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1. (WO2015143154) ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUND PROCESS
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Antifungal Compound Process

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No.

61/955,532 filed March 19, 2014, which is expressly incorporated by reference herein.

The present invention relates to a process for preparing compound 1 that is useful as an antifungal agent. In particular, the invention seeks to provide a new methodology for preparing compound 1 and substituted derivatives thereof.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

This invention was created in the performance of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the National Institutes of Health, an Agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The Government of the United States has certain rights in this invention.

BACKGROUND

Living organisms have developed tightly regulated processes that specifically import metals, transport them to intracellular storage sites and ultimately transport them to sites of use. One of the most important functions of metals such as zinc and iron in biological systems is to enable the activity of metalloenzymes. Metalloenzymes are enzymes that incorporate metal ions into the enzyme active site and utilize the metal as a part of the catalytic process. More than one-third of all characterized enzymes are metalloenzymes.

The function of metalloenzymes is highly dependent on the presence of the metal ion in the active site of the enzyme. It is well recognized that agents which bind to and inactivate the active site metal ion dramatically decrease the activity of the enzyme. Nature employs this same strategy to decrease the activity of certain metalloenzymes during periods in which the enzymatic activity is undesirable. For example, the protein TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases) binds to the zinc ion in the active site of various matrix metalloprotease enzymes and thereby arrests the enzymatic activity. The pharmaceutical industry has used the same strategy in the design of therapeutic agents. For example, the azole antifungal agents fluconazole and voriconazole contain a l-(l,2,4-triazole) group that binds to the heme iron present in the active site of the target enzyme lanosterol demethylase and thereby inactivates the enzyme.

In the design of clinically safe and effective metalloenzyme inhibitors, use of the most appropriate metal-binding group for the particular target and clinical indication is critical. If a weakly binding metal-binding group is utilized, potency may be suboptimal. On the other hand, if a very tightly binding metal-binding group is utilized, selectivity for the target enzyme versus related metalloenzymes may be suboptimal. The lack of optimal selectivity can be a cause for clinical toxicity due to unintended inhibition of these off-target metalloenzymes. One example of such clinical toxicity is the unintended inhibition of human drug metabolizing enzymes such as CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by the currently- available azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole and voriconazole. It is believed that this off-target inhibition is caused primarily by the indiscriminate binding of the currently utilized l-(l,2,4-triazole) to iron in the active site of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Another example of this is the joint pain that has been observed in many clinical trials of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. This toxicity is considered to be related to inhibition of off-target metalloenzymes due to indiscriminate binding of the hydroxamic acid group to zinc in the off-target active sites.

Therefore, the search for metal-binding groups that can achieve a better balance of potency and selectivity remains an important goal and would be significant in the realization of therapeutic agents and methods to address currently unmet needs in treating and preventing diseases, disorders and symptoms thereof. Similarly, methods of synthesizing such therapeutic agents on the laboratory and, ultimately, commercial scale is needed. Addition of metal-based nucleophiles (Zn, Zr, Ce, Ti, Mg, Mn, Li) to azole-methyl substituted ketones have been effected in the synthesis of voriconazole (M. Butters, Org. Process Res. Dev. 2001, 5, 28-36). The nucleophile in these examples was an ethyl-pyrimidine substrate. Similarly, optically active azole-methyl epoxide has been prepared as precursor electrophile toward the synthesis of ravuconazole (A. Tsuruoka, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998, 46, 623-630). Despite this, the development of methodology with improved efficiency and selectivity is desirable.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed toward methods of synthesis of 1 or la. The methods can comprise the compounds herein. A first aspect of the invention relates to a process for preparing a compound of formula 1 or la, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, solvate, complex or prodrug thereof.


la

The compounds herein include those wherein the compound is identified as attaining affinity, at least in part, for a metalloenzyme by formation of one or more of the following types of chemical interactions or bonds to a metal: sigma bonds, covalent bonds, coordinate-covalent bonds, ionic bonds, pi bonds, delta bonds, or backbonding interactions.

Methods for assessing metal-ligand binding interactions are known in the art as exemplified in references including, for example, "Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry" by Lippard and Berg, University Science Books, (1994); "Mechanisms of Inorganic Reactions" by Basolo and Pearson John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2nd edition (September 1967); "Biological Inorganic Chemistry" by Ivano Bertini, Harry Gray, Ed Stiefel, Joan Valentine, University Science Books (2007); Xue et al. "Nature Chemical Biology", vol. 4, no. 2, 107-109 (2008).

In the following aspects, reference is made to the schemes and compounds herein, including the reagents and reaction conditions delineated herein. Other aspects include any of the compounds, reagents, transformations or methods thereof delineated in the examples herein (in whole or in part), including as embodiments with single elements (e.g., compounds or transformations) or embodiments including multiple elements (e.g., compounds or transformations).

In one aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare morpholine amide 2b:


2b

comprising amidation of ester 2:


2;

to provide 2b;

wherein Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)- substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)- O-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)- substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the inv prepare ketone 3:


n of morpholine amide 2b:


2b

to provide ketone 3;

wherein Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, - 0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, - 0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or - 0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare a compound of formula

of a compound of formula I:


I

to provide a compound of formula II;

F,CO.

wherein each R2 is independently ~ ^ , halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare amino alcohol 1-6 or 1-7, or a mixture thereof:


4b 4c ;

to provide compound 1-6 or 1-7, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another embodiment, the invention provides a process of enriching the enantiomeric purity of an enantiomeric compound mixture, comprising:

(i) crystallizing said enantiomeric compound mixture with a chiral acid in a suitable solvent or solvent mixture, wherein:

the suitable solvent or solvent mixture is selected from acetonitrile, isopropanol, ethanol, water, methanol, or combinations thereof; and


Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, - 0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

(ii) isolating the enantio-enriched chiral salt mixture;

(iii) reslurrying the enantio-enriched chiral salt mixture in a slurrying solvent or slurrying solvent mixture; and

(iv) free-basing the enantio-enriched chiral salt mixture to provide the enantio-enriched compound mixture.

In another embodiment, the invention provides a process of enriching the enantiomeric purity of an enantiomeric compound mixture, comprising:

(i) crystallizing said enantiomeric compound mixture with a chiral acid in a suitable solvent or solvent mixture, wherein:

the suitable solvent or solvent mixture is selected from acetonitrile, isopropanol, ethanol, water, methanol, or combinations thereof; and

Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

(ii) isolating the enantio-enriched chiral salt mixture;and

(iii) free-basing the enantio-enriched chiral salt mixture to provide the enantio-enriched compound mixture.

In another aspect, the chiral acid from any embodiment presented herein is selected from the group consisting of tartaric acid, di-benzoyltartaric acid, malic acid, camphoric acid, camphorsulfonic acid, ascorbic acid, and di-p-toluoyltartaric acid.

In another aspect, the suitable solvent or solvent mixture from any embodiments presented herein is 1-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, toluene, methyl ieri-butylether, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, isopropyl acetate, heptane, hexane, cyclohexane, or octane, or combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the slurrying solvent solvent or slurrying solvent mixture from any embodiments presented herein is 1-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, toluene, methyl ieri-butylether, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, isopropyl acetate, heptane, hexane, cyclohexane, or octane, or combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the suitable solvent or solvent mixture from any embodiments presented herein is a) acetonitrile or b) a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol. Alternatively, another aspect is where the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol comprises 80-90% acetonitrile and 10-20% methanol.

In another aspect, the slurrying solvent or slurrying solvent mixture from any embodiments presented herein is a) acetonitrile or b) a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol. Alternatively, another aspect is where the mixture of acetonitrile and methanol comprises 80-90% acetonitrile and 10-20% methanol.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:


1 la

comprising convertin morpholine amide 2b:


2b

to compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof;

wherein Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, 0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process comprising reacting morpholine amide 2b:


2b

with

wherein M is Mg or MgX; and X is halogen;

Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-O-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

to provide compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:


la.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process comprising reacting morpholine amide 2b:


2b

with


wherein M is Mg or MgX, Li, A1X2; and X is halogen, alkyl or aryl;

Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-O-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

to provide compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:


1 la.

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise amidation of ester


to provide morpholine amide 2b:


2b

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise reacting ester 2:

with m amide 2b:


2b;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, - (C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, - (C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, - (S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise:

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

(v) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol ±1-6,

-6* or 1-7*,


or 5 or a mixture thereof; and

(vi) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 1-6* or 1-7*,

r a mixture


thereof, to provide compound 1 or la, or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, - 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched aryl-

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

(iv) ring-opening epoxide 5,
, to provide amino-alcohol


(v) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol ±1-6,

-6* or 1-7*,
or 5 or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched aryl-

(i) ring-opening epoxide 5,
to provide amino- alcohol


(ii) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol ±1-6,

-6* or 1-7*,


or 5 or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare epoxide 5, the method comprising:

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,


, to provide ketone 3,

4,


(iii) forming the epoxide of aryl-pyridine 1-4, , to

provide epoxide 5,
;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(O0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl..

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare epoxide 5, the method comprising:

(i) forming the epoxide of aryl-pyridine 1-4,

epoxide 5,

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise:

i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,


, to provide ketone 3,

ylating ketone
, to provide aryl-pyridine 1-4,


(iii) forming the epoxide of aryl-pyridine 1-4, , to

, to provide amino-alcohol

(v) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 1-6* or 1-7*,


, or a mixture


thereof, to provide compound 1 or la, or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise:

i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

, to provide ketone

xide of ketone 3, , to provide epoxide 4,

ring-opening epoxide 4, , to provide amino-alcohol +4b,

(iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol +4b,


(v) arylating enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c,

ide enantio-enriched aryl-pyridin
1-6* or 1-7*,


, or a mixture thereof; and

(vi) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched aryl-pyridine 1-6* or 1-7*,


or , or a mixture

N ' ; F


thereof, to provide compound 1 or la, or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or■ 0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched aryl-

pyridine 1-6* or 1-7*,


, or a mixture thereof, the method comprising:

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

provide epoxide 4, amino-alcohol ±4b,

antiomeric purity of amino-alcohol ±4b,


to provide enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c:

(
v) arylating enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c,


a mixture thereof, to provide enantio-enriched aryl

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched aryl-

c purity of amino-alcohol +4b,


e enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c:


wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)- aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0- aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or - 0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched amino-

alcohol 4b or 4c,
ixture thereof, the method comprising:

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

epoxide 4,


(iii) ring-opening epoxide 4, , to provide amino-alcohol +4b,


(iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol +4b,


wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched amino-

alcohol 4b or 4c,
ixture thereof, the method comprising:

(i) ring-opening epoxide 4,
, to provide amino- alcohol ±4b,


(ii) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol ±4b,


wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or 0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare enantio-enriched amino-

alcohol 4b or 4c,
, or a mixture thereof, the method comprising:

(i) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol +4b,

to provide enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c:


or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise:

i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

, to provide ketone

xide of ketone 3, , to provide epoxide 4,


ring-opening epoxide 4, , to provide amino-alcohol +4b,

(iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol +4b,


(v) arylating enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c,

ide enantio-enriched aryl-pyridin
1-6* or 1-7*,


, or a mixture thereof; and

(vi) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched aryl-pyridine 1-6* or 1-7*,


, or a mixture

N ' ;


thereof, to provide compound 1 or la, or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 1 or la, or a mixture the


1 la

) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,


, to provide ketone 3,

iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol +4b,

alcohol 1-6*

mixture thereof;

(vi) forming the salt of enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 1-6* or 1-

(vii) forming the tetrazole of the salt of XXIV or XXIVa,


wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, - 0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each Ri2 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, or optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl;

each Ri3 is independently H, OH, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or OC(0)Ri6;

each Ri4 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, or optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl;

each Ri5 is independently H, OH, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or OC(0)Ri4;

each Ri6 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, or optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl; and


selected from the group consisting of maleic acid salt, malonic acid salt, succinic acid salt, fumaric acid salt, malic acid salt, tartaric acid salt, dibenzoyltartaric acid salt, di-p-toluoyltartaric acid salt, and mandelic acid salt. In a further aspect the salt is tartaric acid salt, di-/?-toluoyltartaric acid salt, or malic acid salt. In another aspect, the salt is L-tartaric acid salt, D-di-/?-toluoyltartaric acid salt, or D-malic acid salt, (preferably, L-tartaric acid salt or D-di-/?-toluoyltartaric acid salt).

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise:

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 2b,

provide epoxide 4,


ring-opening epoxide 4, , to provide amino-alcohol +4b,

(iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol ±4b,


(v) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 4b or 4c: , or a mixture thereof, to provide

tetrazole 21 or 21a, and

(vi) arylating
tetrazole 21 or 21a, , or a

mixture thereof, to provide compound 1 or la,
or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:

to rovide a compound of formula II, VIII or Villa:


)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:


1 la

comprising the arylation of substituted pyridine 4b or 4c, or a mixture thereof:


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:

1

mpound of formula 3:


3;

to compound 1 or la;

wherein Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)- substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)- O-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)- substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound that is 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)- 2,2-difluoro- 1 -morpholinoethanone (2b).

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound of formula IX or IXa, or a mixture thereof:


In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare a compound of formula IX or IXa, or a mixture thereof, comprising:


IX IXa;

(i) combining compound 1 or la,


1 la , or a mixture thereof, a

o

Z-S-OH

sulfonic acid o , and a crystallization solvent or crystallization solvent mixture;

(ii) diluting the mixture from step (i) with a crystallization co-solvent or

crystallization co-solvent mixture; and

(iii) isolating a compound of formula IX or IXa,


thereof;

wherein each Z is independently aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl. In another aspect, Z from any of the embodiments presented herein is phenyl, p-tolyl, methyl, or ethyl.

In another aspect, the crystalization solvent or crystallization solvent mixture from any of the embodiments presented herein is ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, or acetonitrile, or combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixturefrom any of the embodiments presented herein is pentane, methyl ί-butylether, hexane, heptane, or toluene, or combinations thereof.

In another aspect, any of the embodiments presented herein may comprise a process comprising:

(i) combining compound 1 or la,


1 la , or a mixture thereof, a

o

Z-S-OH

sulfonic acid o , and a crystallization solvent or crystallization solvent mixture;

(ii) diluting the mixture from step (i) with a crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture; and

(iii) isolating a compound of formula IX or IXa, or a mixture thereof;

wherein Z is aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 13 or 13a, or a


,

O

N

(ii) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide R5 ^6

7,

to provide ketone 8,

(iii) forming t
he epoxide of ketone 8, , to provide epoxide


ring-opening epoxide 9, , to provide alcohol 10,


(v) enriching the enantiomeric purity of alcohol 10, , to provide enantio-enriched alcohol 11 or 11a,
or


, or a mixture thereof;

or a mixture thereof; and

(vii) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched aryl-pyridine 12 or 12b,


wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.


(ii) diluting the mixture from step (i) with a crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture; and

(iii)isolating a compound of formula X or Xa,


wherein Z is aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl.


(ii) diluting the mixture from step (i) with a crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture; and

(iii) isolating a compound of formula X c


wherein each Z is independently aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl.


(ii) diluting the mixture from step (i) with a crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture; and

(iii)


thereof;

wherein each Z is independently aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl. In an provides a compound of formula 18:


18 ;

wherein Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, 0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

R5 is H or fluoro; and

R6 is H or fluoro.

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound of formula 11 or 11a, or a mixture thereof:


wherein each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0- aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound of formula 12 or 12a, or a mixture


wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl. In another aspect, n is 1, o is 2, R3 is

trifluoromethoxy, each R4 is F, R5 is F, R6 is F, R7 is NHRs, and Rs is H. In another aspect, the compound is 1-6* or 1-7*,


, or a mixture thereof.

s a compound of formula 14


14

wherein n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

o is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

R5 is H or fluoro;

R6 is H or fluoro;

with the proviso that when R4 is F, o is 2, R5 and R6 are fluoro, n is 1, then R3 is not /7-OCF3 or

In another aspect, R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, and substituted aryloxy;

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound of formula X or Xa, or a mixture thereof:

wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro; and

each Z is independently aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process for preparing a compound of


o , an a crysta zat on so vent or crysta zat on so vent m xture;

(ii) diluting the mixture from step (i) with a crystallization co-solvent or

crystallization co-solvent mixture; and

(iii) isolating a compound of formula X or Xa, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro; and

each Z is independently aryl, substituted aryl, alkyl, or substituted alkyl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a compound of formula XXIV or XXIVa, or a mixture thereof:


XXIVa;

wherein:

each R12 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, or optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl;

each Ri3 is independently H, OH, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or OC(0)Ri6;

each Ri4 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, or optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl;

each Ri5 is independently H, OH, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, or OC(0)Ri4;

each Ri6 is independently H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclyl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, or optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl; and each t is independently 0, 1, 2, or 3.

In another aspect, RJ2 is H and t is 1.

In another aspect, R14 is H and t is 1.

In another aspect, R12 is H, R14 is H, and t is 1.

In another aspect, R13 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(0)-/?-tolyl) and t is 1. In another aspect, R15 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(0)-/?-tolyl) and t is 1. In another aspect, R13 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(O)-p-tolyl), R15 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(O)-p-tolyl), and t is 1.

In another aspect, R12 is H, R13 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(O)-p-tolyl), R14 is

H, R15 is H, OH, or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(O)-p-tolyl), and t is 1.

In another aspect, R12 is H, R13 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(0)-/?-tolyl), R14 is H, R15 is OH or OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(O)-p-tolyl), and t is 1.

In another aspect, RJ2 is H, RJ3 is OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(0)-/?-tolyl), R14 is H, R15 is OC(0)Ri6 (preferably, OC(O)-p-tolyl), and t is 1.

In another aspect, Ri2 is H, RJ3 is OC(0)Ri6, Ri4 is H, Ri5 is OC(0)Ri6, each R½ is independently optionally substituted arylalkyl, and t is 1. In another aspect, each R½ is p-tolyl.

In another aspect, R]3 is OH, RLs is H, and t is 1.

In another aspect, Ri2 is H, RJ3 is OH, R]4 is H, Ri5 is H, and t is 1.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process for preparing a compound of



-enriched alcohol 20 or 20a,


mixture thereof; and

(vii) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched alcohol 20 or 20a,

mixture thereof, to provide compound 13 or 13a,
or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein n is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

o is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

, the invention provides a process for preparing morpholine 7:

ester 6:


6;

to provide 7;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro; and

each R6 is independently H or fluoro.

In another aspect, the invention ketone 8:


8

on of morpholine amide 7:


7 ;

to provide ketone 8;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro; and

each R6 is independently H or fluoro.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process for preparing a compound of formula XII:

XIII

a compound of formula I:


XII

to provide a compound of formula XIII;

wherein each o is 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is indep and

each R 10
-0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)- substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0- substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)- substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process for preparing amino alcohol 20 or 20a, or a mixture thereof:


comprising arylation of pyridine 11 or 11a, or a mixture thereof:

to provide compound 20 or 20a, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHR8, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process for preparing compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:


1 la

comprising converting morpholine amide 7:


to compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof;

wherein Rj is halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-

0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro; and

each R6 is independently H or fluoro.

invention provides a process comprising amidation of ester 6:


6 ;

to provide morpholine amide 7:


7

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro; and

each R6 is independently H or fluoro.

the invention provides a process comprising reacting ester 6:

de morpholine amide 7


7;

wherein each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, - 0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro; and

each R6 is independently H or fluoro.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process comprising enriching the enantiomeric purity of amino-alcohol 16 or 16a to afford enantio-enriched amino-alcohol 17


In another aspect, the invention provides a process comprisin

(i) displacing line amide 7,

, to provide aryl-pyridine 14,


(iii) forming the epoxide of aryl-pyridine 14,

, to provide


or 11a,

or a mixture thereof; and ohol 11 or 11a,


or a mixture thereof, to provide compound 1 or la,
, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process comprisin

(i) displacing the morpholino portion of morpholine amide 7,

to provide ketone 8,

, to provide epoxide
-opening epoxide 9, , to provide alcohol 10,
(iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of alcohol 10, , to

11 or 11a,


a mixture thereof;

a,


or a mixture thereof, to provide enantio-enriched aryl-pyridine 12 or 12b,
or


r a mixture thereof; and

(vi) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched ar l- ridine 12 or 12b


mixture thereof, to provide compound 1 or la,
or


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or 0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process comprisin

(i) displacing

to provide ketone 8,

, to provide epoxide


-opening epoxide 9, , to provide alcohol 10,

(iv) enriching the enantiomeric purity of alcohol 10,
to provide enantio-enriched alcohol 11 or 11a,
or


or a mixture thereof;

(v) forming the tetrazole of enantio-enriched alcohol 11 or 11a,


mixture thereof; and

or , or a mixture thereof; wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

In another aspect, the invention provides a process to prepare compound 1 or la, or a mixture thereof:


1 la

comprising the arylation of substituted pyridine 11 or 11a, or a mixture thereof:


11


, or a mixture thereof;

wherein each n is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each o is independently 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5;

each Ri is independently halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl;

each R3 is independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl, haloalkyl, alkoxy, substituted alkoxy, aryloxy, substituted aryloxy, and haloalkoxy;

each R4 is independently H or halo;

each R5 is independently H or fluoro;

each R6 is independently H or fluoro;

each R7 is independently N3, NHRs, or NR8R9; and

each Rs and R9 are each independently H, alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, heteroaryl, or substituted heteroaryl.

In other aspects, the invention provides a compound of any of the formulae herein, wherein the compound inhibits (or is identified to inhibit) lanosterol demethylase (CYP51).

In another aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any formulae herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

In other aspects, the invention provides a method of modulating metalloenzyme activity in a subject, comprising contacting the subject with a compound of any formulae herein, in an amount and under conditions sufficient to modulate metalloenzyme activity.

In one aspect, the invention provides a method of treating a subject suffering from or susceptible to a metalloenzyme-related disorder or disease, comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of any formulae herein.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of treating a subject suffering from or susceptible to a metalloenzyme-related disorder or disease, wherein the subject has been identified as in need of treatment for a metalloenzyme-related disorder or disease, comprising administering to said subject in need thereof, an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of any formulae herein, such that said subject is treated for said disorder.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of treating a subject suffering from or susceptible to a metalloenzyme-mediated disorder or disease, wherein the subject has been identified as in need of treatment for a metalloenzyme-mediated disorder or disease, comprising administering to said subject in need thereof, an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of any formulae herein, such that metalloenzyme activity in said subject is modulated (e.g., down regulated, inhibited). In another aspect, the compounds delineated herein preferentially target cancer cells over nontransformed cells.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention is further described below with reference to the following non-limiting examples and with reference to the following figures, in which:

FIG. 1. depicts the achiral HPLC trace of compound 1-BSA prepared by the TMSI-epoxidation process.

FIG. 2. depicts the chiral HPLC trace of compound 1-BSA prepared by the TMSI-epoxidation process.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Definitions

The term "chiral" refers to molecules which have the property of non-superimposability of the mirror image partner, while the term "achiral" refers to molecules which are superimposable on their mirror image partner.

The term "diastereomers" refers to stereoisomers with two or more centers of dissymmetry and whose molecules are not mirror images of one another.

The term "enantiomers" refers to two stereoisomers of a compound which are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. An equimolar mixture of two enantiomers is called a "racemic mixture" or a "racemate."

The term "isomers" or "stereoisomers" refers to compounds which have identical chemical constitution, but differ with regard to the arrangement of the atoms or groups in space.

The term "prodrug" includes compounds with moieties which can be metabolized in vivo. Generally, the prodrugs are metabolized in vivo by esterases or by other mechanisms to active drugs. Examples of prodrugs and their uses are well known in the art (See, e.g. , Berge et al. (1977) "Pharmaceutical Salts", /. Pharm. Sci. 66: 1-19). The prodrugs can be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the compounds, or by separately reacting the purified compound in its free acid form or hydroxyl with a suitable esterifying agent.

Hydroxyl groups can be converted into esters via treatment with a carboxylic acid. Examples of prodrug moieties include substituted and unsubstituted, branch or unbranched lower alkyl ester moieties, (e.g. , propionoic acid esters), lower alkenyl esters, di-lower alkyl-amino lower-alkyl esters (e.g. , dimethylaminoethyl ester), acylamino lower alkyl esters (e.g. ,

acetyloxymethyl ester), acyloxy lower alkyl esters (e.g. , pivaloyloxymethyl ester), aryl esters (phenyl ester), aryl-lower alkyl esters (e.g. , benzyl ester), substituted (e.g. , with methyl, halo, or methoxy substituents) aryl and aryl-lower alkyl esters, amides, lower-alkyl amides, di-lower alkyl amides, and hydroxy amides. Preferred prodrug moieties are propionoic acid esters and acyl esters. Prodrugs which are converted to active forms through other mechanisms in vivo are also included. In aspects, the compounds of the invention are prodrugs of any of the formulae herein.

The term "subject" refers to animals such as mammals, including, but not limited to, primates (e.g., humans), cows, sheep, goats, horses, dogs, cats, rabbits, rats, mice and the like. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human.

The terms "a," "an," and "the" refer to "one or more" when used in this application, including the claims. Thus, for example, reference to "a sample" includes a plurality of samples, unless the context clearly is to the contrary (e.g., a plurality of samples), and so forth.

Throughout this specification and the claims, the words "comprise," "comprises," and "comprising" are used in a non-exclusive sense, except where the context requires otherwise.

As used herein, the term "about," when referring to a value is meant to encompass variations of, in some embodiments + 20%, in some embodiments + 10%, in some

embodiments + 5%, in some embodiments + 1%, in some embodiments + 0.5%, and in some embodiments ± 0.1% from the specified amount, as such variations are appropriate to perform the disclosed methods or employ the disclosed compositions.

Use of the word "inhibitor" herein is meant to mean a molecule that exhibits activity for inhibiting a metalloenzyme . By "inhibit" herein is meant to decrease the activity of metalloenzyme , as compared to the activity of metalloenzyme in the absence of the inhibitor. In some embodiments, the term "inhibit" means a decrease in metalloenzyme activity of at least about 5%, at least about 10%, at least about 20%, at least about 25%, at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, or at least about 95%. In other embodiments, inhibit means a decrease in metalloenzyme activity of about 5% to about 25%, about 25% to about 50%, about 50% to about 75%, or about 75% to 100%. In some embodiments, inhibit means a decrease in metalloenzyme activity of about 95% to 100%, e.g., a decrease in activity of 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%. Such decreases can be measured using a variety of techniques that would be recognizable by one of skill in the art. Particular assays for measuring individual activity are described below.

Furthermore the compounds of the invention include olefins having either geometry: "Z" refers to what is referred to as a "cis" (same side) configuration whereas "E" refers to what is referred to as a "trans" (opposite side) configuration. With respect to the

nomenclature of a chiral center, the terms "d" and "1" configuration are as defined by the IUPAC Recommendations. As to the use of the terms, diastereomer, racemate, epimer and enantiomer, these will be used in their normal context to describe the stereochemistry of preparations.

As used herein, the term "alkyl" refers to a straight-chained or branched hydrocarbon group containing 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The term "lower alkyl" refers to a C1-C6 alkyl chain. Examples of alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, ieri-butyl, and n-pentyl. Alkyl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents.

The term "alkenyl" refers to an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain that may be a straight chain or branched chain, containing 2 to 12 carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Alkenyl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents.

The term "alkynyl" refers to an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain that may be a straight chain or branched chain, containing the 2 to 12 carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Alkynyl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents.

The sp2 or sp carbons of an alkenyl group and an alkynyl group, respectively, may optionally be the point of attachment of the alkenyl or alkynyl groups.

The term "alkoxy" refers to an -O-alkyl radical.

As used herein, the term "halogen", "hal" or "halo" means -F, -CI, -Br or -I.

The term "haloalkoxy" refers to an -O-alkyl radical that is substituted by one or more halo substituents. Examples of haloalkoxy groups include trifluoromethoxy, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy.

The term "cycloalkyl" refers to a hydrocarbon 3-8 membered monocyclic or 7-14 membered bicyclic ring system having at least one saturated ring or having at least one non-aromatic ring, wherein the non-aromatic ring may have some degree of unsaturation.

Cycloalkyl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents. In one embodiment, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 atoms of each ring of a cycloalkyl group may be substituted by a substituent. Representative examples of cycloalkyl group include cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclobutyl, cycloheptyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclopentadienyl, cyclohexenyl, cyclohexadienyl, and the like.

The term "aryl" refers to a hydrocarbon monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic ring system. Aryl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents. In one embodiment, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 atoms of each ring of an aryl group may be substituted by a substituent. Examples of aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, fluorenyl, indenyl, azulenyl, and the like.

The term "heteroaryl" refers to an aromatic 5-8 membered monocyclic, 8-12 membered bicyclic, or 11-14 membered tricyclic ring system having 1-4 ring heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, or S, and the remainder ring atoms being carbon (with appropriate hydrogen atoms unless otherwise indicated). Heteroaryl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents. In one embodiment, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 atoms of each ring of a heteroaryl group may be substituted by a substituent. Examples of heteroaryl groups include pyridyl, furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, oxazolyl, oxadiazolyl, imidazolyl thiazolyl, isoxazolyl, quinolinyl, pyrazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazinyl, isoquinolinyl, indazolyl, and the like.

The term "nitrogen-containing heteroaryl" refers to a heteroaryl group having 1-4 ring nitrogen heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 ring nitrogen heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 ring nitrogen heteroatoms if tricyclic.

The term "heterocycloalkyl" refers to a nonaromatic 3-8 membered monocyclic, 7-12 membered bicyclic, or 10-14 membered tricyclic ring system comprising 1-3 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-6 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-9 heteroatoms if tricyclic, said heteroatoms selected from O, N, S, B, P or Si, wherein the nonaromatic ring system is completely saturated. Heterocycloalkyl groups may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents. In one embodiment, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 atoms of each ring of a heterocycloalkyl group may be substituted by a substituent. Representative heterocycloalkyl groups include piperidinyl, piperazinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, thiirenyl, and the like.

The term "alkylamino" refers to an amino substituent which is further substituted with one or two alkyl groups. The term "aminoalkyl" refers to an alkyl substituent which is further substituted with one or more amino groups. The term "hydroxyalkyl" or "hydroxylalkyl" refers to an alkyl substituent which is further substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups. The alkyl or aryl portion of alkylamino, aminoalkyl, mercaptoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, mercaptoalkoxy, sulfonylalkyl, sulfonylaryl, alkylcarbonyl, and alkylcarbonylalkyl may be optionally substituted with one or more substituents.

Acids and bases useful in the methods herein are known in the art. Acid catalysts are any acidic chemical, which can be inorganic (e.g., hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric acids, aluminum trichloride) or organic (e.g., camphorsulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, acetic acid, ytterbium triflate) in nature. Acids are useful in either catalytic or stoichiometric amounts to facilitate chemical reactions. Bases are any basic chemical, which can be inorganic (e.g., sodium bicarbonate, potassium hydroxide) or organic (e.g., triethylamine,

pyridine) in nature. Bases are useful in either catalytic or stoichiometric amounts to facilitate chemical reactions.

Alkylating agents are any reagent that is capable of effecting the alkylation of the functional group at issue (e.g., oxygen atom of an alcohol, nitrogen atom of an amino group). Alkylating agents are known in the art, including in the references cited herein, and include alkyl halides (e.g., methyl iodide, benzyl bromide or chloride), alkyl sulfates (e.g., methyl sulfate), or other alkyl group-leaving group combinations known in the art. Leaving groups are any stable species that can detach from a molecule during a reaction (e.g., elimination reaction, substitution reaction) and are known in the art, including in the references cited herein, and include halides (e.g., I-, C1-, Br-, F-), hydroxy, alkoxy (e.g., -OMe, -O-t-Bu), acyloxy anions (e.g., -OAc, -OC(0)CF3), sulfonates (e.g., mesyl, tosyl), acetamides (e.g., -NHC(O)Me), carbamates (e.g., N(Me)C(0)Ot-Bu), phosphonates (e.g., -OP(0)(OEt)2), water or alcohols (protic conditions), and the like.

In certain embodiments, substituents on any group (such as, for example, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl) can be at any atom of that group, wherein any group that can be substituted (such as, for example, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl) can be optionally substituted with one or more substituents (which may be the same or different), each replacing a hydrogen atom. Examples of suitable substituents include, but are not limited to alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, halogen, haloalkyl, cyano, nitro, alkoxy, aryloxy, hydroxyl, hydroxylalkyl, oxo (i.e., carbonyl), carboxyl, formyl, alkylcarbonyl, alkylcarbonylalkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkylcarbonyloxy, aryloxycarbonyl, heteroaryloxy, heteroaryloxycarbonyl, thio, mercapto, mercaptoalkyl, arylsulfonyl, amino, aminoalkyl, dialkylamino, alkylcarbonylamino, alkylaminocarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, alkylamino, arylamino, diarylamino,

alkylcarbonyl, or arylamino-substituted aryl; arylalkylamino, aralkylaminocarbonyl, amido, alkylaminosulfonyl, arylaminosulfonyl, dialkylaminosulfonyl, alkylsulfonylamino, arylsulfonylamino, imino, carbamido, carbamyl, thioureido, thiocyanato, sulfoamido, sulfonylalkyl, sulfonylaryl, mercaptoalkoxy, N-hydroxyamidinyl, or N'-aryl, N"-hydroxyamidinyl.

Compounds of the invention can be made by means known in the art of organic synthesis. Methods for optimizing reaction conditions, if necessary minimizing competing by-products, are known in the art. Reaction optimization and scale-up may advantageously

utilize high-speed parallel synthesis equipment and computer-controlled microreactors (e.g. Design And Optimization in Organic Synthesis, 2nd Edition, Carlson R, Ed, 2005 ; Elsevier Science Ltd. ; Jahnisch, K et al, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2004 43: 406; and references therein). Additional reaction schemes and protocols may be determined by the skilled artesian by use of commercially available structure- searchable database software, for instance, SciFinder® (CAS division of the American Chemical Society) and CrossFire Beilstein® (Elsevier MDL), or by appropriate keyword searching using an internet search engine such as Google® or keyword databases such as the US Patent and Trademark Office text database. The invention includes the intermediate compounds used in making the compounds of the formulae herein as well as methods of making such compounds and intermediates, including without limitation those as specifically described in the examples herein.

The compounds herein may also contain linkages (e.g., carbon-carbon bonds) wherein bond rotation is restricted about that particular linkage, e.g. restriction resulting from the presence of a ring or double bond. Accordingly, all cis/trans and E/Z isomers are expressly included in the present invention. The compounds herein may also be represented in multiple tautomeric forms, in such instances, the invention expressly includes all tautomeric forms of the compounds described herein, even though only a single tautomeric form may be represented. All such isomeric forms of such compounds herein are expressly included in the present invention. All crystal forms and polymorphs of the compounds described herein are expressly included in the present invention. Also embodied are extracts and fractions comprising compounds of the invention. The term isomers is intended to include

diastereoisomers, enantiomers, regioisomers, structural isomers, rotational isomers, tautomers, and the like. For compounds which contain one or more stereogenic centers, e.g., chiral compounds, the methods of the invention may be carried out with an enantiomerically enriched compound, a racemate, or a mixture of diastereomers.

Preferred enantiomerically enriched compounds have an enantiomeric excess of 50% or more, more preferably the compound has an enantiomeric excess of 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, or 99% or more. In preferred embodiments, only one enantiomer or diastereomer of a chiral compound of the invention is administered to cells or a subject.

Pharmaceutical Compositions

In one aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any formulae herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

In another embodiment, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition further comprising an additional therapeutic agent. In a further embodiment, the additional therapeutic agent is an anti-cancer agent, antifungal agent, cardiovascular agent,

antiinflammatory agent, chemotherapeutic agent, an anti-angiogenesis agent, cytotoxic agent, an anti-proliferation agent, metabolic disease agent, opthalmologic disease agent, central nervous system (CNS) disease agent, urologic disease agent, or gastrointestinal disease agent.

In one aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising an effective amount of a compound of any formulae herein, in unit dosage form, together with instructions for administering the compound to a subject suffering from or susceptible to a metalloenzyme-mediated disease or disorder, including cancer, solid tumor, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disease, infectious disease. In other embodiments the disease, disorder or symptom thereof is metabolic disease, opthalmologic disease, central nervous system (CNS) disease, urologic disease, or gastrointestinal disease.

The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" or "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" is meant to include salts of the active compounds which are prepared with relatively nontoxic acids or bases, depending on the particular substituents found on the compounds described herein. When compounds of the present invention contain relatively acidic functionalities, base addition salts can be obtained by contacting the neutral form of such compounds with a sufficient amount of the desired base, either neat or in a suitable inert solvent. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable base addition salts include sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium, organic amino, or magnesium salt, or a similar salt. When compounds of the present invention contain relatively basic functionalities, acid addition salts can be obtained by contacting the neutral form of such compounds with a sufficient amount of the desired acid, either neat or in a suitable inert solvent. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts include those derived from inorganic acids like hydrochloric, hydrobromic, nitric, carbonic, monohydrogencarbonic, phosphoric, monohydrogenphosphoric,

dihydrogenphosphoric, sulfuric, monohydrogensulfuric, hydroiodic, or phosphorous acids and the like, as well as the salts derived from relatively nontoxic organic acids like acetic, propionic, isobutyric, maleic, malonic, benzoic, succinic, suberic, fumaric, lactic, mandelic, phthalic, benzenesulfonic, p-tolylsulfonic, citric, tartaric, methanesulfonic, and the like. Also included are salts of amino acids such as arginate and the like, and salts of organic acids like glucuronic or galactunoric acids and the like (see, e.g., Berge et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 66:1-19 (1977)). Certain specific compounds of the present invention contain both

basic and acidic functionalities that allow the compounds to be converted into either base or acid addition salts. Other pharmaceutically acceptable carriers known to those of skill in the art are suitable for the present invention.

The neutral forms of the compounds may be regenerated by contacting the salt with a base or acid and isolating the parent compound in the conventional manner. The parent form of the compound differs from the various salt forms in certain physical properties, such as solubility in polar solvents, but otherwise the salts are equivalent to the parent form of the compound for the purposes of the present invention.

In addition to salt forms, the present invention provides compounds which are in a prodrug form. Prodrugs of the compounds described herein are those compounds that readily undergo chemical changes under physiological conditions to provide the compounds of the present invention. Additionally, prodrugs can be converted to the compounds of the present invention by chemical or biochemical methods in an ex vivo environment. For example, prodrugs can be slowly converted to the compounds of the present invention when placed in a transdermal patch reservoir with a suitable enzyme or chemical reagent.

Certain compounds of the present invention can exist in unsolvated forms as well as solvated forms, including hydrated forms. In general, the solvated forms are equivalent to unsolvated forms and are intended to be encompassed within the scope of the present invention. Certain compounds of the present invention may exist in multiple crystalline or amorphous forms. In general, all physical forms are equivalent for the uses contemplated by the present invention and are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.

The invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition, comprising an effective amount of a compound described herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In an embodiment, compound is administered to the subject using a pharmaceutically-acceptable formulation, e.g., a pharmaceutically-acceptable formulation that provides sustained delivery of the compound to a subject for at least 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours, one week, two weeks, three weeks, or four weeks after the pharmaceutically-acceptable formulation is administered to the subject.

Actual dosage levels and time course of administration of the active ingredients in the pharmaceutical compositions of this invention may be varied so as to obtain an amount of the active ingredient which is effective to achieve the desired therapeutic response for a particular patient, composition, and mode of administration, without being toxic (or unacceptably toxic) to the patient.

In use, at least one compound according to the present invention is administered in a pharmaceutically effective amount to a subject in need thereof in a pharmaceutical carrier by intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intracerebro ventricular injection or by oral administration or topical application. In accordance with the present invention, a compound of the invention may be administered alone or in conjunction with a second, different therapeutic. By "in conjunction with" is meant together, substantially simultaneously or sequentially. In one embodiment, a compound of the invention is administered acutely. The compound of the invention may therefore be administered for a short course of treatment, such as for about 1 day to about 1 week. In another embodiment, the compound of the invention may be administered over a longer period of time to ameliorate chronic disorders, such as, for example, for about one week to several months depending upon the condition to be treated.

By "pharmaceutically effective amount" as used herein is meant an amount of a compound of the invention, high enough to significantly positively modify the condition to be treated but low enough to avoid serious side effects (at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio), within the scope of sound medical judgment. A pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound of the invention will vary with the particular goal to be achieved, the age and physical condition of the patient being treated, the severity of the underlying disease, the duration of treatment, the nature of concurrent therapy and the specific compound employed. For example, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the invention administered to a child or a neonate will be reduced proportionately in accordance with sound medical judgment. The effective amount of a compound of the invention will thus be the minimum amount which will provide the desired effect.

A decided practical advantage of the present invention is that the compound may be administered in a convenient manner such as by intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, oral or intra-cerebro ventricular injection routes or by topical application, such as in creams or gels. Depending on the route of administration, the active ingredients which comprise a compound of the invention may be required to be coated in a material to protect the compound from the action of enzymes, acids and other natural conditions which may inactivate the compound. In order to administer a compound of the invention by other than parenteral administration, the compound can be coated by, or administered with, a material to prevent inactivation.

The compound may be administered parenterally or intraperitoneally. Dispersions can also be prepared, for example, in glycerol, liquid polyethylene glycols, and mixtures thereof, and in oils.

Some examples of substances which can serve as pharmaceutical carriers are sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; starches such as corn starch and potato starch; cellulose and its derivatives such as sodium carboxymethycellulose, ethylcellulose and cellulose acetates; powdered tragancanth; malt; gelatin; talc; stearic acids; magnesium stearate; calcium sulfate; vegetable oils, such as peanut oils, cotton seed oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and oil of theobroma; polyols such as propylene glycol, glycerine, sorbitol, manitol, and polyethylene glycol; agar; alginic acids; pyrogen- free water; isotonic saline; and phosphate buffer solution; skim milk powder; as well as other non-toxic compatible substances used in pharmaceutical formulations such as Vitamin C, estrogen and echinacea, for example. Wetting agents and lubricants such as sodium lauryl sulfate, as well as coloring agents, flavoring agents, lubricants, excipients, tableting agents, stabilizers, anti-oxidants and preservatives, can also be present. Solubilizing agents, including for example, cremaphore and beta-cyclodextrins can also used in the pharmaceutical compositions herein.

Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the active compounds of the presently disclosed subject matter (or prodrugs thereof) can be manufactured by means of conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping or lyophilization processes. The compositions can be formulated in conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers, diluents, excipients or auxiliaries which facilitate processing of the active compounds into preparations which can be used pharmaceutically.

Pharmaceutical compositions of the presently disclosed subject matter can take a form suitable for virtually any mode of administration, including, for example, topical, ocular, oral, buccal, systemic, nasal, injection, transdermal, rectal, vaginal, and the like, or a form suitable for administration by inhalation or insufflation.

For topical administration, the active compound(s) or prodrug(s) can be formulated as solutions, gels, ointments, creams, suspensions, and the like.

Systemic formulations include those designed for administration by injection, e.g., subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intrathecal or intraperitoneal injection, as well as those designed for transdermal, transmucosal, oral, or pulmonary administration.

Useful injectable preparations include sterile suspensions, solutions or emulsions of the active compound(s) in aqueous or oily vehicles. The compositions also can contain formulating agents, such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agent. The formulations for injection can be presented in unit dosage form (e.g., in ampules or in multidose containers) and can contain added preservatives.

Alternatively, the injectable formulation can be provided in powder form for reconstitution with a suitable vehicle, including but not limited to sterile pyrogen free water, buffer, dextrose solution, and the like, before use. To this end, the active compound(s) can be dried by any art-known technique, such as lyophilization, and reconstituted prior to use.

For transmucosal administration, penetrants appropriate to the barrier to be permeated are used in the formulation. Such penetrants are known in the art.

For oral administration, the pharmaceutical compositions can take the form of, for example, lozenges, tablets or capsules prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as binding agents (e.g., pregelatinized maize starch,

polyvinylpyrrolidone or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose); fillers (e.g., lactose, microcrystalline cellulose or calcium hydrogen phosphate); lubricants (e.g., magnesium stearate, talc or silica); disintegrants (e.g., potato starch or sodium starch glycolate); or wetting agents (e.g., sodium lauryl sulfate). The tablets can be coated by methods well known in the art with, for example, sugars or enteric coatings.

Liquid preparations for oral administration can take the form of, for example, elixirs, solutions, syrups or suspensions, or they can be presented as a dry product for constitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use. Such liquid preparations can be prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable additives such as suspending agents (e.g., sorbitol syrup, cellulose derivatives or hydrogenated edible fats); emulsifying agents (e.g., lecithin or acacia); non aqueous vehicles (e.g., almond oil, oily esters, ethyl alcohol or fractionated vegetable oils); and preservatives (e.g., methyl or propyl p-hydroxybenzoates or sorbic acid). The preparations also can contain buffer salts, preservatives, flavoring, coloring and sweetening agents as appropriate.

Preparations for oral administration can be suitably formulated to give controlled release of the active compound or prodrug, as is well known.

For buccal administration, the compositions can take the form of tablets or lozenges formulated in a conventional manner.

For rectal and vaginal routes of administration, the active compound(s) can be formulated as solutions (for retention enemas), suppositories, or ointments containing conventional suppository bases, such as cocoa butter or other glycerides.

For nasal administration or administration by inhalation or insufflation, the active compound(s) or prodrug(s) can be conveniently delivered in the form of an aerosol spray from pressurized packs or a nebulizer with the use of a suitable propellant, e.g.,

dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, fluorocarbons, carbon dioxide or other suitable gas. In the case of a pressurized aerosol, the dosage unit can be determined by providing a valve to deliver a metered amount. Capsules and cartridges for use in an inhaler or insufflator (for example capsules and cartridges comprised of gelatin) can be formulated containing a powder mix of the compound and a suitable powder base such as lactose or starch.

A specific example of an aqueous suspension formulation suitable for nasal administration using commercially-available nasal spray devices includes the following ingredients: active compound or prodrug (0.5-20 mg/ml); benzalkonium chloride (0.1-0.2 mg/mL); polysorbate 80 (TWEEN® 80; 0.5-5 mg/ml); carboxymethylcellulose sodium or microcrystalline cellulose (1-15 mg/ml); phenylethanol (1-4 mg/ml); and dextrose (20-50 mg/ml). The pH of the final suspension can be adjusted to range from about pH 5 to pH 7, with a pH of about pH 5.5 being typical.

For prolonged delivery, the active compound(s) or prodrug(s) can be formulated as a depot preparation for administration by implantation or intramuscular injection. The active ingredient can be formulated with suitable polymeric or hydrophobic materials (e.g., as an emulsion in an acceptable oil) or ion exchange resins, or as sparingly soluble derivatives, e.g., as a sparingly soluble salt. Alternatively, transdermal delivery systems manufactured as an adhesive disc or patch which slowly releases the active compound(s) for percutaneous absorption can be used. To this end, permeation enhancers can be used to facilitate transdermal penetration of the active compound(s). Suitable transdermal patches are described in for example, U.S. Patent No. 5,407,713; U.S. Patent No. 5,352,456; U.S. Patent No. 5,332,213; U.S. Patent No. 5,336,168; U.S. Patent No. 5,290,561; U.S. Patent No.

5,254,346; U.S. Patent No. 5,164,189; U.S. Patent No. 5,163,899; U.S. Patent No. 5,088,977; U.S. Patent No. 5,087,240; U.S. Patent No. 5,008,110; and U.S. Patent No. 4,921,475, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Alternatively, other pharmaceutical delivery systems can be employed. Liposomes and emulsions are well-known examples of delivery vehicles that can be used to deliver active compound(s) or prodrug(s). Certain organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) also can be employed.

The pharmaceutical compositions can, if desired, be presented in a pack or dispenser device which can contain one or more unit dosage forms containing the active compound(s). The pack can, for example, comprise metal or plastic foil, such as a blister pack. The pack or dispenser device can be accompanied by instructions for administration.

The active compound(s) or prodrug(s) of the presently disclosed subject matter, or compositions thereof, will generally be used in an amount effective to achieve the intended result, for example in an amount effective to treat or prevent the particular disease being treated. The compound(s) can be administered therapeutically to achieve therapeutic benefit or prophylactically to achieve prophylactic benefit. By therapeutic benefit is meant eradication or amelioration of the underlying disorder being treated and/or eradication or amelioration of one or more of the symptoms associated with the underlying disorder such that the patient reports an improvement in feeling or condition, notwithstanding that the patient can still be afflicted with the underlying disorder. For example, administration of a compound to a patient suffering from an allergy provides therapeutic benefit not only when the underlying allergic response is eradicated or ameliorated, but also when the patient reports a decrease in the severity or duration of the symptoms associated with the allergy following exposure to the allergen. As another example, therapeutic benefit in the context of asthma includes an improvement in respiration following the onset of an asthmatic attack, or a reduction in the frequency or severity of asthmatic episodes. Therapeutic benefit also includes halting or slowing the progression of the disease, regardless of whether improvement is realized.

For prophylactic administration, the compound can be administered to a patient at risk of developing one of the previously described diseases. A patient at risk of developing a disease can be a patient having characteristics placing the patient in a designated group of at risk patients, as defined by an appropriate medical professional or group. A patient at risk may also be a patient that is commonly or routinely in a setting where development of the underlying disease that may be treated by administration of a metalloenzyme inhibitor according to the invention could occur. In other words, the at risk patient is one who is commonly or routinely exposed to the disease or illness causing conditions or may be acutely exposed for a limited time. Alternatively, prophylactic administration can be applied to avoid the onset of symptoms in a patient diagnosed with the underlying disorder.

The amount of compound administered will depend upon a variety of factors, including, for example, the particular indication being treated, the mode of administration, whether the desired benefit is prophylactic or therapeutic, the severity of the indication being treated and the age and weight of the patient, the bioavailability of the particular active compound, and the like. Determination of an effective dosage is well within the capabilities of those skilled in the art.

Effective dosages can be estimated initially from in vitro assays. For example, an initial dosage for use in animals can be formulated to achieve a circulating blood or serum concentration of active compound that is at or above an IC50 of the particular compound as measured in as in vitro assay, such as the in vitro fungal MIC or MFC and other in vitro assays described in the Examples section. Calculating dosages to achieve such circulating blood or serum concentrations taking into account the bioavailability of the particular compound is well within the capabilities of skilled artisans. For guidance, see Fingl & Woodbury, "General

Principles," In: Goodman and Oilman 's The Pharmaceutical Basis of Therapeutics, Chapter 1, pp. 1-46, latest edition, Pagamonon Press, and the references cited therein, which are incorporated herein by reference.

Initial dosages also can be estimated from in vivo data, such as animal models. Animal models useful for testing the efficacy of compounds to treat or prevent the various diseases described above are well-known in the art.

Dosage amounts will typically be in the range of from about 0.0001 or 0.001 or 0.01 mg/kg/day to about 100 mg/kg/day, but can be higher or lower, depending upon, among other factors, the activity of the compound, its bioavailability, the mode of administration, and various factors discussed above. Dosage amount and interval can be adjusted individually to provide plasma levels of the compound(s) which are sufficient to maintain therapeutic or prophylactic effect. In cases of local administration or selective uptake, such as local topical administration, the effective local concentration of active compound(s) cannot be related to plasma concentration. Skilled artisans will be able to optimize effective local dosages without undue experimentation.

The compound(s) can be administered once per day, a few or several times per day, or even multiple times per day, depending upon, among other things, the indication being treated and the judgment of the prescribing physician.

Preferably, the compound(s) will provide therapeutic or prophylactic benefit without causing substantial toxicity. Toxicity of the compound(s) can be determined using standard pharmaceutical procedures. The dose ratio between toxic and therapeutic (or prophylactic) effect is the therapeutic index. Compounds (s) that exhibit high therapeutic indices are preferred.

The recitation of a listing of chemical groups in any definition of a variable herein includes definitions of that variable as any single group or combination of listed groups. The recitation of an embodiment for a variable herein includes that embodiment as any single embodiment or in combination with any other embodiments or portions thereof. The recitation of an embodiment herein includes that embodiment as any single embodiment or in combination with any other embodiments or portions thereof.

Another object of the present invention is the use of a compound as described herein (e.g., of any formulae herein) in the manufacture of a medicament for use in the treatment of a metalloenzyme-mediated disorder or disease. Another object of the present invention is the use of a compound as described herein (e.g., of any formulae herein) for use in the treatment of a metalloenzyme-mediated disorder or disease. Another object of the present invention is the use of a compound as described herein (e.g., of any formulae herein) in the manufacture of an agricultural composition for use in the treatment or prevention of a metalloenzyme-mediated disorder or disease in agricultural or agrarian settings.

Agricultural applications

The compounds and compositions herein can be used in methods of modulating metalloenzyme activity in a microorganism on a plant comprising contacting a compound (or composition) herein with the plant (e.g., seed, seedling, grass, weed, grain). The compounds and compositions herein can be used to treat a plant, field or other agricultural area (e.g., as herbicides, pesticides, growth regulators, etc.) by administering the compound or composition (e.g., contacting, applying, spraying, atomizing, dusting, etc.) to the subject plant, field or other agricultural area. The administration can be either pre- or post-emergence. The administration can be either as a treatment or preventative regimen.

Examples

The present invention will now be demonstrated using specific examples that are not to be construed as limiting.

General Experimental Procedures

Definitions of variables in the structures in schemes herein are commensurate with those of corresponding positions in the formulae delineated herein.

Synthesis of 1 or la


la

A process to prepare enantiopure compound 1 or la is disclosed. Syntheses of lor la may be accomplished using the example syntheses that are shown below (Schemes 1-4). The preparation of precursor ketone 3-Br is performed starting with reaction of 2,5-dibromo-pyridine with ethyl 2-bromo-difluoroacetate to produce ester 2-Br. This ester is reacted with morpholine to furnish morpholine amide 2b-Br, followed by arylation to provide ketone 3-Br.

Scheme 1. Synthesis of ketone 3-Br


Ketone 3 may be prepared in an analogous fashion as described in Scheme 1 starting from corresponding substituted 2-bromo-pyridines, which can be prepared using according to synthetic transformations known in the art and contained in the references cited herein (Scheme 2).

Scheme 2. Synthesis of ketone 3


R1 = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, - 0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Alternatively, compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) can be prepared according to Scheme 3 utilizing amino-alcohols ±4b or ±1-6. Epoxides 4 and 5 can be prepared by reacting ketones 3 and 1-4 with trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (TMSI) in the presence of a base (e.g., potassium i-butoxide) in a suitable solvent or a mixture of solvents (e.g., DMSO or THF). Also, as indicated in Scheme 3, any of pyridine compounds, 3, 4, ±4b, 4b, or 6, can be converted to the corresponding 4-CF3O-PI1 analogs (e.g., 1-4, 5, ±1-6, 1-6*, or 1 or the corresponding enantiomers, or mixtures thereof) by cross-coupling with (4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)boronic acid (or the corresponding alkyl boronates or pinnacol boronates or the like), in a suitable solvent system (e.g., an organic-aqueous solvent mixture), in the presence of a transition metal catalyst (e.g., (dppf)PdCl2; dppf = 1,1'-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), and in the presence of a base (e.g., KHCO3, K2CO3, CS2CO3, or Na2CC>3, or the like). Epoxides 4 and 5 can then be converted into amino-alcohols ±4b and ±1-6 through ammonia-mediated epoxide opening using ammonia in a suitable solvent (e.g., MeOH, EtOH, or water). Racemic amino-alcohols ±4b and ±1-6 can then be enantio-enriched by exposure to a chiral acid (e.g., tartaric acid, di-benzoyltartaric acid, or di-p-toluoyltartaric acid or the like) in a suitable solvent (e.g., acetonitrile, isopropanol, EtOH, or mixtures thereof, or a mixture of any of these with water or MeOH; preferably acetonitrile or a mixture of acetonitrile and MeOH, such as 90:10, 85: 15, or 80:20 mixture) to afford compounds 4b (or 4c, the enantiomer of 4b, or mixtures thereof) or 1-6* (or 1-7*, the enantiomer of 1-6*, or mixtures thereof). Subsequent treatment with TMS-azide in the presence of trimethylorthoformate and sodium acetate in acetic acid would yield compounds 20 (or 20a, the enantiomer of 20, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) (US 4,426,531).

Scheme 3. Synthesis of 1 or la via TMSI Epoxidation Method

R-ι = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)- substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0- aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, - 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) prepared by any of the methods presented herein can be converted to a sulfonic salt of formula IX (or IXa, the enantiomer of

IX, or mixtures thereof), as shown in Scheme 4. This can be accomplished by a) combining compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof), a crystallization solvent or crystallization solvent mixture (e.g., EtOAc, i'PrOAc, EtOH, MeOH, or acetonitrile, or o

Z-S-OH

combinations thereof), and a sulfonic acid o (e.g., Z = Ph, p-tolyl, Me, or Et), b) diluting the mixture with an appropriate crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture (e.g., pentane, methyl i-butylether, hexane, heptane, or toluene, or combinations thereof), and c) filtering the mixture to obtain a sulfonic acid salt of formula IX (or IXa, the enantiomer of IX, or mixtures thereof).

Scheme 4. Synthesis of a Sulfonic Acid Salt of Compound 1 or la

EXAMPLE 1: Preparation of l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,2-difluoro-2-(5-(4- (trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)ethanone (1-4).

la. ethyl 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2,2-difluoroacetate (2)


2-Br

Table 1 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, the effect of temperature, and the effect of varying the solvent had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction.

Table 1. Process Development for the Preparation of compound 2-Br


Br-ester Cu Solvent Temp Time 2-Br 1 Br-ester Other

Entry

(eq1) (size/eq1) (vol)2 (°C) (h) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

20 1.25 3 μιη /1.25 DMSO (3.9) 70 17 62 30 2

21 0.79 3 μιη /1.2 DMF (3.9) 70 17 78 7 12

22 0.79 3 μιη /1.6 DMSO (4.3) 35 41 77 6 8

23 0.79 3 μιη /2.0 DMSO (4.3) 35 41 81 4 9

24 0.67 3 μιη /1.3 DMSO (4.3) 35 41 76 13 8

25 0.67 3 μηι /1.67 DMSO (4.3) 35 41 89 4 7

26 0.67 3 μιη /1.67 DMSO (3.6) 35 18 75 3 14

Based on Compound 1

2Based on grams of Compound 1

Typical Procedure for Preparing 2-Br

Copper ( 45μιη, 149g, 0.198moles, 2.5 equiv) was placed into a 3L, 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, and an overhead stirrer. DMSO (890 mL, 4.7 vol. based on ethyl 2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetate) and 14mL of concentrated sulfuric acid was added and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes. The mixture self-heated to about 31°C during the stir time. After cooling the contents to 23°C, 2,5-dibromopyridine 1 (277g, 1.17 moles, 1.5 eq) was added to the reaction mixture. The temperature of the contents decreased to 16°C during a 10 minute stir time. 2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetate (190 g, 0.936 moles, 1.0 eq) was added in one portion and the mixture stirred for 10 min. The flask contents were warmed to 35°C and the internal temperature was maintained between 35-38° for 18 h. In-process HPLC showed 72% desired 2-Br. The warm reaction mixture was filtered through filter paper and the collected solids washed with 300mL of 35°C DMSO. The solids were then washed with 450mL of n-heptane and 450mL of MTBE. The collected filtrate was cooled to about 10°C and was slowly added 900mL of a cold 20% aqueous NH4C1 solution, maintaining an internal temperature of <16°C during the addition. After stirring for 15 minutes, the layers were settled and separated. The aqueous layer was extracted 2 X 450mL of a 1: 1 MTBE: n-heptane mixture. The combined organic layers were washed 2 X 450mL of aqueous 20% NH4CI and with 200mL of aqueous 20% NaCl. The organic layer was dried with 50g MgS04 and the solvent removed to yield 2-Br as a dark oil. Weight of oil = 183g ( 70% yield by weight) HPLC purity ( by area %) = 85%. *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.86 (m, 1H), 8.35 ( dd, J= 8.4, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.84 (dd, J= 8.3, 0.6Hz, 1H), 4.34 ( q, J= 7.1Hz, 2H), 1.23 ( t, J= 7.1Hz, 3H). MS m/z 280 ( M+H+), 282 (M+2+H+).

lb. 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2,2-difluoro-l-morpholinoethanone (2b-Br)


Table 2 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, and the effect of varying the solvent had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction.

Table 2. Process Development for the Preparation of compound 2b-Br


Note: All reactions were conducted at 22- 25°C

Typical Procedure for Converting 2-Br to 2b-Br

Crude ester 2-Br (183g, 0.65moles) was dissolved in 1.5L of n-heptane and transferred to a 5L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, an overhead stirrer and a thermocouple. Morpholine ( 248g, 2.85 moles, 4.4 equiv.) was charged to the flask and the mixture warmed to 60°C and stirred for 16 hours. In-process HPLC showed <1 % of ester 2-Br. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22-25 °C and 1.5L of MTBE was added with continued cooling of the mixture to 4°C and slowly added 700mL of a 30%, by weight, aqueous citric acid solution. The temperature of the reaction mixture was kept < 15°C during the addition. The reaction was stirred at about 14°C for one hour and then the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with 400mL of 30%, by weight, aqueous citric acid solution and then with 400mL of aqueous 9% NaHC03. The solvent was slowly removed until 565g of the reaction mixture

remained. This mixture was stirred with overhead stirring for about 16 hours. The slurry was filtered and the solids washed with 250mL of n-heptane. Weight of 2b-Br = 133g. HPLC purity (by area %) 98%.

This is a 44% overall yield from 2,5-dibromopyridine.

*H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO): 58.86 (d, J= 2.3Hz, 1H), 8.34 (dd, J= 8.5, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.81 (dd, J = 8.5, 0.5Hz, 1H), 3.63-3.54 ( m, 4H), 3.44-3.39 (m, 2H), 3.34-3.30 ( m, 2H). MS m/z 321 (M+H+), 323 (M+2+H+).

lc. 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,2-difluoroethanone (3-Br)

Process Development


Table 3 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, and the effect of varying the temperature had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction.

Table 3. Process Development for the Preparation of bromo-pyridine 3-Br


Typical Procedure for Converting 2b-Br to 3-Br

Grignard formation:

Magnesium turnings (13.63 g, 0.56 moles) were charged to a 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, addition funnel, and a stir bar. 540 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran was added followed by l-Bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene (16.3 mL, 0.144 moles). The contents were stirred at 22-25°C and allowed to self -heat to 44°C. 1- Bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene ( 47mL, 0.416 moles) was added to the reaction mixture at a rate that maintained the internal temperature between 40-44°C during the addition. Once the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 hours and allowed to cool to about 25° during the stir time.

This mixture was held at 22-25°C and used within 3-4 hours after the addition of l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene was completed.

Coupling Reaction

Compound 2b-Br (120 g, 0.0374 moles) was charged to a 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, and an overhead stirrer. 600 mL of anhydrous

tetrahydrofuran was added. The flask contents were stirred at 22°C until a clear solution was obtained. The solution was cooled to 0-5°C. The previously prepared solution of the Grignard reagent was then added slowly while maintaining the reaction temperature at 0-2°C. Reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. In-process check after 45 minutes showed <1% amide 2b-Br remaining. 2 N aqueous HC1 (600 mL, 3 vol) was added slowly maintaining the temperature below 18°C during the addition. The reaction was stirred for 30 minutes and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 240mL MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with 240mL of aqueous 9% NaHCC>3 and 240mL of aqueous 20% NaCl. The organic layer was dried over 28g of MgS04 and removed the solvent to yield 3-Br (137g) as an amber oil.

HPLC purity ( by area %) = -90%; *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.80 (d, J= 2.2Hz, 1H), 8.41 ( dd, J= 8.3, 2.3Hz, 1H), 8.00 (m, 2H), 7.45 ( m, 1H), 7.30 ( m, 1H). MS m/z 348 (M+H+), 350 (M+2+H+).

Id. l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,2-difluoro-2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)ethanone (1-4)

Typical Procedure for Converting 3-Br to 1-4

Into a 250 mL reactor were charged THF (45 mL), water (9.8 mL), bromo-pyridine 3-Br (6.0 g, 17.2 mmoles), 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylboronic acid (3.57 g, 17.3 mmoles), and Na2CC>3 (4.55 g, 42.9 mmoles). The stirred mixture was purged with nitrogen for 15 min. The catalyst (Pd(dppf)Cl2 as a CH2C12 adduct, 0.72 g, 0.88 mmoles) was added, and the reaction mixture was heated to 65 °C and held for 2.5 h. The heat was shut off and the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to 20-25 °C and stir overnight. HPLC analysis showed -90% ketone 1-4/hydrate and no unreacted bromo-pyridine 3-Br. MTBE (45 mL) and DI H20 (20 mL) were added, and the quenched reaction was stirred for 45 min. The mixture was passed through a plug of Celite (3 g) to remove solids and was rinsed with MTBE (25 mL). The filtrate was transferred to a separatory funnel, and the aqueous layer drained. The organic layer was washed with 20% brine (25 mL). and split into two portions. Both were concentrated by rotovap to give oils (7.05 g and 1.84 g, 8.89 g total, >100% yield, HPLC purity -90%). The larger aliquot was used to generate hetone 1-4 as is. The smaller aliquot was dissolved in DCM (3.7 g, 2 parts) and placed on a pad of Si02 (5.5 g, 3 parts). The flask was rinsed with DCM (1.8 g), and the rinse added to the pad. The pad was eluted with DCM (90 mL), and the collected filtrate concentrated to give an oil (1.52 g). To this was added heptanes (6 g, 4 parts) and the mixture stirred. The oil crystallized, resulting in a slurry. The slurry was stirred at 20-25 °C overnight. The solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake washed with heptanes (-1.5 mL). The cake was dried in the vacuum oven (40-45 °C) with a N2 sweep. 0.92 g of ketone 1-4 was obtained, 60.1% yield (corrected for aliquot size), HPLC purity = 99.9%.

TMSI Epoxidation Method

3d. 2-((2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)oxiran-2-yl)difluoromethyl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridine (5)

Typical Procedure for Converting 1-4 to 5

i-BuOK (2.22 g, 19.9 mmoles), TMSI (4.41 g, 20.0 mmoles), and THF (58.5 mL) were charged to a reaction flask, and the cloudy mixture was stirred. DMSO (35.2 mL) was added, and the clearing mixture was stirred at 20-25°C for 30 min before being cooled to 1-2°C.

Ketone 1-4 (crude, 5.85 g, 13.6 mmoles) was dissolved in THF (7.8 mL), and the 1-4 solution was added to the TMSI mixture over 12.75 min, maintaining the temperature between 1.5 and 2.0°C. The reaction was held at 0-2°C. After 1 h a sample was taken for HPLC analysis, which showed 77.6% epoxide 5, and no unreacted ketone 1-4. The reaction was quenched by the slow addition of 1 N HC1 (17.6 mL), keeping the temperature below 5°C. After 5 min 8% NaHCC>3 (11.8 mL) was added slowly below 5°C to afford a pH of 8. The reaction mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel, and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE (78 mL), and the combined organic layers were washed with 20% NaCl (2 x 20 mL). After concentration, 7.36 g of a dark oil was obtained. HPLC of the crude oil shows it contained 75% epoxide 5. The oil was dissolved in DCM (14.7 g, 2 parts) and the solution placed on a pad of Si02 (22 g, 3 parts). The flask was rinsed with DCM (7.4 g, 1 part) and the rinse placed on the pad. The pad was eluted with DCM (350 mL) to give an amber filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated by rotovap, and when space in the flask allowed, heptane (100 mL) was added. The mixture was concentrated until 39.4 g remained in the flask, causing solid to form. The suspension was stirred for 70 min at 20-25°C. Solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake washed with heptane (10 mL) and pulled dry on the funnel. After drying in a vacuum oven (40-45 °C) with a N2 sweep, 3.33 g solid was obtained, 55.1% yield from bromo-pyridine 3, HPLC purity = 99.8%.

3e. 3-amino-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoro-l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (±1-6)

Process Development

Table 8 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, the effect of varying the solvent, and the effect of varying the temperature had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction. Table 8. Process Development for the Preparation of ±1-6


Typical Procedure for Converting 5 to +1-6

Epoxide 5 (2.17 g, 4.89 mmoles) was combined in a glass pressure tube with methanol (48 mL) and aqueous ammonia (19.5 mL). The tube was sealed and placed in an oil bath held at 54°C, with stirring. After 15 h the tube was removed from the bath, cooled, and the reaction sampled for HPLC, which showed 93.6% amino-alcohol ±1-6 and 6.0% di-adducts. To the reaction were added MTBE (48 mL) and 20% NaCl (20 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with MTBE (20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with H20 (20 mL) and transferred to a rotovap flask. Heptane (20 mL) was added, and the solution was concentrated until 16.9 g remained in the flask. An H20 layer appeared in the flask, and was pipetted out, leaving 12.8 g. Compound 1-6 seed was added, and the crystallizing mixture was stirred at 20-25 °C overnight. The flask was cooled in an ice bath for 2 h prior to filtration, and the isolated solid was washed with cold heptane (5 mL), and pulled dry on the funnel. After drying in a vacuum oven (40-45°C) for several hours 1.37 g of amino-alcohol ±1-6 was obtained, 60.8% yield, HPLC purity = 98.0%.

3f . 3-amino-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)- 1 , 1-difluoro- 1 -(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2- yl)propan-2-ol (1-6* or 1-7*)


Process Development

Table 9 illustrates the initial screen performed surveying various chiral acid/solvent combinations. All entries in Table 9 were generated using 0.1 mmoles of amino-alcohol ±1-6, 1 equivalent of the chiral acid, and 1ml of solvent.

Table 9. Resolution of ±1-6 (Initial Screen)


Since the best results from Table 9 were generated using tartaric acid and di-p-toluoyltartaric acid, Table 10 captures the results from a focused screen using these two chiral acids and various solvent combinations. All entries in Table 10 were performed with 0.2 mmoles of amino-alcohol ±1-6, 87 volumes of solvent, and each entry was exposed to heating at 51 °C for lh, cooled to RT, and stirred at RT for 24h.

Table 10. Resolution of ±1-6 (Focused Screen)

Each of the three entries using di-p-toluoyltartaric acid in Table 10 resulted in higher levels of enantio-enrichment when compared to tartaric acid. As such, efforts to further optimize the enantio-enrichment were focusing on conditions using di-p-toluoyltartaric acid (Table 11).


Ό.6 equivalents used

ee sense was opposite from the other entries in the table (i.e., enantiomer of 1-6*)

Table 12 demonstrates that the enantiomeric excess obtained from DPPTA resolution (Table 11) can be further increased by slurrying in ACN/MeOH.

ACN/MeOH

8:2

3 15 81.3 85.4 - 83.9

ACN/MeOH

8:2

4 13 74 99.0 - 97.5

ACN/MeOH

8:2

5 13 96.1 - 99.0 99.2

ACN/MeOH

8:2

6 12.7 91.5 95.7 96.2 93.5

ACN/MeOH

8:2

7 12.9 93.5 96.2 NA 94.7

ACN/MeOH

Typical Procedure for Converting +1-6 to 1-6* or 1-7*

(This experimental procedure describes resolution of ±1-6, but conditions used for DPPTA resolution of 1-6 or 1-7 are essentially the same.)

Amino-alcohol ±1-6 (7.0 g, 15 mmoles) was dissolved in a mixture of acetonitrile (84 mL) and methanol (21 mL). (D)-DPTTA (5.89 g, 15 mmoles) was added, and the reaction was warmed to 50°C and held for 2.5 h. The heat was then removed and the suspension was allowed to cool and stir at 20-25 °C for 65 h. The suspension was cooled in an ice bath and stirred for an additional 2 h. Solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake was washed with cold 8:2 ACN/MeOH (35 mL). After drying at 50°C, 5.18 g of 1-6* or l-7*/DPPTA salt was isolated, HPLC purity = 99.0, ee = 74.

The 1-6* or l-7*/DPPTA salt (5.18 g) was combined with 8:2 ACN/MeOH (68 mL) and the suspension was heated to 50°C and held for 20 min. After cooling to 20-25 °C the mixture was stirred for 16 h. Solids were isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake washed with cold 8:2 ACN/MeOH (30 mL), and pulled dry on the funnel. 2.82 g of 1-6* or l-7*/DPPTA salt was obtained, 44.4% yield (from crude ±1-6), ee = 97.5. The resulting solids were freebased to provide 1-6* or 1-7* with the same achiral and chiral purity as the DPPTA salt.

EXAMPLE 4: Preparation of 2-(2.4-difluorophenyl -l.l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl -l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1 or la).

The procedure used to generate compound 1 or la is as described in US 4,426,531. Table 13 illustrates the efficient and quantitative nature of this procedure as performed on amino- alcohol 1-6* or 1-7* produced from both the TMS-cyanohydrin method and the TMSI- epoxidation method.

Table 13. Formation of Compound 1 or la

EXAMPLE 5: 2-(2.4-difluorophenyl -l.l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl -l-(5-(4- (trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol benzenesulfonate (1 or la-BSA).

Typical Procedure for Converting 1 or la to 1 or la-BSA

46.6 g of compound 1 or la was dissolved in ethylacetate (360ml). The solution was filtered through a glass microfiber filter and placed in a 2 L reaction flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, condenser, and a J-Kem thermocouple. Pharma-grade benzenesulfonic acid (BSA, 14.39g, leq) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (100ml). The BSA solution was filtered through a glass microfiber filter and added to the stirred 1 or la solution in one portion. The mixture was warmed to 60-65 °C; precipitation of the 1 or la/BSA salt occurred during the warm up period. The slurry was held for 60 minutes at 60-65 °C. The suspension was allowed to slowly cool to 22 °C and was stirred at 20-25 °C for 16 hours. n-Heptane (920ml) was charged in one portion and the suspension was stirred at 22 °C for an additional 90 minutes. The slurry was filtered and the collected solids washed with n-heptane (250ml). The isolated solids were placed in a vacuum oven at 50 °C for 16 hours. 52.26g (86% yield) of 1 or la

benzenesulfonate was obtained.

*H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 + D20): 89.16 (s, 1H), 8.95 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.26 (dd, J = 8.2, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.96-7.89 (m, 2H), 7.66-7.61 (m, 2H), 7.59 (dd, J = 8.3, 0.4 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (br d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.38-7.15 (m, 5H), 6.90 (dt, J = 8.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.69 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1H), 5.15 (d, J = 15.2 Hz, 1H).

Further results are in Table 14.

Table 14. Formation of 1 or la-BSA


( ) (%ee) Yield Purity (%) ee

97.9 95.9 84% 98.2 97.1

Figures 1-2 contain the analytical data for 1 or la-BSA prepared by the TMSI-epoxidation process.

EXAMPLE 6: 5-bromo-2-((2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)oxiran-2-yl)difluoromethyl)pyridine -Br).


Typical Procedure for Converting 3-Br to 4-Br

KOtBu ( 41.7g, 0.372moles, 1.05 equiv) and trimethylsulfoxonium iodide ( 85.7g,

0.389moles, 1.1 equiv) were charged to a 3L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, a thermocouple and an addition funnel. 1.2L of anhydrous THF and 740mL of DMSO were added to the flask and stirred at 22-25 °C for 70 minutes. The contents were cooled to 0°C. Crude ketone 3 was dissolved in 250mL of anhydrous THF and slowly added the ketone 3-Br solution to the reaction mixture over 20 minutes while maintaining a reaction temperature at < 3°C during the addition and stirred at 0°C for one hour. In-process HPLC showed <1% ketone 3-Br remaining. 200mL of IN HC1 was slowly added maintaining a reaction temperature of < 6°C during the addition. After stirring for 30 minutes the layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with 375mL of MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with 375mL of aqueous 9% NaHCC>3 and with 375mL of aqueous 20% NaCl. The solvent was removed to yield 4-Br as a brown waxy solid.

Weight of crude epoxide 4-Br = 124.6g; *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.82 (d, J= 2.3Hz, 1H), 8.21 ( dd, J= 8.3, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.50 (dd, J= 8.3, 0.5Hz, 1H), 7.41 ( m, 1H), 7.25 ( m, 1H), 7.10 (m,lH), 3.40 ( d, J= 4.5Hz, 1H), 3.14 ( m, 1H). MS m/z 362 (M+H+), 364 (M+2+H+).

EXAMPLE 7: 3-amino-l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoropropan-2-ol (4b-Br).

Typical Procedure for Converting 4-Br to 4b-Br

Crude epoxide 4-Br ( 54.4g, 0.15moles) was placed into a Schott autoclave bottle equipped with a stir bar. 550mL of MeOH was added to the bottle and stirred for 90 minutes at 22-25 °C. Concentrated NH4OH ( 550mL, 7.98 moles, 53 equiv) was added to the epoxide 4-Br

solution. The bottle was sealed and placed in an oil bath at 55 °C. The mixture was stirred at 55°C for 17 hours. The bottle was removed from the oil bath and cooled to 22-25°C. In-process HPLC showed <1% epoxide 4-Br remaining. The solvent was removed via rotary evaporation until 362g ( 37%) of the reaction mass remained. 500mL of MTBE was added and cooled the mixture to 8°C. 500mL of 6N HCl was slowly added maintaining the reaction temperature between 8 - 12°C during the addition. After stirring for 10 minutes, the layers were separated. The MTBE layer was extracted with 350mL of 6N HCl. The combined aqueous layers were washed with 250mL MTBE and 2 X 250mL heptane. MTBE, 250mL, was added to the aqueous layer and the mixture was cooled to 2°C. 344g of KOH was dissolved in 500mL of water. The KOH solution was slowly added to the reaction mixture over one hour while maintaining the temperature at <19°C. After stirring for 15 minutes, the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 250mL MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with 250mL of aqueous 20% NaCl and the solvent was removed to yield ±4b-Br as a dark oil. Weight of crude amino alcohol ±4b-Br = 46.0g. HPLC purity ( by area %) = 92%; *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.67 (d, J= 2.2Hz, 1H), 8.15 ( dd, J= 8.6, 2.4Hz, 1H), 7.46 (m, 1H), 7.40 ( dd, J= 8.5, 0.7Hz, 1H), 7.10 ( m, 1H), 7.00 (m,lH), 3.37 (dd, J= 13.7, 2.1Hz, 1H), 3.23 ( dd, J= 13.7, 2.7, 1H). MS m/z 379 (M+H+), 381 (M+2+H+).

EXAMPLE 8: 3-amino-l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl -2-(2.4-difluorophenyl -l.l-difluoropropan-2-ol (4b-Br or 4c-Br).


Typical Procedure for Converting 4-Br to 4b-Br or 4c-Br

Crude amino alcohol ±4b-Br ( 42.4, O. llmoles) was dissolved in 425mL of 8:2 IPA: CH3CN. The solution was charged to a 1L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, overhead stirrer and a thermocouple. Charged di-p-toluoyl-L-tartaric acid ( 21.6g, 0.056moles, 0.5 equiv) to the flask and warmed the contents to 52°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 52°C for 5 hours, cooled to 22-25°C and stirred for 12 hours. The slurry was cooled to 5-10°C and stirred for 90 minutes. The mixture was filtered and collected solids washed with 80mL of cold CH3CN. The solids were dried in a vacuum oven 45-50°C. Weight of amino alcohol/ DPTTA salt = 17.4g

Chemical purity by HPLC ( area %) = 98.5%; Chiral HPLC= 98.0% ee.

13.60g of the amino alcohol/ DPTTA salt was placed into a 250mL flask with a stir bar and to this was added lOOmL of MTBE and lOOmL of 10% aqueous K2CO3 solution. The reaction was stirred until complete dissolution was observed. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with 50mL of MTBE. The combined MTBE layers were washed with 50mL of 20% aqueous NaCl and the solvent removed to yield 8.84 (98%) of 4b-Br or 4c-Br as a light yellow oil.

EXAMPLE 9: 3-amino-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l J-difluoro-l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1-6* or 1-7*).


Typical Procedure for Converting 4b-Br or 4c-Br to 1-6* or 1-7*

Amino alcohol 4b-Br or 4c-Br (8.84g, 0.023moles, 1 equiv) was dissolved in 73mL of n-propanol. The solution was transferred to a 250mL 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, stir bar and septum. 17mL of water was added and stirred at 22-25°C for 5 minutes. To the reaction was added K2CO3 ( 9.67g, 0.07moles, 3 equiv), 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylboronic acid ( 5.76g, 0.028moles, 1.2 equiv.) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 as a CH2Cl2 adduct ( 0.38g, 0.47mmoles, 0.02 equiv) to the flask. After the mixture was purged with nitrogen for 10 minutes, the reaction was then warmed to 85-87°C and stirred at 85-87°C for 16 hours. HPLC analysis showed < 1% of the amino alcohol 4b-Br or 4c-Br remaining. The mixture was cooled to 22-25 °C, then 115mL of MTBE and 115mL of water were added and stirred for 30 minutes. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with 2 X 60mL of 20% aqueous NaCl. The solvent was removed to yield 12.96g ( 121% yield) of 1-6* or 1-7* as a crude dark oil. It should be noted that the oil contains residual solvent, Pd and boronic acid impurity.

'll NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.90 (d, J= 2.2Hz, 1H), 8.22 ( dd, J= 8.3, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.91 (m, 2H), 7.54 ( m, 4H), 7.14 ( m, 1H), 7.02 (m,lH), 3.41 (m, 1H), 3.27 ( dd, J= 14.0, 2.7, 1H). MS m/z 461 (M+H+)

Incorporation by Reference

The contents of all references (including literature references, issued patents, published patent applications, and co-pending patent applications) cited throughout this application are hereby expressly incorporated herein in their entireties by reference.

Equivalents

Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents of the specific embodiments of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended with be encompassed by the following claims.