 illustrates a flow diagram of example operations for device authentication based on convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and an RSU according to some aspects described herein.

100501 FIG. 50 illustrates exemp lary convergence of communication radios within a single device to enable localization enhancements according to some aspects described herein.

[0051] FIG. 51 illustrates a flow diagram of example operations for performing localization enhancements based on convergence of

communication radios of a single device according to some asp ects described herein.

100521 FIG . 52 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios within a single device to enable transmission scheduling according to some aspects described herein.

[0053] FIG. 53 illustrates a flow diagram of example operations for performing transmission scheduling based on convergence of communication radios of a single device according to some aspects described herein.

[0054] FIG. 54 is an exemp lary block diagram illustrating an example of a machine, upon which one or more aspects may be implemented according to some aspects described herein.

DETAILED DES CRIPTION

100551 Asp ects relate to sy stems, devices, methods, comp uter-readable media, apparatus, and assemblies for mu!ti-RAT V2X

communications. In some aspects, various access technologies may be utilized and co-exist within a single communication dev ice (e.g, a vehicular terminal dev ice or another dev ice used in V2X communications), the same way that multi-radios are a norm and hav e come to be expected for other com m u n i cat i on devi ces . For example, some radios may collect information from sensors, some radios may provide connectivity to the users, while other radios may communicate with infrastructure/Road Side Units (RSUs) and other vehicular terminal dev ices (or cars) for automated driving, etc.

100561 The following descrip tion and the drawings illustrate specific aspects to enable those skilled in the art to practice them. Other aspects may incorporate structural, logical, electrical, process, and other changes. Portions and features of some aspects may be included in, or substituted for, those of other aspects, and are intended to cover all available equivalents of the elements described.

[0057] The word "exemplary" is used herein to mean " serving as an example, instance, or illustration." Any aspect or design described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other asp ects or designs.

[0058] The words "plurality" and "multiple" in the description or the claims expressly refer to a quantity greater than one. The terms "group (of)," " set (of)," "collection (of)," " series (of)," " sequence (of)," "grouping (of)," etc., and the like in the description or in the claims refer to a quantity equal to or greater than one, i.e. one or more. Any term expressed in plural form that does not expressly state "plurality " or "multiple" likewise refers to a quantity equal to or greater than one. The terms "proper subset," "reduced subset," and "lesser subset" refer to a subset of a set that is not equal to the set, i.e. a subset of a set that contains less elements than the set .

[0059] It is appreciated that any vector or matrix notation utilized herein is exemp lary in nature and is emp loy ed solely for purp oses of explanation. Accordingly , it is understood that the approaches detailed in this disclosure are not limited to being implemented solely using vectors or matrices, and that the associated p rocesses and computations may be equivalently p erformed with respect to sets, sequences, group s, etc., of data, ob s ervat i on s , i n form at ion, signals, samp les, sy mbols, elements, etc.

Furthermore, it is app reciated that references to a "vector" may refer to a vect or of any size or orientation, e.g. including a 1x1 vector (e.g a scalar), a lxM vector (e.g. a row vector), and an Mxl vector (e.g. a column vector).

Similarly , it is appreciated that references to a "matrix" may refer to matrix of any size or orientation, e.g. including a lxl matrix (e.g. a scalar), a lxM matrix (e.g. a row vector), and an Mxl matrix (e.g. a column vector).

[0060] As used herein, the term " software" includes any ty pe of executable instruction or set of instructions, including embedded data in the software. Software may also encompass firmware. Software may create, delete or modify software, e.g., through a machine learning process.

[0061] A "module" as used herein is understood to include any kind of functionality -implementing entity, which may include hardware-defined modules such as sp ecial-purpose hardware, software-defined modules such as a processor executing software or firmware, and mixed modules that include both hardware-defined and soft ware-defi ned comp onents. A module may thus he an analog circuit or component, digital circuit, mixed-signal circuit or component, logic circuit, processor, microprocessor, Central Processing Unit (CPU), ap p lication p rocessor, Grap hics Processing Unit (GPU ), Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA ), integrated circuit, discrete circuit. App lication Specific Integrated Circuit ( A SIC), etc , or any combination thereof. Any other kind of implementation of the respective functions which will be described below in further detail may also be understood as a " module". It is understood that any two (or more) of the modules detailed herein may be realized as a single module with substantially equivalent functionality , and conversely that any single module detailed herein may be realized as two (or more) sep arate modules with substantially equivalent functionality . Additionally , references to a "module" may refer to two or more modules that collectively form a single module.

100621 The term "terminal device" utili ed herein includes user-side devices (both mobile and immobile) that may connect to a core network and various external networks via a radio access netw ork. The term "network access node" as utilized herein includes to a netw ork-side device that provides a radio access netw ork with which terminal dev ices may connect and exchange information ith other netw orks through the network access node. 100631 The term "base station" used in reference to an access node of a mobile communication network may be understood to include a macro base station (such as, for example, for cellular communications), m i cro/p i co/f emt o base station, Node B, evolved Node-B (base station ), Home base station, Remote Radio Head (RRH ), relay point, access point (AP, such as, for examp le, for Wi-Fi, WLA N, WiGig, millimeter Wave (mmWave), etc. ) etc. As used herein, a "cell" in the setting of t el ecom mun i cat i on s may be understood to include an area (e.g., a public place) or space (e.g., multi-story building or airspace) serv ed by a base station or access p oint . The base station may include mobile, e.g., installed in a vehicle, and the covered area or space may move accordingly . Accordingly , a cell may be covered by a set of co-located transmit and receive antennas, each of which also able to cover and serve a specific sector of the cell. A base station or access point may serve one or more cells, where each cell is characterized by a distinct

communication channel or standard (e.g., a base station offering 2G, 3G and L I E services). Macro-, micro-, femto-, p i co-cells may have different cell sizes and ranges, and may be static or dynamic (e.g., a cell installed in a drone or balloon) or change its characteristic dynamically (for example, from macrocell to p icocell, from static deployment to dynamic deployment, from omnidirectional to directional, from broadcast to narrowcast). Communication channels may include narrowband or broadband. Communication channels may also use carrier aggregation across radio communication technologies and standards, or flexibly adapt bandwidth to communication needs. In addition, terminal devices may include or act as base stations or access p oints or relay s or other network acces s nodes.

[0064] For purposes of this disclosure, radio communication technologies may be classified as one of a Short Range radio communication technolog or Cellular Wide Area radio communication technology , for example. Short Range radio communication technologies include Bluetooth, WLAN (e.g. according to any IEEE 802.1 1 standard), and other similar radio communication technologies. Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies include Global Sy stem for M obile Communications (GSM ), Code Division M ultiple Access 2000 ( CDM A2000), Universal M obile T el ecom mun i cat i on s Sy stem (UMTS), Long Term Evolution (LTE), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO), Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), High Sp eed Packet Access (HSPA; including High Sp eed Downlink Packet Access (U SD PA ), High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSIJPA), U SD PA Plus (HSDPA+), and HSUPA Plus (HSUPA+)), Worldwide Interoperability for M icrowave Access (WiM ax) (e.g according to an IEEE 802. 16 radio communication standard, e.g. WiM x fixed or WiMax mobile), etc., and other similar radio communication technologies. Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies also include " small

cells" of such technologies, such as microcells, femtocells, and picocells. Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies may be generall referred to herein as "cellular" communication technologies. It is understood that exemp lary scenarios detailed herein are demonstrative in nature, and accordingly may be similarly applied to various other mobile communication technologies, both existing and not y et formulated, particularly in cases where such mobile communication technologies share similar features as disclosed regarding the following examples. Furthermore, as used herein the term GSM refers to both circuit-switched and packet-switched GSM , including GPRS, EDGE, and any other related GSM technologies. Likewise, the term UM TS refers to both circuit- and packet-switched G SM , i.e. including HSPA, HSDPA/HSUPA, HSDPA+/HSUPA+, and any other related UM T S technologies.

100651 The term "network" as utilized herein, for example, in reference to a communication network such as a mobile communication network, encompasses both an access section of a network (e.g., a radio access netw ork (RAN ) section) and a core section of a network (e.g., a core netw ork section), but also, for an end-to-end s stem, encompasses mobile (including peer-to-p eer, device to device, or machine to machine communications), access, backhaul, server, backbone and gat ew ay /int erch ange elements to other networks of the same or different ty pe. The term " radio idle mode" or " radio idle state" used herein in reference to a mobile terminal refers to a radio control state in which the mobile terminal is not allocated at least one dedicated communication channel of a mobile communication network. The term "radio connected mode" or "radio connected state" used in reference to a mobile terminal refers to a radio control state in which the mobile terminal is allocated at least one dedicated uplink communication channel of a mobile communication network. The up link communication channel may be a p hy sical channel or a virtual channel. Idle or connection mode may be connection-switched or packet-switched.

100661 Unless exp licitly specified, the term "transmit" encompasses both direct (point-to-point) and indirect transmission (via one or more intermediary points or nodes). Similarly , the term " receiv e" encompasses both direct and indirect reception. Furthermore, the terms "transmit," " receive," "communicate," and other similar terms encompass both phy sical transmission (e.g., the transmission of radio signals) and logical transmission (e.g, the transmission of logical data over a software-level connection). For example, a processor may transmit or receive data in the form of radio signals with another processor, w here the p hy sical transmission and reception is handled by radio-lay er components such as RF transceivers and antennas, and the logical transmission and reception is performed by the processor. The term "communicate" encomp asses one or both of transmitting and receiving, i.e. unidirectional or bidirectional communication in one or both of the incoming and outgoing directions. The term "calculate" encompasses both 'direct' calculations via a mathematical
and 'indirect' calculations via lookup or hash tables and other array indexing or searching operations.

100671 Several different vehicular radio communication technologies, including short range radio communication technology (e.g, Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)), cellular wide area radio communication technolog (e.g, Long Term Evolution (LTE) Vehicle-to- Vehicle (V2V) and Veh i cl e- 1 o- Every thing (V2X)), and cellular narrow band radio communication technology may be used for communicating with and between vehicular terminal devices. These vehicular radio communication technologies target both autonomous driving use cases and delivery of standard mobile communications data, such as voice calls, text messages, and Internet and ap plication data, to connected vehicles.

100681 A short range radio communication technology may include e.g. a DSRC technology , a Bluetooth radio communication technology, an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radio communication technology , a Wireless Local Area Network radio communication technology (e.g according to an IEEE 802. 1 1 (e.g. IEEE 802. 1 I n ) radio communication standard)), IrDA (Infrared Data A ssociation), Z-Wave and ZigBee, Hip erLA N/2 ((High Performance Radio LA N; an alternative AT M -like 5 GHz standardized technology ), IEEE 802.1 l a (5 GHz ), IEEE 802.1 l g (2.4 GHz ), IEEE 802. 1 I n, IEEE 802. 1 1 VHT (VHT = Very High Throughp ut ), e.g. IEEE 802. 1 l ac for VHT below 6GHz

and IEEE 802. 1 l ad for VHT at 60 GHz, a Worldwide Interoperability for

Microwave Access (WiMax) (e.g according to an IEEE 802.16 radio communication standard, e.g. WiM ax fixed or WiMax mobile), WiPro, HiperM AN (High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network), IEEE 802.16m Advanced Air Interface, WiGig (e.g., according to any IEEE 802.11 standard), millimeter Wave and other similar radio communication

technologies and the like.

100691 A short range radio communication technology may , for example, include the following characteristics: the technology may be based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA); the technology may be contention-based, e.g usually no fully load channel possible; the technology may be rather inexpensive; no communication network provider is necessary for the spectrum; e.g for DSRC: the add-on 802.11 sy stem may be implemented in most of the communication devices, e.g. in vehicles; the technology may be used to form an ad hoc network where there is no fixed communications infrastructure; the technology may provide a high data rate; the technology may in some cases not provide a redundancy frequency band; the technology may in some cases have latency as an issue, since the latency may be unpredictable; and the technology may in some cases have no central scheduler.

[0070] DSRC builds on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics

Engineers (IEEE) 802. l ip physical and medium access control layers, while LTE V2V/V2X develops on top of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3 GPP) LTE standard. While both DSRC and LTE V2V/V2X may be used for future G and autonomous driv ing uses, these v ehicular radio communication technologies exhibit certain differences, in particular with the approach to spectrum access management. Similar to its underlying IEEE 802.1 Ip origins, DSRC generally uses a contention-based channel access scheme where vehicular terminal devices and sup porting network access nodes, known as Roadside Units (RSUs), compete for access to a shared channel in a distributed manner. In contrast, and likewise to current LTE channel access, LTE V2V7V2X generally uses deterministic scheduling in which a centralized control entity selectively assigns radio resources for transmission (although V2X includes two resource allocation modes, a first mode, in which an evolved Node-B (base station) assigns all resources to all UEs, and a second mode, in which the a base station defines a resource block for which UEs use contention to acquire specific radio resources).

[0071] A cellular wide area radio communication technology may include e.g a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) radio communication technology, a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) radio communication technology, an Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) radio communication technology, or a Third Generation artnership Project (3GPP) radio communication technology (e.g. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Sy stem), FOM A (Freedom of M ultimedia Access), 3GPP LTE (long term Evolution), 3GPP LTE Advanced (long term Evolution A dvanced)), CDM A2000 (Code division multiple access 2000), CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), Mob it ex, 3G (Third Generation), CSD (Circuit Switched Data), II SCSD (High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data), UM TS (3G) (Universal Mobile T elecommunicat ions System (Third Generation)), W-CDM A (UMTS) (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (Universal Mobile T el ecomm un i cat i on s System)), II SPA (High Speed Packet Access), HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access), HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access), HSPA* (High Speed Packet Access Plus), UMTS-TDD

(Universal M obile Telecommunications System - Time-Division Duplex), TD-CDM A (Time Division - Code Division Multiple Access), TD-CDM A (Time Division - Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access), 3 GPP Rel.8 (Pre-4G) (3rd Generation Partnership Project Release 8 (Pre-4th Generation)), UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access), E-UTRA (Evolved UMTS

Terrestrial Radio Access), LTE Advanced (4G) (long term Evolution

Advanced (4th Generation)), cdmaOne (2G), CDM A2000 (3G) (Code division multiple access 2000 (Third generation)), EV-DO ( Ev ol ut i on -D at a Op t i mi z ed or Evolution-Data Only), AMPS (1G) (Advanced Mobile Phone System (1st Generation)), TACS/ETACS (Total Access Communication System/Extended Total Access Communication Sy stem), D-AM PS (2G) (Digital AM PS (2nd Generation)), PTT ( Push-to-talk ), M T S ( M obile Telep hone Sy stem ), IMTS (Improved M ob i 1 e T el ep h on e System), A M T S ( A dv an ced Mobile Telephone Sy stem), OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land M obile T elep hony ), M TD (Swedish abbreviation for M obilteleibnisy stem D, or M obile telephony sy stem D ), Autotel/PALM (Public Automated Land Mobile), ARP (Finnish for Autoradiopuhelin, "car radio phone"), NM T (Nordic M obile Telephony), Hi cap (High cap acity version of NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telep hone)), CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), M ob it ex, DataT AC, iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network), PDC (Personal Digital Cellular), CSD (Circuit Switched Data), PHS (Personal Handy -phone Sy stem), WiDE (Wideband Integrated Digital Enhanced Network), iBurst, and Unlicensed M obile Access (UM A, also referred to as also referred to as 3GPP Generic Access Network, or GAN standard), and LTE-A (Long Term Evolution Advanced), LTE V2V, LTE V2X, 5G (e.g., millimeter Wave (mm Wave), 3 GPP New Radio (NR.)), next generation cellular standards like 6G, and other similar radio communication technologies. Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies also include " small cells" of such technologies, such as microcells, femtocells, and picocells. Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies may be generally referred to herein as "cellular" communication technologies. Furthermore, as used herein the term GSM refers to both circuit- and p acket-switched GSM, for example, including GPRS, EDGE, and any other related GSM technologies. Likewise, the term UM T S refers to both circuit- and packet-switched GSM , for examp le, including H SPA, H SDPA H SUPA, HSDPA+/H SUPA+, and any other related U M T S t ech n ol ogj es . F urt h er comni un i cat i on technologies include Line of sight (LiFi) communication technology . It is understood that exemplary scenarios detailed herein are demonstrative in nature, and accordingly may be similarly ap plied to various other mobile communication technologies, both existing and not y et formulated, particularly in cases where such mobile communication technologies share similar features as disclosed regarding the following examples.

[0072] A cellular wide area radio communication technology may, for example, have the following characteristics: may fit into a 5G communication sy stem and may easily be integrated in it; the technology may provide an evolution path (i.e. the technology may be further develop ed); the technology

may p rovide a redundancy frequency band (which may be independent from the usage frequency band); the technology may provide a predictable and high Quality of Service (QoS); the technology may provide good latency characteristics; the technology' may provide a central congestion control; the technology may provide a controllable QoS; and the technology may provide re-purpose allocation of radio resources.

100731 A narrowband radio communication technology may include narrowband Internet-of-things (NB-ioT) such as CatNB l or LTE M TC (machine ty pe communication, commonly called CatM 1 ), legacy CatO, narrowband IOT (NB-IoT ) (commonly called CatNB l), and the like. A narrowband radio communication technology may , for example, have the following characteristics: the technology' may provide coverage enhancement; the technology' may currently provide only limited voice support; the technology may p rovide rather low data rate (only

ap proximately 500 bit/seconds ); the technology may provide a low power radio communication technology and thus a low pow er radio communication device; the technology may be inserted into spectrum gap s (if available and known), an independent search for spectrum gap s may be provided, a beacon may be sent to other communication devices to indicate the usage; the technology may provide direct communication bet ween t he communi cat ion device implementing the narrowband radio communication technology and a satellite; and the technology may provide 3.4 GHz frequency bands.

100741 Due to the simultaneous develop ment of multip le vehicular radio communication technologies, coexistence may p lay an important role once deploy ment is widesp read. Accordingly , vehicular terminal devices operating w ith DSRC may coexist with vehicular terminal devices op erating with LTE V2V/V2X, and vice versa. The potential introduction and deploy ment of other vehicular radio communication technologies may also be considered in the future for coexistence purposes. How ever, as DSRC and LTE V2V/V2X may develop separately and use sep arate supporting architectures, centralized coexistence schemes may be difficult to develop without substantial coordination and integration between the competing technologies.

1007 1 According to exemplary aspects, close collaboration and coordination among different radios (within the same vehicle, between vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure elements) and access technologies may be used to provide the desired connectivity and

performance. In some aspects, collaboration and convergence of radios in one phy sical V2X device may be used to achiev e multi-device connectiv ity within a V2X communication environment . For example, two devices supportingthe same radios (e.g., same communication technologies) may communicate and achieve an ov erall better performance compared to when each radio operates indep endently . The device may for example be the user' s handheld device, the vehicle or the infrastructure. In some aspects, the radios may be integrated, or not . In instances hen the radios are not integrated, w ithin a vehicle, for example, the radio transceivers may be located at different part of the vehicle, but connected via high sp eed connections where the converged upper stack is located. In some asp ects, an unintegrated scenario may include aggregation of the radios present on user's device and the radios implemented in the vehicle, together creating a multi-radio dev ice.

[0076] Presence of multi-radios on one device prov ide both opp ortunities and challenges. On one hand, configuration and management of dev ices— including for example p rovisioning and on-boarding— becomes more challenging esp ecially in the vehicular networks where the environment is dy namic. On the other hand, by introducing mechanisms to allow different integrative or collocated radios to coexist and cooperate, better collective performance may be achieved, leading to a better user experience. In addition, connectiv ity coverage increase is expected for vehicles using multi-radio communications .

[0077] Offering next generation aut on omou s v eh i cul ar services p ose challenging requirements for wireless networks supp orting such ap plications. M ore specifically, future V2X netw orks may supp ort ultra-low latency and extreme reliability , while still operating at high data rates and high mobility . In some aspects, M ulti-Radio Het-Nets integrating multip le tiers of cells (e.g., macro, pico, femto and end-point dev ices) equipped w ith different radios operating on different RATs (Radio Access Technologies) may be used as an

essential architecture for next generation V2X networks. While there are several examples of such deployments in 4G and up coming 5G access networks (e.g., Technical Specification (T S) 36.300), the use of Multi-RAT Het-Net deploy ments for V2X applications is beginning to emerge as a viable technology' , as cellular LTE/5G standards are being extended for V2X use cases, in addition to the incumbent DSRC (Dedicated Short Range

Communications) sy stems.

100781 FIG 1 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment 100 using multi-RAT, multi-link connectivity according to some asp ects. Referring to FIG. 1, the V2X communication environment 100 may include various V2X enabled devices, such as vehicular terminal devices (e.g. , vehicles ) 108 and 1 10, a roadside unit (RSU ) 106, a V2X enabled base station or an evolved Node-B (base station) 104, and a V2X enabled infrastructure 102. Each of the V2X enabled devices within the V2X communication environment 100 may include a plurality of radios, where each radio may be configured to operate in one or more of a plurality of wired or wireless communication technologies, RATs. Example RATs include a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio communication technology , a wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology, a Bluetooth radio communication technology , an IEEE 802.1 1 radio communication technology , an LTE radio communication technology , and a 5G radio communication technology .

1007 1 In some asp ects, V2X dep loy ment s within the V2X

communication environment 100 may use multip le RATs operating on different frequency bands (e.g., licensed, un-licensed, light licensed and high frequency bands) to imp rove V2X wireless connectivity . Furthermore, V2X communication infrastructure within the V2X environment 100 may be deploy ed with different tiers of cells comprising traditional macro-cells, small cells deploy ed on RSUs (e.g., RSU 106) as well as allow for direct vehicle-to-vehicle communication (e.g., communication between vehicles 108 and 1 10 using multiple hop s). In this regard, communications w ithin the V2X environment 100 may for example include V2N ( Vehicle-to- etwork) communications, V2I ( Veh i cl e-t o- 1 n f ras t ruct u re ) communications, V2V (Vehicle-to- Vehicle) communications, and V2P ( Vehicle-t o-Pedest nans ) communications. In some aspects, multiple V2X communication links, such as communication links 1 12, may be exploited to improve the connectivity performance of the V2X environment 100. The communication links 1 12 in FIG. 1 are illustrated only as examples and other links may also be used in the V2X communication environment. Each of the links 1 12 between any two or more of the V2X enabled devices in FIG. 1 can include multi-links, using the same or different RATs of multiple available RATs.

[0080] In some aspects, the V2X communication environment 100 may utilize multi-radio, multi-link connectivity principles towards a V2X communication sy stem design that may meet V2X application objectives in terms of improved reliability, lower latency, better capacity, higher data rates, lower power consumption, as well as lower interruption time during handovers. Further benefits of mult i -radio, multi-link connectivity within the V2X environment 100 may include more reliable control links to manage multi-connectivity, as well as providing the coordination for improving V2X connections, such as radio resource management, interference management, and so forth. In additional aspects as discussed herein below, a convergence function or a convergence lay er may be used as a common interface between multiple transceivers within a V2X-enabled device.

[0081] FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary depiction of a communication network 200 according to some aspects. As shown in FIG. 2, communication network 200 may be an end-to-end network spanning from radio access network 202 to backbone networks 232 and 242. Backbone networks 232 and 242 may be realized as predominantly wireline networks. Network access nodes 220 to 226 may include a radio access network and may wirelessly transmit and receive data with terminal devices 204 to 216 to provide radio access connections to terminal devices 204 to 216. Terminal devices 204 to 216 may utilize the radio access connections provided by radio access network 202 to exchange data on end-to-end communication connections with servers in backbone networks 232 and 242, The radio access connections between terminal devices 204 to 216 and network J3.CCCS S nodes 220 to 226 may be implemented according to one or more RATs, where each terminal device may

transmit and receive data with a corresponding network access node according to the protocols of a particular RAT that governs the radio access connection. In some aspects, one or more of terminal devices 204 to 216 may utilize licensed spectrum or unlicensed spectrum for the radio access connections. In some aspects, one or more of terminal devices 204 to 216 may directly communicate with one another according to any of a variety of different device-to-device ( D2D ) communication protocols.

100821 A s shown in FIG. 2, in some aspects terminal devices such as terminal devices 206 to 210 may rely on a forwarding link provided by terminal device 204, where terminal device 204 may act as a gateway or relay between terminal devices 206 to 210 and network access node 220. In some aspects, terminal devices 206 to 210 may be configured according to a mesh or multi-hop network and may communicate with terminal device 204 via one or more other terminal devices and using one or more multi-link connections using one or more of multiple RATs (multi-RAT). The configuration of terminal devices, e.g., a mesh or multi-hop configuration, may change dynamically e.g., according to terminal or user requirements, the current radio or network environment, the availability or performance of applications and services, or the cost of communications or access.

[0083] In some aspects, terminal devices such as terminal device 216 may utilize relay node 218 to transmit or receive data with network access node 226, where relay node 218 may perform relay transmission between terminal devices 216 and network access node 226, e.g., with a simple repeating scheme or a more complex processing and forwarding scheme. The relay may also be a realized as a series of relay s, or use opportunistic relaying where a best or approximately best relay or series of relays at a given moment in time or time interval is used .

[0084] In some aspects, network access nodes such as network access node 224 and 226 may interface with core network 230, which may provide routing control, and management functions that govern both radio access connections and core network and backhaul connections. As shown in FIG. 2, core network 230 may interface with backbone network 242, and may perform network gateway functions to manage the transfer of data between network

access nodes 224 and 226 and the various servers of backbone network 242. In some asp ects, network access nodes 224 and 226 may be directly connected with each other via a direct interface, which may be wired or wireless. In some aspects, network access nodes such as network access nodes 220 may interface directly ith backbone network 232. In some aspects, network access nodes such as network access node 222 may interface with backbone network 232 via router 228.

100851 Backbone networks 232 and 242 may contain various different

Internet and external servers in servers 234 to 238 and 244 to 248. Terminal devices 204 to 216 may transmit and receive data with servers 234 to 238 and 244 to 248 on logical software-level connections that rely on the radio access network and other intermediate interfaces for lower lay er transport. Terminal devices 204 to 216 may therefore utilize communication network 200 as an end-to-end network to transmit and receive data, w hich may include internet and application data in addition to other ty pes of user-plane data. In some aspects backbone networks 232 and 242 may interface via gateway s 240 and 250, which may be connected at interchange 252.

[0086] Some of terminal devices 204 to 2 16 may be mobile devices such as smart phones, tablet PCs, and the like. Other terminal devices may be static devices such as devices integrated in a V2X communication

environment . By way of example, some terminal devices may be integrated in a traffic light or a traffic sign or in a street post, and the like. Some terminal devices may be integrated in a vehicle. As will be described in more detail below, some of the terminal devices 204 to 2 16 may be low power consumption devices, some of the terminal devices may p rovide a minimum QoS, some may provide the capability to communicate using multi-links on different RATs and so forth. An example communication scenario is illustrated in FIG. 2, which shows an exemplary radio communication sy stem 200 in a general V2X communication environment.

[0087] FIG . 3 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment 300 using multi-RAT, multi-link connectivity according to some asp ects. M ore s p eci fi cal 1 y , F I G . 3 show s an exemplary excerpt of a p lurality of roads 322, 324, and 326. A p lurality of vehicles such as vehicles 328 - 340

may drive or stand on or aside of roads 322-326. Terminal devices having various mobile radio capabilities may be integrated in vehicles 328-340. The terminal devices may be configured to support different RATs, such as one or more Short Range radio communication technologies or one or more Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies or one or more cellular narrowband radio communication technologies as described herein.

M oreover, infrastructure objects such as a V2X enabled base station or an evolved Node-B (base station) 302, a V2X enabled infrastructure 3 16, traffic lights 3 18, 320, road side units (RSU) 304-314, road posts, traffic signs, and the like may be provided and may be configured to support the different RATs using multi-radio, multi-link connectivity as described herein.

[0088] Terminal devices having various mobile radio capabilities may be integrated in traffic infrastructure objects 302-320. These terminal devices may be configured to supp ort different RA s, such as one or more Short Range radio communication technologies or one or more Cellular Wide Area radio communication technologies or one or more cellular narrowband radio communication technologies as described herein. An arbitrary number of base stations 240, 242 or Wireless Access Points may also be provided to be part of one or more different RATs which may be of the same or of different radio communication network providers.

100891 M ore and more vehicles (e.g., vehicles 328-340) may be connected to the Internet and to each other. Furthermore, the vehicles 328-340 may advance toward higher automation thereof, w hich results in various demands with respect to terminal devices, e.g. with respect to power consumption, interoperability , coexistence, device access, sy nchronization of various terminal devices. In order to deal with increasingly complex road situations, in accordance with some aspects automated vehicles may rely not only on their own sensors, but also on information detected or transmitted by other vehicles or infrastructure comp onents. Therefore, the vehicles may cooperate with each other and it may be desired that the information transmitted between various vehicles and infrastructure components reach its respective destination reliably within an exceedingly short timeframe. In this regard, multi-radio, multi-link communications using one or more RATs may take place between communication nodes (e.g., infrastructure components 302-320 and vehicles 328-340) within the V2X communication environment

300 to improve V2X connectivity performance across several metrics, such as reliability, latency, data rate, and so forth.

[0090] As will be described in more detail below, multi-link connectivity in the V2X communication network 300 may be based on using communication links operating on the same or different frequency bands, as well as on different RATs. Example V2X communication technologies, which may be included in the RATs include DSRC, LTE-based communications (e.g., LTE MBM S, LTE Prose and LTE-Uu communications), WLAN

(802.1 1 -based protocols and standards), LWA, LAA, Multefire, 5G NR (New-Radio), legacy communication standards (e.g, 2G/3G standards), and so forth. The communication scenarios identified herein may according to some aspects allow for mixing of multiple RATs on communication links between vehicles or other V2X enabled nodes (e.g., 302-320), depending on the capability of infrastructure and vehicular devices.

100911 FIG 3 illustrates several example communication scenarios

342 (multi-link connectivity for V2I/V2N links based on carrier aggregation and dual connectivity ), 344 (multi-link connectivity based on V2V assisted V2I/V2N link), 346 (multi-radio, multi-hop relay communications), and 348 (network/V2I assisted V2V communications and multi-link V2V

coordination). Additional aspects and examples of the communication scenarios 342-348, and other communication scenarios, are described below.

[0092] Broadcasts communications are a possible communication scenario. Broadcast communications generally involve the transmission of messages without a specific intended recipient. Rather, a group of devices, or any device that is able to receive, are the class of recipients. Broken communication links are also prevalent in a mobile network environment (e.g., involving vehicular terminal devices, such as vehicles 328-340). For example, when vehicles or other objects pass between broadcasting devices, or between broadcasting and receiving devices, or when a dynamic change in the environment causes fading within a communication link between the devices. Because broadcast messages generally do not have an intended receiver, and therefore generally do not rely upon acknowledgments to determine reliability, determining when a link is unreliable or broken using standard mechanisms of channel reliability improvement may be difficult in a broadcast link.

Determining when a link is unreliable or broken may be important for broadcasting ap plications, which are important for enabling connected and autonomous vehicles e.g., basic safety message broadcasts). Link quality aspects described herein are not limited to broadcast communications and may also include multicast and unicast communications.

[0093] In some aspects, a device may identify communication links to neighboring devices of high importance, based on various factors, such as proximity, message content, or any other context information (e.g, map application data p ertaining to a vehicular environment). The device may then detect when a link is not reliable and provide mechanisms to improve reliability for important links. In some aspects, the dev ice may maintain a list— or other approp riate data structure such as a tree, dictionary , array , matrix, etc.— of links, associated with one or more neighboring devices within a certain range, in storage or in a central location of a list of hy p othetical receiv ers within range of that dev ice. The list may be updated periodically or when a new neighborin g dev ice is detected within range of the dev ice. In some aspects, the device may utilize the list and various other methods to improv e the quality or reliability of a

communication link, for examp le a communicati on link to a neighborin g dev ice. In an aspect, the dev ice may receiv e the list from another source, such as a central directory or other dev ices.

100941 FIG. 4 illustrates an exemp lary method 400 of tracking link quality . In some asp ects, the operations of the method 400 of tracking link quality are imp lemented in electronic hardware, such as described herein, for examp le with respect to FIG. 54, which may be included in a vehicular terminal dev ice of a vehicle. Thus, in the context of the present disclosure, method 400 may be p erformed by a hardware processor. However, method 400 may be performed by other hardware or software components such as processing circuitry , microp rocessors, central p rocessing units (CPUs), etc.

[0095] At operation 402, in some aspects, a p rimary vehicular terminal device may include a hardware processor (e.g., processors 1 140 (see FIG. 1 1) or processor 5402 (see FIG. 54)) that is configured to receive a broadcast message via a multi-radio communicati on link, the multi-radio communication link being associated with one or more available RATs. For example, a neighboring vehicle to the p rimary vehicle may transmit a broadcast message from a neighboring vehicular terminal device of the neighboring vehicle, via the multi-radio communicati on link. In some aspects, the hardware processor may receive the broadcast message through a vehicle-to-every thing (V2X) convergence function of the primary vehicular terminal device via a V2X convergence function of the neighborin g vehicular terminal dev ice over the multi-radio radio communication link. In other aspects, the hardware p rocessor may receive the broadcast message from a communication device other than a neighboring vehicle, for example, a communicati on device associated with an base station or a RSU.

[0096] At operation 404, after receiving the broadcast message from the neighborin g vehicle, in some aspects, the hardware processor may determine a link quality of the multi-radio communication link. In some asp ects, the hardware processor is configured to determine, based on the received broadcast message, the link quality by decoding measurement information from the received broadcast message, the measurement information indicative of a link quality of the multi-radio communication link. For example, the measurement information may include information elements encoded within a packet to indicate reliability of the multi-radio communication link. In some asp ects, the hardware processor is configured to determine a link quality based on information obtained when receiving or processing a packet of a received broadcast message. For examp le, the hardware processor may be configured to measure a received signal strength (e.g., RSSI ) or use a measured RSSI value of the received broadcast message in determining a link quality of the multi-radio communication link. In other aspects, the hardware processor may be configured to determine, based on the

received broadcast message, the link quality of the multi-radio

communication link by tracking one or more p acket errors associated with the broadcast message, for example, error occurring when decoding a packet of a received broadcast message.

[0097] In some aspects, electronic hardware (e.g., electronic hardware as described with respect to FIG . 54) included within a primary vehicular terminal device may also include a link quality estimator. At operation 406, in some asp ects, the link quality estimator may store a link quality indicator within a link quality ranking list . The link quality ranking list may be stored within the electronic hardware (e.g., within memory as described with respect to FIG. 54). In some aspects, the link quality indicator may represent a certain link quality associated ith a multi-radio communication link, for example the multi -radio

communication link utilized by the neighboring vehicle for transmitting the broadcast message. In some aspects, the link quality estimator may map, based on the determined link quality of the received broadcast message, a value rep resenting the link quality to a link quality indicator. In some asp ects, the link quality indicator may represent information such as measurement information decoded from a received broadcast message or other information pertaining to the link quality of the multi-radio communication link, for examp le, received signal quality , average power, or an indication of a broken communication link, such as one or more packet errors associated with a received broadcast message.

100981 At operation 408, in some aspects, the link quality estimator may rank the link quality indicator within the link quality ranking list, wherein the link quality ranking list may include one or more additional link quality indicators that rep resent a link quality of one or more additional multi-radio communication links. For example, an additional multi-radio communication link may be a communication link between the primary vehicle and an additional neighborin g vehicle. In other aspects, an additional multi-radio communicati on link may be a communication link between the p rimary vehicle and a device other than a vehicle, for examp le, a RSU. In some aspects, the link quality

indicators within the link quality ranking list may be ordered in accordance to a predetermined ranking factor. A predetermined ranking factor, for example, may include a distance value representing a distance between the p rimary vehicle and a neighboring vehicle or a broadcast message type (e.g, vehicle or traffic safety message), among other factors.

100991 In some aspects, a link quality indicator having a higher rank within the link quality ranking list may indicate a multi-radio communication link having a higher priority over the remaining multi-radio communicati on links rep resented in the list. In other aspects, a link quality indicator having a higher rank within a link quality ranking list may indicate a low quality multi-radio communication link that is critical in comparison to the other multi-radio communication links represented in the list . However, aspects are not so limited, and the link quality ranking list may be ordered according to other rules and criteria.

[00100] In some aspects, the link quality estimator may rank the link quality indicator w ithin the link quality ranking list according to the p redetermined ranking factor as well as additional context information associated with the p rimary vehicle or one or more additional vehicles, such as neighborin g vehicles. Context information, for example, may include location information or sensor data, with respect to one or more sensors associated with the primary vehicle or another vehicle (e.g, neighboring vehicle), as w ell as other information with respect to a multi-radio communicati on environment (e.g , map data). In some aspects, the hardware processor may receive context information from one or more higher lay er applications associated with the primary vehicular terminal device or another vehicular terminal device, for example a map application.

|001011 The hardware processor, in some aspects, may use the context information (e.g., from an application) to verify measurement information received in a broadcast message or to verify the ranking of one or more link quality indicators within the link quality ranking list . For examp le, if measurement information included within a broadcast

signal indicates to the primary vehicular terminal device that a neighborin g vehicle is within close proximity, the hardware processor may utilize the measurement information in combination with context information (e.g., map data) to determine that the neighboring vehicle is on an opposing side of a road barrier and therefore, while the neighboring vehicle is in close proximity , the multi-radio communication link between the p rimary vehicle and the neighboring vehicle is of low priority .

Accordingly , the link quality estimator may then choose to assign a low priority to the link quality indicator, within the link quality ranking list, associated with the multi-radio communication link, or to discard the link quality indicator from the link quality ranking list altogether.

[00102] In another asp ect, the hardware processor, in some aspects, may use the context information to determine that a barrier between the primary vehicle and a neighborin g vehicle is temporary , for example, the barrier may be a truck passing between the p rimary vehicle and the neighboring vehicle on a one-way road. Accordingly , in such a scenario, the link quality estimator may choose to not assign a low p riority to a multi-radio communication link between the primary vehicle and the neighboring vehicle, or to not discard the link quality indicator representing the quality of the multi -radio communication link, because the primary vehicle and the secondary vehicle are traveling in the same direction and the multi-radio communication link between them may be high p riority and may need to be tracked ( e.g., within the link quality ranking list).

[00103] FIG. 5 illustrates an exemp lary method 500 to identify and improve a high priority multi-radio communicati on link. In the context of the present disclosure, method 500 may be performed by a hardware processor. However, method 500 may be performed by other hardware or s oft w are com p on en t s such as processing circuitry , microprocessors, central p rocessing units (CPUs), etc. At operation 502, in some aspects, the link quality estimator may identify , within the link quality ranking list, a link quality indicator rep resenting a high p riority multi-radio communication link. The link quality estimator may use, according to the asp ects

described herein, a predetermined ranking factor to identify the link quality indicator. Additionally, the link quality estimator may also use context information to verify the priority of a link quality indicator, corresponding to a high priority multi -radio communication link. In some aspects, the link quality estimator may first identify a link quality indicator as being high-priority and then determine the quality of the corresponding multi-radio communicati on link. In other aspects, the link quality estimator may first identify a link quality indicator corresponding to a multi-radio communication link of low quality , and then may determine the multi-radio communicati on link to also be of a high priority , according to criteria described herein . In some aspects, the link quality estimator may identify one of the link quality indicators as being high-p riority according to the quality of the corresponding multi-radio communication link being below a predetermined quality threshold.

100104] In some aspects, at operation 504, once the link quality estimator identifies a high p riority multi-radio communication link, the link quality estimator may use one or more of several methods of improving the link quality , and corresponding reliability , of the high priority multi-radio communicati on link. In some aspects, a primary vehicular terminal device may include an antenna sy stem (e.g., antenna sy stem described with respect to FIG. 1 1 or FIG. 12 ) that includes an antenna array . In some aspects, the antenna array may comprise a p lurality of M I M O antennas which may be coupled to a plurality of transceivers. In such aspects, the hardware processor and to the antenna sy stem may be configured to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link by modif ing the direction of a radiation pattern of the antenna sy stem. For example, the hardware processor may be configured to op erate a subset of the plurality of M IM O antennas, by beamformin g the subset of M IM G antennas in one or more sectors or directions. In some aspects, the hardware processor may beamform a radiation pattern in a direction corresponding to the high p riority multi-radio communicati on link.

[00105] In some aspects, the hardware processor (e.g., of the primary vehicular terminal device) may be configured to beam form a signal, via the subset of M IM O antennas, in the direction of a transmitter (e.g., of a neighboring vehicular terminal device) from which a broadcast message was received. In such aspects, continued message exchange between the primary vehicular terminal device and the neighboring vehicular terminal device may p rovide additional feedback data that may be used to further characterize the multi-radio communicati on link between the primary vehicle and the neighboring vehicle. In some aspects, beamformin g in combination with tracking the link quality of one or more multi-radio communication link (e.g., within the link quality ranking list) may imp rove reliability of high priority multi-radio communication links and may also improve the efficiency of continued beamforming (e.g., improv ing the quality and reliability of broadcasting messages).

[00106] In some aspects, the hardware processor may be configured to imp rove the quality of a high p riority multi-radio communication link by reducing the packet size of a p acket for transmission by the p rimary vehicular terminal dev ice. For example, if the link quality estimator has determined that a high priority multi-radio communication link is unreliable or low quality , the hardware p rocessor may remov e one or more information elements from the packet prior to transmission, or may encode less information into the packet . Additionally , in some asp ects, the hardware processor may also improv e the link quality by encoding for transmission a p ackage including one or more codes indicating a high priority message, which may be transmitted ov er the high priority multi-radio communication link. By replacing certain information elements with one or more codes, a primary vehicular terminal device may communicate a critical message (e.g., safety message) to a neighboring vehicular terminal dev ice in less time, and thus imp rov e the efficiency and reliability of the high priority multi-radio communication link, addressing the p roblem of allow ing more high priority communications to occur on the high priority link. In some aspects, the hardware processor may also encode a packet to include sensor data associated with the primary vehicle, a neighboring vehicle, or another device. The hardware processor may also encode sensor data in a packet together with one or more codes to improve the reliability of a critical message transmission across a high priority multi-radio communication link.

[00107] In some aspects, the hardware processor may also be configured to improve the link quality of the high p riority multi-radio communication link by using quiet time. For example, the hardw are processor may track a transmission w indow associated with the wireless medium of the multi-radio network, receive exclusive access of the wireless medium during the transmission window, and transmit a p acket including one or more information element indicating a high p riority message, during the transmission window. In such aspects, during the transmission window, all other communicati on devices may refrain from transmitting and instead listen for any critical messages pertaining to the high priority multi-radio communication link, or pertaining to the vehicle from w hich the high-p riority message is transmitted.

[00108] In other aspects, the hardw are processor may be configured to imp rove the link quality of the high p riority multi-radio communicati on link by using frequency diversity , for example, wherein the hardware processor may be configured to simultaneously transmit a signal pertaining to a high priority multi-radio communication link over to our more frequency bands. Additionally , the hardware processor and the antenna sy stem may be configured to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communicati on link by using antenna diversity , for example, by simultaneously transmitting a signal pertaining to a high priority multi-radio communicati on link over two or more subsets of M IM O antennas of an antenna array (e.g, antenna array of the antenna sy stem described ith respect to FIG. 1 1 or FIG . 12).

1001091 The link quality arrangement s and techniques described herein may serv e to improve communications in challengi n g conditions, such as those illustrated in FIG. 3. An additional, or alternative technique to improving the quality of any given link, includes the selective use of multiple RATs to meet a variety of communicati on needs

|001 10] As described herein, particularly in high-mobil ity

situations, it may be desirable to allow simultaneous use of more than one RAT. Whether or not more than one RAT is being used, it may further be desirable to discontinue usage of one RAT (e.g, " drop" a RAT ), to initiate usage of a new RAT (e.g., "add" a RAT ), or to add or drop an entire group of two or more RA Ts. However, selection of R ATs may be time-consuming. The techniques described below p rovide for greater efficiency in RAT selection, including adding or drop ping RATs, than previously available.

[00111] FIG. 6 illustrates an exemp lary method 600 in accordance with some asp ects. In the context of the present disclosure, method 600 may be performed by a hardware p rocessor. However, method 600 may be performed by other hardware or softw are components such as processing circuitry , microp rocessors, central processing units (CPUs), etc. The examp le method 600 may begin at operation 602 with a device (e.g. vehicular terminal device 328-340 or other nodes) accessing a list of available RATs. As described earlier herein, this list may be p rovided in a central location or be stored locally on the device, among other possibilities. At operation 604, the device may determine to establish a communication link with a RAT of the list. As described earlier herein, this determination may be made based on

t ansmission requirements of the device, KPIs that characterize the RAT, etc.

|00 l 12 ] In some aspects, the device (e g, via a hardware p rocessor) may access a list of available RATs that have been detected within a range of the device. The list may be p rovided by a network access node (e.g., infrastructure component 302), by a neighboring device using D2D communication, or by other devices or methods. The hardware processor may then establish a new communication link with a selected RAT of the available RATs based on compatibility of transmission requirements of the device with the selected RAT These transmission requirements may include latency requirements, reliability requirements, throughput requirements, and requirements of an application executing on the device, among other requirements. Other parameters to be considered in RAT selection may include other performance indicators (KPIs) that characterize RATs including quality of service (QoS)-based parameters such as congestion levels and loads, voice support, data rates (either maximum achievable data rates or rates available based on signal conditions), range available, p ower levels, bands covered, signal conditions, coexistence with other technologies, and spectrum acces s method (e.g, dedicated license, unlicensed, shared spectrum, etc. ) used. Validity indicators may be included in the matrix to indicate

trustworthiness of different measurements based on location where the measurement was taken, the environment at that location (e.g., rural area, urban area), time of day of the measurement, age of the data, etc.

[00113] Parameters may also indicate cryptographic capabilities of a

RAT . For example, some RATs may support quantum safe cryptography (QSC), and this cap ability information may be provided in signalin g or stored in the matrix. Other non-standard comp liant extensions may also be indicated, for examp le, supp ort for non-standard comp liant multiple antenna schemes, coding mechanisms, etc., may be indicated. Parameters may also indicate periodic powering down of R ATs or particular frequency bands in a cell . The device and network access node may negotiate any usage of p roprietaiy non-standard compliant extensions of the sy stem. Such negotiations may also be performed on a dev ice-to-device (D2D) basis.

[00114] The hardware p rocessor may select one or more RATs by accessing a database table or other comp uter-readable file that includes indicators of which RA Ts (whether currently available, or within the vicinity of the device) may or are comply ing with different transmission requirements. For examp le, a database table may indicate a relationship between the transmission requirements or preferences of the device and at least one RAT of the list of available RATs When, for example, a detected condition becomes such that a t ansmission requirement is no longer being met by a given RAT, the hardware p rocessor may determine hich of the other available RATs meets that transmission requirement by accessing the database

">

table to retrieve the identity of a RAT that meets the transmission requirement.

As an additional example, when the device first comes online or accesses the network, the initial RAT or group of RAT s to be used may be identified by accessing the database table to retrieve the identity of a RAT that meets a minimum condition of the device. As still another examp le, RAT/s may be changed up on the device changing to use a different application, e.g., the device may change from executing a data-hungry application to executing an application requiring very low latency . The database table may be stored at the device or at a network acces s node for central access by the device and any other neighboring device.

[00115] M easurements in the database table may be p rovided in a number of different way s. For examp le, the database table may be pop ulated by measurements of a group of p arameters taken by at least one device. The group of p arameters to be measured may be indicated by the network access node, by the device's, or any combination thereof. The network access node may p artit ion measurement responsibilities among different devices in a cell served by the network access node. Additionally , or alternatively ,

measurement responsibilities may be partitioned by the devices themselves using device-to-device (D2D) communication.

|001 16] In one aspect, a central node (e.g., a base station) may use a dedicated broadcast channel to broadcast parameter values, resource availability , or other information to aid nearby devices in RAT selection. This or other information may be broadcast on request from devices, or the information may be broadcast p eriodically , among other p ossibilities. This information may be stored in the database table described herein. The device/s and network access node/s may generate long-term statistics about different RATs and use statistics to anticipate conditions at different times of the day or in different locations.

[00117] In another aspect, RATs may collaborate. In other words, the behavior of one RAT may depend on observation of another RA T. RATs may be grouped to facilitate such collaboration. For example, one RA that is susceptible to deep shadowing may be grouped with at least one RAT that is not suscep tible to deep shadowing. Then, if conditions

are suboptimal for one RAT, a device may attempt to communicate on neighborin g RATs instead. Due to the benefits of RAT collaboration, the device may allocate additional computational resources to increase search and measurement capabilities to find other RATs than the device otherwise may have without RAT collaboration. However, in an example, if a RAT collaboratio n for a device meets a p redetermined capability threshold (e.g., there are enough RATs with low latency , high bandwidth, range, etc. ), then the device may conserve resources by foregoing additional RAT searches until the capability threshold is not met again. Collaboration may be controlled by a network access node or other central node, by a device, or some combination thereof.

|0() 1 18] A s another example of collaboration, frequency hopping patterns may be defined separately in two or more different neighborin g RAT s in such as a way as to reduce or eliminate adjacent band

interference by p roviding a maximum distance in the frequency direction.

[00119] The techniques described herein may i some asp ects also be used to determine which RATs to avoid. For examp le, if an

ap plication requires low latency or wideband communication , narrowband loT RATs may be excluded from consideration because of their inability to provide low-latency communication .

|00120 j A user device may include the V2X convergence layer

41 12, described below with respect to FIG. 4 1 , or the like, to manage selection and usage of a RAT or a group of multip le RATs. This V2X convergence lay er 4 1 1 2 may include circuitry to evaluate statistics and KPIs and to perform RAT selection. In other aspects, a hardware p ocessor of the device may encode, for transmission to a netw ork access node, a request to use a RAT or group of RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00121] In addition to frequency hopp ing, RAT hop ping (e.g., 2D hopp ing) may be imp lemented in some aspects. Such aspects may be implemented in scenarios (e.g., military or intelligen ce use cases) in which information within transmissions is protected. RAT hopping m aval so be used in scenarios in which one RAT is used for part of a

transmission (e.g., a control portion of a transmission or other delay-tolerant portion of a transmission) and another RAT is used for data transfer when lower-latency RATs are most useful. RAT hopping may also occur to a different RAT during phases in which high throughput is needed (e.g, during a file transfer). Accordingly , the device may select a first RAT for transmission of a first portion of a transmission— based on an affinity between a characteristic of the first RAT and the first portion of the transmission, such as an under-used but high latency RAT for a delay tolerant control p ortion— and the device may select a second RAT for transmission of a second portion oft he transmission— again based on an affinity between a characteristic of the second R AT and the second portion of the transmission. In examples, the first p ortion may include a control portion and the second portion may include a data portion, although aspects are not limited thereto.

[00122] The link quality imp rovement techniques may provide increased communication reliability in a number of environments. The RA T selection techniques described herein may permit an efficient use of multip le RATs to effectuate improved communications by, for example, selecting a RAT most ap p rop riate for a given communication . Additionally , as described below, multiple RATs may be used as back-up, such that, for example, a higher-performing but failure prone RAT may be used when available while a more reliable R AT is configured to handle interruptions to the higher-performing RAT service.

[00123] As noted above, a communication device (e.g., vehicular terminal device 330) may be using more than one radio access technology (RAT ) simultaneously to realize quality of service (QoS) gains. For example, a communication device may be transmitting and receiving on a p rimary RAT (e.g., LTE or a lower-frequency RAT ) and on a secondary RAT (e.g, Wi-Fi or a higher-frequency RA T ). In mobile use cases, the communication device may move out ide high frequency range, for example, and may need to rely on only the primary RAT. In some aspects, a communication device thus affected may request additional resources from a node (e.g., an evolved ode-B (base station) 302) via a p imary RAT to maintain a certain QoS. In some aspects, a certain RAT may be designated as a p rimary RAT and another RAT may be designated as a secondary RAT.

[00124] In some asp ects, the identity of a primary RAT and a secondary

RA T may be changed dy namically , with respect to an event (e.g, change in network environment or mobility environment ) and based on one or more preferences or cap abilities of a communication device (e.g, vehicular terminal device). For example, when a vehicular terminal device is relativ ely stationary or within range of a very strong high-frequency signal, it may be desirable for the vehicular terminal device to designate this higher-frequency RAT as the primary RAT, even though the range of that signal may be relatively small . When a change in mobility of the vehicular terminal device occurs, a different RAT may then be preferable to the vehicular terminal device. In other asp ects, the vehicular terminal device may p refer a RAT associated with a lower cost factor to be the primary RAT. In some aspects, other criteria may be used to designate a p rimary RAT and secondary RAT .

[00125] In some aspects, a primary communication node (e.g, communication node 302), for example a base station, may be configured to communicate with another node (e.g, one of nodes 328 or 330), for example, a vehicular terminal device, through a first transceiver of multiple transceiver chains using a communication link (e.g, a multi-radio communication link ) of a first RAT. In some aspects, the base station may also be configured to communicate w ith vehicular terminal device through a second transceiver, using a multi-radio communication link of a second RAT . The first RAT and the second RAT may each be one of several different RAT s that both the vehicular terminal dev ice and a network are configured to utilize. In some asp ects, the second transceiv er may communicate with the v ehicular terminal dev ice through one or more intermediate nodes (e.g, RSUs), although aspects are not so limited. The first R AT and the second RAT may each comp rise one of a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio access technology , a wireless access vehicular env ironment (WAVE) radio access technology , a Bluetooth radio 3.CCCS s technology, an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio access technology' , an LTE radio access technology , or a 5G radio access technology .

[00126] In some asp ects, the first RAT may be designated as a p rimary RAT and the second RAT may be designated as a secondary RAT, respectively . A change in the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT may subsequently occur, for example, due to a change in network environment (e.g, network loading), mobility environment (e.g, movement or obstruction of a vehicular terminal device), and parameters specific to a communication device (e.g., p references or capabilities of a vehicular terminal device). In some aspects, a p rimary communication node (e.g., base station) may modify a designation of a primary R AT and a secondary RAT for a vehicular terminal device, for example, to maintain a certain QoS and to comply with user preferences of the v ehicular terminal dev ice. In some aspects, the v ehicular terminal device may also modify the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT. In other aspects, other devices within a multi-RAT network may modify the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT, for example, a RSU.

|001271 FIG. 7 illustrates an exemp lary method 700 of designation of a p rimary RAT and a secondary RAT with respect to a multi-radio

communication link. In the context of the present disclosure, method 700 may be p erformed by a hardware processor. However, method 700 may be performed by other hardw are or software components such as processing circuit y , microp rocessors, cent al p ocessing units (CPUs), etc. In the method 700, a communication device (e.g., communication node 302), for examp le, an RRC of an base station may include a hardware processor (e.g., p rocessor 1 140 or processor 5402) that is configured— for examp le, by software, virtualization, or other technique that abstracts control instructions from the underly ing hardware, upon which ev erything will eventually be

implemented— to communicate with one or more nodes (e.g , one of nodes 328 or 330), for example, a vehicular terminal device. At operation 702, the hardware processor may be configured to designate a first RAT as a primary RAT for a p rimary communication link and a second RAT as a secondary RAT for a secondary communication link, with respect to one or more vehicular terminal devices. In some aspects, the hardware processor may designate the primary RAT and the secondary RAT based on one or more

preferences associated with a vehicular terminal device. Preferences may include, for example, a specification of one or more of a desired data through ut, cost factor, mobility factor associated with a vehicular terminal device, or a specified quality of service (QoS). In some aspects, a vehicular terminal device itself may also negotiate with the hardware processorto modify the designation of the p rimary RAT and the secondary RAT. In other aspects, other devices within a multi-RAT network may modify the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT, for example, a RSU.

[00128] At op eration 704, in response to a change in a network environment (e.g, a change in a network loading factor), the hardware processor may modify the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT with respect to the vehicular terminal device, based on the one or more preferences of the vehicular terminal device. For example, the vehicular terminal device may specify a p reference to modify a designation of a primary RAT from an L I E radio access technology to an IEEE 802.1 1 radio access technology , and a designation of a secondary RAT from an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio access technology to an L I E radio access technology , when a network environment changes (e.g., a change in network loading). In some aspects, the vehicular terminal device may specify a p reference for the designation of the primary RAT to be modified to another RAT, other than the secondary RAT

1001291 FIG. 8 illustrates an exemplary method 800 of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RAT with resp ect to a multi-radio

communication link. In the context of the present disclosure, method 800 may be performed by a hardware processor. However, method 800 may be performed by other hardware or software comp onents such as processing circuitry , microprocessors, central p rocessing units (CPUs), etc. The method 800 may be similar to the method 700 in that, at operation 802, the hardware processor may designate the primary RAT and the secondary RAT based on one or more preferences associated with a vehicular terminal device. At operation 804, in response to a change in mobility environment (e.g., change in vehicular terminal device sp eed), the hardware p ocessor may modify the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT with respect to the vehicular terminal device, based on the one or more preferences of the

vehicular terminal device. For example, the vehicular terminal device may specify a preference to modify a designation of a p rimary RAT from an LTE radio access technology to an IEEE 802.1 1 radio access technology , and a designation of a secondaiy R AT from an I EE 802. 1 1 radio access technology to an LTE radio access technology when a vehicular terminal device has become stationary , to take advantage of a higher-frequency RAT as the p rimary RAT or to take advantage of a lower cost factor, even if the range of the IEEE 802. 1 1 signal may be relatively small. In some aspects, the vehicular terminal device may specify a p reference for the designation of the primary RAT to be modified to another RAT, other than the secondary R AT

[00130] FIG. 9 illustrates an exemplary method 900 of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RAT with resp ect to a multi-radio

communication link. In the context of the p resent disclosure, method 900 may be performed by a hardware processor. However, method 900 may be performed by other hardware or software comp onents such as processing circuitry , microprocessors, central p rocessing units (CPUs), etc. In the method 900, which may be similar to methods 700 and 800, at operation 902, the hardware processor may designate a first RAT as a primary RAT for a p rimary communication link and a second R AT as a secondary RAT for a secondary communication link . However, in the method 900, the designation of the p imary RAT and secondary RAT may be based on one or more netw ork configurations. At operation 904, the hardw are processor may also modify the designation of the p rimary RAT and the secondaiy RAT with respect to the vehicular terminal device, in resp onse to a change in a netw ork environment, for example, a change in network loading, and the modification may be based on the one or more p references of the v ehicular terminal device.

[00131] FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary method 1000 of designation of a primary RAT and a secondary RAT with respect to a m u It i -radio

communication link. In t he context of t he present disclosure, method 1000 may be performed by a hardware processor. How ever, method 1000 may be performed by other hardware or software comp onents such as p rocessing circuitry , microprocessors, central p rocessing units (CPUs), etc. In the method 1000, which may be similar to method 900, at operation 1002, the hardware

processor may designate the primary RAT and the secondary RAT based on one or more network configurations. At operation 1004, however, the hardware processor may then modify the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT in resp onse to a change in a mobility environment (e.g., movement of the vehicular terminal device) and based on the one or more preferences of the vehicular terminal dev ice.

1001321 FIG 1 1 illustrates an exemplary internal configuration of a vehicular terminal device 1 100 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 1 1, vehicular terminal dev ice 1 100 may include a steering and movement sy stem 1 125, a radio communication sy stem 1 121, and an antenna sy stem 1 123. The internal components of vehicular terminal device 1 100 may be arranged or enclosed within a vehicular housing such as an automobile body, plane or helicopter fuselage, boat hull, or similar ty pe of vehicular body dependent on the type of vehicle that vehicular terminal device 1 100 is. As an example, FIG. 1 1 illustrates the vehicular terminal device 1 100 as a vehicle (which may be an example of vehicles such as vehicles 328-340 in FIG. 3) including a v ehicle body 1 102, tires 1 104- 1 106, different ty pes of lamp s such as headlamp s 1 108-1 1 10, front shield 1 1 12, one or more side windows 1 1 14, rear window 1 1 16, exterior rearview mirror 1 1 18, and the like.

[00133] Vehicular terminal device 1 100 may further include one or more radio terminal devices 1 120-1 122, which may form the radio

communication sy stem 1 1 2 1 . The radio communication sy stem 1 121 may be configured to imp lement one or more different RATs. Furthermore, a p lurality of sensors 1 1 24, 1 1 26, I 128, 1 130, 1 132, 1 134, I 136, and I 138 may be installed in the vehicular terminal device 1 100.

[00134] Examples of sensors 1 124 to 1 138 may include one or more of the following sensors (it is to be noted that any other type of sensor may be provided and not all of the following sensors need to be provided): a distance sensor (e.g a radar sensor), such as distance sensor 324; a camera, such as camera 326; a water/rain sensor, such as rain sensor 328; a tire sensor (e.g., an air pressure sensor), such as tire sensors 330-332; an airbag sensor such as air bag sensor 334; an exhaust gas sensor, such as exhaust gas sensor 336; and a temperature sensor, such as temperature sensor 338. Furthermore, one or

more controllers or actuators may be provided in the vehicular terminal device 1 100, such as a sp eed controller, an air condition controller, a brake controller, an airbag trigger controller, and so forth .

[00135] In some asp ects, one or more processors 1 140 (e.g., hardware processors, p rocessing circuitry , microprocessors, central processing units (CPUs), etc. ) may be provided and may be communicatively coupled to some or all of the sensors 1 124 -1 138 and to the radio communication sy stem I 1 2 1 as well as to some or all of the controllers or actuators. The coupling may be wired, wireless or optical. In an example, the one or more processors 1 140 may be part of the radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 .

[00136] Thus, by way of example, sensors 1 124 to 1 138 may be configured to detect respective phy sical quantity and to generate a

corresponding quantity value rep resenting the detected p h sical quantity and may forward the same to p rocessor 140, which may be configured to process the quantity values received from the p lurality of sensors 1 124 - 1 1 38 and may supply the p rocessingresults to the terminal devices I 1 20- 1 1 22. The terminal devices 1 1 20- 1 1 22 may be configured to generate and transmit radio messages to other terminal devices or base stations, for example.

Furthermore, terminal devices I 120- 1 122 may be configured to receive and decode radio messages from other terminal devices or base stations, for example, and t o forward resp ective inst ructions to the one or more processors 1 140. The one or more p rocessors 1 140 may be configured to generate resp ective control signals or messages and to t ansmit the same to the controllers or actuators. An exemplary structure of the radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 (which includes the terminal devices 1 120 and 1 122 ) is illust ated in FIG. 16 and FIG. 1 7.

[00137] In order to help ensure that both incoming and outgoing data is received and transmitted properly with a selected network access node or other terminal device, e g, according to a wireless standard or a proprietary standard, or a mix thereof, a terminal device may also receive control information that p rovides control information or parameters. The control parameters may include, for example, time and frequency scheduling information, coding/modulation schemes, power control information, paging

information, retransmission information, con n ect i o n/m obilit y information, or other such information that defines how and when data is to be transmitted and received. Terminal devices may then use the control parameters to control data transmission and reception with the network access node or other terminal device, thus enabling the terminal device to successfully exchange user and other data traffic with the network access node or other terminal device over the wireless connection. The network HCCCS S node mav interface with an underly ing communication network (e.g, a core network ) that may provide a terminal device with data including voice, multimedia (e.g., audi o/v i d eo/i m age ) , internet or other web-browsing data, etc., or provide access to other ap plications and services, e.g, using cloud technologies.

1001381 A terminal device may be configured to operate on a plurality of RATs. A terminal device configured to operate on a plurality of RATs (e.g., the first and second RATs ) may be configured in accordance w ith the wireless protocols of both the first and second RATs and optionally in addition in accordance with a wireless protocol of a third RAT ( and likewise for operation on additional RATs ). For examp le, LTE network clCCCS s nodes (e.g., base stations) may transmit discovery and control information in a different format (including the ty pe/contents of information, modulation and coding scheme, data rates, etc. ) with different time and frequency scheduling (including p eriodicity , center frequency , bandwidth, duration, etc. ) than Wi-Fi network access nodes (e.g., W'LA N APs). Consequently, a terminal device designed for both LTE and Wi-Fi operation may operate according to the specific LTE p rotocols in order to p roperly receive LTE discovery and control information and may also op erate according to the specific Wi-Fi protocols in order to p roperly receive Wi-Fi discovery and control information. Terminal devices configured to operate on further radio access netw orks, such as UMTS, GSM, Bluetooth, may likewise be configured to transmit and receive radio signals according to the corresponding individual access p rotocols. In some asp ects, terminal devices may have dedicated hardw are or software comp onent corresponding to each supported RAT.

[00139] In some asp ects, the steering and movement sy stem 1 125 may include components of vehicular terminal device 1 100 related to steering and

movement of the vehicular terminal device. In aspects where vehicular terminal device 1 100 is an automobile, the steering and movement sy stem 1 125 may include wheels and axles, an engine, a transmission, brakes, a steering wheel, associated electrical circuitry and wiring and any other components used in the driving of an automobile. In aspects where the vehicular terminal device 1 100 is an aerial vehicle, the steering and movement sy stem 1 125 may include one or more of rotors, prop ellers, jet engines, wings, rudders or wing flap s, air brakes, a yoke or cyclic, associated electrical circuitry and wiring and any other components used in the flying of an aerial vehicle. In aspects where the vehicular terminal device 1 100 is an aquatic or sub-aquatic vehicle, the steering and movement sy stem 1 125 may include any one or more of rudders, engines, p opellers, a steering wheel, associated electrical circuitry and wiring and any other comp onents used in the steering or movement of an aquatic vehicle. In some aspects, the steering and movement sy stem 1 125 may also include autonomous driving functionality , and accordingly may also include a central p rocessor configured to perform autonomous driving computations and decisions and an array of sensors for movement and obst acle sensing The autonomous driving components of t he steering and movement sy stem 1 1 25 may also interface with the radio communication sy stem 1 1 2 1 to facilitate communication w ith other nearby vehicular terminal devices or central networking components that perform decisions and computations for autonomous driving

[00140] The radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 and the antenna sy stem

1 123 may be configured to perform one or more radio communication functionalities of the vehicular terminal device 1 100, which may include transmitting and receiving communications with a radio communication network or transmit ting and receiving communications directly with other vehicular terminal devices and other communication devices. For examp le, the radio communication sy stem 1 1 2 1 and the antenna sy stem I 1 23 may be configured to transmit and receive communications with one or more network acces s nodes, such as, in the demonstrative context of D SRC and LTE V2V/V2X, RSUs and evolved ode-Bs (eNBs or base stations). In some aspects, the communication sy stem 1 12 1 may include a plurality of radios. which may be interfaced with each other via a common V2X convergence function lay er or multiple V2X convergence functions within a protocol stack associated with each radio.

[00141] F IG. 12 through F IG. 15 illustrate additional example aspects of the antenna sy stem 1 123 introduced above. In support of multi-RAT environments, and further in support of other applications such as autonomous vehicles, antennas are provided in various numbers and configurations throughout the body of a mobile vehicle (e.g, vehicular terminal devices 108, 1 10, 328, 330, 332, 334, 336, 338, 340, or 1 100), for communication with other vehicles, infrastructure, and other sy stems on the vehicle. Additionally, communication antennas described herein may be included to enhance radar communications, camera sy stems, and other sensing and communication sy stems.

[00142] FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary placing of multiple communication sy stems and radar sy stems. Multiple antennas may, for examp le, be embedded in vehicle hoods, roofs or glass using integrated patterns. As illustrated, at least one antenna array 1222 may be placed at a first location of a first surface (e.g., roof or hood) of the vehicle and at least another antenna array 1226 may be p laced on a second location of the first surface. 360-degree coverage may be provided by embedding antenna sy stems in four sides of the vehicle hood or roof. For example, as shown in FIG. 12, antennas 1222, 1224, 1226 and 1228 may be embedded at the four corners of the vehicle roof. Additionally , antennas 1230 and 1 232 may be etched into w indshields of the vehicle. M ultiple antennas also allow vehicles to be connected to more than one point of infrastructure at the same time, as well as to more than one vehicle at the same time.

[00143] With data able to arrive at a vehicle from multip le sources over multiple R ATs, there exists the p ossibility that some data may not be trustworthy, or that some data is being provided by persons attemp tingto "hack" into vehicular sy stems. Aspects therefore provide for vehicles to encode telemetry into messages, or to decode telemetry in received messages (e.g., by a hardware processor, such as processors 1 140 or processor 5402).

Such telemetry data may be used to improve security of a connection.

Telemetry may, for example, include speed, GPS location, heading vehicle identification numbers, etc., such as is specified by the WAVE/DRSC families of standards (e.g., SAE 2735 Basic Safety M essages). By providing the capability to capture more telemetry over multiple RATs, the amount of information may be increased and trustworthiness or usefulness of information may be determined. For example, by identify ing GPS location of a vehicle, it may be determined whether the data p rovided by that vehicle is seful in that, for example, data from a vehicle that is too far away may not be useful for certain situations (e.g., collision detection ). As another examp le, vehicle identification numbers may be inspected and verified before data is trusted. As another example, the provided GPS location may be double-checked using vehicular radar (or a camera, for example). If there is no vehicle detected in an expected location, based on the p rovided GPS location, then in accordance with some aspects the information from the vehicle p roviding that GPS location is not to be trusted.

[00144] As noted above, radar communications, camera sy stems, and other sensing and communication sy stems may be enhanced by the various configurations illustrated in FIG 12. For example, communication antennas described herein may enhance long range radar communication sy stems 1 202, 1204; mid-range radar communication sy stems 1206, 1208, 1210, 1 2 12; and close-range radar communication sy stems 12 14, 12 1 6, 1 2 1 8, and 1 220. Such radar sy stems may be used to aid in parking, to provide front, rear, or side collision warning, for blind spot warnings, and for other uses. Such radar sy stems may be used to aid in p arking to p rovide front, rear, or side collision warning for blind spot warnings, and for other uses. Radar may also be used to assist in communications directly , such as providing link setup for directional antennas.

[00145 J FIG. 13, FIG. 14, and FIG . I 5 illustrate different configurations of front end and antenna sy stems in accordance w ith some aspects. FIG. 13 illustrates a combined sy stem configuration 1300 in w hich a vehicular area network ( VAN ) 1308, or the like (e.g., a wired vehicle bus for intra-vehicle comp onent communications) p rovides data for one microcontroller unit

(MCU) 1306, which p rovides inputs to one front end 1 304, for

transmission/reception using one antenna 1302. FIG. 14 illustrates the radar front end 1408 and communications front end 1410 being separated, and two different antennas 1404 and 1406 being used for transmission/reception. FIG. 1 5 illustrates separated front ends 1506, 1 508 with a combined antenna sy stem 1504.

1001461 FIG 1 6 illustrates an exemp lary internal configuration of a radio communication sy stem of the vehicular terminal device of FIG . 1 1 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 16, the radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 may include a radio frequency (RF) transceiver 1602, a digital signal processor (DSP) 1604, and a controller 1606. In some aspects, the radio communicat ion sy stem may include a multi-link coder (M DC ) 1605. The M DC 1605 may include a multi-link encoder and a multi-link decoder, and may be configured to perform functionalities associated with providing multi-lay er redundancy in connection with multi-link, multi-RAT communications performed by the radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 .

Example functionalities of the M DC 1605 are discussed herein below in reference to FIG. 1 7-FIG. 25.

[00147] Although not exp licitly shown in FIG. 16, in some aspects, the radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 may further include one or more additional hardware or s oft w are com p on en t s (such as p races sors/mi crop roces sor , con t rol 1 er s/m i crocon t rol 1 ers , other specialty or generic

hardware/p rocessors/circuit s, etc. ), p eripheral device(s), memory , power supply , external device interface( s), subscriber identity module(s) ( SIM s), user input/output dev ices (display(s), key pad(s), touchscreen( s), speaker! s), external button(s), camera( s), microphone(s), etc. ), or other related

comp onents.

[00148] The controller 1606 may comprise suitable circuitry , logic, interfaces or code and may be configured to execute up p er-lay er p rotocol stack functions. The DSP 1604 may comp rise suitable circuitry , logic, interfaces or code and may be configured to p erform p hy sical lay er (PH Y) p rocessing T he RF transceiver 1602 may be configured to perform RF

processing and amplification related to transmission and reception of wireless RF signals via the antenna sy stem 1 123.

[00149] The antenna s stem 1 123 may include a single antenna or an antenna array with multiple antennas. The antenna sy stem 1 123 may additionally include analog antenna combination or beam forming circuitry . In the receive (RX ) path, the RF transceiver 1602 may be configured to receive analog RF signals from the antenna sy stem 1 123, and perform analog and digital RF front-end processing on the analog RF signals to produce digital baseband samples (e.g., In-Phase/Quadrature (IQ) samp les) to provide to the DSP 1604. In some aspects, the RF transceiver 1602 may include analog and digital reception components, such as amplifiers (e.g., a Low Noise Amplifiers (LN As)), filters, RF demodulators (e , RF IQ demodulators)), and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which the RF transceiver 1602 may utilize to convert the received RF signals to digital baseband samp les.

[00150] In the transmit (TX) p ath, the RF transceiver 1602 may be configured to receive digital baseband samples from the DSP 1604, and to perform analog and digital RF front-end processing on the digital baseband samples to produce analog RF signals to provide to antenna sy stem 1 123 for wireless transmission. In some aspects, the RF transceiver 1602 may include analog and digital transmission components, such as amplifiers (e.g., Power Amplifiers (PAs), filters, RF modulators (e g, RF IQ modulators), and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) to mix the digital baseband samples received from a baseband modem, which the RF transceiver 1602 may use to generate the analog RF signals for wireless transmission by the antenna sy stem 1 123.

[00151] The DSP 1 604 may be configured to perform phy sical lay er

(PHY) transmission and reception p rocessing to, in the transmit p ath, p repare outgoing transmit data p rovided by controller 1606 for transmission via RF transceiver 1602, and, in the receive p ath, to prep are incoming received data provided by theRF transceiver 1602 for processing by the controller 1606. The DSP 1604 may be configured to perform one or more of error detection, forward error coirection encoding decoding channel coding and interleaving channel modul at i on/demodul at i on, p hy sical channel mapping radio measurement and search, frequency and time synchronization, antenna

diversity processing power control and weighting rate mat chi ng/de-mat chi ng retransmission processing interference cancelation, and any other phy sical layer processing functions.

[00152] The DSP 1604 may include one or more processors configured to retrieve and execute program code that defines control and processing logic for physical lay er processing operations, in some aspects, the DSP 1604 may be configured to execute processing functions with software via the execution of executable instructions. In some aspects, the DSP 1604 may include one or more dedicated hardware circuits (e.g., ASICs, FPGAs, and other hardware) that are digitally configured to specifically execute processing functions, where the one or more processors of the DSP 1604 may offload certain processing tasks to these dedicated hardware circuits, which may be referred to as hardware accelerators. Exemplar}' hardware accelerators may include Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) circuits and encoder/decoder circuits. In some aspects, the processor and hardware accelerator components of the DSP 1604 may be realized as a coupled integrated circuit.

[00153] While the DSP 1604 may be configured to perform lower-layer physical processing functions, the controller 1606 may be configured to perform upper-layer protocol stack functions. The controller 1606 may include one or more processors configured to retrieve and execute program code that defines the upper-layer protocol stack logic for one or more radio communication technologies, which may include Data Link Layer/Lay er 2 and Network Layer/Layer 3 functions. In an example, the upper layer protocol stack may include a V2X convergence function associated with functionalities performed by one or more radios within the RF transceiver 1602 or a V2X convergence function layer that is common to one or more of the radios ithin the RF transceiver 1602. In some aspects, the DSP 1604 or the controller 1606 may perform one or more of the functions performed by the processor 1140 (FIG. 11).

[00154] The controller 1606 may be configured to perform both user-plane and control-plane functions to facilitate the transfer of application lay er data to and from the radio communication sy stem 1 12 1 according to the specific protocols of one or more supported radio communication

technologies. User-plane functions may include header compression and encap sulation, security, error checking and correction, channel multiplexing scheduling and priority, while the control-plane functions may include setup and maintenance of radio bearers. The program code retrieved and executed by the controller 1606 may include executable instructions that define the logic of such functions.

[00155] In some asp ects, the controller 1606 may be communicatively coupled to an ap p lication processor, which may be configured to handle the lay ers above the p rotocol stack, including the transport and ap plication lay ers. The ap p 1 i cat i on p roces s or m ay be configured to act as a source for some outgoing data transmitted by the radio communication sy stem I 12 1 , and a sink for some incoming data received by the radio communication sy stem 1 121. in the t ransmit path, the controller 1 606 may be configured to receive and process outgoing data provided by the ap p lication processor according to the lay er-specific functions of the p rotocol stack, and p rovide the resulting data to the DSP 1604. The DSP 1604 may be configured t o p erform p hy sical lay er p rocessing on the received data to produce digital baseband samp les, which the DSP may provide to the RF transceiver 1602. The RF transceiver 1602 may be configured to process the digital baseband samples to convert the digital baseband samples to analog RF signals, which the RF transceiver 1602 may wirelessly transmit via the antenna sy stem 1 123. In the receive p ath, the RF transceiver 1602 may be configured to receive analog RF signals from the antenna sy stem 1 123 and p rocess the analog RF signal to obtain digital baseband samp les. The RF transceiver 1602 may be configured to provide the digital baseband samples to the DSP 1604, which may perform phy sical la er processing on the digital b as eb an d samples. The DSP 1 604 may then provide the result ing data to the controller 1606, w hich may process the data according to the lay er- specific functions of the protocol stack and p rovide the resulting incoming data to the application p rocessor.

1001561 In some asp ects, the radio communication sy stem 1 121 may be configured to transmit and receive data according to multip le radio

communication technologies. Accordingly , in some aspects, one or more of the antenna sy stem I 123, the RF transceiver 1602, the DSP 304, and the

controller 1606 may include separate comp onents or instances dedicated to different radio communication technologies or unified components that are shared between different radio communication technologies.

[00157] For examp le, in some asp ects, V2X convergence functions (or a common V2X convergence function layer) may be used in the protocol stacks associated with each radio within the RF transceiver 1602, In some other asp ects, the controller 1606 may be configured to execute multip le protocol stacks, each dedicated to a different radio communication technology and either at the same processor or different processors. In some aspects, the DSP 1604 may include s ep arat e p roces s or s or hardware accelerators that are dedicated to different respective radio communication technologies, or one or more processors or hardware accelerators that are shared between multiple radio communication technologies.

[00158] In some asp ects, the RF transceiver 1602 may include separate RF circuitry sections dedicated to different respective radio communication technologies, or RF circuitry sections shared between multiple radio communication technologies. In some aspects, the separate RF circuitry sections dedicated to different radio communication technologies may be interfaced to each other via a common V2X convergence lay er or via separate V2X convergence functions associated with each RF circuitry section.

[00159] In some asp ects, the antenna sy stem 1 123 may include separate antennas dedicated to different respective radio communication technologies, or antennas shared between multiple radio communication technologies. Accordingly , while the antenna sy stem 1 1 23, the RF transceiver 1 602, the DSP 1 604, and the controller 1606 are shown as individual components in FIG. 16, in some asp ects the antenna sy stem I 123, the RF transceiver 1602, the DSP 1604, or the controller 1606 may encompass separate components dedicated to different radio communication technologies.

[00160] FIG. 1 7 illustrates exemplary transceivers using multiple radio communication technologies in the vehicular terminal device of F IG. 16 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 17, the RF transceiver 1602 may include an RF transceiver 1 602A for a first radio

communication technology, an RF transceiver 1602B for a second radio communication technology, and an RF transceiver 1602C for a third radio communication technology . Similarly, the DSP 1604 may include a DSP 1604 A for the first radio communication technology , a DSP 1604B for the second radio communication technology , and a DSP 1604C for the third radio communication technology . Similarly , the controller 1606 may include a controller 1606A for the first radio communication technology , a controller 1606B for the second radio communication technology , and a controller 1606C for the third radio communication technology .

[00161] In some aspects, the radio communication technologies ma , for example, include a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC ) radio communication technology , a wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology , a Bluetooth radio communication technology , an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology (e.g, Wi-Fi), an LTE radio communication technology, and a 5G radio communication technology .

[00162] The RF transceiver 1602 A , the DSP 1604 A, and the controller

1606A may form a communication arrangement (e.g., the hardware and soft ware comp onent s ded icat ed to a particular radio communication technology ) for the first radio communication technology- . The RF transceiver 1602B, the DSP 1604B, and the controller 1606B may form a communication arrangement for the second radio communication technology . The RF transceiver 1602C, the DSP 1604C, and the controller 1606C may form a communication arrangement for the third radio communication technology . While dep icted as being logically separate in FIG. 1 1, any components of the communication arrangements may be integrated into a common component.

[00163] With continued reference to FIG. 1 8 - FIG. 53, one or more of the referenced handheld devices, vehicular devices or other V2X -enabled devices (e.g. , RSUs) may be configured similarly to the vehicular terminal device 1 100 as shown and described in reference to F IG 1 1. Devices illustrated or described in reference to FIG. 1 8 - FIG. 53 may be configured to transmit and receive radio signals using one or more communication links associated with at least one RA T of multiple RAT s, and representing

communication data according to one or more vehicular radio communication technologies, such as DSRC, WAVE, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, or 5G. In some aspects, a V2X convergence function layer may be configured as a common interface between the different radios, to perform multi-link, multi-radio communications in a V2X communication environment.

[00164] FIG. 18 - FIG. 20 illustrate exemplary coding techniques, which may be performed by the multi-link coder of FIG. 17 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 1 8, there is illustrated an exemplary first coding technique 1800 for coding a data stream by the multi-link coder 1605. For example, the multi-link coder 1605 may receive a data stream 1802 (e.g., from an anchor RAT) and may apply a repetition code to generate an encoded data stream 1804. The encoded data stream 1804 may be replicated and may be communicated across multiple communication links of a single transceiver chain or multip le transceiver chains w here each transceiver chain is associated with a different R AT of a multi-RAT . A s seen in FIG. 1 8, the encoded data stream 1 804 may be rep licated to generate encoded data stream 1 806 (which may be communicated to the anchor RAT ) and additional encoded data stream 1 808 and 1 8 10 (which may be

communicated to secondary links of a transceiver chain used for

communicating the data stream 1 806 or to additional transceiver chains using one or more different RATs of the multi-RAT ). In this regard, by using a rep etition code, the multi-link coder 1605 may dup licate a data stream across multip le links or RATs.

100165] Referring to FIG. 19, there is illustrated an exemplary second coding technique 1900 for coding a data stream by the multi-link coder 1605. For example, the multi-link coder 1605 may receive a data stream 1902 (e.g, from an anchor RAT ) and may apply a sy stematic code to generate an encoded data stream 1904. The encoded data stream 1904 may be used to generate a first encoded data stream 1906, w hich includes the information bits associated with the data stream 1 02 and may be communicated to the anchor RAT. The encoded data stream 1904 may also be used to generate additional encoded data streams 1908 and 1910, which may include parity bits associated with the data stream 1902. The additional data streams 1908 and 1910 may be

communicated to secondary links of a transceiver chain used for

communicating the data stream 1906 or to additional transceiver chains using one or more different RATs of multi-RAT .

[00166] Referring to FIG. 20, there is illustrated an exemplary third coding technique 2000 for coding a data stream by the multi-link coder 1605. For example, the multi-link coder 1605 may receive a data stream 2002 (e.g., from an anchor RAT ) and may apply a sy stematic or non-sy stematic code to generate an encoded data stream 2004. The multi-link coder 1605 may additionally include an interleaver 2006, which may interleave the data stream 2004 to generate encoded data stream 2008. In some aspects, the interleaver 2006 may interleave a data stream 2004 between multiple data streams 2010, 2012,..., 20 14. As seen in F IG . 20, the encoded data stream 2010 may be communicated to an anchor RAT, and the encoded data streams 2012 and 20 14 may be communicated to secondary links of a transceiver chain used for communicating the data stream 2010 or two additional transceiver chains using one or more different RATs of the multi-RAT.

1001671 Even though FIG. 1 8 - F IG. 20 illustrate the use of rep etition, sy stematic, or non-sy stematic codes by the multi-link coder 1605, the disclosure is not limited in this regard and different ty p e of codes may be applied in other aspects. For example, at higher lay ers, erasure codes (such as Raptor or other Fountain codes) or channel codes may , for example, also be applied as well .

|00168] As seen in FIG 18 - F IG. 20, multiple encoded data streams may be generated based on a single data stream, and the multip le encoded data streams may be communicated via different links of the same transceiver chain or via multiple transceiver chains using different RAT of the multi-RAT. In this regard, multilay er redundancy of the communicated information within a V2X communication environment may be achieved, which increases reliability of communications. M ore sp ecifically , the same encoded data (or parity data which may be used to decode the encoded data) may be

communicated on multiple communication channels to ensure successful reception by one or more V2X enabled devices w ithin the V2X

communication environment .

100169] FIG. 21 illustrates exemp lary multi-link encoding performed by the multi-link coder of FIG. 17 at various levels within a 3 GPP protocol stack according to some aspects described herein. Referring to F IG. 21 , there is illustrated a multi-link encoding technique 2100 using data from various lay ere of a 3GPP protocol stack. The 3GPP protocol stack may include a phy sical ( PHY) layer 2108, a media access control ( M AC) lay er 2 106, a radio link control (RLC) lay er 2 104, and a packet data convergence p rotocol (PDCP) layer 2102.

[00170] As seen in FIG. 2 1 , the multi-link coder 1605 may be configured to receive data inputs 21 12 from any of the protocol lay ers 2 102-2108 of the 3GPP protocol stack, and encode bits, symbols, or packets at the different lay ers of the protocol stack. The encoded data stream 21 10 may include an encoded stream for an anchor link as well as an encoded stream for one or more secondary links (e.g., as seen in FIG. 18 - FIG. 20). In some aspects, a common convergence protocol layer or function may be added to the p rotocol stack (e.g., as discussed herein below in reference to FIG. 40-FIG. 53). The common convergence p rotocol lay er may be configured to add p roper sequence numbers and headers to the encoded p ackets for multi-link transmissions.

[00171] FIG. 22 illustrates exemplary multi-link decoding performed by the multi-link coder of FIG . 1 7 at various lev els within a GPP protocol stack according to some aspects described herein . Referring to F IG . 22, there is illustrated a multi-link decoding technique 2200 communicating decoded data to various lay ers of a 3 GPP protocol stack. The 3 GPP p rotocol stack may include a phy sical (PHY) lay er 2208, a media 3-CCCSS control ( M AC) lay er 2206, a radio link control (RLC) lay er 2204, and a packet data conv ergence protocol (PDCP) lay er 2202.

[00172] As seen in FIG . 22, the multi-link coder 1 605 (which may be referred to as a multi-link decoder in this case) may be con figured to receive encoded data inp ut 22 10 (which may be receiv ed via redundant

communication links such as primary and secondary links). The multi-link decoder 1605 may be also configured to receiv e data inp uts 22 1 2 from any of the protocol lay ers 2202-2208 of the 3 GPP protocol stack, which inp uts may be used to decode the received data and generate decoded data 2214. The decoded data stream 2214 may be communicated to any of the protocol layers 2202-2208 of the 3GPP protocol stack for further processing and

communication to one or more V2X enabled devices. In some asp ects, a common convergence protocol lay er or function may be added to the protocol stack (e.g., as discussed herein below in reference to FIG. 40 - FIG. 53). The common convergence protocol layer may , for example, be configured to add proper sequence numbers and headers to the decoded packets for multi-link transmissions.

[00173] FIG. 23 illustrates various inputs to the multi-link coder of FIG.

17 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 23, the multi-link coder 1605 may be configured to receive various inputs 2301-2304, which may be used to determine a redundancy level 2306, a number of links 2308 to use when transmitting encoded data, and a number of retransmissions 23 1 0 (e.g, a number of communication links used to transmit encoded data with the same transceiver chain or the number of different transceiver chains associated with different RATs to use when transmitting the encoded data stream). Inp uts 230 1 may include one or more acknowledgments from a higher layer or feedback from a receiving communication node on correct packet reception (e.g, existing ACK mechanisms at RLC/M AC layer may be used). Inp uts 2302 may include one or more quality of service (QoS) requirements on latency , reliability , and so forth . Inputs 2304 may include channel quality feedback information for one or more communication channels coupled to a device using the multi-link coder 1605. The channel quality feedback 2304 may include channel blockage information, signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), error rate, and so forth.

[00174] FIG. 24 and FIG. 25 illustrate exemplary methods 2400 and

2500 for multi-link coding within a V2X communication environment according to some aspects described herein. In the context of the p resent disclosure, methods 2400 and 2500 may be performed by a hardware p ocessor. However, methods 2400 and 2500 may be performed by other hardware or s oft w are com p on en t s such as processing circuitry ,

microp rocessors, central p rocessing units (CPUs), etc.

[00175] Referring to FIG. 24, the example method 2400 may start at operation 2402, when a data stream may be received via a first transceiver chain of multiple transceiver chains within a communication device. The data stream may be received from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of a multi-RAT communication environment. For example, and in reference to FIG. 3 and FIG. 18, the multi-linking coder 1605 may be implemented within a vehicular terminal device 328, which may be configured to receive a data stream 1 802 from the base station 302. At operation 2404, the multi-link coder 1605 may apply a code to the received data stream to generate an encoded data stream, such as 1 804. At operation 2406, the encoded data stream may be replicated to generate a plurality of encoded data streams. The plurality of encoded data streams may be used for transmission to at least the second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain. For example, the multi-link coder 1605 may use rep etition code and generate replicated encoded streams 1806, 1808, and 1810. Encoded data stream 1806 may be used for communication back to the base station 302, while one or more of the encoded data stream 1808 through 810 may be communicated to other nodes within the V2X communication environment using different links of the same transceiver chain used for communication of the encoded data stream 1 806.

[00176] Referring to FIG. 25, the examp le method 2500 may start at operation 2502, when a data stream may be received via a first transceiver chain of multip le transceiver chains in a communication device. The data stream may be received from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of a multi-RAT communication environment . For example and in reference to FIG. 3 and FIG. 19, the multi-link coder 1605 may be imp lemented within a vehicular terminal device 328, which may be configured to receive a data stream 1902 from the base station 302.

[00177] At op eration 2504, a sy stematic code may be applied to the data st eam to generate an encoded data stream. For example, the multi-link coder 1605 may ap ply a sy stematic code to generate decoded data stream 1904. At operation 2506, the encoded data stream may be replicated to generate a first encoded data stream with information bits associated with the data stream and at least the second encoded data stream with parity bits. The parity bits may be used for decoding the information bits. For example, the encoded data stream 1904 may be used to generate encoded dat a stream 1906 with information bits and encoded data stream 1908 through. 1910 with parity bits.

[00178 J At operation 2508, a control circuit (e.g., controller 1606) may control transmission of the first encoded data stream 1906 with the

information bits to the first communication node via the first RAT

communication link of the first transceiver chain. At operation 2510, the control circuit may also control transmission of the at least second encoded data stream (one or more of the data streams 1908 through 1910) to at least the second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

[00179] FIG. 26 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity for V2I/V2N links based on 3 GPP carrier aggregation and dual connectivity based frameworks according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 26, the V2X communication environment 2600 includes a p rimary node 2602 (e.g., a base station or another ty p e of communication node), RSU 2604, RSU 2606, RSU 2608, and vehicles 26 10 and 26 12. The vehicle 26 12 may be connected with the primary node 2602 via a p rimary communication link 26 1 8. The RSU s 2604, 2606, and 2608 may be connected with the primary node 2602 via communication links 26 14, 26 1 6, and 2620, resp ectively . In some aspects, the communication links 26 14, 26 16, and 2620 may be used as backhaul communication links. In some aspects, one or more of the vehicles 26 1 0, 26 1 2, and one or more of the RSUs 2604, 2606, and 2608 may be communicatively coup led via secondary communication links. For example, vehicle 26 12 is communicatively coupled with RSUs 2606 and 2608 via secondary communication links 2622 and 2626 respectively . RSU 2608 may be further coupled with RSUs 2604 via the second communication link 2624.

1001801 In some asp ects, communication links between a vehicle and an infrastructure unit (such as an anchor node, a base station, an RSU, and so forth) may be referred to as V2I links; communication links between a vehicle and a network enabled device or network infrastructure may be referred to as V2 links; and communication links between vehicles may be referred to as fee to the links. In some aspects, any of the communication links 2614, 2616, 2618, 2620, 2622, 2624, and 2626 may be multi-link connections (e.g., using multiple communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multiple transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may operate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT).

[00181] In some aspects, one or more of the vehicles 2610 and 2612 may be equipped with multi-RAT capabilities (e.g., may include a plurality of transceivers configured to operate on LTE, WLAN, DSRC, mm Wave, NR, and so forth). Additionally, the vehicle 2610 and 2612 may be configured to simultaneously connect to multiple infrastructure units (e.g., 2602, 2604, 2606, and 2608) using a carrier aggregation (CA) or dual connectivity (DC) based framework (e.g., as available for LTE radio technology' and its extensions, as well as new communication techniques being introduced in

3 GPP Release 15 and beyond). A vehicle's multiple connections may be to a wide area macro cell and a RSU, or to two different RSUs, or to different carriers RATs on the same infrastructure units, and so forth. The macro-cell or RSUs may be connected via fiber-backhaul or self-backhaul systems using orthogonal or same frequency bands (e.g., backhaul communication links 2614, 2616, and 2620).

[00182] In some aspects, the infrastructure nodes may also be connected via a cloud RAN architecture, where Remote Radio Heads (RRH) are mounted on the RSUs. In some aspects, the infrastructure nodes may be connected using radios operating on one or both of un-licensed and licensed bands (e.g. LTE- WLAN Aggregation (LWA) or Licensed Assisted Access (LA A)).

Numerous benefits of DC and C A based frameworks then become available for improving V21 connections, augmenting the existing DSRC and V2X mechanisms, and so forth. For example, a DC framework within the V2X communication environment 2600 may allow a vehicle (e.g., 2612) to connect with the wide-area infrastructure using its primary carrier (for example the LTE carrier on communication link 2618, although it is conceivable that other radio links may also serv e as the "primary" or "anchor" nodes), and then allow for additional connections (e.g., 2622) to local infrastructure nodes (e.g., RSU 2606) to simultaneously service the connectivity needs of the vehicle. Such connectivity may be managed by a central controller (e.g, a Radio Resource Controller (RRC) at the anchor node 2602, in the LTE case, or a Multi-RAT coordination or convergence functions described herein below in reference to FIG. 40 - FIG. 53).

1001831 In some aspects, a specific RSU selection and the number of additional RSUs to use for multilink connectivity may be based on the vehicle location, augmented by the link measurements reported by the vehicle, the current loading on the network, the connectivity needs of the vehicle, the topology and reachability of the additional RSU nodes (in terms of the ease of routing traffic through them), and so forth. Furthermore, the link

measurements to different RSUs for a given vehicle may be collected via backhaul communication or predicted based on past vehicle t ajectories, as well as crowd sourcing mechanisms (e.g., through reporting from other vehicles, p edestrians, or other devices). The usage of the supportingnodes may also determine the additional nodes (for example, if the additional nodes are to be used to assist in handovers, then connectivity may be established to RSUs along the predicted trajectory , otherwise if reliability is of primary concern, then, for example, the set of RSUs with the best signal strength or the lowest probability of being blocked may be identified).

1001841 In some asp ects, a vehicle within the V2X communication environment 2600 may express a preference for connectivity to a specific node/RAT, based on cost considerations and so forth (e.g., the vehicle may be configured to alway s connect to a WLAN node for getting n on -critical information, such as advertising information on nearby restaurants, stores of interest based on vehicle/user profile, etc. ). Once the dual or multi-link connectivity is established, the dy namic use of links for routing or aggregating different ty pes of traffic could be governed via radio resource management (RRM ) p rincip les described herein.

10018 1 There are numerous V2X applications that may benefit from availability of such multip le V2I link connectivity illust ated in F IG. 26. In one aspect and as illustrated in FIG. 27, the infrastructure nodes may broadcast (or unicast) map information to a vehicle via different nodes based on locality of the map information. The infrastructure may also split the data across several nodes ( aggregation) to sp eed up the delivery of the map information. Alternately, the map data may be broadcast redundantly from multiple nodes in the vicinity of the vehicle to improve reliability of reception.

1001861 FIG. 27 illustrates an exemplary communication flow within the V2X communication environment of FIG. 26 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 27, the communication flow 2700 may occur between a vehicle 2702 (e.g. 26 10, 26 12), secondary cells 2704, 2706 (e g. RSUs 2604, 2606, 2608), and an actor cell 2708 (e.g., 2602). During an example set up p hase 27 10, at 27 16, a wide area connection may be established between the vehicle 2702, the secondary cells 2704 and 2706, and the anchor cell 2708. At 27 1 8, measurement configuration may take place based on, e.g., communications from the anchor cell 2708. At 2720, one or more measurement rep orts may be communicated from the vehicle 2702, the secondary cell 2704, or the secondary cell 2706 to the anchor cell 2708. Such measurement reports may include, for example, the vehicle locations, primary or secondary link channel quality information, one or more measurements on secondary nodes or cells, utility parameters, exp ected vehicle trajectory information, and so forth . At 2722, one or more optional measurement reports may be communicated to the anchor cell 2708 via one or more backhaul links (e.g., 26 14, 26 16, and 2620). The optional measurement rep orts may include various vehicle generated measurements, multi-radio backhaul link quality , communication node load measurements, and so forth.

[00187J In some asp ects, anchor-to-RSU connections may be established between the secondary cell 2704 or the secondary cell 2706 with the anchor cell 2708 based on expected trajectory of the vehicle 2702. At 2726, the radio links within the V2X communication environment 2600 may be reconfigured by adding one or more new communication nodes based on the connection establishments at 2724.

1001881 In some asp ects, a radio resource management phase 27 1 2 may be p erformed at 27 12. M ore sp ecifically , at 2728, the vehicle 2702 may establish a connection with the secondary cell 2704 or the secondary cell 2706 based on, e.g., timing associated with current or estimated vehicle trajectory . At 2730, channel quality measurements across multiple cells, trajectory adjustments, or utility parameter adjustments may be communicated from the vehicle 2702, secondary cell 2704, and or secondary cell 2706 to the anchor cell 2708 for p urposes of radio resource management . In this regard, utility -based measurements, location information, and trajectory based measurements are used for radio resource management and to enable predictive multi-radio, multi-link connectivity for vehicles within the V2X communication environment 2600.

[00189] In some asp ects, a visual map data transmission 27 14 may occur within the V2X communication environment 2600. For example, at 2732, map data may be communicated from the anchor cell 2708 the vehicle 2702 based on, e.g., current vehicle location. The map data communicated by the anchor cell 2708 may include map data with base (low) resolution . As the vehicle 2702 drives near secondary cells 2706 and 2704 additional map data may be communicated by the secondaiy cells. For example, at 2734, map data may be communicated from the secondaiy cell 2706 to the vehicle 2702. Such map data may be characterized by the same resolution as the map data received from the anchor cell 2708 or may be a high-resolution map data. At 2736, map data may be communicated from the secondary cell 2704 to the vehicle 2702. Such map data may be characterized by the same resolution as the map data received from the anchor cell 2708 may be a high-resolution map data. In some aspects, the map data received from the secondaiy cells 2704 and 2706 may be redundant with the map data received from the anchor cell 2708. In some aspects, the map data received from the secondary cells 2704 and 2706 may be cumulative (e.g., different from a combined map may be assembled at the vehicle 2702 using the map data received from the secondary cells 2704 and 2706 as well as the anchor cell 2708.

1001 0] FIG. 28 illustrates an exemp lary method 2800 for

communication within the V2X env ironment of FIG. 26 according to some aspects described herein. In the context of the present disclosure, method 2800 may be performed by a hardware processor. However, method 2800 may be

performed by other hardware or software components such as processing circuitry, microprocessors, central processing units (CPUs), etc.

[00191] Referring to FIG. 28, the example method 2800 may start at operation 2802, when a communication link is established with a first node using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a first RAT of multi-RAT. For example, vehicle 2612 may establish a primary communication link 2618 with the anchor node 2602 which may be used for receiving map data. At operation 2804, a communication link may be established with a second node using a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers and a second RAT of the multi-RAT. For example, the vehicle 2612 may established a second communication link 2626 with the RSU 2608. At operation 2806, first map data may be received via the first RAT communication link from the first node. For example, first map data may be received at the vehicle 2612 from the anchor node 2602 via the primary link 2618. At operation 2808, second map data may be received via the second RAT communication link from the second node. For example, the vehicle 2612 may receive second map data from the RSU 2608 via the communication link 2626. At operation 2810, map data associated with a current location of the communication device may be generated based on the first and second map data. For example, the vehicle 2612 may assemble an updated map based on the map data received from the anchor node 2602 and the RSU 2608.

[00192] FIG. 29 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity based on V2N/V2I assisted V2V communications according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 29, the V2X communication environment 2900 includes a primary node 2902 (e.g., base station or another base station), RSU 2904, RSU 2906, and vehicles 2908-2914. The vehicle 2912 may be connected with the primary node 2902 via a primary communication link 2914. The RSUs 2904 and 2906 may be connected with the primary node 2902 via communication links 2910 and 2912, respectively . In some aspects, the communication links 2910 and 2912 may be used as backhaul communication links. In some aspects, one or more of the vehicles 2908-2914 and one or more of the RSUs 2904 and 2906 may be communicatively coupled via secondary communication links. For

example, RSU 2904 is communicatively coupled with vehicles 2908 and 2912 via secondary communication links 2916 and 2918 respectively . RSU 2906 is communicatively coupled to the vehicle 2912 via a secondary communication link 2926. V2V connections may also exist between one or more of the vehicles 2908 -2914. For example, vehicles 2908 and 2912 are coupled via a V2V link 2920, vehicle 2910 and 2912 are coupled via a V2V link 2922, and the vehicle 2912 is coupled to the vehicle 2914 via a V2V link 2924.

[00193] In some aspects, any of the communication links 2910 -2924 may be multi-link connections (e.g., using multiple communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multiple transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may operate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT).

[00194] In some aspects, standards covering network assisted device-to-device (D2D) communications, such LTE-Direct/Prose, may be applicable to managed V2V connections within the V2X communication environment 2900. Additionally, there may be numerous extensions of such standards, for examp le those that extend existing frameworks to use different RATs on the V2I and the V2V links. For example, the V2I links (e.g., 2916, 2918, 2914, and 2926) may be based on LTE, NR, W'LAN RATs, while the V2V connectivity (e.g, communication links 2920-2924) may be based on WiFi-Direct, Wi-Fi Aware, LTE-Direct, or "NR-Things" connectivity framework. urthermore, a V2V link may be combined with one or more V2I links that are established via carrier aggregation (CA) or direct connect (DC ) frameworks (e.g., LTE CA or LTE DC frameworks).

[00195] In some aspects within the V2X communication environment

2900, the role of the V2I links may be to provide a control plane to manage the V2V connectivity, such as V2V discovery, V2V resource allocation, V2V synchronization, and so forth. In such frameworks, a centralized mechanism may be used to add and manage a V2V link as an additional carrier, similar to LTE-based frameworks. In some aspects, such frameworks may be extended to accommodate other V2V radios (DSRC, Bluetooth, and so forth). In some aspects, LTE or cellular radio may not be the "primary" control anchor (e.g., 2902) for managing V2V connections, wherein WLA /DSRC extensions may

be utilized as control anchor to manage the V2V links. In an aspect, the notion of a common convergence function (e.g., as described in reference to FIG. 40 - FIG. 53) may be used to enable this coordination.

[00196] In setting up V2V cooperation, the infrastructure node (e.g., 2602) may be configured to provide assistance for, e.g., "neighbor discovery ," coordination of radio resources for V2V connection setup, through advertising of communication-enabling information (e , bandwidth availability and pricing) to encourage different vehicles to cooperate with each other, suggestion for enabling connections with vehicles that may provide safety critical information or advanced warning (for example connect vehicles not directly in line of sight, via relay nodes such as RSUs), and so forth.

Alternately, the infrastructure nodes may manage the V2V cooperation more tightly, and may be configured to dy namically schedule the V2V connectivity and cooperation, for example via an algorithmic and radio resource management (RRM ) framework described later (e.g., in reference to FIG. 39).

[00197] In some aspects, devices within the V2X communication environment 2900 may also combine V2V connectivity with V2I connectivity to improve link diversity and reliability . Such devices may be configured to combine V2V and V2I links to obtain higher data rates, or may be configured to use different links for different types of traffic for improved QoS. In some aspects, two vehicles may be configured to connect with each other via one or more direct V2V links as well as via an additional hop through an RSU to increase link diversity . Such vehicles may be configured to transmit data redundantly, on both finks (e.g., as discussed in reference to FIG. 17 - FIG. 25), to imp rove reliability should any one link be blocked (the V2X and V21 links may not necessarily use the same radios).

[00198] Alternately, the infrastructure links may be maintained in

"stand-by " mode and used opportunistically , should the V2V link deteriorate. The V2V link may deteriorate due to vehicles moving out of range, or due to interference and congestion (for example, congestion on unlicensed bands), while the V2I routed link may still be available. In some aspects, V2V connectivity management may be handled by a general algorithmic framework and through network/infrastructure assistance, so that V2I and V2V links may be selected (often in combination) to imp rove link or sy stem performance according to different metrics.

[00199] In some asp ects, network assisted, predictive set up of multi-link connectivity within the V2X communication environment 2900 may include V2I or V2V links based on channel quality, vehicle trajectory , vehicle location information, and so forth to increase V2X communication efficiency within the environment 2900. For example, V2V link between vehicles 2912 and 2908 may be established through V21 assistance based on device neighborhood map information. Additionally , redundant links may be used to improve reliability of connections to a non-line of sight communication link.

100200] FIG. 30 illustrates an exemp lary communication flow within the V2X communication environment of FIG. 29 according to some asp ects described herein. Referring to FIG. 30, the example communication flow 3000 may occur between a first vehicle 3002, a line of sight (LOS) vehicle 3004, a non-line of sight (NLOS) vehicle 3006, a secondary cell 3008, a secondary cell 3010, and an anchor cell 3012. The vehicles 3002-3006 may be any of the vehicles 2908-29 14 in FIG. 29. The secondary cells 3008 and 3010 may be any of RSUs 2904 and 2906, and the anchor cell 3012 may be the primary node 2902.

[00201 ] At 30 16, wide-area communication links may be established between the vehicles 002- 006, the secondary cells 3008-30 10, and the anchor cell 30 12. Additionally , at 30 16, measurement rep orting may take place between the V2X enabled devices 3002-30 12. For example, measurement reporting may include location information, traject ory information, link utility preferences, communication link quality

measurements, and so forth associated with communication links between one or more of the V2X enabled devices 3002-30 12. At 30 1 8, the measurement reporting may optionally occur over one or more of the backhaul

communication links 29 10 and 29 12. For example, measurement rep orting that may be provided via the backhaul communication links may include one or more measurements associated with any of the vehicles 2908-29 14 mult i-radio backhaul link quality , communication load measurements, and so forth. At 3020, one or more measurement reports may be optionally communicated

from the vehicle 3002 or the vehicles 3004 and 3006 to the secondary cell 3008 (e.g, RSU 2904 or 2906).

[00202] At 30 14, the anchor cell 30 12 may create a map of vehicle locations based on the received measurement report information as well as collect multi-radio, multi-link connectivity information such as utility preferences, communication load information, and so forth associated with one or more of the V2X enabled devices 3002-3010 within the V2X communication environments 2900. At 3022, the anchor cell 30 1 2 may optionally p rovide local map information up dates to one or more of the secondary cells 3008 and 3010. At 3024, secondary cell 3008 or 3010 may form local map information based on the map information updates received from the anchor cell 30 12. At 3026, anchor cell 30 1 2 may provide assistance to one or more of the V2X enabled devices 3002-3010 for neighbor device discovery based on proximity . At 3028, the anchor cell 30 12 may assist one or more of the V2X enabled devices 3002-3006 with the V2V connectivity based on utility , channel quality , networked apology , communication link load information, and so forth. At 3030, secondary cell 3008 or 30 10 may optionally provide assistance to the vehicle 3002 four neighbor device discovery based on proximity information. M ore specifically , the secondary cell may inform the v ehicle 3002 of nearby V2X enabled devices based on a current location of the vehicle 3002. At 3032, op portunistic V2V

communication may take p lace between the vehicle 3002 and the vehicle 3004 or 3006. The V2V communication exchange may include sensing information obtained from one or more of the sensors within the vehicle 3002.

100203] At 3036, the anchor cell 30 12 may p roactively set up connection with the LOS vehicle 3004 based on trajectory information of the vehicle 3002. The anchor cell 30 12 may also establish connection with one or more of t he secondary cells 3008-30 0 and may also provide radio link management assistance to one or more of the V2X enabled devices 3002-3010. At 3034, the anchor cell 30 12 may provide assistance to the vehicle

3002 four neighbor device discovery based on moving trajectory of the vehicle 3002 or V2X communication plan associated with vehicle 3002. At 3038, one or more of the secondary cells 3008-3010 or vehicles 3004-3006 may p rovide neighbor device discovery information to the vehicle 3002. At 3040, the anchor cell 3012 may optionally provide connection setup information to secondary cell 3010 for purposes of establishing connection with any of the V2X enabled devices 3002-3008. At 3042, N LOS vehicle 3006 may communicate sensor data to the vehicle 3002 via communication link with the LOS vehicle 3004 and or a communication link to one or more of the secondary cells 3008- 30 10 that are in communication with the vehicle 3002. At 3044, vehicle 3006 may communicate the sensor data to one or more of the secondary cells 3008-30 10 as well as the anchor cell 30 1 2. At 3046, the secondary cell 3010 which has received the sensor data from the vehicle 3006, may communicate the sensor data to the vehicle 3002 via a separate communication link .

[00204] FIG. 3 1 illustrates an exemp lary method 3100 for

communication w ithin the V2X environment of FIG. 29 according to some asp ects described herein . In the context of the present disclosure, method 3100 may be performed by a hardware processor. However, method 3100 may be performed by other hardware or software components such as processing circuitry , microprocessors, central processing units (CPUs), etc.

[00205] Referring to FIG. 3 1 , the examp le method 3100 may start at 3 102, when control information receiv ed from an infrastructure node via a communication link of a first RAT of multi-RAT is decoded. The control information may include V2V dev ice discov ery information . For examp le, vehicle 29 1 2 may receiv e dev ice discovery information from the p imary anchor node 2902 via the V2I primary communication link 29 14. The device discovery information may include, for examp le, information associated w ith a second vehicle 2908. At 3 104, a first V2V communication link may be established with a second node based on the V2V dev ice discov ery

information. The first V2V communication link may be established while maintaining the first RAT communication link active, and the first V2V communication link may use a second RAT of the multi-RAT . For examp le, the first V2V communication link may be a direct V2V communication link 2920 between vehicles 2908 and 29 12. At 3 106, a second V2V

communication link may be established with the second node via an

intermediate node based on the V2V device discovery information. For example, the vehicle 2912 may also establish a second V2V communication link with vehicle 2908 via RSU 2904 (e.g., via communication links 2916 and 2918).

[00206] FIG. 32 illustrates an exemp lary V2X communication environment with multi -link connectivity based on V2V assisted V2I/V2N link according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 32, the V2X communication environment 3200 includes a p rimary node 3202 (e.g., a base station or another base station), RSU 3204, and vehicles 3206-3214. The vehicles 3206-3214 may be connected with the primary node 3202 via V2N links 3230, 3232, 3234, 3236, and 3238 respectively . The RSU 3204 may be coupled with the primary node 3202 via a backhaul link 3240. Additionally, the RSU 3204 may be coupled to vehicles 3206, 3208, 3210, and 3212 via V2I links 3222, 3224, 3226, and 3228 respectively . Vehicles 3206 and 3208 may be coupled via a V2V link 32 16. Vehicles 3210 and 3212 may be coupled via a V2V link 32 1 8, and vehicles 32 12 and 32 14 may be coupled via a V2V link 3220.

[00207] In some asp ects, any of the communication links 3206-3240 may be multi-link connections (e.g., using multip le communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multiple transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may op erate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT ).

[00208] In some aspects, the V2X communication environment 3200 may include a V2X enabled devices that may be configured for cooperative communications, to improve the quality of the V21 links through V2V coordination (potentially over multiple links). In some aspects, the vehicles involved in V2V cooperation may be configured to share TX RX data intended for the V2I links, on the V2V link, as well . This sharing of information allows for improved link diversity , reduced interference through i n t erf eren ce can eel 1 at i on , and so forth. In some aspects, the infrastructure nodes (e.g., 3202 and 3204) may be configured to broadcast (or unicast ) map information to vehicles w ithin the coverage area based on locality of the map information. The vehicles may then further share the map information with

other vehicles not in direct coverage of the infrastructure node. Alternately, V2I transmissions may interfere with each other when the transmitting RSUs are in close proximity . In instances when proximal nodes listening to different RSUs share the received data with their interfered neighboring device, the cooperative nodes may use this data to cancel the interference from the desired signal.

[00209] In some asp ects, a macrocell associated with the primary node 3202 may split map data between two or more vehicles, such as 3212 and 32 14. Subsequently , t he vehicles may cooperate to complete overall map information (e.g., map aggregation using V2V links).

[00210] In some asp ects, an RSU 3204 may broadcast map data to a plurality of vehicles such as 3208-32 12. The vehicles may then cooperate between each other via V2V links to share the map data to create redundancy and imp rove reliability of V2I links.

[00211] In some asp ects, the vehicle 3206 may report sensing information to RSU 3204 via the V2I link 3222, and then may also cooperate with the nearby vehicle 3208 that is closer to the RSU 3204, to send the same information redundantly via V2V link 32 16 combined with V2I link 3224.

[00212] FIG. 33 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-radio, multi-hop V2X links using V2I/V2N and V2V communication links according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 33, the V2X communication environment 3300 includes a primary node 3302 (e.g, an evolved Node-B or an ot h er t y p e of base station), RSU 3304, and vehicles 3306-33 12. The vehicles 3306-33 12 may be connected with the primary node 3302 via V2N links 3318, 3320, 3322, and 3324 respectively . The RSU 3304 may be coupled w ith the p rimary node 3302 via a backhaul link 3326. Additionally , the RSU 3304 may be coup led to vehicles 3306 and 3308 via V2I links 3328 and 3330 resp ectively . Vehicles 3308 and 33 10 may be coupled via a V2V link 3332, and vehicles 33 10 and 33 12 may be coupled via a V2V link 3334.

[00213] In some aspects, any of the communication links 33 1 8-3334 may be multi-link connections (e.g., using multiple communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multiple transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may op erate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT).

[00214] In some aspects, the V2I and V2V links within the V2X communication environment 3300 may operate over different bands or radios, and may be combined together to establish a multi-hop link between infrastructure nodes (base station 3302 and RSU 3304) and endp oint vehicles (e.g., 3306-3312) for improved coverage of a given link. In some aspects, a device with multi-radio, multi-link capabilities within the V2X

communication environment 3300 may be configured to use several multi-hop links to improve link diversity, as well data rates. In some aspects, two vehicles aiming to establish a direct V2V link at the application lay er to exchange non-proximal information (such as a "look-ahead" of road conditions in a different local area or around a corner) may connect via an infrastructure link to reach each other vehicles or nodes, or may use intermediate vehicles as relay s (e.g., p ossibly over different types of radio links to connect with each other). Similarly , vehicles may reach neighboring vehicles through intermediate nodes and use more than one radio link to improve diversity .

[00215] In some asp ects, a communication link 33 14 may be established between vehicle 3312 and vehicle 3308 through cooperation with the vehicle 33 10. In this regard, the V2V link 33 14 between vehicles 3312 and 3308 may include multi-hop V2V links 3332 and 3334. The cooperation between the vehicles 3308- 33 1 2 may be carried out through network assistance.

[00216] In an example, vehicles 3306 and 3308 may be non-line of sight vehicles to each other. A communication link 33 16 may be established between vehicle 3308 and vehicle 3306 so that vehicle 3308 may receive information that is accessible to vehicle 3306 but not accessible to vehicle 3308. A V2V communication link 33 1 6 may be established by using the RSU 3304 as an intermediary node and using V2I communication links 3330 and 3328.

[002 17 J In an example, V2V connectivity and scheduling within the

V2X communication environment 3300 may be completed under network control as described in, e.g., FIG. 29 - FIG. 31.

[00218] F IG. 34 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-radio, multi-link V2V communications according to some asp ects described herein. Referring to FIG. 34, the V2X communication environment 3400 includes a p rimary node 3402 (e.g., a evolved Node-B or another ty p e of base station) and vehicles 3404-34 10. The vehicles 3406-34 10 may be connected with the p rimary node 3402 via V2I communication links 3422, 3424, and 3426 respectively . Vehicles 3404 and 3406 may be coupled via V2V links 3412 and 3414. Vehicles 3406 and 3408 may be coupled via a V2V link 3416, and vehicles 3408 and 3410 may be coupled via a V2V link 3418. Vehicles 3406 and 3410 may also be coupled via a direct V2V communication link 3420.

[00219] In some aspects, any of the communication links 3412-3426 may be multi-link connections (e.g., using multiple communication links via a single transceiver chain) or mufti-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multip le transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may operate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT ).

[00220] In some asp ects one or more multi-radio, multi-band capable devices (e.g., vehicles 3404-34 1 0) may be configured to form a V2V connections over several links to improve reliability , data rates, latency , and so forth.

[00221] In some asp ects, v ehicle 34 10 and vehicle 3406 may share sensing information through V2V connection 3428. V2V connection 3428 may be based on a direct V2V communication link 3420, w hich may be and LT E-based communication link or a low frequency NR communication link. V2V communication link 3428 may also be based on a multi-hop link through cooperation with the vehicle 3408 and V2V communication links 34 16 and 34 1 8. In some instances, base lev el sensed information may be communicated via the LT E direct V2V link 3420, an additional resolution data may be shared between vehicles 3406 and 34 1 0 via V2V links 34 16 and 34 1 8.

[00222] In some asp ects, vehicle 3406 may establish a connection 3430 with vehicle 3404 in order to access information that is available to vehicle 3404 but not available to vehicle 3406. Since there is no RSU available in the vicinity of vehicles 3404 and 3406 (e.g., V2I communication links are not available), vehicles 3404 and 3406 may connect using LTE-hased or low-frequency based RAT links 34 1 2 and 34 14. In some instances, low resolution data may be shared on an LTE link and high-resolution data may be shared on a millimeter wave high -band width link.

[00223] In an example, V2V connectivity and scheduling within the V2X communication environment 3400 may be completed under network control as described in, e.g., FIG. 29 - FIG 3 1 .

[00224] F IG . 35 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication environment with multi-radio, multi-link mesh backhaul according to some aspects described herein . Referring to FIG. 35, the V2X communication environment 3500 includes a primary node 3502 (e.g, an evolved odeB or another ty pe of base station), RSUs 3504-3508, and vehicles 35 1 0-35 14. The RSUs 3504-3508 may be connected with the primary node 3502 via backhaul communication links 3520, 35 1 8, and 35 16 respectively . RSUs 3504-3508 may be coupled to each other via RSU to RSU communication links 3526, 3528, and 3530. Vehicle 35 10 may be connected w ith RSUs 3508 and 3506 using V2I communication links 3522 and 3524 respectively . Vehicles 35 12 and 35 14 may be coup led to RSU 3504 via V2I communication links 3532 and 3534 respectively .

[00225] In some asp ect , any of the communication links 35 1 6-3534 may be multi-link connections (e.g., using multip le communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multip le transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may op erate in accordance w ith one or more RATs of multi-RAT ).

[00226] In some aspects one or more multi-radio, multi-band capable devices (e.g., vehicles 3510-3514 and RSUs 3504-3508) may be configured to form connections over several links to improve reliability , data rates, latency , and so forth. In this regard, multi-link connectivity concep ts discussed herein may also be extended and apply to backhaul/front haul connecting RSUs, anchor cell to RSUs communications as well as vehicle to RSU or anchor cell communications.

[00227] In some asp ects, RSU 3508 may report sensing information received from vehicle 3510 to the primary node 3502 via backhaul communication link 3516. To improve communication reliability within the V2X environment 3500, RSU 3 08 may also send the same sensing information redundantly to node 3502 via communication path 3536, using RSU -to- RSU medication link 3528 and backhaul communication link 3520.

[00228] In some asp ects, sensing information received by any of the

RSUs 3504 -3508 from any of the vehicles 35 10 -35 14 may be shared between the RSUs using one or more of the communication links 3526-3530.

[00229] In some aspects, the p rimary node 3502 may communicate map information to RSUs 3504 and 3506 via communication links 3520 and 35 1 8 respectiv ely . RSUs 3504 and 3506 may redundantly send the receiv ed information to each other via a communication link 3530 to improve data communication reliability . In some instances, potentially different resolution of map data may be transmitted to different RSUs or different map data altogether may be communicated to the different RSUs. The RSUs may then send information to each other to cooperate and collect complete map information or enhance existing map data.

100230] FIG. 36 illustrates an exemplary V2X communication env ironment with multi-link connectivity based on m ul t i p 1 e-i n p ut -m ultip 1 e-output (M I MO) medications according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 36, the V2X communication environment 3600 includes a p rimary node 3602 (e g, an ev olv ed Node-B or another ty pe of base station ), an RSU 3604, and vehicles 3606-36 1 2. The RSU 3604 may be connected with the p rimary node 3602 via a backhaul communication link 36 14. The RSU 3604 may be coupled to vehicle 3606 via a V2I communication link 3628. Vehicles 3606, 3608, and 36 10 may be communicatively coup led with the primary node 3602 using V2N communication links 36 16, 36 1 8, and 3620 resp ectively . Additionally , vehicles 3606-36 1 2 may be coupled to each other

using V2V communication links 3622, 3624, and 3626, as illustrated in FIG. 36.

[00231] In some asp ects, any of the communication links 36 14-3628 may include multi-link connections (e.g., using multip le communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multiple transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may operate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT ).

[00232] In some aspects, one or more of the communication device is within the V2X environment 3600 may include multiple antennas, w hich may be configured for M I M O communications. In instances when vehicles (e.g., 3606-36 12) and infrastructure nodes (e.g., 3602-3604) within the V2X communication environment 3600 are equipp ed with multiple antennas, different antenna subsets may be used to establish multip le V2I and V2X connections, establishing multiple V2I/V2N and V2V communication links using different M IM C) degrees of freedom For example, vehicles 3606 and 36 10 may use M IM O transmissions usingmultiple sets of antennas to establish sep arat e com mun i cat i on links to multiple other vehicles (e.g, vehicle 36 10 is communicativ ely coup led to vehicles 3608 and 36 12 via two separate V2V links) or to a vehicle and one or more other communication nodes (e , v ehicle 3606 is communicativ ely coupled to RSU 3604 and v ehicle 3608 via separate communication links 3628 and 3622 respectively ).

100233] Furthermore, such sy stem may be used to form multiple beams, each pointing to a different node in a sy stem. Such connectivity may be useful in densely populated streets or intersections, where additional spatial degrees of freedom and the flexibility in assigning them to the V2I or V2V links may be useful (e.g., in dense communication scenarios, it may not be feasible to spatially isolate the different beams across the V2X networks sufficiently , and there may exist cross-beam interference). As mentioned, opp ortunistically utilizing V2V, V2I, or RSU -RSU cooperation (e.g., possibly ov er un-!icensed bands) may help mitigate the crossbeam interference.

100234] In some aspects, vehicle 3610 may transmit sensed information redundantly using M IM O configuration of its antenna array , using separate

communication links 3624 and 626 using multip le beams formed through multi-antenna processing. Similarly, vehicle 3606 may transmit

simultaneously to vehicle 3608 and RSU 3604 using multiple beams formed through multi-antenna processing.

[00235] FIG. 37 illustrates an exemp lary V2X communication environment with multi-link connectivity enable to via mobile edge compute (M EC) according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 37, the V2X communication environment 3700 may include an M EC app lication server 3702, a p rimary node (e.g., base station) 3704, RSUs 3706 and 3708, and vehicles 3710-3714. In some asp ects, RSUs 3708 may be a 3GPP enabled RSU, an RSU 3706 may be a DSRC enabled RSU. TheMEC server 3702 may be communicatively coupled to the base station 3704 and the RSU 3706 via communication links 3716 and 3718 respectively . The base station 3704 may be communicatively coupled to the RSU 3708, vehicle 3710, and the vehicle 3712 via communication links 3720, 3722, and 3724 respectively . The RSU 3708 may be communicatively coup led to vehicle 37 10 via communication links 3726. The RSU 3706 may be communicatively coupled to vehicle 3712 and 3714 via communication links 3730 and 3732

respectively . Vehicle 3710 and 3712 may be communicatively coupled via a communication link 3728.

[00236] In some asp ects, any of the communication links 3716-3732 may include multi-link connections (e.g., using multiple communication links via a single transceiver chain) or multi-radio links (e.g., using communication links via multip le transceiver chains where each transceiver chain may operate in accordance with one or more RATs of multi-RAT ).

[00237] In some aspects, the use of an MEC serv er 3702 near the user (i.e., near the base station 3704 and the RSUs 3706-3708), may facilitate multi-link communications. The M EC 3702 may be configured to run as the application server for the V2X communication environment 3700, and may be configured to select one or more links to send communication messages on. For example, certain messages may be sent in all links, for redundancy p urposes. Other messages may be dedicated for specific technologies due to their QoS requirements or the ty pe of information in the message may be

technology specific. One or more devices within the V2X communication environment 3700 may be configured to support multiple links, and such devices would receive the messages in any RAT of a multi-RAT used by the M EC 3702, while single link support devices would not be able to provide such support.

[00238] For instance, and in reference to FIG. 37, the M EC application serv er ( AS) 3702 has two messages to transmit, message 1 and message 2. The M EC AS may determine to send message 1 via I .T E communication technology to the base station 3704, and send message 2 via DSRC

communication technology to the RSU 3706. Vehicle 37 10 may receive message 1 via the 3GPP RSU 3708 (as it is nearby that RSU), and may also receive a copy oft he same message 1 via the macro cell base station 3704 via communication links 3722. Vehicle 37 1 2 is out of coverage of the 3 G PP RSU 3708 but is in coverage of the DSRC RSU 3706. Therefore, vehicle 37 1 2 may receive message I via the base station connection 3722, and message 2 via the DSRC RSU via communication link 3730 (vehicle 37 12 may re-broadcasts message 2 via the D2D channel (sidelink channel ) 3728 so that vehicle 37 10 may receive message 2 via the sidelink channel ). In this example, vehicle 37 14 does not support multiple links and, consequently , vehicle 37 14 may only receive message 2 via connection 3732 to the DSRC RSU 3706.

1002391 A s discussed herein, multi-RAT, multi-link connectivity use cases may provide benefits when app lied in V2X communication

environments. The following are some of the benefits according to some aspects:

100240] Rel iabil ity Enhancements. In some asp ects, multi-link connections may imp rove link reliability through introducing time, frequency as well spatial diversity . For example, signals across multip le links, across the same or different nodes, using same or different frequency bands, may be combined at the PHY/'M AC (or higher lay ers) to improve link SINR (e g , through combining gain, as well as reduction of interference through using cooperation). The signals may also be used to re-transmit a packet on an alternative link should the p rimary link fail (e.g., cross-link

ret ran s mi ssi on/H A RQ ) . In some case, several links may be kept in hot- standby so that they may activated or used for fall back should the p rimary link go down. Furthermore, multi-link coding techniques at the PHY/MAC or netw ork lay er me be applied to imp rove the overall link reliability .

A dditionally , a multi-link scheduler may be configured to perform multi-link scheduling over multip le active links, to use the most reliable link at a given scheduling instant . The above-mentioned techniques may be used to reduce outage in a V2X sy stem and increase sy stem reliability .

1002411 Data Rate Enhancements. In some aspects, multip le connections may be used to simultaneously transmit data on multiple

V2I/V2N, V2V links as well as on a combination of links that span V2V and V2I connections. M ulti-link aggregation may also provide benefits towards improve overall peak rates of the link and potentially reduce latency .

[00242] Coverage Enhancements. In some aspects, multi-link, multi-hop relay ing may improve coverage for V2X communication. For example, a vehicle far from an RSU may make use of a nearby vehicle with a better connection to the RSU. Cooperation over V2V links or between infrastructure nodes (e.g., via backhaul links) may allow for interference reduction, cancellation, and SINR i mp rovement s t hrough cooperation.

[00243] QoS Enhancements. In some aspects, choice and selection of links that are matched to the traffic requirements of a given V2X connection may be help ful in improving QoS. For example, for latency sensitive traffic, the link with the lowest latency may be used, whereas a higher data rate link (e.g. mmWave) may be used to transfer bulk sensing information . For example, the control link to establish V2X, V2I connectivity may alway s be carried ov er a reliable licensed band link, whereas the dow nload of map information may be carried out over higher bandwidth links (such as mmWave for lowering latency ).

[00244] Control Channel Enhancements. In some aspects, similar to dual connectivity links, having a more reliable link, potentially with wider coverage, may p rovide for a more reliable and stable control channel connection. The reliable control channel may be used for orchestrating different ty pes of multi-link connectivity , radio resource allocation,

interference control, mobility management, and so forth. In some aspects, it may also be possible to assign multiple links to a transport control channel for improved diversity and reliability .

[00245] Handover Enhancements. In some aspects, multi-link connectivity may assist with "make before break" connections allowing for lower handover latency and interruption time. When multi-link connectivity is established over links that may have wide area cov erage, the number of handov ers needed is also reduced.

1002461 S ensing Enhancements. In some aspects, multiple links may also be used to dev elop more reliable sensing mechanisms, such as improv ed position estimation through using multiple links (multiple sources for radar).

[00247] In some aspects, multi-link discov ery protocols may be used to establish multi-link communications. M ulti-link discov ery may be based on different methods and may depend on the ty pe of link being discov ered (e.g. V2I, V2X, WLAN, LTE, etc.). The following techniques may, for example, be used for multi-link discovery :

100248] Centralized/Network Assisted. In some aspects, a central network controller (e g, associated with a base station) may be configured to provide assistance for link discov ery and may schedule or recommend multip le links for communication in a centralized manner. This assistance may be prov ided for, e.g., V2I links w herein the discov ery of V2V links will be left for LIE implementation and may use discov ery methods p rov ided by local V2V protocols. In some aspects, both V2I and V2V links may be scheduled by the central controller. Broadcast mechanisms may also be used to discover RSUs or other vehicles.

1002491 Distributed/IJE Assisted In some aspects, the discovery process may be partially distributed in that a multi-RAT vehicle may be configured to monitor several RATs for connection and to establish connections indep endent of the central controller. In some aspects, V2V instead of V2I assistance may be used in discov ery of up coming on nearby

RSUs.

[00250] Learning Based. In some asp ects, for vehicles following consistent trajectory, bases stations and RSUs nearby a traveled route may be learned and used to minimize the time for discovery process. Learning may occur using a variety of techniques, such as via trained artificial neural networks (A Ns), statistical models, or simply plotting detected base stations or RSUs on a map , or the like. To take the map example, a previous trip (e.g., a commute) may have detected a number of base stations at fixed locations along the route. In a future reoccurrence of the commute, foreknowledge of the base station locations may be used to, for example, avoid rediscovery of the base station, but rather use a comp acted form of connection (e.g., using p re-negotiated link setup p arameters) to reconnect to the base station.

[00251] Control Protocols. In some aspects, multi-link connection establishment, multi-link radio resource management, interference control, and so forth may be centralized or partially distributed. Similar to the discovery protocols, the control of establishing multi-link connectivity may be cent alized (network controlled or assisted) or may be distributed UE/device based.

[00252] In some aspects, the following radio resource management techniques may be used for multi-link connectivity :

100253] Network Utility Optimization. In some aspects, to assist with establishing multi-connectivity, a general "utility" based framework may be used, which seeks to balance maximization of the overall utility of establishing multiple links with the cost of operating with them. The utility framework may allow a p eruser/device utility to be defined as a combination of utilities across different traffic typ es. The network may then collectively optimize a sy stem-wide utility accounting for per user/device utilities.

1002541 Additionally , the cost of using multiple links may be accounted for within the optimization framework. One example metric that may be used to assign cost to multi-link cooperation (either multi-hop , or coop erative links), is the fraction of time a link spends in "assisting" or relaying for another "primary" link. Other cost functions, for example assigning a penalty based on power consumption etc. may also be used.

[00255] As an example, for a centralized decision-making function focusing on maximizing the aggregate (fairly allocated) throughput, the per link optimization metrics may take on the following form:

Ui (ReffA) = v-i (/(*! .,¾)) + ci - - ft)

Here, Reff- 's tne overall throughput obtained for the ith user/device after

accounting for cooperation, and ¾ is the fraction of time it spends on assisting other devices or links. For example, the rth vehicle, may serve as a relay to forward data from an RSU to another vehicle, while also receiving data for itself. In allocating resources, the central controller will make a decision on when to send data to vehicle i, hile also deciding on when to use the device as a relay . Here, the cent al controller may factor in the cost of relay ing in its decision making function.

[00256] Flow Control . In some aspects, multi-link management may be associated with ensuring stability of the queues in the network. This may be accomplished via controlling the scheduling and routing decisions, such as the packet arrival rate at each queue on network nodes is maintained, to ensure queue stability at each node. For example, queues may have a known capacity and processing latency (e.g., the time to process and remove a packet from the queue), and thus a known (or estimable) rate at w hich they may reliably accept traffic. To avoid oversatu ration of a queue, when a threshold traffic rate for that queue is app roached, the traffic may be routed to a different queue (e.g., in a different node). In an example, the traffic may be throttled by modify ing the scheduling of a p acket source (e.g., a requestor), or the like. Thus, queue stability may be maintained through these traffic management techniques.

[00257] Once the overall utility for each device is defined, the central scheduler may be configured to maximize the aggregate utility across all devices. Each device may be configured to make a "greedy" decision, for examp le, on combining links or selecting a link. For example, it may greedily maximize its utility without regard to cost, or alternately penalize itself based on the fraction of time it uses multip le links (presumably it wants to keep links free for cooperation, if it seeks to accept help from others). Alternate variations and formulations may also be considered.

[00258] While the utility formulation in the above example equation is defined in terms of effective throughput, the utility may be defined with regard to other metrics such as SNR/SINR for reliability, latency for delay sensitive traffic, and so forth, in this framework, the numeric utility value may be used to unify the different metrics as part of one framework. Similarly, the cost function may also be defined as a function of different metrics (for example, the extra p ower consumed during relaying or additional charge for using an addition link, etc.).

[00259] In some aspects, utility functions may be defined subjectively to measure the p erceived imp ortance of a given metric to a user, but generally a concave function (such as logarithm of a given metric) may be sufficient to steer towards a fair allocation of resources across users). In some aspects, an "effective throughp ut" (or equivalent effective metric, such as combined SI K ) may be used to account for multi-link transmissions. In alternate formulations, the utility may be directly expressed as a function of per link metric and then subsequently combined.

[00260] In some aspects, the notion of utility may be different for different devices in the network. For example, an end user device may measure utility as a function of user or QoS satisfaction (such as a vehicle may weight a link used for exchanging safety critical information with highest utility), where a network may operate to address system wide utilities (such as aggregate utility across users, overall network utilization across the network). Combining utilities from different perspectives as well as exchanging such utilities across the network may also be incorporated in the overall framework.

[00261] FIG. 38 illustrates an exemplary communication flow of communications associated with radio resource management for multi-link connectivity within a V2X communication environment according to some aspects described herein. Referring toFIG. 29 and FIG. 38, the example communication flow 3800 may occur between a first vehicle 3802, a line of sight (LOS) vehicle 3804, a non-line of sight (Nl.OS) vehicle 3806, a

secondary cell 3808, a secondary cell 3810, and an anchor cell 3812. The vehicles 3802-3806 may be any of thevehicies 2908-2914 in FIG. 29. The secondary cells 3808 and 3810 may be any of RSUs 2904 and 2906, and the anchor cell 3812 may be the primary node 2902.

[00262] At 3814, wide-area communication links may be established between the vehicles 3802-3806, the secondary cells 3808-3810, and the anchor cell 3812. Additionally , at 3814, measurement reporting may take place between the V2X enabled devices 3802-3812. For example,

measurement reporting may include location information, trajectory information associated with a moving vehicle, link utility preferences, communication link quality measurements, and so forth associated with communication links between one or more of the V2X enabled devices 3802-3812. At 3816, V2V communication links may be established between two or more of the vehicles 3802-3806. At 3818, secondary cells 3808 and 3810 (which may be RSUs) may form a local map information which may include device map information associated with the V2X communication environment of devices 3802-3812.

[00263] At 820, the anchor cell 38 12 may create a map of vehicle locations based on the information obtained during measurement reporting at 3814 as well as the information collected at 3818 bv the secondary cell 3808-3810. The anchor cell 3812 may further assemble information on multi-radio, multi-link connectivity preferences, utility preferences and communication link load information.

[00264] At 3822, opportunistic V2V communication may take place between two or more of the vehicle 3802-3806. In some aspects, sensing information may be exchanged during the opportunistic V2V communication. At 3824 the anchor cell 38 12 may assist one or more of the vehicles 802-3806 with V2V connectivity, based on utility, channel quality, network topology, and communication link load information. In some aspects, at 3826, user equipment (e.g., a vehicular terminal device within the vehicle 3802) may adapt one or more weighting preferences based on the vehicle 3802 expected trajectory information, to indicate a preference for lower band R AT communications. Consequently , the vehicular terminal device may adapt one or more parameters of a utility function to derive more utility from an increased SINR associated with a communication link. At 3828, the vehicle 3802 may up date utility function parameters and weights with the anchor cell 3812, to indicate one or more preferences for coverage and RAT s that may provide better coverage and communication links with better signal quality . At 3832, the anchor cell 3812, based on the up dated utility and multi-RAT p references indicated by the vehicle 3802, may establish connectivity to the vehicle 3802 over a lower band RAT .

[00265] At 3830, the anchor cell 38 12 may optionally provide assistance to the vehicle 3804 for neighboring device discovery . At 3834 the actor cell 3812 may also provide assistance to the vehicle 3802 for

neighboring device discover}' . At 3836, after a V2V communication link has been established between a vehicle 3802 and 3804, sensor data may be communicated from vehicle 3804 to vehicle 3802.

[00266] In some asp ects described herein, different utility functions may be defined and combined across metrics and links towards a net utility metric. FIG. 39 illustrates exemplary grap hs 3902, 3904, and 3906 of a utility function for network traffic with different quality of serv ice requirements within a V2X communication environment according to some aspects described herein. FIG. 39 illustrates how a utility function may be defined for traffic with different quality of service requirements. For example, the utility function 3902 defined for voice traffic seeks to maintain the minimum rate for a voice call . The user derives no additional utility , once that minimum data rate is achieved. Similarly , for time sensitive traffic (graph 3906), the user derives no utility for data that is delivered past the delay deadline. In some aspects, the delay deadline may also be cast as a minimum throughput that needs to be maintained bey ond which the utility approaches zero. Once the utility is defined for the different traffic ty p es sup ported by a user/device, the disparate utility functions may be combined consistently .

[00267] In some asp ect s, an extended utility formulation may be used in a V2X communication environment . For example, per device utility for each communication link may be assumed to be derived based on utility across several attributes, and the weighting of such attributes may be based on

operator, user or network considerations. In some aspects, user/device utility may be defined in terms of attributes such as cost, throughput, power efficiency , delay, etc. Specifically , the utility for the ith user across jth attribute may be given as:


which may be further broken into components that are based on op erator and user preferences (for example, a product of weighted utility based on operator or user/device preferences may be computed). The utility function may be used to characterize the usefulness of an attribute to a user/device, whereas the utility weights may be used to characterize the relative preference for the attribute.

100268 ] In some asp ects, utility functions may be p arametrized to obtain a different utility function, given a specific value of the attribute of interest. In this regard, utility definition may be ap plication dependent and may be set differently for each attribute and user. As noted, for best effort data, a linear function of throughp ut may be ap plicable, where increasing throughput y ields increasing user utility . In case of voice ap plication, a step function where the utility is zero below a minimum threshold rate, and is fixed above may apply . The utility function may be parameterized by a set of discrete p arameters, which may completely characterize the utility function. Adjusting the parameters may change the slope as well as the mean location of the utility function. Hence, adapting the utility as preference, or n et w ork/ ch an n el conditions change may be accomplished. Further, such changes may be communicated across the network by simply communicating the parameters of the utility function.

100269] In some asp ects, several methods for combining utilities across different attributes may be used. Potentially , each device may combine these utilities or the central entity may combine and weight device utilities across metrics. For example, attributes such as user throughput are dependent on the load and how resources are allocated across communication links, and it may be preferred that the network combine the utilities across different attributes. To combine the utilities, the utilities may be summed up with equal weights.

or a product of the utilities may be computed. Other options may also be used, such as weighting of each attribute may be determined by computing its relative entropy across a given set of attribute values.

[00270] In some aspects in the context of V2X communication networks, the centralized radio resource management (RRM ) may be carried out at an RSU or via a macro cell depending on the sp ecific use case. In some instances, RRM may also be carried out by the designated vehicle, for examp le the designated p latoon leader within the platoon or a convoy of vehicles. In some aspects, each individual vehicle may optimize a local utility t o p erform link s el ect i on/aggregat ion, etc. In an aspect, the measurements, exchange of utility information, link preferences et . and resource assignment may be carried out over a common control link (e.g., a cellular link ), which may ensure reliability of such communication. In other aspects, especially where distributed RRM is enabled, the vehicles may op portunistically exchange measurement information using local V2V links, or such

coordination is exchanged via V21 assistance from the RSU, which may serve as a repository of a " Radio Env ironment M ap" as well as hav e knowledge of vehicle trajectories, vehicle distribution, and av ailable resources (in terms of nearby RSUs, services available for V2X usages, such as directory servers to download map s, connectivity information, etc. ).

[00271] In some asp ects, optimizing multi-link communication across the v arious communication scenarios discussed herein may include a significant exchange of information within the network in both distributed and (partially ) centralized modes of operation. Techniques discussed herein may use a multi-link based control channel for exchange of measurement, feedback and control information. In some aspects, coded transmission may be employ ed to imp rov e reliability of the control channel. In other aspects, control information may be coded into blocks and sent redundantly over multiple links such that receiving a sub-set of the information is sufficient to decode the control information . For examp le, both D SRC and LTE bands may be used simultaneously to send out control signaling information .

[00272] In some aspects, potentially multi-link aggregation may occur at different depths in the p rotocol stack (e , multiple links may be combined at the PHY lay er as is the case of channel bonding in WLAN sy stems, or at the M AC orPDCP la er as is the case of LTE CA and DC modes). In some aspects, IP layer interworking may be suitable for multi-RAT standards that are not fully integrated into 3 GPP sy stems.

[00273] In some aspects, a convergence function for multi-radios may be used for vehicular communication as well as other V2X communication scenarios. The V2X multi-radio convergence may be used in alternative architectures and mechanisms to address the challenges related to multi-radio communications ( in a V2X context), given the mobility and the need for fast transition among radios and utilizing the availability of multiple connections for each location. The V2X multi-radio convergence may also be used to improve the performance and user experience by sharing context,

management, and other information among radios for various V2X use cases, as discussed in greater detail herein below.

100274] In some aspects, a V2X convergence function may be configured to perform one or more of the following functionalities, for examp le: (a) utilizing localization/ranging measurements/information available from all radios for enhanced accuracy ; (b) utilizing location information, interference, coverage, throughp ut, and other information provided by each radio as well as the context to select which radio to use for each application and smoothly transition among radios, if needed; (c) enabling interference mitigation among radios within a V2X device; (d) enable interference reduction among multip le devices by radio management; (e) utilizing shared credentials, information about available networks, and context of use to enable fast connection establishment, and smooth and fast transition among networks or cells; (f) enhance power efficiency by optimizing the utilization of radio for different t y p e of t raffi c/d at a ; and (g) provide a unified interface to the user/application hides all aspects for radio management from the user as well as app lications.

10027 1 FIG. 40 illustrates exemplary WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in a V2X device using separate V2X convergence functions according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 40, there is illustrated a W A VE protocol stack 4000 and an LTE protocol stack 4001 using separate

convergence functions in the up per Layer 2 of a V2X enabled device (e.g, a car, an RSU, etc.). Even though protocol stacks for only two radios are illustrated in FIG. 40, the disclosure is not limited in this regard and protocol stacks for radios operating in other communication technologies may also use the V2X convergence functionality . In this regard, WAVE and L I E p otocol stacks of independently operating WAVE and LT E radios are illustrated as examples in F IG. 40 and FIG. 4 1 .

1002761 The WAVE p rotocol stack 4000 includes a phy sical (PHY) layer 40 1 8, a lower media ciCCCS S control (M AC ) lay er 40 16, an p p e M A lay er 40 14, a logical link control (LLC) Sublay er 40 12, a WAVE Short

Message Protocol (WSM P) n et w ork/t ran s p ort lay er 4004, an Internet protocol (IP) transport lay er 40 1 0, user datagram protocol (UDP) session lay er 4006, and transmission control protocol (TCP) session lay er 4008. The protocol stack 4000 may communicate with higher lay er applications 4002 associated with the WA VE radio.

[00277] Similarly , the L I E p rotocol stack 400 1 includes a PHY lay er

4040, a M AC lay er 4038, a radio link control (RLC ) lay er 4036, a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) lay er 4034, a radio resource control ( RRC ) lay er 4032, an Internet protocol (IP) transport lay er 4030, user datagram protocol (UDP) session lay er 4024, transmission control protocol (TCP) session lay er 4026, and non-access stratum (N AS) lay er 4028. The protocol stack 4001 may communicate with higher lay er app lications 4022 associated with the LTE radio.

100278] In some asp ects, a V2X convergence function (e.g., 4020 and 4042) may be added to upper Lay er 2 in each protocol stack (e.g., 4000 and 4001), with the V2X convergence functions being communicatively coupled to each other via interfaces. As seen in FIG. 40, the V2X convergence function 4020 within the W AVE protocol stack 4000 is communicatively coupled to the V2X convergence function 4042 within the LTE protocol stack 4001 via the interface 4021.

100279] In some aspects, each of the V2X convergence functions may be configured to provide a common multi-radio data traffic interface or multi- radio management interface transparent to the applications (e.g., 4002 and 4022), common serv ices among multiple co-located radios, interfaces or mechanisms arranged to perform for multi-radio information exchange, common load balancing functionalities, resource allocation and channel access coordination while limiting intra-device interference and coexistence challenges. In this regard, the V2X convergence functions may be used to improve over-t he-air and environment-to-environnient (E2E) security , device power efficiency, as well as to enhance cooperative discoveiy and connection setup .

[00280] In some asp ects, the IEEE 1905.1 standard may be used for specifying convergence functionalities between radios. The IEEE 1905. 1 standard, however, is associated with network convergence in digital homes, specifying a convergence layer as Lay er 2.5 communicating with a peer convergence lay er over either one or a multiple of media access technologies (access technologies used in IEEE 1905.1 include multimedia-over-coax-alliance ( M oCA ), Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and power line communications (PLC)) without requiring any changes to their lower lay ers.

[00281] The V2X conv ergence functionalities in accordance with some aspects discussed herein may be distinguished from the IEEE 1 05. 1 standard in multiple way s. For example, IEEE 1905.1 targets home networks, while

V2X convergence solutions according to some asp ects discussed herein targets V2X networks where mobility and dy namic nature of the environment introduce new and specific challenges (e.g., availability of radios and bandwidth availability of different radios dy amically changes). In this regard, the V2X conv ergence techniques according to some aspects discussed herein extend the framework to radios used in V2X communications, including cellular, WAVE, Bluetooth, and other ty pes of radios. The communication framework may be extended so that it is not limited to a separate la er op erating independently from the medium access technology underneath, but rather it may be part of the up per M AC of the radios, enabling unified operation of the dev ice radios for increased efficiency and improv ed performance. Consequently , the V2X conv ergence techniques discussed herein further optimize and imp rov e the user experience among any two

devices that have a common set of radios, as tunneling of traffic of one radio over the other, as well as management of operation of one radio (e.g., Wi-Fi) via another radio (e.g., via Cellular), may be achieved. Furthermore, discovery , onboarding and authentication, and association of devices may be done in a common way via communication between V2X convergence layers/functions of multiple devices, making services provided by one radio available for the other.

[00282] In some aspects, the V2X convergence function (e.g., 4020 and

4042) may provide a communication interface between multiple device radios within the device as well as to multiple radios at one or more other devices via their corresponding convergence functions. In some aspects, the V2X convergence function (e.g., 4020 and 4042) may be achieved through enhancing existing control functions on the 3 GPP RATs. For example, the functionalities discussed herein may according to some aspects be associated with a generic convergence function and its key properties, including interfacing with the control functionalities of existing standards using signaling and interactions in specific V2X scenarios (e.g., as outlined in connection with one or more of FIG. 29 - FIG. 37).

[00283] FIG. 41 illustrates exemplary WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in a V2X device using a common V2X convergence layer according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 41, there is illustrated a WA VE protocol stack 4100 and an LTE protocol stack 4101 using a common V2X convergence layer in the upper Layer 2 of a V2X enabled device (e.g., a car, an RSU, etc.).

100284] The WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in FIG. 41 are similar to the WAVE and LTE protocol stacks illustrated in FIG. 40. M ore specifically, the WAVE protocol stack 4100 includes a PHY layer 4 120, a lower WAVE M AC lay er 4118, a WAVE up p er M AC lay er 4116, an LLC sublay er 4114, a WSMP network/transport layer 4104, an IP transport layer 41 10, a Li DP session layer 4106, and a TCP session layer 4108.

[00285] Similarly , the LTE protocol stack 4101 includes a PHY la er

4132, a M AC lay er 4130, an RLC layer 4128, a PDCP lay er 4126, an RRC

layer 4124, an IP transport layer 4110, an AS layer 4122, and a TCP layer 4108. The protocol stacks 4100 and 4101 may communicate with higher layer applications 4102 associated with the WAVE and LIT: radios.

[00286] In some aspects, a common V2X convergence function may be added as a common lay er 4112 within the p rotocol stacks 4100 and 4101. The V2X convergence layer 4112 may include logic, which may be aware of available, call located radios on the dev ice, and may coordi n at e t h e op erat i on of the radios at different layers while exposing a common communication interface to the higher layers.

[00287] In some aspects, the V2X conv ergence functionality provided by the V2X convergence function (4020 and 4042) or the V2X convergence function layer 4112 may provide multiple alternative connections for applications, and may enable aggregation of the traffic over multiple radios. By using the V2X convergence functionality described herein, the control p lane traffic may be carried ov er a different radio, and the control plane functions may be shared between radios. In this regard, the services of one radio may become available to another radio via the V2X convergence function.

[00288] In some aspects, the V2X convergence layer 4112 may provide a common interface for one or more radios to the up p er lay ers and

applications. This interface may include both data and control plane interfaces. The data plane interface may include multiple traffic prioritizations related to, for examp le, safety , time sensitivity , best effort, and so forth, depending on the differentiation capabilities of the radios underneath. The control plane interface may provide an aggregate of the control functions available by the radios.

1002891 In some aspects, the interface of the individual V2X

convergence functions (e.g., 4020 and 4042) to higher layers may remain specific to each radio.

100290] In some aspects, the decision regarding placement of the V2X convergence layer may be based on one or more of the following factors. Performance-driven applications may request the V2X convergence

function/lay er to be placed lower in the protocol stack, therefore avoiding propagating the messages from the V2X f u n ct i on/1 ay er h i gh er in the stack. In some asp ects, applications performing billing based on transmitted V2X convergence function messages may require more or less data granularity , therefore influencing the placement of the V2X convergence lay er. In some aspects, dy namic placement of the V2X convergence function/lay er may be used, in order to sup p ort incompatibility issues in the lower lay ers of the p rotocol stack.

|002911 In some asp ects, placement of the V2X convergence

function/lay er may be based on security considerations. For example, depending on the specific context requirements, it may be necessary to establish secure sessions, which are protected by cry p t ograp h i c m ech an i s m . Difficulty /ease of key management of t h e adop t ed st rat egj es could also impact on the placement of the V2X convergence lay er.

[00292] FIG. 42 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios of a handheld device and a vehicular terminal device according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 42, the V2X communication environment 4200 may include a handheld dev ice 4202 and a vehicle 4204. The handheld device 4202 may include multiple transceiver radios, w hich may be configured to operate in a p lurality of radio communication technologies.

For example, the handheld device 4202 may include an LTE radio 4208, a Wi-Fi radio 42 1 0, and a Bluetooth radio (or dock ) 42 12. The transceiver radios 4208, 42 10, and 42 12 may be interfaced to each other via a V2X conv ergence function 4206.

100293] The vehicle 4204 may also include multiple transceiv er radios, which may be configured to operate in a p lurality of radio communication technologies. For example, the vehicle 4204 may include an LTE radio 42 1 8, a Wi-Fi radio 42 16, and a Bluetooth radio (or dock) 42 14. The transceiver radios 42 1 8, 42 16, and 42 14 may be interfaced to each other via a V2X conv ergence function 4220. In some aspects, the convergence functions 4206 and 4220 may be similar to the V2X convergence functions 4020 and 4042 in F IG. 40 or the V2X convergence function lay er 4 1 1 2 in FIG. 4 1 .

100294] In some asp ects as illustrated in FIG. 42, the handheld device 4202 may be connected with the vehicle 4204 so that both the device 4202 and the vehicle 4204 have access to the collective set of radios ( and

communication services offered by such radios) via the corres ondin V2 X convergence functions 4206 and 4220. The connection of the handheld device 4202 to the vehicle 4204 may be achieved, for examp le, either through a dock (e.g., 42 12 and 42 14) or by establishing a Bluetooth link between the device 4202 and the vehicle 4204 via the Bluetooth radios 42 12 and 42 14 ( in instances when no dock is available).

100295] In operation, the handheld device 4202 may be paired (at 4230) with the vehicle 4204 using, for example, a dock or a Bluetooth connection . After pairing 4230 has concluded, the V2X convergence function 4206 in the handheld device 4202 and the V2X convergence function 4220 in the vehicle 4204 may establish connection and perform a capability exchange 4232. The convergence function 4206 in the handheld device 4202 and the convergence function 4220 in the vehicle 4204 are informed of the availability of the other device following the pairing 4230. The handheld device 4202 and the vehicle 4204 will learn whether convergence functionality is available on the other device. In some aspects, the vehicle 4204 may take the role of a master dev ice and may inquire the handheld dev ice 4202 over the established Bluetooth connection, and a receipt at the vehicle 4204 of a resp onse from the handheld dev ice 4202 may indicate the p resence of a convergence function 4206 at the handheld device 4202.

100296] During the capability exchange 4232, an inter-convergence function interface may be established between the V2X convergence functions 4206 and 4220, which allows the tw o convergence functions to learn about the radios and services (e.g, data, emergency services, radio bands, location, device int erface, etc. ) available at t he device 4202 and the v ehicle 4204. The interface from the conv ergence function (e.g, 4220) of the master dev ice (e.g., 4204) to the user dev ice (e.g., 4202 ) may be used for selection of collectiv e serv ices available to the user. In some aspects, a p rimary radio (e.g., in the vehicle 4204) may be designated to be the master interface for initiating connection establishment and convergence function discovery , or this p rocess may be initiated via a common control channel which facilitates discovery of radios and other service information across radios operating in a given area. In some aspect s, service discovery or prioritizing a given R AT as an anchor RAT may also be used for connection establishment and capability exchange between the convergence functions.

[00297] Following the pairing of the user's handheld device 4202 w ith the vehicle 4204, the handheld device 4202 may be configured to save power by shutting down the Wi-Fi radio 42 10 and using the v ehicle's Wi-Fi radio 42 16 (which may be performed when the device 4202 is not docked and only a Bluetooth connection to the v ehicle 4204 is av ailable). A s seen during the communication exchange 4260, the convergence function 4206 of the handheld device 4202 may collect and share the relevant credentials and information with the v ehicle's convergence function 4220. At 4234, the convergence function 4206 may collect credential information from the Wi-Fi radio 42 10 and communicate the collected credential information with the convergence function 4220 at the vehicle 4204 during the information exchange 4236, and make the collected Wi-Fi credentials of the handheld device 4202 av ailable to the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 on the vehicle 4204 (e.g., during communication 4242 from the convergence function 4220 to the Wi-Fi radio 42 16). The two conv ergence functions 4206 and 4220 may perform a handshake on the readiness of the sy stem and achieve an agreement on radio switching and transfer of radio state (e.g. at 4238) before the Wi-Fi radio 42 10 on the handheld is turned off (e.g., at 4240) or put to p ower save mode.

[00298] At 4244, the Wi-Fi radio 42 1 0 may be put in a p ower save mode or turned off. At 4246, the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 in the vehicle 4204 may be turned on and may operate using the credential information receiv ed from the Wi-Fi radio 42 10 via the conv ergence functions 4206 and 4220. Additionally , assuming user's access to an operator managed Wi-Fi network, the

communication and exchange of credential information between the conv ergence functions 4206 and 4220 may extend that capability to the vehicle 4204, enabling a connection to the operator managed Wi-Fi network for the vehicle 4204 w hile being on the road and for the benefit of the vehicle passengers.

100299] In some asp ects, a similar communication exchange as the exchange 4260 may take place with regard to the LTE radios 4208 and 4218 using a connection establishment and capability exchange via the V2X convergence functions 4206 and 4220. In this case, theLTE radio 4218 of the vehicle 4204 may take over the LTE operation for the LTE radio 4208 in the handheld device 4202, and services may become available to the user through the car infotainment sy stem using the common interface of the V2X convergence function 4220 to all available radios within the vehicle 4204.

[00300] As seen during the communication exchange 4270, a notification and confirmation exchange 4248 may take place between the Bluetooth radios 42 12 and 42 14, to confirm that the handheld device LTE radio 4208 may serve as a backhaul for the hot spot established by the vehicle Wi-Fi radio 42 1 6. At 4250, a data path may be established between theLTE radio 4208 and the V2X convergence function 4206 w ithin the handheld device 4202. Similarly , at 4252, a data path may be established between the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 and the V2X convergence function 4220 of the vehicle 4204. In this regard, the LTE radio 4208 may op erate as a backhaul (at 4254), while the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 of the vehicle 4204 is operating as a hot spot (at 4256). The operation of the LTE radio 4208 as a backhaul connection for the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 may enable a unified charging for the user through the handheld device 4202, and extend the services available to the user to any vehicle that the user rides. For examp le, a rental vehicle w ith a V2X convergence function between the cell p hone and the vehicle, may become capable of p roviding backhaul Internet connection and Wi-Fi hot spot serv ices in the vehicle for the vehicle passengers.

[00301] FIG. 43 illustrates an exemplary flow diagram of examp le operations for convergence of communication radios of a handheld device and a vehicular terminal device according to some aspects described herein.

Referring to FIG. 43, an example method 4300 for performing vehicular radio communications may start at 4302, when a connection with a second communication dev ice may be established using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a first vehicular radio communication technology of a p lurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies. For example, the Bluetooth radio 42 12 within the handheld device 4202 may establish a connection with the Bluetooth radio 42 14 within the vehicle 4204. At 4304, credentials information associated with an act i v e com m un i cat i on link between the second communication device and a third communication device, may be received via a convergence function at the second communication device. For example, the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 at the vehicle 4204 may receive credential information from the Wi-Fi radio 42 10 at the handheld device 4202 via the V2X convergence functions 4206 and 4220. The active

communication link may include a Wi-Fi communication link between the handheld device 4202 and another wireless device such as an access point or a base station. At 4306, a communication link with the third communication device may be established based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device. For example, the Wi-Fi radio 42 16 w ithin the vehicle 4204 may establish communication with the wireless access p oint or base station using the credential information received from the Wi-Fi radio 42 10 at the handheld device 4202 via the connection between the convergence functions 4206 and 4220.

[00302] FIG. 44 illustrates an exemplary softw are defined networking

( SDN ) V2X controller using a V2X convergence lay er in a vehicular terminal device according to some asp ects described herein. Referring to FIG . 44, the vehicular terminal device 4400 may include an RF transceiver 440 1 and a V2X controller 4408. The RF transceiver 440 1 and the V2X cont oller 4408 may have similar functionalities to the RF transceiv er 4202 and the controller 4206 illustrated in FIG. 16. In some aspects, the RF transceiv er 440 1 may include a plurality of transceivers (e.g., 4402-4406), each transceiver associated with a different vehicular communication technology . In some aspects, the RF transceiv ers 4402, 4404, and 4406 may be, for example, a DSRC transceiv er, and LTE - V2X transceiv er, and a 5G - V2X transceiv er, respectiv ely .

1003031 In some asp ects, the V2X controller 4408 may be an SDN V2X controller, implementing a V2X convergence lay er 44 12 (which may be similar to 1 12B). In some aspects, the V2X SDN controller 4408 may be communicativ ely coupled to the RF transceiv ers 4402-4406 using an in-

vehicle network 4410, hich may include an Ethernet time sensitive network (TSN). In some aspects, the V2X SDN controller 4408 may implement the V2X convergence layer 4412 as well as one or more different radio protocol stacks. Example protocol stacks that may be implemented by the V2X SDN controller 4408 include a DSRC protocol stack 4402 A, and LTE-V2X protocol stack 4404 A, and a 5G-V2X protocol stack 4406 A.

[00304] FIG. 45 illustrates exemplary WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in a V2X device 4500 using a common V2X convergence function 45 10 and proximity -based services (ProSe) protocol layer 4530 in the LTE p rotocol stack 4504 according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 45, there is illustrated a WAVE protocol stack 4502 and an LTE protocol stack 4504 using a common V2X convergence layer in the upper Layer 2 of a V2X enabled device as well as a ProSe protocol layer 4530 in the LTE protocol stack 4504.

[00305] The WAVE and LTE protocol stacks in FIG. 45 are similar to the WAVE and LTE protocol stacks illustrated in FIG. 41. More specifically, the WAVE protocol stack 4502 may include a PHY layer 4518, a lower WAVE MAC layer 4516, a WAVE upper M AC lay er 45 14, an LLC sublayer 45 12, a WSMP networks ransp ort layer 4508, an IP transport layer 4524, a LI DP session lay er 4520, and a TCP session layer 4522.

100306] Similarly , the LTE protocol stack 4504 may include a PHY layer 4538, a MAC layer 4536, an RLC layer 4534, a PDCP lay er 4532, a ProSe protocol layer 4530, an RRC layer 4528, an IP transport layer 4524, an NAS layer 4526, and a TCP layer 4522. Theprotocol stacks 4502 and 4504 may communicate with higher layer applications 4506 associated with the WAVE and LTE radios.

[00307] In some aspects, a common V2X convergence function may be added as a common layer 4510 within theprotocol stacks 4502 and 4504. The V2X convergence lay er 41 12 may include logic, which may be aware of available, call located radios on the device, and may coordinate the operation of the radios at different layers while exposing a common communication interface to the higher layers.

100308] In an example, the V2X device 4500 may include a ProSe/PC5 interface between the V2X device 4500 (e.g., a net work relay UE) and another V2X device (e.g., a user equipment or UE), based on functionalities provided by the ProSe protocol lay er 4530. In this case, an Evolved UE-to- etwork Relay (e.g., 4500), defined by 3GPP Rel- 14 ; , may function as a relay for an Evolved ProSe Remote UE, During the relay selection procedure, the 3GPP sy stem may take into consideration the fact that there is a convergence function (e.g., 45 10 ) available at the relay when deciding the best relay to connect. This information may be advertised by the relay UE to the remote UE when the remote UE is selecting the relay . Optionally , the 3 GPP network may know the relay capabilities and may assist the remote U during relay selection (a similar process may take place for relay reselection ). The V2X convergence lay er 45 10 may be configured to further interwork with RRC control functions of the LTE interface or its enhancements specified for multi-radio device-to-device (D2D) operations.

[00309] FIG. 46 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and a roadside unit ( RSU ) to exchange network and measurement information according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG . 46, the V2X communication network 4600 may include a V2X enabled vehicle 4601 and an RSU 4603. The vehicle 460 1 may include multip le transceiver radios, which may be configured to op erate in a plurality of radio communication technologies. For example, the vehicle 460 1 may include an LTE radio 4606 and a Wi-Fi radio 4604. The transceiver radios 4606 and 4604 may be interfaced to each other via a V2X convergence function 4602.

[00310] The RSU 4603 may also include multiple transceiver radios, which may be configured to operate in a plurality of radio communication technologies. For example, the RSU 4603 may include an LTE radio 4608 and a Wi-Fi radio 4610. The transceiver radios 4608 and 46 1 0 may be interfaced to each other via a V2X convergence function 46 1 2. In some asp ects, the convergence functions 4602 and 46 12 may be similar to the V2 convergence functions 4020 and 4042 in FIG. 40 or the V2X convergence function lay er 4 1 12 in FIG. 4 1 .

[00311] In some asp ects, a communication link may be established at

4618 between the LTE radio 4606 within the vehicle 4601 and theLTE radio 4608 within theRSU 4603. In this regard, a communication link is also established between the convergence functions 4602 and 4612 using the connection between theLTE radios.

[00312] In some asp ects, a first radio within the vehicle 4601 may share information directly via the convergence function 4602 with a second radio within the RSU 4603 via the convergence function 46 1 2, rather than through applications and higher lay ers. The shared information may be context dependent to the first radio (e.g., context aware data) and not readily available to the other radios within the vehicle 4601 or the RSU 4603. In some aspects, the shared information may include measurements available to one radio, which may be used to improve or enhance the performance or operation of the other (receiving) radio. For example, the shared information may include link quality measurement, measured local interference, and so forth. This information may be used by the receiving radio to improve its performance by, e.g., adjusting the channel access parameters or the transmit power based on the congestion information and the link measurement information.

[00313] In some asp ects, as seen in FIG. 46, congestion information 46 14 may be communicated from the Wi-Fi radio 46 10 to the convergence function 4612 within theRSU 4603. Additionally , channel measurement information, distance informat ion (e g., distance of vehicle 460 1 to the RSU 4603), or vehicle density information 46 1 6 may be communicated from the LTE radio 4608 to the convergence function 46 12 within the RSU 4603. The information 46 14 and 46 16 received at the convergence function 46 12 may then be shared with the vehicle 460 1 via the convergence function 4602 (e.g., via the communication exchange 46 1 8). The received information 46 14 and 46 16 at the convergence function 4602 may be shared to one or more radios within the vehicle 4601. For examp le, during information exchange 4620, the congestion information 46 14 and the information 46 1 6 may be shared with the Wi-Fi radio 4604. In response, the Wi-Fi radio 4604 may communicate back to the convergence function 4602 a decision to switch communications using the Wi-Fi radios 4604 and 46 10 as well as channel access information or other raw information for purposes of improving or changing the connection between the vehicle 4601 and the RSU 4603.

[00314] In some asp ects, the rep eat rate of safety and other messages for WAVE communications may depend on the density of the vehicles within the surrounding area. In some aspects, one or more algorithms and techniques that reduce the broadcasting rate and the number of broadcasting nodes to a near optimal case may be used to reduce the congestion and performance degradation and safety issues raised due to congestion in dense environments. However, implementation of such techniques may be associated with the use of a dedicated channel or otherwise a coordination mechanism in the background, and a cellular connection between the vehicle 4601 and theRSU 4603 via theLTE radios 4606 and 4610 may serve such a pur ose.

[00315] In some aspects, in instances when the vehicle 4601 and the

RSU 4603 include WAVE radios, the channel access parameters (e.g., transmit power, A IF parameters, and so forth) as well as repeat rate of V2X messages may be set by higher layers dependent on density of the network or other parameters. Such information may be locally computed and may be available at RSUs with greater accuracy . However, ret ieving such information from the RSU 4603 by the vehicle 4601 over a WAVE radio may not be efficient. Given that the cellular connection has a loner range, the information about density available to theRSU 4603, which may be equipped with both cellular and WAVE radios, may be made available to the vehicle WAVE radio for the area ahead via the cellular connection using the LTE radios 4606 and 4608.

[00316] In some aspects, the cellular connection between the vehicle

4601 and the RSU 4603 may be used to facilitate the transition between Wi-Fi access points (APs). In instances when the RSU 4603 is equipped with both cellular and Wi-Fi radios, the longer range of the cellular radio may allow the convergence functions 4612 and 4602 (of theRSU 4603 and the vehicle 4601) to exchange information about the distance to the RSU (which may be used to estimate the signal strength to the Wi-Fi AP) and collect information about the available bandwidth in the AP in advance, to make a decision on whether or not to sw itch to the AP and at what time to do so.

[00317] FIG. 47 illustrates an exemplary flow diagram of example operations for adjusting channel access parameters based on convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and an RSU according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 47, an example method 4700 for vehicular radio communications may start at 4702, when a cellular communication link may be established with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of a p lurality of transceivers. For example, the LIE radio 4606 at the vehicle 460 1 may establish a cellular communication link with the LTE radio 4608 at the RSU 4603.

[00318] At 4704, congestion information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the second communication device may be received at a convergence protocol lay er, where the convergence protocol lay er is common to the plurality of transceivers. For example, congestion information associated with the Wi-Fi radio 4610 may be communicated to the

convergence function 46 1 2 w ithin the RSU 4603. The congestion information 46 14 is then forwarded to the vehicle 460 1 via a communication link between the convergence functions 46 12 and 4602. At the vehicle 460 1 , the received congestion information may be forwarded by the convergence function 4602 to the Wi-Fi radio 4604 for further processing and making a decision on adjusting one or more channel access parameters or sw it ching communi cat i on links.

[00319] At 4706, one or more channel access parameters of a non-cellular communication channel associated w ith a second transceiver of the p lurality of transceivers is adjusted, based on the congestion information. For example, the Wi-Fi radio 4604 may adjust one or more channel access parameters (e.g., switch to a communication channel that is non-congested) based on the congestion information received from the Wi-Fi radio 46 10 at the RSU 4603.

[00320] FIG. 48 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and an RSU to exchange credentials information according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 48, the V2X communication netw ork 4800 may include a V2X enabled vehicle 4802 and an RSU 4804. The vehicle 4802 may include multip le transceiver

radios, which may be configured to operate in a plurality of radio

communication technologies. For example, the vehicle 4802 may include an LTE radio 4810 and a Wi-Fi radio 4808. The transceiver radios 4810 and 4808 may be interfaced to each other via a V2X convergence function 4806.

[00321] The RSU 4804 may also include multiple transceiver radios, which may be configured to operate in a plurality of radio communication technologies. For example, the RSU 4804 may include an LTE radio 4812 and a Wi-Fi radio 4814. The transceiver radios 4812 and 4814 may be interfaced to each other via a V2X convergence function 4816. In some aspects, the convergence functions 4806 and 4816 may be similar to the V2X convergence functions 4020 and 4042 in FIG. 40 or the V2X convergence function layer 4112 in FIG. 41.

[00322] In some aspects, a communication link may be established at

4820 between the LT E radio 48 0 within the vehicle 4802 and the LTE radio 4812 within the RSU 4804. In this regard, a communication link is also established between the convergence functions 4806 and 4816 using the connection between the LTE radios 48 10 and 48 12.

1003231 In the V2X communication network 4800 where the vehicle

4802 is mobile, the communicating devices and the choice of connection and radio changes as the vehicle 4802 moves. For example, the RSU 4804 may be connected to one or more Wi-Fi access points, which the vehicle 4802 may use while in the range of the RSU 4804. However, a different RSU with a different set of Wi-Fi access points may become within range as the vehicle 4802 moves. Sharing of information about the networks (e.g., congestion, available bandwidth, and so forth) as ell as authentication credentials may allow for smooth transition and fast switching among the networks, APs, base stations and so forth.

[00324] In some aspects, Wi-Fi connections may be made for a moving vehicle 4802 with applications demanding continued service by use of the convergence function 4806 via a cellular connection using the LTE radio 48 10 in advance, enabling a m ak e-b efore-b reak/i n t err u p t free experience for the user. For example, after a communication link is established between the LTE

radios 4810 and 4812, so that the Wi-Fi radio 4814 at the RSU 4804 may establish a communication link with a Wi-Fi station in range of the RSU using the Wi-Fi credentials received from the vehicle 4802 via the convergence functions 4806 and 4816.

[00325] In some asp ects, to provide anonymity when using WAVE radios, one or more secure certificates may be provided to each vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer and other sources. These certificates, however, may be generated based on a unique secret, such as a key or algorithm. M echanisms to revoke, recover, and distribute the secret, as well as distribution of intermediate certificates may be based on V2X communications within a V2X infrastructure. Cellular connection may be used for such purpose, as depicted in FIG. 48.

[00326] More specifically, at 4818, the convergence function 4816 may receive information about secure certificates or key s (e.g., secrets) from one or more authorized entities (e.g., US DOT, the vehicle manufacturer, and so forth) for local distribution. The receive certificates may then be

communicated to the convergence function 4806 at the vehicle 4802 via the established cellular link between the L I E transceivers 48 10 and 48 12. At 4822, the convergence function 4806 may provide the received certificates or ke s and a communication to an access point associated with the RSU 4804 may be established as soon as the vehicle 4802 is within range of such access point.

100327] In some asp ects, the V2X communication traffic may be switched among radios and transmitted over different radios based not only on an optimized path from an available throughp ut or latency persp ective, but also based on the V2 communication traffic ty pe and context . For example, in instances when there is a WAVE safety message with broad geographical impact, the message may be communicated via the cellular radios for emergency broadcast to a larger region or sent over a cellular link to multiple radios for increased reliability .

100328 ] In some asp ects, techniques disclosed herein may be used for regional navigation map s downloading. In this case, the regional map

download may be initiated via a cellular transmission from the network to the vehicles, and then the map s up date/download may be switched to a vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) mode, e.g., updates/downloaded information may be communicated from one vehicle to another (or between a vehicle and a base station using a Wi-Fi communication link ).

[00329] In some asp ects, the convergence function (e.g., 4806 and

4816) may be used for managing the time certain actions are performed. As an example, in instances when a user equipment (UE) needs to up date a high p recision map, which would require significant bandwidth from the network and p erhap s imp act other services that the UE is running the convergence function may delay the request for a map up date until a certain time of the day when the V2X network is less loaded, such as in the middle of the night, when other over-the-air (OTA) up dates are performed. In this regard, time management of information download functions using the convergence function may result in improved network efficiency and capacity . In some instances, the network operator may p rovide incentives to V2X sy stem users to download such map s when the network is lightly loaded, avoiding p ossible congestion and imp act on other services from other UEs in the area.

1003301 In some asp ects, the convergence lay er/function may be used as a single interface available to the user and to applications, hiding aspects of connection management as w ell as optimizing the mapping of applications to the connections from the user. An example of enhanced user experience provided by this app roach is the possibility of managing negotiations associated with transient Wi-Fi networks available to the user on the go via the cellular communication link in the background. Sharing of authent icat ion credentials (or a part of the authentication credentials for faster re-authentication) and removing of user interaction may enable fast establishment of connections.

[00331] FIG. 49 illustrates an exemplary flow diagram of examp le operations for device authentication based on convergence of communication radios of a vehicular terminal device and an RSU according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 48 and FIG. 49, an examp le method 4900 for vehicular radio communications may start at 4902, when a cellular

communication link is established with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers. For example, the LTE radio 4810 within the vehicle 4802 may establish a cellular communication link with the LTE radio 4812 within the RSU 4804. At 4904, credential

information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the communication device is received at a conv ergence protocol lay er that is common to the p lurality of transceivers. For example, at 48 1 8, information about certificates or secure key s originating from a v ehicle manufacturer or another authorized entity may be communicated from the conv ergence function 481 6 at the RSU 4804 to the conv ergence function 4806 at the v ehicle 4802 via the established cellular communication link.

1003321 In some asp ects, the information received at the conv ergence function 48 16 may include credential information for accessing a non-cellular dev ice (e.g. a Wi-Fi access point ). At 4906, a communication link with a third (non-cellular) communication device may be established on the non-cellular communication channel using a second transceiv er of the plurality of transceivers and based on the receiv ed credential information. For example, the convergence function 4806 w ithin the vehicle 4802 may communicate the received credential information to the Wi-Fi radio 4808, which may use such information to establish a connection w ith the non-cellular communication device (e.g., an access point ), which is in communication range of the RSU 4804.

100333] FIG. 50 illustrates exemplary convergence of communication radios w ithin a single dev ice to imp lement localization enhancements according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 50, there are illust ated localization enhancement scenarios 5002 A, 5002B, and 5002C associated with a V2X device 5000. As seen in FIG 50, the V2X dev ice 5000 may include a plurality of radios, such as a Wi-Fi radio 5006 and an LTE radio 5008. The p lurality of radios may be interfaced via a common conv ergence function 5004.

1003341 In some asp ects, location accuracy may become relevant for the mobile dev ices within a V2X communication network for accessing localized services as w ell as for autonomous driving. While radio technologies

disclosed herein (e.g., Wi-Fi and cellular) have their own localization mechanisms, combining multiple localization techniques from multiple radio communication technologies may enhance the accuracy and the speed of localization.

[00335] In some asp ects, the combination of multiple localization techniques associated with multiple radios may take place by sharing of measurements, for example by adding additional data points for triangulation, or by a feedback loop shared by the radios such that the combined result is p rovided to the higher lay ers. In some asp ects, the location p rovided by one radio may be used by other radios for ranging, or as the original estimate for calculation, and so forth.

1 0336] In instances when a V2X device (such as a V2X enabled vehicle) is in rural areas where the vehicle may not be in a communication range of multiple base stations or access points, the combination of the above techniques (e.g., measurement sharing and using a feedback loop ) may increase the chance of localization. For examp le, in instances when a V2X node is in range of two base stations and one access point, the time of flight (e.g., the time it takes for a signal to travel from a transmitter to a receiver) information from the three may be used for localization purposes. In reference to localization enhancement scenario 5002A, the Wi-Fi radio 5006 mav communicate a localization raw measurement 501 OA to the convergence function 5004. Similarly , the Ι..ΊΈ radio 5008 may communicate a

localization raw measurement 50 12 A to the convergence function 5004. The convergence function 5004 may then perform localization computation 50 14 A. using the localization raw measurements 50 1 OA and 50 12 A. received from the radios 5006 and 5008 respectively .

[00337] In some asp ects, both cellular and Wi-Fi localization may be available at the V2X device, and the location information from one may be used to add accuracy to the other. Depending on the known accuracy of each location information, central tendency summary statistic, such as a w eighted average, may be used to compute a more accurate estimate of the location. In reference to localization enhancement scenario 5002B, Wi-Fi localization 50 1 OB may be performed by the Wi-Fi radio 5006. A Wi-Fi location estimate 50 12B, generated based on the Wi-Fi localization 50 1 OB, may be

communicated to the convergence function 5004. Similarly, cellular localization 50 14B may be performed by the LTE radio 5008. A cellular location estimate 50 16B, generated based on the cellular localization 5014B, may be communicated to the convergence function 5004. The convergence function 5004 may then use the location estimates 50 1 2B and 50 16B to generate a combined and generally more accurate localization comp utation 5018B.

1003381 In some asp ects, in instances when an active application within the V2X device 5000 switches from one radio to another, the convergence function 5004 may be configured to provide the latest location estimation from one radio to the other to be used as the initial instance for the localization, which would provide faster and more accurate p ositioning. In reference to localization enhancement scenario 5002C, Wi-Fi localization 50 I OC may be performed by the Wi-Fi radio 5006. A Wi-Fi location estimate 50 1 2C, generated based on the Wi-Fi localization 50 I OC, may be communicated to the convergence function 5004. At 50 14C, the LTE radio 5008 may be activated with a cellular location not y et available. At 50 I 6C, the LTE radio 5008 may request an existing location estimate from the convergence function 5004. At 50 1 8C, the convergence function 5004 may communicate the Wi-Fi location estimate 50 1 2C to the LTE radio 5008 as the initial localization estimate for LTE positioning.

10033 1 F IG. 5 1 illustrates an exemp lary flow diagram of example operations for p erforming localization enhancements based on convergence of communication radios of a single device according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG. 50 and FIG. 5 I , the example method 5100 for vehicular radio communications may start at operation 5 1 02, when a first localization information may be received via a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers operating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies. For examp le, a first raw localization measurement 5010A is received by the convergence function 5004 from the Wi-Fi radio 5006.

100340] At op eration 5 104, second localization information is received via a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a second vehicular radio communication technology of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies. For example, a second raw localization measurement 50 1 2 A is received by the convergence function 5004 from the LIE radio 5008. At operation 5 1 06, a localization estimate for a location of the communication dev ice is determined using the conv ergence function and based on the first localization information and the second localization information. For example, the conv ergence function 5004 may use the first localization measurement 50 1 OA and the second localization measurement 5012A to perform a localization comp utation SOMA based on both raw measurements.

[00341] In some asp ects, interference mitigation (e.g., among multiple radios within a V2X device or among V2X devices ) may be another useful functionality enabled by using a V2X convergence function . For examp le, information about a duty cy cle of each radio may be used to schedule/adjust the transmission time by other radios, to minimize interference among them, and so forth. Similarly , information about the interference and the use of channel in an area may be used to select the radio that will experience less interference and contribute to reducing network congestion.

1003421 In some asp ects, a WAVE WSMP stack (e.g., 1 04 A or 104B) may be configured to set the duty cy cle for V2X messages. The information regarding network status for radios may be gathered by each radio (or collected from an RSU ), and made available to the conv ergence function on the dev ice periodically (e.g, as illustrated in FIG. 52). The ap plication requirements, such as WSMP messaging requirements, may also be shared with the conv ergence function, which may determine what app lication uses which radio and the transmission schedule for the radios to reduce the inter-dev ice int erference, while minimizing the negative impact on the network. 1003431 FIG . 52 illustrates exemplary conv ergence of communication radios within a single device to imp lement transmission scheduling according to some asp ects described herein. Referring to FIG. 52, the vehicle 5200 may include multiple radios, such as a Wi-Fi radio 5206 and an LTE radio 5208.

The vehicle 5200 may further include one or more processors or controllers running applications 5202. The multiple radios within the vehicle 5200 may be interfaced via a common V2X convergence function 5204.

[00344] In some aspects, power efficiency of a V2X device (e.g., vehicle 5200) may be improved by using one radio for traffic management of some or all of the other radios and to wake up a certain radio when there is a need for it. For example, a lower power radio may receive the trigger for waking up other radios if/when needed, which could be based on the traffic needs. For example, a Bluetooth radio may be used for music streaming within the vehicle 5200 for purposes of power saving however, in instances when data transmission to other vehicle or to the V2X infrastructure is needed, then the Wi-Fi or cellular radios may be brought up based on availability and context.

[00345] In some aspects, the convergence function 5202 may also optimize the overall power by routing the traffic depending on the amount of data to be transmitted to the radio, which p rovides p ower efficiency . For examp le, a low power radio may be used for performing management tasks that do not require significant tasks and control data, and the high bandwidth radio may be activated and used for large data transfers.

100346] Referring to FIG. 52, the Wi-Fi radio 5206 within the vehicle

5200 may perform periodic reporting 5210 to the convergence function 5204 of bandwidth estimate and measured interference. Similarly, the LTE radio 5208 may perform periodic reporting 5212 to the convergence function 5204 of bandwidth estimate and measured interference. Additionally, the applications 5202 running on one or more processors or controllers within the vehicle 5200 may perform periodic reporting 5214 to the convergence function 5204 of various application requirements (e.g., requirements for bandwidth or usage of certain radio or radios for data communication). At 5216, the convergence function 5204 may make one or more determinations or decisions regarding duty cycle and transmit scheduling associated with each radio available within the vehicle 5200. Corresponding application routing and transmit scheduling information 5218 and 5220 may be communicated to the LTE radio 5208 and the Wi-Fi radio 5206 respectively .

100347] FIG. 53 illustrates an exemplary flow diagram of example operations for performing transmission scheduling based on convergence of communication radios of a single device according to some aspects described herein. Referring to FIG . 52 and FIG. 53, the example method 5300 for vehicular radio communications may start at operation 5302, when first estimate information is received via a first transceiver of a plurality of available transceivers operating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of a p lurality ofvehicular radio communication technologies. The first estimate information may be indicative of available bandwidth at a second communication device operating in accordance with the first vehicular radio communication technolog . For example, the Wi-Fi radio 5206 may communicate bandwidth estimate information via the periodic reporting 52 10 to the convergence function 5204. The bandwidth estimate may be indicative of Wi-Fi bandwidth that is available at an access point, w hich the Wi-Fi radio 5206 may be communicating with, or Wi-Fi bandwidth available at the vehicle 5200 as determined by the Wi-Fi radio 5206.

[00348] At op eration 5 04, second estimate information is received via a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a second vehicular radio communication technologs- of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies. The second estimate information may be indicative of available bandw idth at a third communication dev ice op erating in accordance with the second v ehicular radio communication technology . For example, the L I E radio 5208 may communicate bandwidth estimate information via the periodic reporting 52 12 to the conv ergence function 5204. The bandwidth estimate may be indicativ e of cellular bandwidth that is av ailable at a base station or base station, w hich the LTE radio 5208 is communicating with, or cellular bandw idth av ailable at the v ehicle 5200 as determined by the LTE radio 5208.

100349] At op eration 5306, transmission scheduling information for communicating with the second and third communication dev ices is determined using the convergence function, based on the receiv ed first and second estimate information. For example, the conv ergence function 5204 may determine (at 52 16) duty cy cle and transmit scheduling for each radio. [00350] At op eration 5308, the scheduling information may be transmitted to the second and third communication devices. For example, the convergence function 5204 may communicate the scheduling information to the respective radios (e.g. 5218 and 5220). Optionally, the convergence function 5204 may also communicate the transmit scheduling information to the base station and the access point that the LIE radio 5208 and the Wi-Fi radio 5206 are in comm nication with (e.g., via communication links between the convergence function 5204 at the vehicle 5200 and convergence functions available at the base station and the access point ).

[00351] FIG. 54 illustrates an exemplary block diagram of an example machine 5400 upon which any one or more of the techniques (e.g.,

methodologies) discussed herein may be performed. Examples, as described herein, may include, or may operate by , logic or a number of components, or mechanisms in the machine 5400. Circuitry (e.g., p rocessing circuitry ) is a collection of circuits imp lemented in tangible entities of the machine 5400 that include hardware (e.g., simp le circuits, gates, logic, etc. ). Circuitry

membership may be flexible over time. Circuitries include members that may , alone or in combination, perform specified op erations when operating.

[00352] In an aspect, hardware of the circuitry may be immutably designed to carry out a specific operation (e.g , hardwired ). In an aspect, the hardware of the circuit iy may include variably connected phy sical components (e.g., execution units, transistors, simple circuits, etc. ) including a machine-readable medium phy sically modified (e.g., magnetically , electrically , moveable p lacement of invariant massed particles, etc. ) to encode instructions of the specific operation. In connecting the phy sical components, the underly ing electrical properties of a hardw are constituent are changed, for example, from an insulator to a conductor or vice versa. The instructions enable embedded hardware (e.g., t he execution units or a loading mechanism) to create members of the circuitry in hardw are via the variable connections to carry out portions of the specific op eration when in op eration. Accordingly , in an example, the machine-readable medium elements are p art oft he circuitry or are communicatively coupled to the other components of the circuitry when the device is operating. In an example, any of the phy sical components may be used in more than one member of more than one circuitry . For example, under operation, execution units may be used in a first circuit of a first circuitry at one p oint in time and reused by a second circuit in the first circuitry , or by a third circuit in a second circuitry at a different time. Additional examples of these comp onents with resp ect to the machine 5400 follow.

[00353] In alternative aspects, the machine 5400 may operate as a standalone device or may be connected (e.g., n et w ork ed ) t o ot h er m ach i n es . In a networked dep loy ment, the machine 5400 may operate in the capacity of a server machine, a client machine, or both in server-client network

environments. In an example, the machine 5400 may act as a peer machine in p eer-to-p eer (P2P) (or other distributed) network environment . The machine 5400 may be a personal computer (PC), a tablet PC, a set-top box ( STB ), a personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile telep hone, a web ap pliance, a network router, switch or bridge, or any machine capable of executing instructions (sequential or otherw ise) that specify actions to be taken by that machine. Further, while only a single machine is illustrated, the term

"machine" shall also be taken to include any collection of machines that indiv idually or jointly execute a set (or multiple sets) of instructions to perform any one or more of t he methodologies discussed herein, such as cloud comp uting, software as a service ( SaaS), other computer cluster

configurations.

1003541 The machine (e.g., computer sy stem) 5400 may include a hardware processor 5402 (e g, a central p rocessing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU ), a hardware p rocessor core, or any combination thereof), a main memory 5404, a static memory (e.g. , memory or storage for firmware, microcode, a basic-input-output (BIOS), unified extensible firmw are interface (UEFI), etc. ) 5406, and mass storage 5408 (e g, hard driv e, tap e drive, flash storage, or other block devices) some or all of which may-communicate with each other v ia an interlink (e.g., bus) 5430. The machine 5400 may further include a disp lay unit 54 10, an alp hanumeric input dev ice 54 12 (e.g., a key board), and a user interface (U I) nav igation dev ice 54 14 (e.g, a mouse). In an example, the display unit 54 10, input dev ice 54 12 and U I navigation device 54 14 may be a touch screen display . The machine 5400

may additionally include a storage device (e.g., drive unit) 5408, a signal generation device 5418 (e.g., a speaker), a network interface device 5420, and one or more sensors 5416, such as a global positioning sy stem (GPS) sensor, compass, accelerometer, or other sensor. The machine 5400 may include an output controller 5428, such as a serial (e.g., universal serial bus (USB), arallel, or other wired or wireless (e.g., infrared (IR), near field

communication ( FC), etc. ) connection to communicate or control one or more peripheral devices (e.g, a printer, card reader, etc.).

[00355] Registers of the processor 5402, the main memory 5404, the static memory 5406, or the mass storage 5408 may be, or include, a machine-readable medium 5422 on which is stored one or more sets of data structures or instructions 5424 (e.g., software) embodying or utilized by any one or more of the techniques or functions described herein. The instructions 5424 may also reside, completely or at least partially, within any of registers of the processor 5402, the main memory 5404, the static memory 5406, or the mass storage 5408 during execution thereof by the machine 5400. In an aspect, one or any combination of the hardware processor 5402, the main memory 5404, the static memory 5406, or the mass storage 5408 may con st i t ut e t h e m ach i n e-readable media 5422. While the machine-readable medium 5422 is illustrated as a single medium, the term "machine-readable medium" may include a single medium or multip le media (e.g., a centralized or distributed database, or associated caches and servers) configured to store the one or more instructions 5424.

100356] The term " machine-readable medium" may include any medium that is capable of storing, encoding, or carry ing instructions for execution by the machine 5400 and that cause the machine 5400 to perform any one or more of the techniques of the present disclosure, or that is capable of storing, encoding or carry ing data structures used by or associated with such instructions. Non-limiting machine-readable medium examples may include solid-state memories, optical media, magnetic media, and signals (e.g., radio frequency signals, other photon based signals, sound signals, etc. ). In an aspect, a non-transitory machine-readable medium comp rises a machine-readable medium with a plurality of particles having invariant (e.g., rest) mass, and thus are comp ositions of matter. Accordingly, non-transitory machine-readable media are machine-readable media that do not include transitory propagating signals. Specific examples of non-transitory machine-readable media may include: non-volatile memory , such as semiconductor memory devices (e.g. , Electrically Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM ), Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only M emory ( EEPROM )) and flash memory dev ices; magnetic disks, such as internal hard disks and removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks.

[00357] The instructions 5424 may be f urt her t ran s m it t ed or received over a communications network 5426 using a transmission medium via the network interface device 5420 utilizing any one of a number of transfer protocols (e.g., frame relay , internet p rotocol (IP), transmission control protocol (TCP), user datagram p rotocol (UDP), hypertext transfer p rotocol (HTTP), etc.).

100358] Examp le communication networks may include a local area network (LAN ), a wide area network (WAN ), a packet data network (e.g., the Internet ), mobile t elep hone net works ( e.g. , cellular networks). Plain Old Telephone (POTS) networks, and wireless data netw orks (e.g. , Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE) 802. 1 1 family of standards know n as Wi-Fi®, IEEE 802.16 family of standards known as WiMax®), IEEE

802. 1 5.4 family of standards, p eer-t o-p eer ( P 2 P ) n et w ork s , among others. In an example, the network interface device 5420 may include one or more p hy sical jacks (e.g., Ethernet, coaxial, or p hone jacks) or one or more antennas to connect to the communications network 5426.

[00359] In some asp ects, the network interface dev ice 5420 may include a plurality of antennas to w-irelessly communicate using at least one of single-inp ut multiple-output (SIMO), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), or multiple-input single-outp ut (M ISO ) techniques. The term "transmission medium" shall be taken to include any intangible medium that is capable of storing, encoding or carry ing instructions for execution by the machine 5400, and includes digital or analog communications signals or other intangible medium to facilitate communication of such software. A transmission medium is a machine-readable medium.

Additional notes and as ects:

[00360] Example 1 is a multi-radio access technology (RAT) device, the device comprising: a transceiver interface including multiple connections to communicate with multiple transceiver chains, the multiple transceiver chains sup p ort i ng mul t i p 1 e R A T s ; and a hardware processor configured to: receive a communication associated with one or more of the multip le RA Ts; and control the multip le transceiver chains via the multiple connections of the transceiver interface to coordinate the multip le RATs to comp lete the communication.

[00361] In Examp le 2, the subject matter of Example 1 includes, wherein the transceiver interface further comprises a multi-link coder configured to: receive via a first transceiver chain of the multip le transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multiple RATs; ap ply a code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and replicate the encoded data stream to generate a p lurality of encoded data streams, the plurality of encoded data streams for transmission to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

100362] In Examp le 3, the subject matter of Example 2 includes, wherein the plurality of encoded data st reams includes a first encoded data stream, and the hardware p rocessor is configured to control transmission of the first encoded data stream to the first communication node via the first RA T communication link of the first transceiver chain.

100363] In Examp le 4, the subject matter of Example 3 includes, wherein the plurality of encoded data streams includes at least a second encoded data stream, and the hardware p rocessor is configured to control transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least the second communication node via the one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

100364] In Examp le 5, the subject matter of Example 4 includes, wherein the one or more other communication links are associated w ith the first RAT of the multip le RATs.

100365] In Example 6, the subject matter of Examples 2-5 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to control transmission of the plurality of encoded data streams to the at least second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transcei ver chain of the multip le transceiver chains.

[00366] In Example 7, the subject matter of Example 6 includes, wherein the one or more communication links of the second transceiver chain are associated with one or more RATs of the multiple RATs that are different from the first RAT.

100367] In Examp le 8, the subject matter of Examples 2-7 includes, wherein the code includes one or more of: a repetition code; a sy stematic code; a raptor code; or a fountain code.

[00368] In Example 9, the subject matter of Examples 1-8 includes, wherein the transceiver interface further comprises a multi-link coder configured to: receive via a first transceiver chain of the multip le transceiv er chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multip le RATs; ap ply a sy stematic code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and rep licate the encoded data stream to generate a first encoded data stream with information bits associated with the data stream, and at least a second encoded data stream with parity bits, the parity bit s for decoding the information bits.

1003691 In Example 10, the subject matter of Example 9 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to control transmission of the first encoded data stream to the first communication node via the first RAT communication link of the first transceiv er chain.

100370] In Examp le 1 1 , the subject matter of Examples 9-10 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to control transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiv er chain.

[00371] In Examp le 12, the subject matter of Example 1 1 includes, wherein t he one or more other communication links are associated with the first RAT of the multip le RATs.

100372] In Example 13, the subject matter of Examples 9-12 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to control transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains.

[00373] In Example 14, the subject matter of Example 1 3 includes, wherein the one or more communication links of the second transceiver chain are associated with one or more RATs of the multip le R AT s that are different from the first RAT.

100374] In Example 1 5, the subject matter of Examples 9- 14 includes, wherein the transceiver interface further comprises an interleaver con figured to interleave the encoded data stream.

[00375] In Example 16, the subject matter of Examples 9-15 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is within a protocol lay er of a plurality of protocol lay ers for at least one protocol stack of the device.

1003761 In Example 17, the subject matter of Example 16 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is configured to interface with the multiple transceiver chains via a common convergence layer within the at least one protocol stack of the device.

[00377] In Example 1 8, the subject matter of Examples 16-17 includes, wherein the plurality of protocol lay ers comprise: a p hy sical (PHY) layer; a media access control (M AC) layer; a radio link control (RLC) lay er; and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) lay er.

[00378] In Example 19, the subject matter of Examples 16-18 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is configured to: receive the data stream from a first protocol lay er of the p lurality of protocol lay ers; and output the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second protocol lay er of the plurality of protocol layers.

100379] In Examp le 20, the subject matter of Examples 9- 19 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is configured to: receive one or more of a packet reception acknowledgement, a quality of service (QoS) indicator, and channel quality feedback information; and adjust one or more of coding redundancy level, a number of output communication links for transmission of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream, and a number of retransmissions of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream based on the packet reception acknowledgement, the QoS, or the channel quality feedback information.

[00380] Example 21 is a multi-radio access technology (RAT) device, the device comprising: means for communicating with multip le transceiver chains, the multip le transceiver chains supportingmultip le RATs; means for receiving a communication associated with one or more of the multip le RATs; and means for controlling the multip le transceiver chains to coordinate the multiple R ATs to complete the communication.

[00381] In Example 22, the subject matter of Example 21 includes, means for receiving via a first transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multiple RATs; means for ap p ly ing a code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and means for rep licating the encoded data stream to generate a p lurality of encoded data streams, the plurality of encoded data streams for transmission to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

100382] In Example 23, the subject matter of Example 22 includes, means for controlling transmi sion of the plurality of encoded data streams to the at least second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains.

100383] In Example 24, the subject matter of Examples 21 -23 includes, means for receiving via a first transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated w ith a first RAT of the multiple RATs; means for app ly inga sy stematic code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and means for replicating the encoded data stream to generate a first encoded data stream with information bits associated with the data stream, and at least a second encoded data stream with parity bits, the parity bits for decoding the information bits.

100384] In Example 25, the subject matter of Example 24 includes, means for controlling transmission of the first encoded data stream to the first communication node via the first RAT communication link of the first transceiver chain.

[00385] In Example 26, the subject matter of Examples 24-25 includes, means for controlling transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

[00386] In Example 27, the subject matter of Examples 24 -26 includes, means for controlling transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains.

[00387] In Example 28, the subject matter of Examples 24-27 includes, means for interleaving the encoded data stream.

100388] In Example 29, the subject matter of Examples 24-28 includes, means for interfacing with the multiple transceiver chains via a common convergence lay er within at least one protocol stack of the device.

100389] In Example 30, the subject matter of Examples 24-29 includes, means for receiving the data stream from a first protocol layer of a plurality of protocol lay ers for at least one protocol stack of the device; and means for outputtingthe first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second protocol lay er of the plurality of protocol layers.

[00390] In Example 31, the subject matter of Examples 24-30 includes, means for receiving one or more of a packet reception acknowledgement, a quality of serv ice (QoS) indicator, and channel quality feedback information; and means for adjusting one or more of coding redundancy level, a number of output communication links for transmission of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream, and a number of retransmissions of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream based on the p acket reception ack n owl edgem en t , the QoS, or the channel quality feedback information.

[00391] In Example 32, the subject matter of Examples I -3 1 includes, wherein the multiple RATs include a plurality of available RATs, and wherein the hardware processor, to complete the communication, is configured to: receive measurement information from a vehicular terminal device via a first multi-radio communication link associated with at least a first RAT of the plurality of available RATs; configure via a second multi-radio

communication link, a secondary communication node for communication with the vehicular terminal device; and encode, for transmission to the vehicular terminal device, configuration information associated with the secondary communication node, the configuration information for establishing a third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular terminal device.

100392] In Example 33, the subject matter of Example 32 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio communication links are configured to use one or more of the lurality of available RATs.

[00393] In Example 34, the subject matter of Examples 32-33 includes, wherein the first multi -radio communication link is 3 GPP carrier aggregated communication link, and the hardware p rocessor is an evolved ode-B (eNB ) Radio Resource Controller (RRC).

100394] In Example 35, the subject matter of Examples 32-34 includes, wherein the measurement information includes vehicle location information associated with a vehicular terminal device.

10039 1 In Example 36, the subject matter of Example 35 includes, wherein the hardware processor is further configured to: estimate a future vehicle location associated with the vehicular terminal dev ice based on the vehicle location information; and select the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based on the estimated future vehicle location.

100396] In Examp le 37, the subject matter of Examples 32-36 includes, wherein the measurement information includes channel quality information for one or more available channels at the v ehicular terminal device, the one or more available channels associated with at least one of the plurality of RATs. 1003971 In Examp le 38, the subject matter of Example 37 includes, wherein to configure the secondary communication node, the hardware p ocessor is configured to: select the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

100398] In Example 39, the subject matter of Example 38 includes, wherein to configure the secondary communication node, the hardware processor is configured to: encode for transmission to the secondary communication node, an indication of a RAT of the plurality of available RAT s selected for use with the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular terminal device, based on the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

100399] In Example 40, the subject matter of Example 39 includes, wherein the configuration information associated with the secondary communication node includes an indication of the select ed RAT for use with the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary

communication node and the v ehicular terminal device.

100400 ] In Example 4 1 , the subject matter of Examples 32-40 includes, wherein the primary communication node is an evolved Node-B (eNB) and the secondary communication node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00401] In Example 42, the subject matter of Examples 32-4 1 includes, wherein the device is configured for dual connectivity with the primary communication node and the secondary communication node.

[00402] In Example 43, the subject matter of Example 42 includes, wherein, during the dual connectivity , the first multi-radio communication link and the third multi-radio communication link are simultaneously active.

[00403] In Example 44, the subject matter of Example 43 includes, wherein, during the dual connectiv ity , the first multi-radio communication link is used for data communication and the third multi-radio communication link is used for communication of control information.

100404] In Example 45, the subject matter of Examples 43-44 includes, wherein the second multi-radio communication link is a backhaul data connection for the first multi-radio communication link between the v ehicular terminal device and the primary communicat ion node.

100405] In Example 46, the subject matter of Examples 32-45 includes, wherein the multiple RAT s include at least two of: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio access technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio access technology ; Bluetooth radio access technology' ; an IEEE 802.1 1 radio access technology ; an LTE radio access technology ; or a 5G radio 3.CCCS s technology .

[00406] In Example 47, the subject matter of Examples 32-46 includes, wherein the measurement information from the vehicular terminal device includes measurement information for a p lurality of nodes accessible by the device.

100407] In Example 48, the subject matter of Example 47 includes, wherein the hardware processor is further configured to: select the secondary communication node from the plurality of nodes, for communication with the vehicular terminal device based on the measurement information.

1004081 In Example 49, the subject matter of Examples 32 -48 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains are interconnected via a convergence function.

[00409] In Example 50, the subject matter of Examples 21-49 includes, means for receiving measurement information from a vehicular terminal device via a first multi-radio communication link associated with at least a first RAT of a plurality of available RATs; means for configuring via a second multi-radio communication link, a secondary communication node for communication with the vehicular terminal device; and means for encoding, for transmission to the vehicular terminal device, configuration information associated with the secondary communication node, the configuration information for establishing a third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular terminal device.

[00410] In Example 5 1 , the subject matter of Examples 32-50 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio communication links are configured to use one or more of the plurality of available RATs.

[00411] In Example 52, the subject matter of Examples 50-51 includes, means for estimating a future vehicle location associated w ith a vehicular terminal device based on a vehicle location information associated w ith the vehicular terminal device; and means for selecting the secondary

communication node from a plurality of nodes based on the estimated future vehicle location.

[00412] In Example 53, the subject matter of Examples 50-52 includes, wherein the measurement information includes channel quality information for one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device, the one or more available channels associated with at least one of the plurality of RAT s, the device further comprising: means for selecting the secondary

communication node from a plurality of nodes based on the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

[00413 j In Example 54, the subject matter of Example 53 includes, means for encoding for transmission to the secondary communication node, an indication of a RAT of the plurality of available RATs selected for use with the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary

communication node and the vehicular terminal device, based on the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal dev ice.

[00414] In Example 55, the subject matter of Examples 50-54 includes, wherein the measurement in format ion from the v ehicular terminal dev ice includes measurement information for a p lurality of nodes accessible by the dev ice, and the dev ice further comp rising: means for selecting the secondary communication node from the plurality of nodes, for communication with the vehicular terminal dev ice based on the measurement information.

[00415] In Examp le 56, the subject matter of Examples 49 55 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: receive a connection with a communication device using a first transceiv er of the multiple transceiv er chains and a first RAT of the multiple RATs; receiv e, at the conv ergence function, credentials information associated with an active communication link between the communication device and a second communication dev ice, the active communication link using a second RAT from the multip le RATs; and prov ide the credentials information to the communication dev ice to

establish a communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information.

[00416] In Example 57, the subject matter of Example 56 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: establi sh an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function and a convergence function at the communication device.

[00417] In Example 58, the subject matter of Example 57 includes, wherein hardware processor is configured to: receive via the established connection and the inter-convergence function interface, device cap abilities information indicative of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device; and receive the credentials information upon determining the second vehicular radio communications technology is available at both the communication device and the second communication device.

[00418] In Example 59, the subject matter of Examples 56 -58 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a convergence function component in each of a p lurality of media access control (M AC) lay ers, the plurality of MAC layers corresponding to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00419] In Examp le 60, the subject matter of Examples 56-59 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a media access control (M AC) lay er that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio

communication technologies.

1004201 In Examp le 6 1 , the subject matter of Example 60 includes, wherein hardware processor is configured to: dynamically place the conv ergence function as the M AC lay er that is common to the multip le RATs upon detecting incompatibility between at least one of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the device and at least one of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies av ailable at the communication device.

[00421] In Example 62, the subject matter of Examples 56-61 includes, wherein the plurality of v ehicular radio communication technologies includes one or more of: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC ) radio

communication t ech n ol og ; w i rel es s access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology ; an IEEE 802.1 1 radio communication technology ; an LTE radio

communication technology ; or a 5 G radio communication technology .

[00422] In Example 63, the subject matter of Example 62 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication technology is the Bluetooth radio communication technology , and the second vehicular radio

communication technology is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology, the LTE radio communication technology, or the SG radio communication technology .

100423] In Examp le 64, the subject matter of Examples 56-63 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: receive, via an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function and the convergence function at the communication device, a confirmation that the communication link between the communication device and the second communication dev ice is deactivated.

100424] In Example 65, the subject matter of Example 64 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: establish the communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device up on receiving the confirmation.

10042 1 In Example 66, the subject matter of Examples 56 -65 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: establish the connection with the communication device using a hardwired docking connection between the device and the communicat ion dev ice.

100426] In Example 67, the subject matter of Examples 56 66 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiver at the communication device for operation using the second RAT .

[00427] In Example 68, the subject matter of Example 67 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: activate a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains to operate as a hot spot based on the credentials information.

100428] In Example 69, the subject matter of Example 68 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: establish a communication link between the convergence function and a second transceiver at the communication device via the convergence function of the communication device.

[00429] In Example 70, the subject matter of Examples 49 -69 includes, means for receiving a connection with a communication device using a first transceiver of the multip le transceiver chains and a first RAT of the multiple RATs; means for receiving, at the convergence function, credentials information associated with an active communication link between the communication device and a second communication device, the active communication link using a second RAT from the multiple RATs; and means for providing the credentials information to the communication device to establish a communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information.

[00430] In Example 7 1 , the subject matter of Example 70 includes, means for establishing an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function and a convergence function at the communication device.

[00431] In Example 72, the subject matter of Example 71 includes, means for receiving via the established connection and the inter-convergence function interface, device cap abilities information indicativ e of vehicular radio communication technologies av ailable at the communication dev ice; and means for receiving the credentials information up on determining the second vehicular radio communications technology is available at both the

communication dev ice and the second communication dev ice.

[00432] In Example 73, the subject matter of Examples 70-72 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a media access control (MAC) layer that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio

communication technologies, the dev ice further comprising: means for dy namically p lacing the conv ergence function as the M AC lay er that is common to the multiple RATs upon detecting incompatibility between at least one of the p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies av ailable at the device and at least one of a plurality ofvehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device.

[00433] In Example 74, the subject matter of Examples 70-73 includes, means for receiving using an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function and the convergence function at the communication device, a confirmation that the communication link between the

communication device and the second communication device is deactivated.

1004341 In Example 75, the subject matter of Example 74 includes, means for establishing the communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device upon receiving the confirmation.

[00435] In Example 76, the subject matter of Examples 70-75 includes, means for establishing the connection with the communication device using a hardwired docking connection between the device and the communication dev ice.

1004361 In Example 77, the subject matter of Examples 70- 76 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiver at the communication device for operation using the second RAT, and wherein the device further comprising: means for activating a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains to operate as a hotsp ot based on the credentials information.

[00437] In Example 78, the subject matter of Example 77 includes, means for establishing a communication link between the convergence function and a second transceiver at the communication dev ice via the convergence function of the communication device.

1004381 In Example 79, the subject matter of Examples 69-78 includes, wherein the second transceiver at the second communication device is configured to operate as an LTE backhaul for the hotspot.

100439] In Example 80, the subject matter of Examples 49-79 includes, a link quality estimator; wherein the vehicular terminal device is within a first vehicle; wherein the hardware processor is configured to: receive a broadcast message via a fourth multi-radio communication link associated with one of the plurality of available RATs; and determine, based on the received

broadcast message, a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link; and wherein the link quality estimator is configured to: store, within a link quality ranking list, a link quality indicator representing the link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link in accordance with the

measurement information; and rank the link quality indicator within a link quality ranking list, the link quality ranking list including one or more additional link quality indicators representing one or more additional link qualities of one or more additional multi-radio communication links, wherein the link quality indicators are ordered in the link quality ranking list according to a p redetermined ranking factor.

100440] In Example 81, the subject matter of Example 80 includes, wherein, to determine the link quality indicator, the hardware processor decodes, from the broadcast message, measurement information indicative of a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link .

[00441] In Example 82, the subject matter of Examples 80 8 1 includes, wherein, to determine the link quality indicator, the hardware processor measures a received signal strength, the received signal strength representing a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link.

100442] In Example 83, the subject matter of Examples 80-82 includes, wherein, t o det ermine the link quality indicator, the hardware processor tracks one or more packet errors associated with the received broadcast message.

1004431 In Examp le 84, the subject matter of Examples 80 -83 includes, wherein the device is a second vehicular terminal device and the hardware processor of the second vehicular terminal device is configured to receive the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from the vehicular terminal device of the first vehicle.

100444] In Example 85, the subject matter of Example 84 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to receive the broadcast message, via the convergence function, from a first convergence function of the vehicular terminal device.

10044 1 In Examp le 86, the subject matter of Examples 80 -85 includes, wherein the predetermined ranking factor includes an indication of a broadcast message ty pe.

100446] In Example 87, the subject matter of Examples 84-86 includes, wherein the predetermined ranking factor is a distance between the first vehicle and the second vehicle.

[00447] In Example 88, the subject matter of Examples 80-87 includes, wherein the hardware processor of the second vehicular terminal device is configured to receive the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from a roadside unit (RSU).

1004481 In Examp le 89, the subject matter of Examples 80- 88 includes, wherein the hardware processor of the second vehicular terminal device is configured to receive the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from an evolved Node-B (eNB )

[00449] In Examp le 90, the subject matter of Examples 80-89 includes, wherein t he link quality estimator is configured to rank the link quality indicator according to both the p redetermined ranking factor and context information associated with the vehicular terminal device or the second vehicular terminal device.

1004501 In Examp le 9 1 , the subject matter of Example 90 includes, wherein the hardw are p rocessor receives the context information from one or more ap p licat ions of t he vehicular terminal device or the second vehicular terminal device.

[00451] In Examp le 92, the subject matter of Examples 90-9 1 includes, wherein the context information is locat ion information associated with the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

100452] In Examp le 93, the subject matter of Examples 90-92 includes, wherein the context information is sensor data associated with one or more sensors of the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional v ehicles.

100453] In Examp le 94, the subject matter of Examples 80-93 includes, wherein the link quality estimator is configured to: discard, from the link quality ranking list, one or more link quality indicators based on the predetermined ranking factor.

100454] In Examp le 95, the subject matter of Examples 90-94 includes, wherein t he link quality estimator is configured to: discard, from the link quality ranking list, one or more link quality indicators based on the predetermined ranking factor and the context information.

[00455] In Example 96, the subject matter of Examples 80-95 includes, wherem the link quality estimator is configured to: identify a high priority link quality indicator within the link quality ranking list, the high priority link quality indicator representing a high priority multi-radio communication link, wherein the high priority multi-radio communication link has a link quality below a specified quality threshold.

[00456] In Example 97, the subject matter of Example 96 includes, wherein the second vehicular terminal device includes an antenna array comprising a plurality of multiple-input -multiple-output (MIMO) antennas coupled to a plurality of available transceivers and the hardware processor is configured to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link by modify ing a direction of a radiation pattern of at least a subset of the M IM O antennas according to a direction of the high priority multi-radio communication link.

100457] In Example 98, the subject matter of Examples 96-97 includes, wherein, to imp rove the link quality of the high p riority multi-radio communication, the hardware processor reduces a packet size of a packet for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high p riority multi-radio communication link, by removing one or more information elements from the packet .

100458] In Examp le 99, the subject matter of Examples 96-98 includes, wherein, to imp rove the link quality of the high p riority multi-radio communication, the hardware p rocessor encodes for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high priority multi-radio

communication link, a p acket including one or more codes indicating a high priority message.

100459] In Examp le 100, the subject matter of Examples 96-99 includes, wherein, to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication, the hardware processor encodes for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high p riority multi-radio

communication link, a p acket including an indication of sensor data associated with the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles. 100460] In Example 10 1 , the subject matter of Examples 96- 100 includes, wherein, to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication, the hardware processor tracks a transmission window associated with a wireless medium, receives exclusive access of the wireless medium during the transmission window and transmits by the second vehicular terminal device during the transmission window, a packet including one or more information elements indicating a high p riority message associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link .

[00461] In Examp le 102, the subject matter of Examples 96- 10 1 includes, wherein, to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication, the hardware p races sor s i m ul t an eou sly transmits a signal associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link over two or more frequency bands.

100462] In Example 1 03, the subject matter of Examples 96 102 includes, wherein, to improve the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication, the hardware p rocessor simultaneously transmits a signal associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link over two or more subsets of the M IM O antennas.

1004631 In Examp le 104, the subject matter of Examples 49-103 includes, wherein the convergence function is configured to: establish the third multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal device and the secondary communication node based on a current location of the vehicular terminal device.

100464] In Examp le 105, the subject matter of Examp les 32 104 includes, wherein the hardware p rocessor is further configured to: receive the measurement information of the vehicular tenninal device from the secondary communication node via the second multi-radio communication link.

10046 1 In Examp le 106, the subject matter of Examples 32- 1 05 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio

communication links are configured to use a same one the plurality of available RATs at different communication frequencies.

100466] In Example 107, the subject matter of Examples 1 - 106 includes, a first transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains, the first transceiver configured to communicate with a node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multiple RAT s; a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains, the second transceiver configured to communicate with the node using one or more intermediate nodes and a communication link of a second RAT of the multiple RATs; and wherein the hardware processor, to complete the communication, is configured to: decode measurement information received from the node, the measurement information indicative of channel quality of the first RAT communication link; and determine t o establish a new communication link with the one or more intermediate nodes, based on the decoded measurement information.

1004671 In Example 108, the subject matter of Example 107 includes, wherein the first transceiver is configured to communicate w ith the node using one or more other intermediate nodes and the first RAT communication link.

[00468] In Example 109, the subject matter of Examples 107 - 108 includes, a third transceiver of the multip le transceiver chains, the third transceiver configured to communicate with the node using the new communication link, the new communication link being one of the first RAT, the second RAT or a third R AT of the multiple RATs.

[00469] In Example 1 10, the subject matter of Examples 107-109 includes, wherein: the node is a user equipment (UE); and the device is a Radio Resource Controller (RRC) of an evolved Node-B (eN B).

[00470] In Example 1 1 1, the subject matter of Examples 107- 1 10 includes, wherein the transceiver interface includes a vehicle-t o-every t hi ng (V2X) convergence function p roviding a common interface between the multiple transceiver chains.

[00471] In Example 1 12, the subject matter of Example 1 1 1 includes, wherein the V2X convergence function is configured to: communicate with a V2X convergence function of the node via the first R AT communication link; and communicate ith a V2X convergence function of the one or more intermediate nodes via the second RAT communication link.

100472] In Examp le 1 13, the subj ect matter of Examp les 107- 1 12 includes, wherein the node is an eNB and the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00473] In Example 1 14, the subject matter of Examples 107-113 includes, wherein the device is a vehicular terminal device within a moving vehicle, and the measurement information includes a current location of the moving vehicle.

1004741 In Example 1 15, the subject matter of Example 1 14 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: estimate a future location of the moving vehicle based on the current location; and select a second intermediate node of the one or more intermediate nodes based on node proximity to the future location; and establish the new communication link with the second intermediate node,

[00475] In Example 1 16, the subject matter of Examples 1 14-115 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include at least one antenna array placed at a first location of a first surface of the vehicle and at least another antenna array placed on a second location of the first surface.

[00476] In Example 1 1 7, the subject matter of Example 116 includes, wherein the first surface is a roof of the vehicle.

[00477] In Example 118, the subject matter of Examples 116-117 includes, wherein the first surface is a hood of the vehicle.

100478] In Examp le 119, the subj ect matter of Examp les 1 14- 1 18 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include at least one antenna array etched into a front windshield of the vehicle.

[00479] In Example 120, the subject matter of Examples 1 16-119 includes, wherein the at least one antenna array shares a front end module with a radar communications module of the v ehicle.

1004801 Example 12 1 is device of 1 16, wherein the at least one antenna array utilizes a front end module separate from a front end module utilized by a radar communications module of the vehicle.

[00481] In Example 122, the subject matter of Examples 107-121 includes, wherein the second RAT communication link includes a first

communication link between the communication device and the intermediate node, and a second communication link between the intermediate node and the node.

[00482] In Example 123, the subject matter of Examples 107-122 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: maintain the first RAT communication link to be active simultaneously with the second RAT communication link.

1004831 In Example 124, the subject matter of Examples 107- 1 23 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include an antenna array comprising a plurality of multiple-input -multiple-output (MIMO) antennas coupled to the plurality of available transceivers.

[00484] In Example 125, the subject matter of Example 124 includes, wherein: the first transceiver is configured to communicate with the node using the first RAT communication link and a first subset of the M I M O antennas; and the second transceiver is configured to communicate with the node using the second RA T communication link and a second subset of the M I M O antennas.

[00485] In Example 126, the subject matter of Examples 107- 125 includes, wherein the second transceiver of the plurality of available transceivers is configured to communicate with the node using a

communication link of a third RAT of the multiple RATs and without the use of the one or more intermediate nodes.

1004861 In Example 127, the subject matter of Example 126 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: maintain both the first R AT communication link and the third R AT communication link for simultaneous connection to the node.

[00487] In Example 128, the subject matter of Example 127 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link comprises a data channel and the third RAT communication link comprises a control channel for

communicating control information.

100488] In Example 129, the subject matter of Example 1 28 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: use at least a portion of the control information to control direct communication between a plurality of other nodes associated with the device in a communication framework, the direct communication using one or more RATs of the multiple RATs, the one or more RATs distinct from the third RAT.

[00489] In Example 130, the subject matter of Example 129 includes, wherein the communication framework is based on LTE dual connectivity framework.

1004901 In Example 13 1 , the subject matter of Examples 107 - 130 includes, wherein the hardware p rocessor is configured to: designate the first RAT as a p rimary RAT and the second RAT as a secondary RAT, based on one or more preferences associated with a vehicular terminal device, and modify , in response to a change in a network environment, the designation of the primary RAT and the secondary RAT, based on the one or more preferences.

1004911 In Example 132, the subject matter of Example 13 1 includes, wherein the change in the netw ork environment is a change in a mobility environment of the vehicular terminal device.

1004921 In Examp le 133, the subject matter of Examples 131 132 includes, wherein the designation of the first RAT as the primary RAT and the second RAT as the secondary RAT is based on one or more network configurations.

[00493] In Examp le 134, the subj ect matter of Examp les 13 1 - 133 includes, wherein the first RAT and the second RAT are each designated from a plurality of RATs including: a dedicated sh ort -range conim uni cat i on (DSRC) radio access technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio access technology ; Bluetooth radio access technology ; an

IEEE 802. 1 1 radio access technology ; an LTE radio access technology ; or a 5G radio access technology .

[00494] In Examp le 135, the subject matter of Examples 1 3 1 134 includes, wherein the second transceiver is configured to communicate with the node without the use of one or more intermediate nodes via the communication link of the second RAT .

100495] In Examp le 136, the subj ect matter of Examp les 1 3 1 - 135 includes, wherein a p eference includes a specification of one or more of a desired data throughput, cost factor, mobility factor associated with a vehicular terminal device, or a quality of service (QoS).

100496] In Examp !e 137, the subj ect matter of Examp les 131-136 includes, wherein the change in a network environment includes a change in a network loading factor.

[00497] In Example 138, the subject matter of Examples 1-137 includes, wherein, to comp lete the communication, the hardware processor is configured to: establish a communication link with a first node using a first transceiver of the multip le transceiver chains and a first RAT of the multip le RATs; establish a communication link with a second node using a second transceiver of the multiple transceivers and a second RAT of the multiple RATs; receive via the first RAT communication link, first map data from the first node; receive via the second RAT communication link, second map data from the second node; and generate up dated map data associated with a current location of the device based on the first map data and the second map data.

100498] In Example 139, the subject matter of Examp le 138 includes, wherein: the device is a vehicular terminal device in a moving vehicle; the first node is a primary communication node; and the second node is a secondary communication node.

[00499] In Example 140, the subject matter of Example 139 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: receive the first map data as a unicast message from the primary communication node.

1005001 In Example 14 1 , the subject matter of Examples 139- 140 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: receive the first map data as a broadcast message from the primary communication node, wherein the first map data is broadcast to the communication device and to the secondary communication node.

[00501] In Example 142, the subject matter of Examples 138-141 includes, wherein the first map data is redundant with the second map data.

100502] In Example 143, the subject matter of Examples 1 38- 142 includes, wherein the first map data is non-redundant with the second map

data, and wherein the hardware processor is configured to: combine the first map data and the second map data to generate the up dated map data.

[00503] In Example 144, the subject matter of Examples 1-143 includes, wherein a first transceiver chain from the multiple transceiver chains is configured to communicate with an infrastructure node using a

communication link of a first RAT of the multiple RATs, and wherein, to complete the communication, the hardware processor is configured to: decode control information from the infrastructure node, the control information including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) device discovery information; and establish using a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a new communication link ith a second node based on the V2V device discovery information, wherein the second transceiver chain is configured to communicate with the second node using a communication link of a second RAT of the multi-RAT .

100504] In Example 145, the subject matter of Example 144 includes, wherein the second node is a line-of-sight ( LOS) vehicle and the second RAT communication link is a V2V communication link based on one or more of a Wi-Fi Direct connectivity framework, a Wi-Fi Aware connectivity network, an LTE- Direct connectivity framework, or 5G connectivity network.

100505] In Example 146, the subject matter of Examples 144- 145 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is an L I E or 5G communication link and is configured to prov ide control plane for managing V2V connectivity .

100506] In Examp le 147, the subject matter of Examples 144 146 includes, wherein the control information from the infrastructure node further includes V2V resource allocation and V2V sy nchronization information to assist with establishment of the new communication link with the second node.

100507] In Examp le 148, the subject matter of Examples 144- 147 includes, wherein the hardware p rocessor is configured to: establish the new communication link as a direct V2V link with the second node; and establish using a third transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, another communication link with the second node via an intermediate node, based on the V2V device discovery information.

100508] In Example 149, the subject matter of Example 148 includes, wherein the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00509] In Example 150, the subject matter of Examples 148-149 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: decode sensor data received from the intermediate node, wherein the sensor data originates from a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) vehicle in communication with the intermediate node.

[00510] In Example 1 5 1 , the subject matter of Examples 148- 150 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: encode data for redundant transmission to the second node via both the direct V2V link and via the another communication link with the second node via the intermediate node.

[00511] In Example 152, the subject matter of Examples 144-151 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) link, the hardware processor is within a vehicle and is configured to receive assistance from the infrastructure node to enable direct V2V communication.

[00512] In Example 153, the subject matter of Examples 148-152 includes, wherein the second node and the intermediate node are cooperating vehicles that cooperate over V2V links to improve one or more quality characteristics of at least one V21 link associated with the communication device.

[00513] In Example 154, the subject matter of Examples 148-153 includes, wherein hardware processor is configured to: establish multiple communication links with the intermediate node, each communication link with the intermediate node using a different RAT of the multi-RAT.

[00514] In Examp le 155, the subject matter of Examples 1 - 154 includes, wherein a first transceiver chain from the multiple transceiver chains is configured to communicate with an infrastructure node using a

communication link of a first RAT of the multiple RATs, and wherein, to comp lete the communication, the device further comprises: means for

decoding control information from the infrastructure node, the control information including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) device discovery information; and means for establishing using a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a new communication link with a second node based on the V2V device discovery information, wherein the second transceiver chain is configured to communicate with the second node using a communication link of a second RAT of the mult i-RAT.

[00515] In Example 156, the subject matter of Example 155 includes, wherein the second node is a line-of-sight (LOS) vehicle and the second RAT communication link is a V2V communication link based on one or more of a Wi-Fi Direct connectivity framework, a Wi-Fi Aware connectivity network, an LTE-Direct connectivity framework, or 5G connectivity network.

[00516] In Examp le 157, the subj ect matter of Examp les 155-156 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is an L I E or 5G communication link and is configured to provide control plane for managing V2V connectivity .

[00517] In Example 158, the subject matter of Examples 155 - 1 57 includes, wherein the control information from the infrastructure node further includes V2V resource allocation and V2V synchronization information to assist with establishment of the new communication link with the second node.

[00518] In Example 159, the subject matter of Examples 155-158 includes, means for establishing the new communication link as a direct V2V link with the second node; and means for establishing using a third transceiver chain of the multiple transceiv er chains, an ot her com m u n i cat i on link with the second node via an intermediate node, based on the V2V device discovery information.

[00519] In Example 160, the subject matter of Example 159 includes, wherein the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU ).

[00520] In Example 161, the subject matter of Examples 159-160 includes, means for decoding sensor data received from the intermediate node, wherein the sensor data originates from a non-line-of-sight ( LOS) vehicle in communication with the intermediate node.

[00521] In Example 162, the subject matter of Examples 159-161 includes, means for encoding data for redundant transmission to the second node via both the direct V2V link and via the another communication link with the second node via the intermediate node.

[00522] In Example 163, the subject matter of Examples 155-162 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) link, the hardware processor is within a vehicle and is configured to receive assistance from the infrastructure node to enable direct V2V communication.

100523] In Example 164, the subject matter of Examples 159-163 includes, wherein the second node and the intermediate node are cooperating vehicles that cooperate over V2V links to improve one or more quality characteristics of at least one V2I link associated with the communication device.

1005241 In Example 165, the subject matter of Examples 144 164 includes, wherein communications with the infrastructure node and the second node use one or more RATs of the multi-RAT and are combined over a phy sical (PHY) layer, a media tlCCCS S control (MAC) layer or a higher layer.

[00525] In Example 166, the subject matter of Examples 1 -- 165 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: access a list of available RATs that have been detected within a range of the device; and determine to establish a new communication link with a selected RAT of the available RATs based on compatibility of transmission requirements of the device with the selected RAT .

[00526] In Example 167, the subject matter of Example 166 includes, wherein the requirement includes one of a latency requirement, a reliability requirement, a throughput requirement, and a requirement of an application executing on the device.

[00527] In Example 168, the subject matter of Examples 166-167 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to select the selected RAT by accessing a database table, the database table indicating a relationship betw een the transmission requirements and at least one RAT of the list of available RATs.

100528] In Example 169, the subject matter of Example 168 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the device.

100529] In Example 170, the subject matter of Examples 168-169 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the node.

[00530] In Example 171, the subject matter of Examples 168-170 includes, wherein the database table is populated by measurements of a group of parameters taken by at least one device.

[00531] In Example 172, the subject matter of Example 171 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the node. 100532] In Example 173, the subject matter of Examples 171 - 1 72 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the at least one device.

100533] In Example 174, the subject matter of Examples 171 - 173 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are partitioned among neighboring devices using device-to-device (D2D ) communication.

[00534] In Example 175, the subject matter of Examples 166-174 includes, wherein the measurement information includes key performance indicators (KPIs) that characterize RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00535] In Example 176, the subject matter of Example 175 includes, wherein KPIs include at least two of latency, congestion level, load, voice support, data rates supported, range, power level, bands covered, signal conditions, coexistence capabilities, cry ptograp hie capabilities, and spectrum access method.

[00536] In Example 177, the subject matter of Example 176 includes, wherein KPIs further include an indication as to times at which a

corresponding RAT is expected to be powered down.

[00537] In Example 178, the subject matter of Examples 168-177 includes, wherein the database table includes at least one validity indicator field to indicate t ru s t wort h i n es s of meas u rem en t s .

100538] In Examp le 179, the subject matter of Example 178 includes, wherein trustworthiness is based on at least one of a location where a

corresponding measurement was taken, and a time of day when the corresponding measurement was taken.

[00539] In Example 180, the subject matter of Examples 166-179 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: tenninate usage of a RAT subsequent to detecting that operating conditions for the RAT have deteriorated below a threshold.

1005401 In Example 18 1 , the subject matter of Examples 166- 180 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: determine to establish a group of communication links with a selected group of RATs oft he list of available RATs

[00541] In Example 182, the subject matter of Example 181 includes, wherein the selected group of RAT s is selected based up on a range KPI of RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00542] In Example 183, the subject matter of Examples 181-182 includes, wherein the selected group of RATs is selected based upon susceptibility of RATs of the list of available RATs to deep shadowing.

100543] In Example 184, the subject matter of Examples 166-183 includes, wherein the list of available RATs is provided by the node.

1005441 In Example 185, the subject matter of Examples 166 184 includes, wherein the list of available RATs is provided by a neighboring device using device-to-device (D2D) communication.

[00545] In Example 186, the subject matter of Examples 166-185 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to encode, for transmission to the node, a request to use a RAT of the list of available RATs.

[00546] In Example 187, the subject matter of Example 186 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to encode, for transmission to the node, a request touse a group of RATs oft he list of available RATs.

[00547] In Example 188, the subject matter of Examples 166-187 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: implement RAT hoppingby selecting a first RAT for transmission of a first portion of a transmission and by selecting a second RAT for transmission of a second portion of the transmission.

100548] In Example 189, the subject matter of Example 188 includes, wherein the hardware processor is configured to: select the first RAT for a control portion of a transmission; and select the second RAT for a data portion of the transmission.

[00549] In Example 190, the subject matter of Examples 1-189 includes, means for accessing a list of available RATs that have been detected within a range of the device; and means for determining to establish a new communication link with a selected RAT of the available RATs based on compatibility of transmission requirements of the dev ice with the selected RAT.

100550] In Example 191 , the subject matter of Example 190 includes, wherein the requirement includes one of a latency requirement, a reliability requirement, a throughput requirement, and a requirement of an application executing on the device.

1005511 In Example 192, the subject matter of Examples 190-191 includes, means for selecting the selected RAT by accessing a database table, the database table indicating a relationship between the transmission requirements and at least one RAT of the list of available RATs.

[00552] In Example 193, the subject matter of Example 192 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the dev ice.

[00553] In Example 194, the subject matter of Examples 192-193 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the node.

[00554] In Example 195, the subject matter of Examples 192-194 includes, wherein the database table is populated by measurements of a group of parameters taken by at least one device.

[00555] In Example 196, the subject matter of Example 195 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the node.

1005561 In Example 197, the subject matter of Examples 195-196 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the at least one device.

[00557] In Example 198, the subject matter of Examples 195-197 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are partitioned among neighboring devices using device-to-device (D2D) communication.

[00558] In Example 199, the subject matter of Examples 190-198 includes, wherein the measurement information includes key performance indicators (KPls) that characterize RATs of the list of available RATs.

1005591 In Example 200, the subject matter of Example 199 includes, wherein KP Is include at least two of latency, congestion level, load, voice support, data rates supported, range, power level, bands covered, signal conditions, coexistence capabilities, cryptographic capabilities, and spectrum access method.

[00560] In Example 201, the subject matter of Example 200 includes, wherein KP Is further include an indication as to times at which a

corresponding RAT is expected to be powered down.

[00561] In Example 202, the subject matter of Examples 192-201 includes, wherein the database table includes at least one validity indicator field to indicate t rust worthiness of measurement s .

[00562] In Example 203, the subject matter of Example 202 includes, wherein trustworthiness is based on at least one of a location here a corresponding measurement was taken, and a time of day when the corresponding measurement was taken.

100563] In Example 204, the subject matter of Examples 190-203 includes, means for terminating usage of a RAT subsequent to detecting that operating conditions for the RAT have deteriorated below a threshold.

[00564] In Example 205, the subject matter of Examples 190-204 includes, means for determining to establish a group of communication links with a selected group of RA s of the list of available RATs.

1005651 In Example 206, the subject matter of Example 205 includes, wherein the selected group of RAT s is selected based up on a range KPI of RATs of the list of available RATs.

100566] In Example 207, the subject matter of Examples 205-206 includes, wherein the selected group of RAT s is selected based upon susceptibility of RAT s of the list of available RATs to deep shadowing.

[00567] In Example 208, the subject matter of Examples 190-207 includes, wherein the list of available RAT s is provided by the node.

[00568] In Example 209, the subject matter of Examples 190-208 includes, wherein the list of available RATs is provided by a neighboring device using dev ice-to-dev ice (D2D) communication.

[00569] In Example 210, the subject matter of Examples 190-209 includes, means for encoding, for transmission to the node, a request to use a RAT of the list of available RATs.

100570] In Examp le 2 1 1 , the subj ect matter of Examp le 2 10 includes, means for encoding for transmission to the node, a request to use a group of RATs of t he list of available RATs.

[00571] In Examp le 2 12, the subject matter of Examples 190-2 1 1 includes, means for implementing RAT hopping by selecting a first RAT for t ansmission of a first portion of a transmission and by selecting a second RAT for transmission of a second p ortion of the transmission.

1005721 In Examp le 2 13, the subject matter of Example 2 12 includes, means for selecting the first RAT for a control p ortion of a transmission; and means for selecting the second RAT for a data portion of the transmission.

[00573] Example 2 14 is a method for multi -radio access technology

(RAT ) communication by a device including a transceiver interface including multiple connections to communicate with multiple transceiver chains, the multiple transceiver chains supportingmultiple R A T s, the method comprising: receiving a communication associated with one or more of the multip le RATs; and controlling the multip le transceiver chains via the multip le connections of the transceiver interface to coordinate the multiple RATs to comp lete the communication.

100574] In Examp le 2 1 5, the subject matter of Example 2 14 includes, receiving, using a multi-link coder of the device, via a first transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multip le RATs; apply ing a code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and rep licating the encoded data stream to generate a plurality of encoded data streams, t he plurality of encoded data streams for transmission to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

100575] In Example 2 16, the subject matter of Example 215 includes, controlling transmission of a first encoded data stream from the plurality of encoded data streams to the first communication node via the first RAT communication link of the first transceiver chain.

100576] In Example 2 1 7, the subject matter of Example 2 16 includes, controlling transmission of the at least a second encoded data stream from the plurality of encoded data streams to at least the second communication node via the one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain . 1005771 In Example 2 1 8, the subject matter of Example 2 1 7 includes, wherein the one or more other communication links are associated w ith the first RAT of the multip le RATs.

[00578] In Examp le 2 19, the subj ect matter of Examp les 2 1 5-2 1 8 includes, controlling transmission of the plurality of encoded data streams to the at least second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains.

100579] In Example 220, the subject matter of Example 219 includes, wherein the one or more communication links of the second transceiver chain are associated with one or more RATs of the multip le RATs that are different from the first RAT .

1005801 In Example 22 1 , the subject matter of Examples 2 1 5-220 includes, wherein the code includes one or more of: a repetition code; a sy stematic code; a raptor code; or a fountain code.

100581 ] In Example 222, the subject matter of Examples 2 14 22 1 includes, receiving via a first transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multiple RATs; ap ply ing a sy stematic code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and rep licating the encoded data stream to generate a first encoded data stream with information bits associated with the data stream, and at least a second encoded data stream with parity bits, the parity bits for decoding the information bits.

[00582] In Example 223, the subject matter of Example 222 includes, controlling tran smission of the first encoded data stream t o the first communication node via the first RAT communication link of the first transceiver chain.

[00583] In Example 224, the subject matter of Examples 222- -223 includes, controlling transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

[00584] In Example 225, the subject matter of Example 224 includes, wherein t he one or more other communication links are associated with the first RAT of the multiple RATs.

100585] In Example 226, the subject matter of Examples 222-225 includes, controlling transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multip le transceiver chains.

100586] In Example 227, the subject matter of Example 226 includes, wherein the one or more communication links of the second transceiver chain are associated with one or more RATs of the multip le RATs that are different from the first RAT.

100587] In Example 228, the subject matter of Examples 222-227 includes, wherein the transceiver interface further comp rises an interleaver configured to interleave the encoded data stream.

100588] In Example 229, the subject matter of Examples 222 -228 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is within a p otocol lay er of a plurality of protocol lay ers for at least one p otocol stack of the device.

[00589] In Example 230, the subject matter of Example 229 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is configured to interface with the multiple transceiver chains via a common convergence layer within the at least one p otocol stack of the device.

[00590] In Example 23 I , the subject matter of Examples 229-230 includes, wherein the plurality of protocol layers comprise: a physical (PHY) layer; a media access control (MAC) layer; a radio link control (RLC) layer; and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer,

[00591] In Example 232, the subject matter of Examples 229-231 includes, receiving the data stream from a first protocol layer of the plurality of protocol layers; and outputting the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second protocol layer of the plurality of protocol layers.

100592] In Example 233, the subject matter of Examples 222-232 includes, receiving one or more of a packet reception acknowledgement, a quality of service (QoS) indicator, and channel quality feedback information; and adjusting one or more of coding redundancy level, a number of output communication links for transmission of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream, and a number of retransmissions of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream based on the packet reception acknowledgement , the QoS, or the channel quality feedback information.

100593] In Example 234, the subject matter of Examples 2 14-233 includes, receiving measurement information from a vehicular terminal device via a first multi-radio communication link associated with at least a first RAT of the plurality of available RATs from the multiple RATs; configuring via a second multi-radio communication link, a secondary communication node for communication with the vehicular terminal device; and encoding, for transmission to the vehicular terminal device, configuration information associated with the secondary communication node, the configuration information for establishing a third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular t erminal device.

[00594] In Example 235, the subject matter of Example 234 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio communication links are configured to use one or more of the lurality of available RATs.

[00595] In Example 236, the subject matter of Examples 234-235 includes, wherein the first multi-radio communication link is 3 GPP carrier aggregated communication link, and the device is an evolved Node-B (eNB) Radio Resource Controller (RRC).

100596] In Example 237, the subject matter of Examples 234-236 includes, wherein the measurement informat ion includes vehicle location information associated with a vehicular terminal device.

[00597] In Example 238, the subject matter of Example 237 includes, estimating a future vehicle location associated w ith the vehicular terminal device based on the vehicle location information; and selecting the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based on the estimated future v ehicle location.

[00598] In Example 239, the subject matter of Examples 234-238 includes, wherein the measurement information includes channel quality information for one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device, the one or more available channels associated with at least one of the plurality of RAT s.

1005991 In Example 240, the subject matter of Example 239 includes, wherein configuring the secondary communication node includes selecting the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based the channel quality information for the one or more av ailable channels at the v ehicular terminal dev ice.

1006001 In Example 24 1 , the subject matter of Example 240 includes, wherein configuring the secondary communication node includes encoding, for transmission to the secondary communication node, an indication of a RA T of the plurality of av ailable RATs selected for use with the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular terminal dev ice, based on the channel quality information for the one or more av ailable channels at the vehicular terminal dev ice.

[00601] In Example 242, the subject matter of Example 24 1 includes, wherein the configuration information associated with the secondary communication node includes an indication of the selected RAT for use w ith the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary

communication node and the vehicular terminal dev ice.

100602] In Example 243, the subject matter of Examples 234-242 includes, wherein the primary communication node is an evolved Node-B (eNB) and the secondary communication node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00603] In Example 244, the subject matter of Examples 234-243 includes, wherein the device is configured for dual connectivity with the primary communication node and the secondary- communication node.

1006041 In Example 245, the subject matter of Example 244 includes, wherein, during the dual connectivity , the first multi-radio communication link and the third multi-radio communication link are simultaneously activ e.

[00605] In Example 246, the subject matter of Example 245 includes, wherein, during the dual connectivity , the first multi-radio communication link is used for data communication and the third multi-radio communication link is used for communication of control information.

100606] In Example 247, the subject matter of Examples 245-246 includes, wherein the second multi-radio communication link is a backhaul data connection for the first multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal dev ice and the primary communication node.

100607] In Example 248, the subject matter of Examples 234-247 includes, wherein the multiple RATs include at least two of: a dedicated short -range communication (DSRC) radio access technology ; wireless access vehicular env ironment (WAVE) radio access technology ; Bluetooth radio access technolog ; an IEEE 802.1 1 radio access technology' ; an L I radio access technology ; or a 5G radio access technology .

100608] In Example 249, the subject matter of Examples 234-248 includes, wherein the measurement information from the dev ice includes measurement information for a plurality of nodes accessible by the vehicular terminal dev ice.

100609] In Example 250, the subject matter of Example 249 includes, selecting the secondary communication node from the p lurality of nodes, for communication w ith the v ehicular terminal dev ice based on the measurement information.

[00610 J In Example 251, the subject matter of Examples 234-250 includes, wherein the plurality of transceivers are interconnected via a convergence function.

[00611] In Example 252, the subject matter of Example 251 includes, receiving a connection with a communication device using a first transceiver of the multip le transceiver chains and a first RAT of the multip le RAT s; receiving, at the convergence function, credentials information associated with an active communication link between the communication device and a second comm nication dev ice, the active communication link using a second RAT from the multiple RATs; and providing the credentials information to the communication device to establish a communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information.

[00612] In Example 253, the subject matter of Example 252 includes, establishing an inter-convergence function interface between the conv ergence function and a convergence function at the communication device.

[00613 J In Example 254, the subject matter of Example 253 includes, receiving via the established connection and the inter-convergence function interface, device capabilities information indicative of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device, and receiving the credentials information upon determining the second vehicular radio communications technology is available at both the communication device and the second communication device.

|00614] In Example 255, the subject matter of Examples 252-254 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a convergence function component in each of a p lurality of media access control (MAC) lay ers, the plurality of M AC lay ers corresponding to the p lurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00615] In Examp le 256, the subject matter of Examples 252-255 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a media access control (M AC) lay er that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00616] In Example 257, the subject matter of Example 256 includes, dy namically p lacing the convergence function as the M AC lay er that is

common to the multip le RATs upon detecting incompatibility between at least one of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the device and at least one of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device.

[00617] In Example 258, the subject matter of Examples 252-257 includes, wherein the p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes one or more of: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio communication technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WA VE) radio communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technolog ; an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technolog ; an LTE radio communication technology ; or a 5 G radio communication technology .

[00618 j In Example 259, the subject matter of Example 258 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication t echnology' is the Bluetooth radio communication technology , and the second vehicular radio

communication technology is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology , the LTE radio communication technology , or the 5G radio communication technology .

[0061 J In Example 260, the subject matter of Examples 252-259 includes, receiving, via an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function and the convergence function at the communication device, a confirmation that the communication link between the

communication device and the second communication dev ice is deactivated. 100620] In Example 26 1 , the subject matter of Example 260 includes, establishing the communication link with the third communication dev ice based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device upon receiving the confirmation.

[00621] In Example 262, the subject matter of Examples 252 -26 1 includes, establishing the connection with the communication device using a hardwired docking connection between the device and the communication device.

1006221 In Example 263, the subject matter of Examples 252-262 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiv er at the communication device for operation using the second RAT . 100623] In Example 264, the subject matter of Example 263 includes, activating a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains to op erate as a hotspot based on the credentials information.

[00624] In Example 265, the subject matter of Example 264 includes, establishing a communication link between the convergence function and a second transceiver at the communication device via the convergence function of the communication device.

1006251 In Example 266, the subject matter of Example 265 includes, wherein the second transceiver at the second communication device is configured to operate as an LTE backhaul for the hotspot .

[00626] In Example 267, the subject matter of Examples 251-266 includes, receiving a broadcast message via a fourth multi-radio

communication link associated with one of the plurality of available RATs; determining based on the received broadcast message, a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link; storing within a link quality ranking list, a link quality indicator representing the link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link in accordance with the measurement information; and ranking the link quality indicator within a link quality ranking list, the link quality ranking list including one or more additional link quality indicators rep resenting one or more additional link qualities of one or more additional mult i-radio communication links, wherein the link quality indicators are ordered in the link quality ranking list according to a predetermined ranking factor.

[00627] In Example 268, the subject matter of Example 267 includes, wherein determining the link quality indicator includes decoding from the broadcast message, measurement information indicative of a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link.

100628] In Examp le 269, the subject matter of Examples 267-268 includes, wherein determining the link quality indicator includes measuring a received signal strength, the received signal strength representing a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link.

100629] In Example 270, the subject matter of Examples 267-269 includes, wherein determining the link quality indicator includes tracking one or more packet errors associated with the received broadcast message.

[00630] In Example 271, the subject matter of Examples 267-270 includes, receiving the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from the vehicular terminal device of the first vehicle, wherein the device is a second vehicular terminal device.

1006311 In Example 272, the subject matter of Example 271 includes, receiving the broadcast message, via the convergence function, from a first convergence function of the vehicular terminal device.

[00632] In Example 273, the subject matter of Examples 267-272 includes, wherein the predetermined ranking factor includes an indication of a broadcast message type.

[00633] In Example 274, the subject matter of Examples 271-273 includes, wherein the predetermined ranking factor is a distance between the first vehicle and the second vehicle.

[00634] In Example 275, the subject matter of Examples 267-274 includes, receiving, by the second vehicular terminal dev ice, the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from a roadside unit (RSU).

100635] In Example 276, the subject matter of Examples 267-275 includes, receiving by the second vehicular terminal device, the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from an evolved Node-B (eNB).

[00636] In Example 277, the subject matter of Examples 267-276 includes, ranking the link quality indicator according to both the

predetermined ranking factor and context information associated with the vehicular terminal device or the second vehicular terminal device.

[00637] In Example 278, the subject matter of Example 277 includes, receiving the context information from one or more applications of the vehicular terminal device or the second vehicular terminal device.

100638] In Example 279, the subject matter of Examples 277-278 includes, wherein the context information is location information associated with the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

[00639] In Example 280, the subject matter of Examples 277-279 includes, wherein the context information is sensor data associated with one or more sensors of the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

[00640] In Example 281, the subject matter of Examples 267-280 includes, discarding, from the link quality ranking list, one or more link quality indicators based on the predetermined ranking factor.

[00641] In Example 282, the subject matter of Examples 277-281 includes, discarding, from the link quality ranking list, one or more link-quality indicators based on the predetermined ranking factor and the context information.

[00642] In Example 283, the subject matter of Examples 267-282 includes, identifying a high priority link quality indicator within the link quality ranking list, the high priority link quality indicator representing a high p riority multi-radio communication link, wherein the high p riority multi-radio communication link has a link quality below a specified quality threshold.

[00643] In Example 284, the subject matter of Example 283 includes, wherein the second vehicular terminal device includes an antenna array comprising improving the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link by modifying a direction of a radiation pattern of at least a subset of a p lurality of multip le-inp ut-mult ip le-out p ut (M I M O ) antennas coupled to a p lurality of available transceivers.

1006441 In Example 285, the subject matter of Examples 283 - 284 includes, wherein imp roving the link quality of the high p riority multi-radio communication link includes reducing a packet size of a p acket for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high priority multi-radio communication link, by removing one or more information elements from the packet.

100645] In Example 286, the subject matter of Examples 283-285 includes, wherein imp roving the link quality of the high p riority multi-radio communication link includes encoding for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high priority multi-radio communication link, a p acket including one or more codes indicating a high priority message.

[00646] In Example 287, the subject matter of Examples 283-286 includes, wherein improving the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link includes encoding for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high priority multi-radio communication link, a p acket including an indication of sensor data associated with the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

100647] In Example 288, the subject matter of Examples 283-287 includes, wherein improving the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link includes: tracking a transmission window associated w ith a wireless medium; receiving exclusive access of the wireless medium during the t ran s m i s s i on w i n do w ; transmitting by the second vehicular terminal device during the transmission window, a packet including one or more information elements indicating a high priority message associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link.

100648] In Example 289, the subject matter of Examples 283-288 includes, wherein improving the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link includes simultaneously transmitting a signal associated with the high priority multi -radio communication link over two or more frequency bands.

100649] In Example 290, the subject matter of Examples 283-289 includes, wherein improving the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link includes simultaneously transmitting a signal associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link over two or more subsets of theMIMO antennas.

100650] In Example 29 1 , the subject matter of Examples 25 1 -290 includes, wherein the convergence function establishes the third multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal device and the secondary communication node based on a current location of the vehicular terminal device.

[00651] In Example 292, the subject matter of Examples 234-291 includes, receiving the measurement information of the vehicular terminal device from the secondary communication node via the second multi-radio communication link.

[00652] In Example 293, the subject matter of Examples 234-292 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio

communication links are configured to use a same one the plurality of available RATs at different communication frequencies.

[00653] In Example 294, the subject matter of Examples 2 14-293 includes, wherein the device includes: a first transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains, the first transceiver configured to communicate with a node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multiple RA Ts; a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains, the second transceiver configured to communicate with the node using one or more intermediate nodes and a communication link of a second RAT of the multiple R ATs; and wherein completing the communication includes: decoding measurement information received from the node, the measurement information indicative of channel quality of the first RAT communication link; and determining to establish a new communication link with the one or more intermediate nodes, based on the decoded measurement information.

[00654] In Example 295, the subject matter of Example 294 includes, wherein the first transceiver is configured to communicate with the node using one or more other intermediate nodes and the first RAT communication link.

[00655] In Example 296, the subject matter of Examples 294-295 includes, wherein the device includes a third transceiver of the multip le transceiver chains, the third transceiver configured to communicate with the node using the new communication link, the new communication link being one of the first RAT, the second RAT or a third RAT of the multiple RATs.

100656] In Example 297, the subject matter of Examples 294-296 includes, wherein: the node is a user equipment (UE); and the device is a Radio Resource Controller (RRC) of an evolved Node-B (eNB).

[00657] In Example 298, the subject matter of Examples 294-297 includes, wherein the transceiver interface includes a vehicle-to-every thing (V2X) convergence function p roviding a common interface between the multiple transceiver chains.

100658] In Example 299, the subject matter of Example 298 includes, wherein the V2X convergence function: communicates with a V2X convergence function of the node via the first RAT communication link; and communicates with a V2X convergence function of the one or more intermediate nodes via the second RAT communication link.

[00659] In Example 300, the subject matter of Examples 294- -299 includes, wherein the node is an eNB and the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00660] In Example 301, the subject matter of Examples 294-300 includes, wherein the device is a vehicular terminal device within a moving vehicle, and the measurement information includes a cuirent location of the moving vehicle.

[00661] In Example 302, the subject matter of Example 301 includes, estimating a future location of the moving vehicle based on the current location; and selecting a second intermediate node of the one or more intermediate nodes based on node proximity to the future location; and establishing the new communication link with the second intermediate node.

[00662] In Example 303, the subject matter of Examples 301-302 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include at least one antenna array placed at a first location of a first surface of the vehicle and at least another antenna array placed on a second location of the first surface.

100663] In Example 304, the subject matter of Example 303 includes, wherein the first surface is a roof of the vehicle.

[00664] In Example 305, the subject matter of Examples 303 -304 includes, wherein the first surface is a hood of the vehicle.

1006651 In Example 306, the subject matter of Examples 301 -305 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include at least one antenna array etched into a front wind shield of the vehicle.

100666] In Example 307, the subject matter of Examples 303-306 includes, wherein the at least one antenna array shares a front end module with a radar communications module of the vehicle.

[00667] In Example 308, the subject matter of Examples 303-307 includes, wherein the at least one antenna array uses a front end module separate from a front end module used by a radar communications module of the vehicle.

[00668] In Example 309, the subject matter of Examples 294-308 includes, wherein the second RAT communication link includes a first communication link between the communication device and the intermediate node, and a second communication link between the intermediate node and the node.

1006691 In Example 3 10, the subject matter of Examples 294-309 includes, maintaining the first RAT communication link to be active simultaneously with the second RAT communication link.

1006701 In Example 1 1 , the subject matter of Examples 294-3 10 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include an antenna array comprising a plurality of multip le-input-multiple-output ( M IMO) antennas coupled to the plurality of available transceivers.

[00671] In Example 3 12, the subject matter of Example 3 1 1 includes, wherein the first transceiver communicates with the node using the first RAT communication link and a first subset of the M IM O antennas, and wherein the second transceiver communicates w ith the node using the second R AT communication link and a second subset of the M 1 M O antennas.

100672] In Examp le 3 13, the subj ect matter of Examp les 294-3 12 includes, wherein the second transceiver of the plurality of available transceivers communicates with the node using a communication link of a third RAT of the multiple RATs and without the use of the one or more intermediate nodes.

[00673] In Example 3 14, the subject matter of Example 3 13 includes, maintaining both the first R AT communication link and the third RAT communication link for simultaneous connection to the node.

100674] In Example 315, the subject matter of Example 314 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link comprises a data channel and the third RAT communication link comprises a control channel for

communicating control information.

[00675] In Example 316, the subject matter of Example 315 includes, using at least a portion of the control information to control direct

communication between a p lurality of other nodes associated w ith the method in a communication framework, the direct communication using one or more RATs of the multip le RATs, the one or more RATs distinct from the third RAT.

100676] In Examp le 3 1 7, the subject matter of Example 3 16 includes, wherein t he communication framework is based on LTE dual connectivity framework.

1006771 In Examp le 3 18, the subject matter of Examples 294 -3 1 7 includes, designating the first RA T as a primary RAT and the second RAT as a secondary RAT, based on one or more p references associated w ith a vehicular terminal device; and modify ing, in resp onse to a change in a network environment, the designation of the p rimary RAT and the secondary RAT, based on the one or more preferences.

100678] In Examp le 319, the subject matter of Example 318 includes, wherein t he change in the network environment is a change in a mobility environment of the vehicular terminal device.

1006791 In Examp le 320, the subj ect matter of Examp les 3 1 8 - 3 19 includes, wherein designating the first RAT as the primary RAT and the second RAT as the secondary RA T is based on one or more network configurations.

[00680] In Examp le 32 1 , the subject matter of Examples 31 8-320 includes, wherein the first RAT and the second RAT are each designated from a p lurality of RATs including: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio access technology ; w ireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio access technology ; Bluetooth radio access technology ; an IEEE 802, 1 1 radio access technology ; an LTE radio access technology ; or a 5G radio access technology .

100681 ] In Example 322, the subject matter of Examples 318-321 includes, wherein the second transceiver communicates with the node without the use of one or more intermediate nodes via the communication link of the second RAT.

[00682] In Example 323, the subject matter of Examples 318-322 includes, wherein a preference includes a specification of one or more of a desired data throughput, cost factor, mobility factor associated with a vehicular terminal device, or a quality of service (QoS).

[00683] In Example 324, the subject matter of Examples 31 8 323 includes, wherein the change in a network environment includes a change in a network loading factor.

[00684] In Example 325, the subject matter of Examples 214-324 includes, wherein completing the communication includes: establishing a communication link with a first node using a first transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains and a first RAT of the multiple RAT s; establishing a communication link with a second node using a second transceiver of the multip le transceivers and a second RAT of the multiple RATs; receiv ing via the first RAT communication link, first map data from the first node; receiv ing v ia the second RA T communication link, second map data from the second node; and generating updated map data associated with a current location of the device based on the first map data and the second map data.

10068 1 In Example 326, the subject matter of Example 325 includes, wherein: the dev ice is a vehicular terminal dev ice in a moving vehicle; the first node is a primary communication node; and the second node is a secondary communication node.

100686] In Examp le 327, the subject matter of Examp le 326 includes, receiv ing the first map data as a unicast message from the primary

communication node.

[00687] In Examp le 328, the subject matter of Examples 326-327 includes, receiv ing the first map data as a broadcast message from the primary communication node, wherein the first map data is broadcast to the communication dev ice and to the secondary communication node.

100688] In Example 329, the subject matter of Examples 325-328 includes, wherein the first map data is redundant with the second map data.

[00689] In Example 330, the subject matter of Examples 325-329 includes, combining the first map data and the second map data to generate the updated map data, wherein the first map data is non-redundant with the second map data.

1006901 In Examp le 331, the subj ect matter of Examp les 2 14 - 330 includes, wherein a first transceiver chain from the multip le transceiver chains communicates with an infrastructure node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multip le RAT s, and wherein comp leting the communication includes: decoding control information from the infrastructure node, the control information including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) device discovery information; and establishing using a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a new communication link with a second node based on the V2V device discovery information, wherein the second transceiver chain is configured to communicate with the second node using a communication link of a second RAT of the mult i-RAT.

[006 1 ] In Example 332, the subject matter of Examp le 33 I includes, wherein the second node is a line-of-sight (LOS) vehicle and the second RAT communication link is a V2V communication link based on one or more of a Wi-Fi Direct connectivity framework, a Wi-Fi Aware connectivity network, an L I E- Direct connectivity framework, or 5G connectiv ity network.

100692] In Example 333, the subject matter of Examples 33 I -332 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is an L I or 5G communication link and is configured to provide control plane for managing V2V connectivity .

100693] In Example 334, the subject matter of Examples 33 1 -333 includes, wherein the control information from the infrastructure node further includes V2V resource allocation and V2V sy nchronization information to assist with establishment of the new communication link with the second node.

1006941 In Example 335, the subject matter of Examples 33 I - 334 includes, establishing the new communication link as a direct V2V link with the second node; and establishing using a third transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, another communication link with the second node via an intermediate node, based on the V2V device discovery information .

10069 1 In Example 336, the subject matter of Example 335 includes, wherein the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU).

1006961 In Examp le 337, the subject matter of Examples 335-336 includes, decoding sensor data received from the intermediate node, wherein the sensor data originates from a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) vehicle in communication with the intermediate node.

[00697] In Examp le 338, the subject matter of Examples 335 337 includes, encoding data for redundant transmission to the second node via both the direct V2V link and via the another communication link with the second node via the intermediate node.

100698] In Examp le 339, the subj ect matter of Examp les 33 1-338 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is a v ehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) link, the device is w ithin a vehicle and is configured to receive assistance from the infrastructure node to enable direct V2V communication.

100699] In Examp le 340, the subject matter of Examp les 335-339 includes, wherein the second node and the intermediate node are cooperating vehicles that cooperate over V2V links to improv e one or more quality characteristics of at least one V2I link associated with the communication device.

100700] In Examp le 34 1 , the subject matter of Examples 335-340 includes, establishing multiple communication links with the intermediate node, each communication link w ith the intermediate node using a different RAT of the multi-RAT .

[00701 ] In Examp le 342, the subject matter of Examp les 33 I -34 1 includes, wherein communications with the infrastructure node and the second node use one or more RATs of the multi-RAT and are combined over a phy sical (PHY) lay er, a media access control (MAC) layer or a higher layer. 100702] In Example 343, the subject matter of Examples 214-342 includes, accessing a list of available RATs that have been detected within a range of the device; and determining to establish a new communication link with a selected RAT of the available RATs based on compatibility of transmission requirements of the device with the selected RAT.

[00703] In Example 344, the subject matter of Example 343 includes, wherein the requirement includes one of a latency requirement, a reliability requirement, a throiigliput requirement, and a requirement of an application executing on the device.

100704] In Example 345, the subject matter of Examples 343-344 includes, selecting the selected RAT by accessing a database table, the database table indicating a relationship between the transmission requirement s and at least one RAT of the list of available RATs.

[00705] In Example 346, the subject matter of Example 345 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the device.

1007061 In Example 347, the subject matter of Examples 345-346 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the node.

[00707] In Example 348, the subject matter of Examples 345-347 includes, wherein the database table is populated by measurements of a group of parameters taken by at least one RAT.

100708] In Example 349, the subject matter of Example 348 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the node.

[00709] In Example 350, the subject matter of Examples 348-349 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the at least one device.

[00710] In Example 351, the subject matter of Examples 348-350 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are partitioned among neighboring devices using device-to-device (D2D ) communication.

[00711] In Example 352, the subject matter of Examples 343-351 includes, wherein the measurement information includes key performance indicators (KPIs) that characterize RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00712] In Example 353, the subject matter of Example 352 includes, wherein KPIs include at least two of latency , congestion level, load, voice support, data rates supported, range, p ower level, bands covered, signal conditions, coexistence capabilities, cryptographic capabilities, and spectrum access method.

[00713] In Example 354, the subject matter of Example 353 includes, wherein KPIs further include an indication as to times at which a corresponding RAT is expected to be powered down.

[00714] In Example 355, the subject matter of Examples 345-354 includes, wherein the database table includes at least one validity indicator field to indicate t ru st wort hiness of measurement s .

[00715] In Example 356, the subject matter of Example 355 includes, wherein trustworthiness is based on at least one of a location where a corresponding measurement was taken, and a time of day when the corresponding measurement was taken .

[00716] In Examp le 357, the subject matter of Examples 343 - 356 includes, terminating usage of a RA T subsequent to detecting that operating conditions for the RAT have deteriorated below a threshold.

[00717 J In Examp le 358, the subject matter of Examp les 343-357 includes, determining to establish a group of communication links with a selected group of RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00718] In Examp le 359, the subject matter of Example 358 includes, wherein the selected group of RATs is selected based upon a range K 1 of RATs of t he list of available RATs.

[00719] In Examp le 360, the subject matter of Examples 358-359 includes, wherein the selected group of RATs is selected based upon suscep tibility of RATs of the list of available RATs to deep shadowing.

1007201 In Examp le 36 1 , the subject matter of Examples 343 -360 includes, wherein the list of available RATs is p rovided by the node.

[00721] In Examp le 362, the subject matter of Examples 343 36 1 includes, wherein the list of available RATs is p rovided by a neighboring device using devi ce-t o-devi ce (D2D) communication.

[00722] In Example 363, the subject matter of Examples 343-362 includes, encoding for transmission to the node, a request to use a RAT of the list of available RATs.

[00723] In Example 364, the subject matter of Example 363 includes, encoding for transmission to the node, a request touse a group of RATs of the list of available R ATs.

1007241 In Example 365, the subject matter of Examples 343 - 364 includes, implementing RAT hoppingby selecting a first RAT for

transmission of a first portion of a transmission and by selecting a second RAT for transmission of a second p oil ion of the transmission.

[00725] In Example 366, the subject matter of Example 365 includes, selecting the first RAT for a control portion of a transmission; and selecting the second RAT for a data portion of the transmission.

[00726] Example 367 is at least one machine readable medium including instructions that, when executed by processing circuitry , cause the processing circuitry to perform any method of Examples 214 -366.

[00727] Example 368 is a sy stem comprising means to perform any method of Examples 2 14 -366.

1007281 Example 369 is a device for multi-radio access technology (RAT ) communication, the device comprising a transceiver interface including multiple connections to communicate with multiple transceiver chains, the multiple transceiver chains sup porting multiple RATs, the device further comprising: means for receiving a communication associated with one or more of the multiple RATs; and means for controlling the multiple transceiver chains via the multiple connections of the transceiver interface to coordinate the multiple R ATs to complete the communication.

[00729] In Example 370, the subject matter of Example 369 includes, means for receiving using a multi-link coder of the device, via a first transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multiple RATs; means for apply ing a code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and means for replicating the encoded data stream to generate a plurality of encoded data streams, the plurality of encoded data streams for transmission to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

[00730] In Example 371, the subject matter of Example 370 includes, means for controlling transmission of a first encoded data stream from the plurality of encoded data streams to the first communication node via the first RAT communication link of the first transceiver chain .

1007311 In Example 372, the subject matter of Example 371 includes, means for controlling transmission of the at least a second encoded data stream from the plurality of encoded data streams to at least the second communication node via the one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

[00732] In Example 373, the subject matter of Example 372 includes, wherein the one or more other communication links are associated with the first RAT of the multiple RATs.

[00733] In Example 374, the subject matter of Examples 370-373 includes, means for controlling transmission of the p lurality of encoded data streams to the at least second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains.

[00734] In Example 375, the subject matter of Example 374 includes, wherein the one or more communication links of the second transceiver chain are associated with one or more RATs of the multip le RATs that are different from the first RAT.

100735] In Examp le 376, the subject matter of Examples 370-375 includes, wherein the code includes one or more of: a repetition code; a sy stematic code; a rap tor code; or a fountain code.

100736] In Examp le 377, the subject matter of Examples 369-376 includes, means for receiving via a first transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, a data stream from a first communication node via a communication link associated with a first RAT of the multiple RATs; means for app ly inga sy stematic code to the data stream to generate an encoded data stream; and means for replicating the encoded data stream to generate a first encoded data stream with information bits associated w ith the data stream, and at least a second encoded data stream with p arity bits, the p arity bits for decoding the information bits.

[00737] In Example 378, the subject matter of Example 377 includes, means for controlling transmission of the first encoded data stream to the first communication node via the first RAT communication link of the first transceiver chain.

1007381 In Example 379, the subject matter of Examples 377-378 includes, means for controlling transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more other communication links of the first transceiver chain.

[00739] In Example 380, the subject matter of Example 379 includes, wherein the one or more other communication links are associated with the first RAT of the multiple RATs.

[00740] In Examp le 381, the subj ect matter of Examp les 377-380 includes, means for controlling transmission of the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second communication node via one or more communication links of a second transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains.

[00741 ] In Example 382, the subject matter of Examp le 38 1 includes, wherein the one or more communication links of the second transceiver chain are associated with one or more RATs of the multiple RATs that are different from the first RAT.

[00742] In Example 383, the subject matter of Examples 377-382 includes, wherein the transceiver interface further comprises an interleaver configured to interleave the encoded data stream.

[00743] In Example 384, the subject matter of Examples 377-383 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is within a p otocol lay er of a plurality of protocol layers for at least one protocol stack of the device.

[00744] In Examp le 385, the subject matter of Example 384 includes, wherein the multi-link coder is configured to interface with the multiple transceiver chains via a common convergence layer within the at least one protocol stack of the device.

100745] In Example 386, the subject matter of Examples 384-385 includes, wherein the plurality of protocol lay ers comprise: a phy sical (PHY) layer; a media access control (MAC) lay er; a radio link control (RLC) lay er; and a packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) layer,

[00746] In Example 387, the subject matter of Examples 384-386 includes, means for receiving the data stream from a first protocol lay er of the p lurality of p rotocol lay ers; and means for outputtingthe first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream to at least a second protocol lay er of the plurality of protocol lay ers.

[00747] In Examp le 388, the subject matter of Examples 377-387 includes, means for receiving one or more of a packet reception

acknowledgement, a quality of service (QoS) indicator, and channel quality feedback information; and means for adjusting one or more of coding redundancy level, a number of outp ut communication links for transmission of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream, and a number of retransmissions of the first encoded data stream and the at least second encoded data stream based on the packet reception acknowledgement, the QoS, or the channel quality feedback information.

100748] In Examp le 389, the subject matter of Examples 369-388 includes, means for receiving measurement information from a vehicular terminal device via a first multi-radio communication link associated with at least a first RAT of the plurality of available RATs from the multip le RATs; means for configuring via a second niulti -radio communication link, a secondary communication node for com m u n i cat i on with the v ehicular terminal dev ice; and means for encoding, for transmission to the v ehicular terminal device, configuration information associated with the secondary communication node, the configuration information for establishing a third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular terminal device.

1007491 In Examp le 390, the subject matter of Example 389 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio communication links are configured to use one or more of the p lurality of av ailable RATs.

[00750] In Example 391, the subject matter of Examples 389-390 includes, wherein the first multi-radio communication link is 3 GPP carrier aggregated communication link, and the device is an evolved Node-B (eNB) Radio Resource Controller (RRC),

[00751] In Example 392, the subject matter of Examples 389-391 includes, wherein the measurement information includes vehicle location information associated with a vehicular terminal device.

1007521 In Example 393, the subject matter of Example 392 includes, means for estimating a future vehicle location associated with the vehicular terminal device based on the vehicle location information; and means for selecting the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based on the estimated future vehicle location.

[00753] In Example 394, the subject matter of Examples 389-393 includes, wherein the measurement information includes channel quality information for one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device, the one or more available channels associated with at least one of the plurality of RAT s.

[00754] In Example 395, the subject matter of Example 394 includes, wherein configuring the secondary communication node includes selecting the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

[00755] In Example 396, the subject matter of Example 395 includes, wherein configuring the secondary communication node includes encoding for transmission to the secondary communication node, an indication of a RAT of the plurality of av ailable RATs selected for use with the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the v ehicular terminal dev ice, based on the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

1007561 In Examp le 397, the subject matter of Example 396 includes, wherein the configuration information associated with the secondary communication node includes an indication of the selected RAT for use w ith the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary

communication node and the vehicular terminal device.

[00757] In Example 398, the subject matter of Examples 389-397 includes, wherein the primary communication node is an evolved Node-B (eNB) and the secondary communication node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00758] In Example 399, the subject matter of Examples 389-398 includes, wherein the device is configured for dual connectivity with the rimary communication node and the secondary communication node.

[00759] In Example 400, the subject matter of Example 399 includes, wherein, during the dual connectiv ity , the first multi-radio communication link and the third multi-radio communication link are simultaneously active.

100760] In Examp le 401, the subject matter of Example 400 includes, wherein, during the dual connectivity , the first multi-radio communication link is used for data communication and the third multi-radio communication link is used for communication of control information.

[00761 ] In Example 402, the subject matter of Examples 400-40 includes, wherein the second multi-radio communication link is a backhaul data connection for the first multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal dev ice and the primary communication node.

100762] In Example 403, the subject matter of Examples 389-402 includes, wherein the multiple RATs include at least two of: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio access technology ; ireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio access technology ; Bluetooth radio access technology ; an IEEE 802.1 1 radio access technology' ; an L I E radio access technology ; or a G radio access technology .

100763] In Example 404, the subject matter of Examples 389-403 includes, wherein the measurement information from the device includes measurement information for a p lurality of nodes accessible by the vehicular terminal dev ice.

100764] In Examp le 405, the subject matter of Example 404 includes, means for selecting the secondary communication node from the plurality of

nodes, for communication with the vehicular terminal device based on the measurement information .

100765] In Example 406, the subject matter of Examples 389-405 includes, wherein the p lurality of transceivers are interconnected via a convergence function.

1007661 In Example 407, the subject matter of Example 406 includes, means for receiving a connection with a communication device using a first transceiver of the multip le transceiver chains and a first RAT of the multip le RATs; means for receiv ing, at the conv ergence function, credentials information associated with an activ e communication link between the communication dev ice and a second communication dev ice, the activ e communication link using a second RAT from the multiple RATs, and means for prov iding the credentials information to the communication dev ice to establish a communication link with the third communication dev ice based on the credentials information.

100767] In Example 408, the subject matter of Example 407 includes, means for establishing an inter-conv ergence function interface between the conv ergence function and a conv ergence function at the communication device.

100768] In Examp le 409, the subject matter of Example 408 includes, means for receiv ing v ia the established connection and the inter-conv ergence function interface, dev ice cap abilities information indicative of v ehicular radio communication technologies av ailable at the communication device; and means for receiving the credentials information upon determining the second vehicular radio communications technology is av ailable at both the communication dev ice and the second communication dev ice.

100769] In Example 4 10, the subject matter of Examples 407-409 includes, wherein the conv ergence function comprises a conv ergence function component in each of a plurality of media access control (M AC) lay ers, the plurality of M AC lay ers corresp onding to the p lurality of av ailable vehicular radio communication technologies.

1007701 In Example 4 1 1 , the subject matter of Examples 407 - 10 includes, wherein the conv ergence function comprises a media access control

(M AC) lay er that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00771] In Example 4 12, the subject matter of Example 4 1 1 includes, means for dynamically placing the convergence function as the M AC lay er that is common to the multiple RATs up on detecting incompatibility between at least one of the plurality ofv ehicular radio communication technologies available at the device and at least one of a plurality ofvehicular radio communication technologies av ailable at the communication dev ice.

[00772] In Examp le 4 1 3, the subj ect matter of Examp les 407-4 12 includes, wherein the p lurality of v ehicular radio communication technologies includes one or more of: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio communication technology ; wireless access vehicular env ironment (WA VE) radio communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology' ; an I EEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology ; an L IE radio communication technology ; or a 5G radio communication technology .

[00773] In Example 4 14, the subject matter of Example 413 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication technology is the Bluetooth radio communication technology , and the second vehicular radio

communication technology is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology , the LTE radio communication technology' , or the 5G radio communication technolog .

1007741 In Example 415, the subject matter of Examples 407-4 14 includes, means for receiving, via an inter-conv ergence function interface between the conv ergence function and the conv ergence function at the communication dev ice, a confirmation that the communication link between the communication dev ice and the second communication dev ice is deactivated.

[00775] In Examp le 4 16, the subject matter of Example 4 1 5 includes, means for establishing the communication link with the third communication dev ice based on the credentials information receiv ed via the convergence function at the second communication dev ice upon receiving the confirmation.

1007761 In Example 4 1 7, the subject matter of Examples 407 - 16 includes, means for establishing the connection w ith the communication

device using a hardwired docking connection between the device and the communication device.

[00777] In Examp !e 418, the subj ect matter of Examp les 407-417 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiver at the communication device for operation using the second RAT.

[00778] In Example 419, the subject matter of Example 418 includes, means for activating a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains to operate as a hotspot based on the credentials information.

[00779] In Example 420, the subject matter of Example 419 includes, means for establishing a communication link between the convergence function and a second transceiver at the communication device via the convergence function of the communication device.

[00780] In Example 421, the subject matter of Example 420 includes, wherein the second transceiver at the second communication device is configured to operate as an LTE backhaul for the hotspot.

[00781] In Example 422, the subject matter of Examples 406-421 includes, means for receiving a broadcast message via a fourth multi-radio communication link associated with one of the plurality of available RATs; means for determining based on the received broadcast message, a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link; means for storing within a link quality ranking list, a link quality indicator representing the link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link in accordance with the measurement information; and means for ranking the link quality indicat or within a link quality ranking list, the link quality ranking list including one or more additional fink quality indicators representing one or more additional link qualities of one or more additional multi-radio communication links, wherein the link quality indicators are ordered in the link quality ranking list according to a predetermined ranking factor.

[00782] In Example 423, the subject matter of Example 422 includes, means for decoding from the broadcast message, measurement information indicative of a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link.

100783] In Example 424, the subject matter of Examples 422-423 includes, means for measuring a received signal strength, the received signal strength rep resenting a link quality of the fourth multi-radio communication link.

100784] In Example 425, the subject matter of Examples 422-424 includes, means for tracking one or more packet errors associated with the received broadcast message.

[00785] In Example 426, the subject matter of Examples 422-425 includes, means for receiving the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from the vehicular terminal device of the first vehicle, wherein the device is a second vehicular terminal device.

[00786] In Example 427, the subject matter of Example 426 includes, means for receiving the broadcast message, via the convergence function, from a first convergence function of the vehicular terminal device.

[00787] In Example 428, the subject matter of Examples 422-427 includes, wherein the predetermined ranking factor includes an indication of a broadcast message type.

[00788] In Example 429, the subject matter of Examples 426-428 includes, wherein the predetermined ranking factor is a distance between the first vehicle and the second vehicle.

1007891 In Example 430, the subject matter of Examples 422-429 includes, means for receiving, by the second vehicular terminal device, the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from a roadside unit (RSU).

100790] In Example 431, the subject matter of Examples 422-430 includes, means for receiving by the second vehicular" terminal device, the broadcast message, via the fourth multi-radio communication link, from an evolved Node-B (eNB).

1007911 In Example 432, the subject matter of Examples 422-431 includes, means for ranking the link quality indicator according to both the predetermined ranking factor and context information associated with the vehicular terminal device or the second vehicular terminal device.

100792] In Example 433, the subject matter of Example 432 includes, means for receiving the context information from one or more applications of the vehicular terminal device or the second vehicular terminal device.

[00793] In Example 434, the subject matter of Examples 432-433 includes, wherein the context information is location information associated with the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

1007941 In Example 435, the subject matter of Examples 432 -434 includes, wherein the context information is sensor data associated with one or more sensors of the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

[00795] In Example 436, the subject matter of Examples 422-435 includes, means for discarding from the link quality ranking list, one or more link quality indicators based on the predetermined ranking factor.

[00796] In Example 437, the subject matter of Examples 432-436 includes, means for discarding from the link quality ranking list, one or more link quality indicators based on the p redetermined ranking factor and the context information.

[00797] In Example 438, the subject matter of Examples 422-437 includes, means for identify ing a high p riority link quality indicator within the link quality ranking list, the high priority link quality indicator representing a high priority multi-radio communication link, wherein the high priority multi-radio communication link has a link quality below a specified quality threshold.

[00798] In Example 439, the subject matter of Example 438 includes, wherein the second vehicular terminal device includes an antenna array comprising imp oving the link quality of the high priority multi-radio communication link by modify ing a direction of a radiation pattern of at least a subset of a p lurality of multip le-inp ut-mult ip le-out p ut (M IMO ) antennas coupled to a plurality of available transceivers.

[00799] In Examp le 440, the subject matter of Examples 438-439 includes, means for reducing a packet size of a packet for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high p riority multi-radio

communication link, by removing one or more information elements from the packet.

100800] In Example 44 1 , the subject matter of Examples 438-440 includes, means for encoding for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high priority multi-radio communication link, a packet including one or more codes indicating a high priority message.

1008011 In Example 442, the subject matter of Examples 438-441 includes, means for encoding for transmission by the second vehicular terminal device, via the high p riority multi-radio communication link, a packet including an indication of sensor data associated with the first vehicle, second vehicle, or one or more additional vehicles.

[00802] In Example 443, the subject matter of Examples 438-442 includes, means for tracking a transmission window associated with a wireless medium; means for receiving exclusive access of the wireless medium during the transmission window; and means for transmitting by the second vehicular terminal device during the transmission window, a packet including one or more information elements indicating a high priority message associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link.

[00803] In Example 444, the subject matter of Examples 438 443 includes, means for simultaneously transmitting a signal associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link over two or more frequency bands.

[00804] In Example 445, the subject matter of Examples 438-444 includes, means for simultaneously transmitting a signal associated with the high priority multi-radio communication link over two or more subsets of the M I M O antennas.

[00805] In Example 446, the subject matter of Examples 406-445 includes, wherein the convergence function establishes the third multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal device and the secondary communication node based on a current location of the vehicular t erminal device.

[00806] In Example 447, the subject matter of Examples 389-446 includes, means for receiving the measurement information of the vehicular terminal device from the secondary communication node via the second multi-radio communication link .

100807] In Example 448, the subject matter of Examples 389-447 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio

communication links are configured to use a same one the plurality of available RAT s at different communication frequencies.

1008081 In Example 449, the subject matter of Examples 369-448 includes, wherein the device includes: a first transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains, the first transceiver configured to communicate with a node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multiple RATs; a second transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains, the second transceiver configured to communicate with the node using one or more intermediate nodes and a communication link of a second RAT of the multiple RATs; and wherein to complete the communication, the dev ice further includes: means for decoding measurement information received from the node, the measurement information indicativ e of channel quality of the first RAT communication link; and means for determining to establish a new

communication link with the one or more intermediate nodes, based on the decoded measurement information .

100809] In Example 450, the subject matter of Example 449 includes, wherein the first transceiver is configured to communicat e with the node using one or more other intermediate nodes and the first RAT communication link.

[00810] In Example 451, the subject matter of Examples 449-450 includes, wherein the device includes a third transceiver of the multiple transceiv er chains, the third transceiv er configured to communicate with the node using the new communication link, the new communication link being one of the first RA T, the second RAT or a third RAT of the multiple RATs.

[00811] In Examp le 452, the subject matter of Examples 449-45 1 includes, wherein: the node is a user equipment (UE); and the device is a Radio Resource Controller (RRC) of an ev olv ed Node-B (eNB).

[00812] In Example 453, the subject matter of Examples 449-452 includes, wherein the transceiver interface includes a veh i cle-t o-every thing (V2X) convergence function p roviding a common interface between the multiple transceiver chains.

[00813] In Example 454, the subject matter of Example 453 includes, wherein the V2X convergence function includes: means for communicating with a V2X convergence function of the node via the first RAT

communication link; and means for communicating with a V2X convergence function of the one or more intermediate nodes via the second RAT communication link.

[00814] In Example 455, the subject matter of Examples 449-454 includes, wherein the node is an eNB and the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00815] In Example 456, the subject matter of Examples 449-455 includes, wherein the device is a vehicular terminal device within a moving vehicle, and the measurement information includes a current location of the moving vehicle.

[00816] In Example 457, the subject matter of Example 4 6 includes, means for estimating a future location of the moving vehicle based on the current location; means for selecting a second intermediate node of the one or more intermediate nodes based on node proximity to the future location; and means for establishing the new communication link with the second intermediate node.

[00817] In Example 458, the subject matter of Examples 456-457 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include at least one antenna array p laced at a first location of a first surface of the vehicle and at least another antenna array placed on a second location of the first surface.

[00818] In Example 459, the subject matter of Example 458 includes, wherein the first surface is a roof of the vehicle.

[00819] In Example 460, the subject matter of Examples 458-459 includes, wherein the first surface is a hood of the vehicle.

100820] In Examp le 46 1 , the subject matter of Examples 456-460 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include at least one antenna array et ched into a front windshield of the vehicle.

[00821] In Example 462, the subject matter of Examples 458-461 includes, wherein the at least one antenna array shares a front -end module with a radar communications module of the vehicle.

[00822] In Example 463, the subject matter of Examples 458-462 includes, wherein the at least one antenna array uses a front-end module separate from a front end module used by a radar communications module of the vehicle.

1008231 In Example 464, the subject matter of Examples 449-463 includes, wherein the second RAT communication link includes a first communication link between the communication device and the intermediate node, and a second communication link between the intermediate node and the node.

[00824] In Example 465, the subject matter of Examples 449-464 includes, means for maintaining the first RAT communication link to be active simultaneously with the second RAT communication link.

[00825] In Example 466, the subject matter of Examples 449-465 includes, wherein the multiple transceiver chains include an antenna array comp rising a plurality of multip le-input-multiple-output ( M IMO) antennas coupled to the plurality of available transceivers.

[00826] In Example 467, the subject matter of Example 466 includes, wherein the first transceiver communicates with the node using the first RAT communication link and a first subset of the M IM O antennas; and wherein the second transceiver communicates with the node using the second RAT communication link and a second subset of the M 1 M O antennas.

[00827] In Example 468, the subject matter of Examples 449-467 includes, wherein the second transceiver of the plurality of available transceivers communicates with the node using a communication link of a third RAT of the multiple RATs and without the use of the one or more intermediate nodes.

[00828] In Example 469, the subject matter of Example 468 includes, means for maintaining both the first R AT communication link and the third RAT communication link for simultaneous connection to the node.

100829] In Example 470, the subject matter of Example 469 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link comprises a data channel and the third RAT communication link comprises a control channel for

communicating control information.

[00830] In Example 471, the subject matter of Example 470 includes, means for using at least a portion of the control information to control direct communication between a p lurality of other nodes associated w ith the device in a communication framework, the direct communication using one or more RATs of the multip le RATs, the one or more RATs distinct from the third RAT.

[00831] In Examp le 472, the subject matter of Example 47 1 includes, wherein t he communication framework is based on LTE dual connectivity framework.

1008321 In Example 473, the subject matter of Examples 449-472 includes, means for designating the first RAT as a p rimary RAT and the second RA T as a secondary RAT, based on one or more preferences associated with a vehicular terminal device; and means for modifying in response to a change in a network environment, the designation of the p rimary RAT and the secondary R AT, based on the one or more preferences.

100833] In Examp le 474, the subject matter of Example 473 includes, wherein t he change in the network environment is a change in a mobility environment of the vehicular terminal device.

1008341 In Examp le 475, the subject matter of Examples 473-474 includes, wherein designating the first RAT as the p rimary RAT and the second RAT as the secondary RA T is based on one or more network configurations.

[00835] In Example 476, the subject matter of Examples 473-475 includes, wherein the first RAT and the second RAT are each designated from a plurality of RATs including: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio access technology ; w ireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio access technology ; Bluetooth radio access technology ; an IEEE 802, 1 1 radio access technology ; an LTE radio access technology ; or a 5G radio access technology .

100836] In Example 477, the subject matter of Examples 473-476 includes, wherein the second transceiver communicates with the node without the use of one or more intermediate nodes via the communication link of the second RAT.

[00837] In Example 478, the subject matter of Examples 473-477 includes, wherein a preference includes a specification of one or more of a desired data throughput, cost factor, mobility factor associated with a vehicular terminal device, or a quality of service (QoS).

[00838] In Example 479, the subject matter of Examples 473-478 includes, wherein the change in a network environment includes a change in a network loading factor.

[00839] In Example 480, the subject matter of Examples 369-479 includes, means for establishing a communication link with a first node using a first transceiver of the multiple transceiver chains and a first RAT of the multiple RATs; means for establishing a communication link with a second node using a second transceiver of the multiple transceivers and a second RAT of the multiple RATs; means for receiving via the first RAT communication link, first map data from the first node; means for receiving via the second RAT communication link, second map data from the second node; and means for generating updated map data associated with a current location of the device based on the first map data and the second map data.

[00840] In Example 481, the subject matter of Example 480 includes, wherein: the device is a vehicular terminal device in a moving v ehicle; the first node is a p imary communication node; and the second node is a secondary communication node.

100841 ] In Examp le 482, the subject matter of Examp le 48 1 includes, means for receiving the first map data as a unicast message from the primary communication node.

[00842] In Examp le 483, the subject matter of Examples 48 1 -482 includes, means for receiving the first map data as a broadcast message from the primary communication node, wherein the first map data is broadcast to the communication device and to the secondary communication node.

[00843] In Example 484, the subject matter of Examples 480-483 includes, wherein the first map data is redundant with the second map data. 100844] In Example 485, the subject matter of Examples 480-484 includes, means for combining the first map data and the second map data to generate the up dated map data, wherein the first map data is non-redundant with the second map data.

1008451 In Example 486, the subject matter of Examples 369-485 includes, wherein a first transceiver chain from the multip le transceiver chains communicates with an infrastructure node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multip le RATs, and wherein to complete the communication the device includes: means for decoding control information from the infrastructure node, the control information including vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) device discovery information, and means for establishing using a second transceiver chain of the multip le transceiver chains, a new

communication link ith a second node based on the V2V device discovery information, wherein the second transceiver chain is configured to

communicate with the second node using a communication link of a second RAT of the multi-RAT .

100846] In Examp le 487, the subject matter of Example 486 includes, wherein the second node is a line-of-sight (LOS) vehicle and the second RAT communication link is a V2V communication link based on one or more of a Wi-Fi Direct connectivity framework, a Wi-Fi Aware connectivity network, an LT - Direct connectivity framework, or 5G connectiv ity network.

100847] In Example 488, the subject matter of Examples 486-487 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is an LTE or 5G communication link and is configu ed to p rov ide control plane for managing V2V connectivity .

100848] In Example 489, the subject matter of Examples 486-488 includes, wherein the control information from the infrastructure node further includes V2V resource allocation and V2V sy nchronization information to assist with establishment of the new communication link with the second node.

100849] In Example 490, the subject matter of Examples 486-489 includes, means for establishing the new communication link as a direct V2V link with the second node; and means for establishing using a third transceiver chain of the multiple transceiver chains, another communication link with the second node via an intermediate node, based on the V2V device discovery information.

[00850] In Example 491, the subject matter of Example 490 includes, wherein the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU).

[00851] In Example 492, the subject matter of Examples 490-491 includes, means for decoding sensor data received from the intermediate node, wherein the sensor data originates from a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) vehicle in communication with the intermediate node.

[00852] In Example 493, the subject matter of Examples 490-492 includes, means for encoding data for redundant transmission to the second node via both the direct V2V link and via the another communication link with the second node via the intermediate node.

1008531 In Example 494, the subject matter of Examples 486-493 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) link, the device is within a vehicle and is configured to receive assistance from the infrastructure node to enable direct V2V communication.

[00854] In Example 495, the subject matter of Examples 490-494 includes, wherein the second node and the intermediate node are cooperating vehicles that cooperate over V2V links to improve one or more quality characteristics of at least one V2I link associated with the communication device.

[00855] In Example 496, the subject matter of Examples 490-495 includes, means for establishing multiple communication links with the intermediate node, each communication link with the intermediate node using a different RAT of themulti-RAT.

[00856] In Example 497, the subject matter of Examples 486-496 includes, wherein communications with the infrastructure node and the second node use one or more RATs of the multi-RAT and are combined over a physical (PHY) layer, a media access control (MAC) layer or a higher layer.

[00857] In Example 498, the subject matter of Examples 369-497 includes, means for accessing a list of available RATs that have been detected within a range of the device; and means for determining to establish a new communication link with a selected RAT of the available RATs based on compatibility of transmission requirements of the device with the selected RAT.

[00858] In Example 499, the subject matter of Example 498 includes, wherein the requirement includes one of a latency requirement, a reliability requirement, a throughput requirement, and a requirement of an application executing on the device.

[00859] In Example 500, the subject matter of Examples 498-499 includes, means for selecting the selected RAT by accessing a database table, the database table indicating a relationship between the transmission requirements and at least one RAT of the list of available RATs.

1008601 In Example 501 , the subject matter of Example 500 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the device.

100861 ] In Example 502, the subject matter of Examples 500-501 includes, wherein the database table is stored at the node.

100862] In Example 503, the subject matter of Examples 500-502 includes, wherein the database table is populated by measurements of a group of parameters taken by at least one RAT.

[00863] In Example 504, the subject matter of Example 503 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the node.

[00864] In Example 505, the subject matter of Examples 503-504 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are indicated by the at least one device.

[00865] In Example 506, the subject matter of Examples 503-505 includes, wherein the group of parameters to be measured are partitioned among neighboring devices using devi ce-t o-devi ce (D2D) communication. 100866] In Example 507, the subject matter of Examples 498-506 includes, wherein the measurement information includes key performance indicators (KPIs) that characterize RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00867] In Example 508, the subject matter of Example 507 includes, wherein KPIs include at least two of latency , congestion level, load, voice support, data rates supported, range, p ower level, bands covered, signal conditions, coexistence capabilities, cry ptograp hie capabilities, and spectrum access method.

[00868] In Example 509, the subject matter of Example 508 includes, wherein KPIs further include an indication as to times at which a

corresponding RAT is expected to be powered down.

[00869] In Example 510, the subject matter of Examples 500-509 includes, wherein the database table includes at least one validity indicator field to indicate trustworthiness of measurements.

[00870] In Examp le 51 1, the subj ect matter of Examp le 510 includes, wherein trustworthiness is based on at least one of a location where a corresponding measurement was taken, and a time of day when the corresponding measurement was taken.

100871 ] In Examp le 5 12, the subject matter of Examp les 498 -5 1 1 includes, means for terminating usage of a RAT subsequent to detecting that operating conditions for the RAT have deteriorated below a threshold.

[00872] In Examp le 513, the subj ect matter of Examp les 498-5 12 includes, means for determining to establish a group of communication links with a selected group of RATs of the list of available RATs.

1008731 In Examp le 14, the subject matter of Example 5 13 includes, wherein the selected group of RATs is selected based upon a range K I of RATs of the list of available R ATs.

1008741 In Examp le 5 1 5, the subject matter of Examples 5 1 3 - 5 14 includes, wherein the selected group of RATs is selected based upon susceptibility of RATs of the list of available RATs to deep shadowing.

[00875] In Examp le 516, the subj ect matter of Examp les 498-5 1 5 includes, wherein the list of available RATs is p rovided by the node.

100876] In Examp le 517, the subj ect matter of Examp les 498-516 includes, wherein the list of available RAT s is provided by a neighboring device using device-to-device (D2D) communication.

[00877] In Examp le 518, the subj ect matter of Examp les 498-517 includes, means for encoding for transmission to the node, a request to use a RAT of the list of available RATs.

1008781 In Example 5 19, the subject matter of Example 5 1 8 includes, means for encoding for transmission to the node, a request to use a group of RATs of the list of available RATs.

[00879] In Examp le 520, the subject matter of Examples 498 5 19 includes, means for implementing RAT hop ping by selecting a first RAT for transmission of a first portion of a transmission and by selecting a second RAT for transmission of a second p ortion of the transmission.

[00880] In Example 521, the subject matter of Example 520 includes, means for selecting the first RAT for a control p ortion of a transmission; and means for selecting the second RAT for a data portion of the transmission.

[00881] Examp le 522 is a communication device for vehicular radio communications, the communication dev ice comprising: a plurality of transceivers, wherein each transceiv er is configured to operate in a v ehicular radio communication technology of a p lurality of av ailable vehicular radio communication technologies, and wherein the plurality of transceivers are interconnected via a convergence function; and one or more processors configured to; establish connection with a second communication device using a first transceiv er of the p lurality of transceivers and a first vehicular radio communication technology of the p lurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies; receive v ia a conv ergence function at the second communication dev ice, credentials information associated with an activ e communication link between the second communication dev ice and a third communication dev ice, the activ e communication link using a second vehicular radio communication technology of the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies; and establish a communication link with the third communication dev ice based on the credentials information receiv ed via the conv ergence function at the second communication dev ice. 100882] In Example 523, the subject matter of Example 522 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: establish an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function at the communication device and the convergence function at the second

communication device.

[00883] In Example 524, the subject matter of Example 523 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: receive via the established connection and the inter-convergence function interface, device capabilities information indicative of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the second communication device; and request the credentials information upon determining the second vehicular radio communications technology is available at both the communication device and the second communication dev ice.

[00884] In Example 525, the subject matter of Examples 522-524 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a convergence function component in each of a plurality of media access control (M AC) lay ers, the plurality of M AC lay ers corresponding to the p lurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

100885] In Example 526, the subject matter of Examples 522-525 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a media access control (M AC) lay er that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

100886] In Example 527, the subject matter of Example 526 includes, wherein the one or more p ocessors are further configured to: dy namically p lace the convergence function as the M AC lay er that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies up on detecting incompatibility between at least one of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device and at least one of a plurality of v ehicular radio communication technologies available at the second communication device.

100887] In Example 528, the subject matter of Examples 522-527 includes, wherein the p lurality of v ehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio

communication t ech n ol og ; w i rel es s access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology ; an IEEE 802.1 1 radio communication technology' ; an LTE radio

communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

[00888] In Example 529, the subject matter of Example 528 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication technology is the Bluetooth radio communication technology , and the second vehicular radio

communication technology is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology , the LTE radio communication technology, or the SG radio communication technology .

100889] In Examp le 530, the subject matter of Examples 522-529 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: receive via an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function at the communication device and the convergence function at the second communication device, a confirmation that the communication link between the second communication device and the third communication device is deactivated.

100890] In Example 531, the subject matter of Example 530 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: establish the communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device upon receiving the confirmation.

[00891] In Example 532, the subject matter of Examples 522-531 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to:

establish the connection with the second communication device using a hardwired docking connection between the communication device and the second communication dev ice.

100892] In Examp le 533, the subject matter of Examples 522-532 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiver at the second communication device for operation using the second vehicular radio communication technology .

1008931 In Example 534, the subject matter of Example 533 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: activate a

second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers to operate as a hotspot based on the received credentials information.

100894] In Example 535, the subject matter of Example 534 includes, wherein the one or more processors are further configured to: establish a communication link between the convergence function at the communication device and a second transceiver at the second communication device via the convergence function of the second communication device.

1008951 In Example 536, the subject matter of Example 535 includes, wherein the second transceiver at the second communication device is configured to operate as an LTE backhaul for the hotspot .

[00896] Example 537 is a method for performing vehicular radio communications, the method comprising: by a communication device:

establishing connection with a second communication device using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a first vehicular radio

communication technology of a plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies; receiving via a convergence function at the second communication device, credentials information associated with an active communication link between the second communication device and a third communication device, the active communication link using a second vehicular radio communication technology of the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies; and establishing a

communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information receiv ed via the convergence function at the second communication dev ice.

100897] In Examp le 538, the subject matter of Examp le 537 includes, establishing an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function at the communication dev ice and the convergence function at the second communication dev ice.

100898] In Examp le 539, the subject matter of Example 538 includes, receiv ing via the established connection and the int er-conv ergence function interface, dev ice capabilities information indicative of v ehicular radio communication technologies av ailable at the second communication device; and requesting the credentials information upon determining the second

vehicular radio communications technology is available at both the communication device and the second communication device.

100899] In Example 540, the subject matter of Examples 537-539 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a convergence function component in each of a plurality of media access control (M AC) layers, the p lurality of M AC layers corresponding to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

1009001 In Example 541, the subject matter of Examples 537-540 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a media access control (MAC) layer that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00901] In Example 542, the subject matter of Example 541 includes, dynamically placing the convergence function as the M AC layer that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies upon detecting incompatibility between at feast one of the p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device and at least one of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the second communication device.

[00902] In Example 543, the subject matter of Examples 537-542 includes, wherein the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio

communication technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology ; an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology ; an LTE radio

communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

100903] In Example 544, the subject matter of Example 543 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication technology is the Bluetooth radio communication technology, and the second vehicular radio

communication technology is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology or a cellular radio communication technology .

[00904] In Example 545, the subject matter of Examples 537-544 includes, receiving via an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function at the communication device and the convergence

function at the second communication device, a confirmation that the communication link between the second communication device and the third communication device is deactivated.

10090 1 In Example 546, the subject matter of Example 545 includes, establishing the communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device upon receiv ing the confirmation.

1009061 In Example 547, the subject matter of Examples 537 -546 includes, establishing the connection with the second communication device using a hardwired docking connection between the communication device and the second communication device.

[00907] In Example 548, the subject matter of Examples 537-547 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiver at the second communication device for operation using the second vehicular radio communication technology .

1009081 In Example 549, the subject matter of Example 548 includes, activating a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers to operate as a hot sp ot based on the received credentials information.

100909] In Example 550, the subject matter of Example 549 includes, establishing a communication link between the convergence function at the communication device and a second transceiver at the second communication device via the convergence function of the second communication device. 100910] In Example 55 1 , the subject matter of Example 550 includes, wherein the second transceiver at the second communication device is configured to operate as an LTE backhaul for the hotspot .

[00911] Examp le 552 is a n on -transitory computer readable medium storing instructions that when executed by a p ocessor cause the processor to perform the method of any one of Examples 537 to 55 1 .

[00912] Example 553 is a communication dev ice for vehicular radio communications, the communication device comprising: a plurality of transceivers, wherein each transceiver is configured to operate in a one of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies, a communication

interface between the plurality oftransceivers, the communication interface comprising a veh i cl e-t o-every thing (V2X) convergence protocol lay er that is common to the plurality of transceivers; and one or more processors configured to: establish a cellular communication link with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of the p lurality of transceivers; receive at the V2X convergence protocol lay er, congestion information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the second communication dev ice; and adjust one or more channel access parameters of a non-cellular communication channel associated with a second transceiver of the plurality oftransceivers, based on the congestion information.

[00913] In Example 554, the subject matter of Example 553 includes, wherein the one or more processors are configured to: adjust transmit power of the second transceiv er based on the congestion information .

[00914] In Example 555, the subject matter of Examples 553-554 includes, wherein the congestion information is received via a V2X

convergence protocol lay er of the second communication dev ice.

[00915] In Example 556, the subject matter of Example 555 includes, wherein the V2X convergence p rotocol lay er of the second communication device provides a common interface between a plurality of transceivers at the second communication device.

[00916] In Example 557, the subject matter of Examples 553-556 includes, wherein: the non-cellular communication channel associated with the second transceiv er is an IEEE 802. 1 I communication channel between an 802. 1 I station (ST A ) and the communication device; and the second communication device is associated with a second ST A p roviding the non-cellular communication channel of the second communication device.

[00917] In Example 558, the subject matter of Example 557 includes, w herein the one or more processors are configured to: switch the non-cellular communication channel associated with the second transceiver from the first ST A to the second ST A based on the congestion information.

[00918] Example 559 is a device for performing vehicular radio communications, the dev ice comprising: means for establishing connection with a second communication device using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a first vehicular radio communication technolog ' of a plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies; means for receiving via a convergence function at the second communication device, credentials information associated with an active communication link between the second communication device and a third communication device, the active communication link using a second vehicular radio communication technology of the p lurality of av ailable vehicular radio communication technologies; and means for establishing a communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information receiv ed via the conv ergence function at the second communication dev ice.

[00 19 J In Example 560, the subject matter of Example 559 includes, means for establishing an i nt er-con vergen ce function interface between the conv ergence function at the communication device and the conv ergence function at the second communication device.

100920] In Example 56 1 , the subject matter of Example 560 includes, means for receiving via the established connection and the inter-convergence function interface, device cap abilities information indicative of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the second communication device; and means for requesting the credentials information up on determining the second v ehicular radio communications technology is available at both the communication device and the second communication device.

[00921 ] In Example 562, the subject matter of Examples 559 -56 1 includes, wherein the convergence function compnses a convergence function component in each of a plurality of media access control (M AC) lay ers, the p lurality of M AC lay ers corresp onding to the p lurality of av ailable vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00922] In Examp le 563, the subject matter of Examples 559-562 includes, wherein the conv ergence function comprises a media access control (M AC) lay er that is common to the plurality of av ailable v ehicular radio communication technologies.

100923] In Examp le 564, the subject matter of Example 563 includes, means for dy namically placing the conv ergence function as the M AC lay er that is common to the plurality of av ailable vehicular radio communication

technologies upon detecting incompatibility between at least one of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the communication device and at least one of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies available at the second communication device.

[00924] In Example 565, the subject matter of Examples 559-564 includes, wherein the p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio

communication t ech n ol og ; w i rel es s access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology ; an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technologv' ; an LTE radio

communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

[00925] In Example 566, the subject matter of Example 565 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication technolog ' is the Bluetooth radio communication technology, and the second vehicular radio

communication technology is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technologv' or a cellular radio communication technology .

100926] In Example 567, the subject matter of Examples 559 -566 includes, means for receiving via an inter-convergence function interface between the convergence function at the communication device and the convergence function at the second communication device, a confirmation that the communication link between the second communication device and the third communication dev ice is deactiv ated.

[00927] In Example 568, the subject matter of Example 567 includes, means for establishing the communication link with the third communication device based on the credentials information received via the convergence function at the second communication device upon receiving the confirmation.

100928] In Example 569, the subject matter of Examples 559 -568 includes, means for establishing the connection with the second

communication device using a hardwired docking connection between the communication dev ice and the second communication dev ice.

1009291 In Example 570, the subject matter of Examples 559-569 includes, wherein the credentials information is associated with activating a transceiver at the second communication device for operation using the second vehicular radio communication technology .

100930] In Example 571, the subject matter of Example 570 includes, means for activating a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers to operate as a hot sp ot based on the received credentials information.

[00931] In Example 572, the subject matter of Example 571 includes, means for establishing a communication link between the convergence function at the communication device and a second transceiver at the second communication device via the convergence function of the second

communication device.

[00932] In Example 573, the subject matter of Example 572 includes, wherein the second transceiver at the second communication device is configured to operate as an LT E backhaul for the hot spot .

[00933] Example 574 is a method for vehicular radio communications, the method comprising: by a communication device: establishing a cellular communication link with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers; receiving at a convergence protocol lay er, congestion information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the second communication device, w herein the convergence protocol lay er is common to the plurality of transceivers; and adjusting one or more channel access parameters of a non-cellular communication channel associated with a second transceiver of the plurality oftransceivers, based on the congestion information.

1009341 In Example 575, the subject matter of Example 574 includes, adjusting transmit power of the second transceiver based on the congestion information.

[00935] In Example 576, the subject matter of Examples 574-575 includes, receiving the congestion information via a convergence p rotocol lay er of the second communication device.

[00936] In Example 577, the subject matter of Example 576 includes, wherein the convergence p rotocol lay er of the second communication device provides a common interface between a plurality of transceivers at the second communication device.

100937] In Example 578, the subject matter of Examples 574-577 includes, wherein: the non-cellular communication channel associated with the second transceiver is an IEEE 802, 1 1 communication channel between an 802, 1 1 station (ST A) and the communication device; and the second communication device is associated with a second ST A p roviding the non-cellular communication channel of the second communication device.

[00938] In Example 579, the subject matter of Example 578 includes, switching the non-cellular communication channel associated with the second transceiver from the first ST A to the second ST A based on the received congestion information.

[00939] Example 580 is a non-transitory computer readable medium storing instructions that when executed by a processor cause the processor to perform the method of any one of Examples 574 to 579.

[00940] Example 581 is a device for vehicular radio communications, the device comprising: means for establishing a cellular communication link with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of a p lurality of transceivers; means for receiving at a convergence protocol layer, congestion information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the second communication device, wherein the convergence protocol lay er is common to the plurality of transceivers; and means for adjusting one or more channel access p arameters of a non-cellular communication channel associated with a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers, based on the congestion information.

[00941] In Example 582, the subject matter of Example 581 includes, means for adjusting transmit power of the second transceiver based on the congestion information.

100942] In Example 583, the subject matter of Examples 58 1 - 582 includes, means for receiving the congestion information via a convergence protocol layer of the second communication device.

[00943] In Example 584, the subject matter of Example 583 includes, wherein the convergence protocol layer of the second communication device provides a common interface between a plurality of transceivers at the second communication device.

100944] In Example 585, the subject matter of Examples 58 1 -584 includes, wherein: the non-cellular communication channel associated with the second transceiver is an IEEE 802, 1 1 communication channel between an 802, 1 1 station (ST A) and the communication device; and the second communication device is associated with a second ST A p roviding the non-cellular communication channel of the second communication device.

[00945] In Example 586, the subject matter of Example 585 includes, means for switching the non-cellular communication channel associated with the second transceiver from the first ST A to the second ST A based on the received congestion information.

100946] Example 587 is a communication device for vehicular radio communications, the communication device comprising: a plurality of transceiv ers, wherein each transceiver is configured to operate in a one of a p 1 ural i t y of veh i cul ar radi o communication technologies; a communication interface between the plurality of transceivers, the communication interface comprising a veh icle-t o-every thing (V2X) convergence protocol lay er that is common to the plurality of transceivers; and one or more processors configured to: establish a cellular communication link with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of the p lurality of transceivers; receive at the V2X convergence protocol lay er, credential information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the communication dev ice; and establish a communication link with a third communication dev ice on the non-cellular communication channel using a second transceiver of the p lurality of transceivers and based on the received credential information.

[00947] In Example 588, the subject matter of Example 587 includes, w herein the second communication dev ice is a roadside unit (RSU), and the third communication device is an IEEE 802. 1 1 station (ST A ).

[00948] In Example 589, the subject matter of Examples 587-588 includes, wherein the communication link with the third communication dev ice is a continued service ap p lication link .

100949] In Example 590, the subject matter of Examples 587 -589 includes, wherein the credential information comprises a digital certificate for accessing a continued serv ice ap plication.

[00950] Example 591 is a method for vehicular radio communications, the method comprising: establishing a cellular communication link with a second communication device, using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers; receiving at a convergence protocol layer that is common to the p lurality of transceivers, credential information associated with a non-cellular communication channel of the communication device; and establishing a communication link with a third communication device on the non-cellular communication channel using a second transceiv er of the plurality of transceivers and based on the received credential information.

[00951] In Example 592, the subject matter of Example 59 1 includes, communicating via the conv ergence p rotocol lay er, the receiv ed credentials information to the second transceiver.

100952] In Example 593, the subject matter of Examples 591-592 includes, activating the second transceiver from a low-power state up on receiv ing the credentials information.

100953] Examp le 594 is a n on -transitory computer readable medium storing instructions that when executed by a p rocessor cause the process or to perform the method of any one of Examples 59 1 to 593.

[00954] Example 595 is a dev ice for v ehicular radio communications, the dev ice comprising: means for establishing a cellular communication link with a second communication dev ice, using a first transceiv er of a p lurality of transceiv ers; means for receiving at a convergence p rotocol lay er that is common to the p lurality of transceivers, credential information associated w ith a non-cellular communication channel of the communication dev ice; and means for establishing a communication link with a third communication dev ice on the non-cellular communication channel using a second transceiv er of the plurality of transceiv ers and based on the receiv ed credential information.

100955] In Examp le 596, the subject matter of Example 595 includes, means for communicating via the convergence protocol lay er, the received credentials information to the second transceiv er.

[00956] In Example 597, the subject matter of Examples 595-596 includes, means for activating the second transceiver from a low-power state up on receiving the credentials information.

[00957] Example 598 is a communication device for vehicular radio communications, the communication device comprising: a plurality of transceivers, wherein each transceiver is configured to operate in a one of a p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies; a communication interface between the plurality oftransceiv ers, the communication interface comprising a convergence function that is common to the plurality of transceivers; and one or more processors configured to: receive first localization information via a first transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies; receive second localization information via a second transceiver of the plurality o transceivers operating in a second vehicular radio communication technology of the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies; and determine using the convergence function, a localization estimate for a location of the

communication device based on the first localization information and the second localization information.

[00958] In Example 599, the subject matter of Example 598 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a convergence function component in each of a plurality of media access control (M AC) layers, the plurality of MAC layers corresponding to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00959] In Example 600, the subject matter of Examples 598 599 includes, wherein the convergence function comprises a media access control (MAC) layer that is common to the plurality of available vehicular radio communication technologies.

[00960] In Example 601, the subject matter of Examples 598-600 includes, wherein the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio

communication technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio communication technology; Bluetooth radio communication technology ;

an IEEE 802.1 1 radio communication technology ; an LTE radio

communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

[00961] In Examp le 602, the subject matter of Example 601 includes, wherein the first vehicular radio communication technology i s the Bluetooth radio communication technology, and the second vehicular radio

communication technology' is the IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology' , the LTE radio communication technology , or the SG radio communication technology .

[00962] In Examp le 603, the subject matter of Examples 598-602 includes, wherein the first localization information is a first raw measurement information received via the first transceiver from a second communication device.

[00963] In Example 604, the subject matter of Example 603 includes, wherein the second localization information is a second raw measurement information received via the second transceiver from a third communication device.

1009641 In Examp le 605, the subject matter of Example 604 includes, wherein the one or more processors are configured to: determine using the convergence function, the localization estimate based on the first raw measurement information and the second raw measurement information.

[00965] In Example 606, the subject matter of Examples 598-605 includes, wherein the first localization information is a location estimate of the communication device received via the first transceiver from a second communication device.

[00966] In Example 607, the subject matter of Example 606 includes, wherein the one or more processors are configured to: decode a request from a third communication dev ice for the location of the communication dev ice, the request received via the second transceiver.

100967] In Examp le 608, the subject matter of Examp le 607 includes, wherein the one or more processors are configured to: in response to the request, encode for transmission via the second transceiv er, the location estimate of the communication device received via the first transceiver from the second communication dev ice.

100968] Example 609 is a method for vehicular radio communications, the method comprising: by a communications device comprising a plurality of transceivers coupled via a communication interface with a common

convergence function: receiving first localization information via a first transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of a plurality of v ehicular radio communication technologies; receiving second localization information v ia a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a second vehicular radio communication technology of the plurality of vehicular radio

communication technologies; and determining using the convergence function, a localizat ion estimate for a location of the communication device based on the first localization information and the second localization information. 1009691 In Example 610, the subject matter of Example 609 includes, wherein the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio communication technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio

communication technology , Bluetooth radio communication technology , an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technolog ; an LTE radio communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

1009701 In Example 61 1, the subject matter of Examples 609-610 includes, wherein the first localization information is a first raw measurement information received v ia the first transceiver from a second communication device.

[00971] In Example 6 12, the subject matter of Example 6 1 1 includes, wherein the second localization information is a second raw measurement information received via the second transceiver from a third communication device.

[00972] In Example 613, the subject matter of Example 6 12 includes, determining using the convergence function, the localization estimate based on the first raw measurement information and the second raw measurement information.

100973] In Examp le 6 14, the subj ect matter of Examp les 609-6 1 3 includes, wherein the first localization information is a location estimate of the communication device received via the first transceiver from a second communication device.

100974] In Example 615, the subject matter of Example 6 14 includes, decoding a request from a third communication device for the location of the communication device, the request received via the second transceiver.

[00975] In Example 616, the subject matter of Example 615 includes, in response to the request, encoding for transmission via the second transceiver, the location estimate of the communication device received via the first transceiver from the second communication device.

[00976] Example 6 1 7 is a non-transitory computer readable medium storing instructions that when executed by a processor cause the processor to perform the method of any one of Examples 609 to 6 16.

[00977] Example 618 is a device comprising: a plurality of transceivers coupled via a communication interface with a common convergence function; means for receiving first localization information via a first transceiver of the plurality of transceivers op erating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of a p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies; means for receiving second localization information via a second transceiver of the plurality oftransceivers operating in a second vehicular radio communication technology of the p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies; and means for determining using the convergence function, a localization estimate for a location of the communication device based on the first localization information and the second localization information.

1009781 In Example 619, the subject matter of Example 6 1 8 includes, wherein the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) radio communication technology ; wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio

communication technology , Bluetooth radio communication technology , an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technolog ; an LTE radio communication technolog , and a 5G radio communication technolog .

1009791 In Example 620, the subject matter of Examples 6 1 8 -6 1 includes, wherein the first localization information is a first raw measurement information received via the first transceiver from a second communication device.

100980] In Example 62 1 , the subject matter of Example 620 includes, wherein the second localization information is a second raw measurement information received via the second transceiver from a third communication device.

1009811 In Example 622, the subject matter of Example 62 1 includes, means for determining using the convergence function, the localization estimate based on the first raw measurement information and the second raw measurement information .

[00982] In Example 623, the subject matter of Examples 6 1 8-622 includes, wherein the first localization information is a location estimate of the communication device received via the first transceiver from a second communication device.

100983] In Example 624, the subject matter of Example 623 includes, means for decoding a request from a third communication device for the location of the communication device, the request received via the second transceiver.

100984] In Example 625, the subject matter of Example 624 includes, means for encoding for transmission via the second transceiver, the location estimate of the communication device received via the first transceiver from the second communication device, in resp onse to the request.

100985] Example 626 is a method for vehicular radio communications, the method comprising: by a communications device comprising a plurality of transceivers coup led via a communication interface with a common convergence function : receiving first estimate information via a first transceiver of the plurahty of transceivers operating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of a plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies, the first estimate information indicative of available bandwidth at a second communication device operating in accordance with the first vehicular radio communication technology ; receiving second estimate information via a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a second vehicular radio communication technology of the p lurality of

vehicular radio communication technologies, the second estimate information indicative of available bandwidth at a third communication device op erating in accordance with the second vehicular radio communication technology , determining using the convergence function, transmission scheduling information for communicating with the second and third communication devices, based on the received first and second estimate information; and transmitting via the common convergence function, the scheduling

information to the second and third communication devices.

100986] In Example 627, the subject matter of Example 626 includes, wherein the plurality of vehicular radio communication technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (D SRC) radio communication technology , wireless access vehicular environment (WAVE) radio

communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology ; an IEEE 802, 1 1 radio communication technology' ; an L I E radio communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

[00987] In Example 628, the subject matter of Examples 626-627 includes, wherein the first estimate information comprises interference estimate information measured at the second communication device.

100988] In Examp le 629, the subject matter of Examples 626-628 includes, wherein the second estimate information comprises interference estimate information measured at the third communication device.

[00989] In Example 630, the subject matter of Examples 626-629 includes, transmitting via the common convergence function, the scheduling information to the first transceiver and the second transceiver.

1009901 Example 63 I is a device for vehicular radio communications, the device comprising: a plurality of transceivers coupled via a communication interface with a common convergence function; means for receiving first estimate information via a first transceiver of the plurality of transceivers operating in a first vehicular radio communication technology of a plurality of vehicular" radio communication technologies, the first estimate information indicativ e of av ailable bandwidth at a second communication dev ice operating in accot dance with the first vehicular radio communication technology ; means for receiving second estimate information via a second transceiver of the plurality of transceivers op erating in a second vehicular radio communication technology of the p lurality of vehicular radio communication technologies, the second estimate information indicative of available bandwidth at a third communication device operating in accordance w ith the second vehicular radio communication technology ; means for determining using the convergence function, transmission scheduling information for

communicating with the second and third communication dev ices, based on the received first and second estimate information; and means for transmitting via the common convergence function, the scheduling information to the second and third communication devices.

[00991] In Example 632, the subject matter of Example 631 includes, wherein the plurality of vehicular rad io comm uni cat i on technologies includes: a dedicated short-range communication (DSRC ) radio communication technology ; w ireless access v ehicular environment (WAVE) radio

communication technology ; Bluetooth radio communication technology ; an IEEE 802. 1 1 radio communication technology ; an LTE radio communication technology ; and a 5G radio communication technology .

[00992] In Example 633, the subject matter of Examples 63 1 -6 2 includes, wherein the first estimate information comprises interference estimate information measured at the second communication device.

100993] In Example 634, the subject matter of Examples 63 1-633 includes, wherein the second estimate information comp rises interference estimate information measured at the third communication device.

100994] In Example 635, the subject matter of Examples 63 I -634 includes, means for transmitting via the common convergence function, the scheduling information to the first transceiver and the second transceiver.

100995] Example 636 is a wireless vehicular communication sy stem, comprising: a v ehicular terminal device comprising a plurality of transceivers, wherein each transceiver is configured to op erate in a radio access technology (RAT ) of a p lurality of available RATs; and a primary communication node, the primary communication node comp rising a hardw are processor configured to: receive measurement information from the vehicular terminal device via a first multi-radio communication link associated with at least a first RAT of the plurality of available RATs; configure via a second multi-radio

communication link, a secondary communication node for communication with the vehicular terminal device; and encode for transmission to the vehicular terminal device, configuration information associated with the secondary communication node, the configuration information for establishing a third multi-radio communication link between the secondary communication node and the vehicular terminal device.

100996] In Example 637, the subject matter of Example 636 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio communication links are configured to use one or more of the plurality of available RATs.

100997] In Example 638, the subject matter of Examples 636-637 includes, wherein the first multi-radio communication link is a 3 GPP carrier aggregated communication link, and the hardware processor is an evolved Node-B (eNB) Radio Resource Controller (RRC).

1009981 In Example 639, the subject matter of Examples 636-638 includes, wherein the measurement information includes vehicle location information associated with the vehicular terminal device.

[00999] In Example 640, the subject matter of Example 639 includes, wherein the hardware processor is further configured to: estimate a future vehicle location associated with the vehicular terminal device based on the vehicle location information; and select the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based on the estimated future vehicle location.

[001000] In Example 641, the subject matter of Examples 636-640 includes, wherein the measurement information includes channel quality information for one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device, the one or more available channels associated with at least one of the plurality of RATs.

1001001 1 In Example 642, the subject matter of Example 64 1 includes, wherein to configure the secondary communication node, the hardware processor is further configured to: select the secondary communication node from a plurality of nodes based the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

10010021 In Example 643, the subject matter of Example 642 includes, wherein to configure the secondary communication node, the hardware processor is further configured to: encode for transmission to the secondary communication node, an indication of a RAT of the plurality of available RAT s selected for use with the third multi-radio communication link between t he secondary communication node and t he vehicular terminal device, based the channel quality information for the one or more available channels at the vehicular terminal device.

10010031 In Example 644, the subject matter of Example 643 includes, wherein the configuration information associated with the secondary communication node includes an indication of the select ed RAT for use with the third multi-radio communication link between the secondary

communication node and the vehicular terminal device.

[001004] In Example 645, the subject matter of Examples 636 -644 includes, wherein the p rimary communication node is an evolved Node-B (eNB) and the secondary communication node is a roadside unit (RSU).

10010051 In Example 646, the subject matter of Examples 636 -645 includes, wherein the vehicular terminal device is configured for dual connectivity with the primary communication node and the secondary communication node.

[001006] In Example 647, the subject matter of Example 646 includes, wherein during the dual connectivity, the first multi-radio communication link and the third multi-radio communication link are simultaneously active.

10010071 In Example 648, the subject matter of Example 647 includes, wherein during the dual connectivity, the first multi-radio communication link is used for data communication and the third multi-radio communication link is used for communication of control information.

[001008] In Example 649, the subject matter of Examples 647 -648 includes, wherein the second multi-radio communication link is a backhaul data connection for the first multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal device and the primary communication node.

[001009] In Example 650, the subject matter of Examples 636-649 includes, wherein the p lurality of RATs includes: a dedicated short-range communication ( D SRC ) R A T ; vvi rel es s access vehicular environment (WAVE) RAT; Bluetooth RAT; an IEEE 802.1 1 RAT; an LTE RAT; and a 5G RAT,

[001010] In Example 651, the subject matter of Examples 636-650 includes, wherein the measurement informat ion from the vehicular terminal device includes measurement information for a plurality of nodes accessible by the vehicular terminal device.

[001011] In Example 652, the subject matter of Example 65 1 includes, wherein the hardware processor is further configured to: select the secondary communication node from the plurality of nodes, for communication with the vehicular terminal device based on the measurement information .

[001012] In Example 653, the subject matter of Examples 636-652 includes, wherein the plurality of transceivers are interconnected via a convergence function.

[001013] In Example 654, the subject matter of Example 653 includes, wherein the convergence function is configured to: establish the third multi-radio communication link between the vehicular terminal dev ice and the secondary communication node based on a current location of the vehicular terminal device.

[001014] In Examp le 655, the subject matter of Examples 636-654 includes, wherein the hardware p rocessor is further configured to: receive the measurement information of the vehicular terminal device from the secondary communication node via the second multi-radio communication link .

[001015] In Examp le 656, the subject matter of Examples 636-655 includes, wherein each of the first, second, and third multi-radio

communication links are configured to use a same one the plurality of available RATs at different communication frequencies.

[001016] Examp le 657 is a communication device for radio

communications using multip le RATs (multi-RAT ), the communication device comprising: a first transceiver of a p lurality of available transceivers, the first transceiver configured to communicate with a node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multi-RAT; a second transceiver of the plurality of available transceivers, the second transceiver configured to communicate with the node using one or more intermediate nodes and a communication link of a second RAT of the multi-RAT ; and a multi-RAT coordination processor configured to: decode measurement information received from the node, the measurement information indicative of channel quality of the first R AT communication link; and determine to establish a new communication link with the one or more intermediate nodes, based on the decoded measurement information.

[001017] In Example 658, the subject matter of Example 657 includes, wherein the first transceiver is configured to communicate with the node using one or more other intermediate nodes and the first RAT communication link.

[001018] In Example 659, the subject matter of Examples 657-658 includes, a third transceiver of the plurality of transceivers, the third transceiv er configured to communicate with the node using the new communication link, the new communication link being one of the first RAT, the second RAT or a third RAT of the multi-RAT .

[001019] In Example 660, the subject matter of Examples 657-659 includes, wherein: the node is a user equipment (UE); and the multi-RAT coordination p rocessor is a Radio Resource Controller (RRC) of an evolved Node-B (eNB).

|0010201 In Examp le 66 1 , the subject matter of Examples 657-660 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordi n a t i on p roces s or com p ri s es : a vehicle-to-ev ery thing (V2X ) convergence function prov iding a common interface between the plurality of transceiv ers.

10010211 In Examp le 662, the subject matter of Example 66 1 includes, wherein the V2X convergence function is configured to: communicate with a V2X convergence function of the node via the first RAT communication link; and communicate with a V2X convergence function of the one or more intermediate nodes via the second RAT communication link .

[001022] In Examp le 663, the subject matter of Examples 657-662 includes, wherein the node is an eNB and the intermediate node is an RSU.

|0010231 In Examp le 664, the subject matter of Examples 657-663 includes, wherein the communication device is a v ehicular terminal device

within a moving vehicle, and the measurement information includes a current location of the moving vehicle.

|0010241 In Example 665, the subject matter of Example 664 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor is configured to: estimate a future location of the moving vehicle based on the current location; and select a second intermediate node of the one or more intermediate nodes based on node proximity t o t h e fut u re 1 ocat i on ; and establish the new communication link with the second intermediate node.

[001025] In Example 666, the subject matter of Examples 657- -665 includes, wherein the second RAT communication link includes a first communication link between the communication device and the intermediate node, and a second communication link between the intermediate node and the node.

[001026] In Example 667, the subject matter of Examples 657-666 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor configured to:

maintain the first RAT communication link to be active simultaneously with the second RAT communication link.

[001027] In Example 668, the subject matter of Examples 657-667 includes, an antenna array comprising a plurality of m u 11 i p 1 e- i n p u t - m u 11 i p 1 e-output (MEMO) antennas coupled to the plurality of available transceivers.

[001028] In Example 669, the subject matter of Example 668 includes, wherein: the first transceiver is configured to communicate with the node using the first RAT communication link and a first subset of the M I M O antennas; and the second transceiver is configured to communicate with the node using the second R A T communication link and a second subset of the M I M O antennas.

[001029] In Examp le 670, the subject matter of Examples 657 -669 includes, wherein the second transceiver of the plurality of available transceivers is configured to communicate with the node using a

communication link of a third RAT of the multi-RAT and without the use of the one or more intermediate nodes.

[001030] In Example 671, the subject matter of Example 670 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor is configured to: maintain both

the first RAT communication link and the third RAT communication link for simultaneous connection to the node.

[001031] In Example 672, the subject matter of Example 67 1 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link comprises a data channel and the third RAT communication link comprises a control channel for

communicating control information.

10010321 In Example 673, the subject matter of Example 672 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor is configured to: use at least a portion of the control information to control direct communication between a plurality of other nodes associated with the communication device in a communication framework, the direct communication using one or more RATs of the multi-RAT, the one or more RATs distinct from the third RAT .

[001033] In Example 674, the subject matter of Example 673 includes, wherein the communication framework is based on LTE dual connectivity framework.

10010341 Example 675 is a method for performing vehicular radio communications using multiple RATs ( multi-RAT ), the method comprising: by a communication device: establishing a communication link with a first node using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a first RAT of the multi-RA T; establishing a communication link with a second node using a second transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a second RAT of the multi-RAT, receiving via the first RAT communication link, first map data from the first node; receiving via the second RAT communication link, second map data from the second node; and generating up dated map data associated with a current location of the communication device based on the first map data and the second map data.

10010351 In Example 676, the subject matter of Examp le 675 includes, wherein: the communication device is a vehicular terminal device in a moving vehicle, the first node is a primary communication node; and the second node is a secondary communication node.

10010361 In Examp le 677, the subject matter of Example 676 includes, receiv ing the first map data as a unicast message from the primary

communication node.

[001037] In Example 678, the subject matter of Examples 676-677 includes, receiving the first map data as a broadcast message from the primary communication node, wherein the first map data is broadcast to the communication device and to the secondary communication node.

[001038] In Example 679, the subject matter of Examples 675-678 includes, wherein the first map data is redundant with the second map data.

100103 1 In Example 680, the subject matter of Examples 675-679 includes, wherein the first map data is non-redundant with the second map data, and the method comprises: combining the first map data and the second map data to generate the updated map data.

[001040] Example 68 1 is a device for performing vehicular radio communications using multiple RATs (multi-RAT), the device comprising: means for establishing a communication link with a first node using a first transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a first RAT of the multi-RAT; means for establishing a communication link with a second node using a second transceiver of a plurality of transceivers and a second RAT of the multi-RAT; means for receiving via the first RAT communication link, first map data from the first node; means for receiving via the second RAT communication link, second map data from the second node; and means for generating updated map data associated with a current location of the communication device based on the first map data and the second map data.

[001041] In Example 682, the subject matter of Example 681 includes, wherein: the communication device is a vehicular terminal device in a moving vehicle; the first node is a primary communication node; and the second node is a secondary communication node.

10010421 In Example 683, the subject matter of Example 682 includes, means for receiving the first map data as a unicast message from the primary communication node.

[001043] In Example 684, the subject matter of Examples 682-683 includes, means for receiving the first map data as a broadcast message from the primary communication node, wherein the first map data is broadcast to the communication device and to the secondary communication node.

10010441 In Example 685, the subject matter of Examples 68 1 -684 includes, wherein the first map data is redundant with the second map data. 10010451 In Example 686, the subject matter of Examples 68 1 -685 includes, wherein the first map data is non-redundant with the second map data, and the device comprises: means for combining the first map data and the second map data to ge erate the up dated map data.

10010461 Example 687 is a communication device for radio

communications using multiple RATs (multi-RAT), the communication device comprising: a first transceiver of a plurality of available transceivers, the first transceiver configured to communicate with an infrastructure node using a communication link of a first RAT of the multi-RAT ; and a multi-RAT coordination processor configured to: decode control information from the infrastructure node, the control information including vehicle-t o-vehicle (V2V) device discovery information; and establish using a second transceiver of the p lurality of available transceivers, a new communication link with a second node based on the V2V device discovery information, wherein the second transceiver is configured to communicate with the second node using a communication link of a second RAT of the multi-RAT .

|0010471 In Examp le 688, the subject matter of Example 687 includes, wherein the second node is a line-of-sight (LOS) vehicle and the second RAT communication link is a V2V communication link based on one or more of a Wi-Fi Direct connectivity framework, a Wi-Fi Aware connectivity network, an LT - Direct connectivity framework, or 5G connectivity network.

[001048] In Example 689, the subject matter of Examples 687-688 includes, wherein the first RAT communication link is an LTE or 5G communication link and is configured to p rovide control plane for managing V2V connectivity .

10010491 In Examp le 690, the subject matter of Examples 687-689 includes, wherein the control information from the infrastructure node further includes V2V resource allocation and V2V synchronization information for assisting with establishing the new communication link with the second node.

|0010501 In Example 69 1 , the subject matter of Examples 687-690 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor is configured to:

establish the new communication link as a direct V2V link with the second node; and establish using a third transceiver of the plurality of available transceivers, another communication link with the second node via an intermediate node, based on the V2V device discovery information.

[001051] In Example 692, the subject matter of Example 691 includes, wherein the intermediate node is a roadside unit (RSU ).

10010521 In Example 693, the subject matter of Examples 6 1 -692 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor is configured to: decode sensor data received from the intermediate node, wherein the sensor data originates from a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) vehicle in communication with the intermediate node.

[001053] In Example 694, the subject matter of Examples 691-693 includes, wherein the multi-RAT coordination processor is configured to: encode data for redundant transmission to the second node via both the direct V2V link and via the another communication link with the second node via the intermediate node.

|0010541 Example 695 is at least one machine-readable medium including instructions that, when executed by p rocessing circuitry , cause the processing circuitry to perform operations to implement of any of Examples 1-694.

[001055] Example 696 is an app aratus comprising means to implement of any of Examples 1-694.

[001056] Example 697 is a sy stem to imp lement of any of Examples 1 - 694.

[001057] Example 698 is a method to implement of any of Examples I -694.

10010581 Publications, patents, and patent documents referred to in this document are incorp orated by reference herein in their entirety , as though individually incorporated by reference. In the event of inconsistent usages between this document and those documents so incorporated by reference, the usage in the incorporated reference(s) are supplementary to that of this

document; for irreconcilable inconsistencies, the usage in this document controls.

[001059] The above description is intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive. For example, the above-described examples (or one or more aspects thereof) may be used in combination with others. Other aspects may be used, such as by one of ordinary skill in the art upon reviewing the above descnp tion. The Abstract is to allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. Also, in the above Detailed Description, various features may be grouped together to streamline the disclosure. Howev er, the claims may not set forth ev ery feature disclosed herein as asp ects may feature a subset of said features. Further, aspects may include few er features than those disclosed in a particular examp le. Thus, the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed Description, with a claim standing on its ow n as a separate asp ect . The scope of the aspects disclosed herein is to be determined with reference to the app ended claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled.